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Fire coral sting: Fire Coral Cuts, Stings, Rash & Treatment

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How to Treat Coral Stings

Q: I DEVELOPED THIS BURN AFTER COMING IN CONTACT WITH CORAL. THREE DAYS LATER, THE RASH IS STILL PRESENT, AND IT BURNS VERY MUCH.

A: You had an atypical reaction to fire coral. Irritation from skin contact with certain species of coral is caused by the animal “stinging” the diver. Irritating toxin is discharged into the skin from small structures on the coral — the mechanism is similar to jellyfish stings. In most cases, the burning sensation starts immediately after contact and increases for the first 10 minutes or so. Symptoms may vary from mild itching or burning in the area to blister formation and, in extreme cases, fever, gastrointestinal or cardiovascular problems.

Prevention by wearing protective garments and avoiding contact with the coral is the best way to escape envenomation. If a diver develops the characteristic painful rash, topical steroids like hydrocortisone cream and oral antihistamines will provide relief until the symptoms subside, which is typically within 24 to 48 hours. Cool compresses also might provide some prompt relief. In extreme cases where the pain is severe or lasts for more than a day or two, oral or even injected steroids might be necessary. In these cases, the diver might develop swollen lymph nodes, skin ulcers, or permanent darkening of the skin or scarring.

If prevention fails, my advice is to quickly use some of the first-aid methods like cool compresses and hydrocortisone cream. If there is significant itching, oral antihistamines may be used. If the diver is still experiencing intense burning or itching after 24 to 36 hours, or if blisters begin to develop, my recommendation is to visit your physician or local acute-care clinic so systemic steroids may be utilized. Certainly if there are any generalized symptoms associated with the rash, the clinic visit should take place sooner.


James L. Caruso is a 30-year veteran of the U.S. Navy, serving as ship’s doctor, undersea medical officer and flight surgeon. His experience includes a fellowship in Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine at Duke University Medical Center; today he is Denver’s chief medical examiner.

DAN World DAN DOC-Coral Stings

Coral Stings


Question:

When I was diving some time ago, I apparently came in contact with a type of stinging coral. As soon as I got out of the water I noticed a few cuts and scrapes on the outside of my left wrist and forearm. Later that evening I left an itching and burning sensation around the affected skin; it became red and tender to touch.

I washed it with soap and hot water, which actually seemed to help. However, the redness, itching and burning lasted for three to four days. The local doctor prescribed a steroid cream twice a day, and everything seemed to heal during the next four to five days.

Since I returned from my dive trip, the redness and itchy sensations have recurred. The area is uncomfortable and unsightly. Do I need special care?

Answer:

It is not uncommon for a diver to have a red raised rash resulting from a coral encounter. A burning sensation, pain and itching may also accompany a rash if the coral is actually a hydroid, such as fire coral, which is not a true coral but a stinging creature. The extent of the reaction to fire coral depends on the amount of exposure to toxins, the extent of the abrasion and victim’s pre-existing sensitivity.

You did the correct thing to clean the wound with soap and water: Reactions may be reduced by immediately cleansing the affected area. The most frequent complications from non-stinging coral scrapes are inflammation, which leads to poor healing, and less commonly, a secondary infection. Proper cleansing, therefore, is very important.

If fire coral is the culprit, then treatment with hot water 45C is recommended. This can be applied as a compress or as a soak to reduce the pain. Other substances that have been used with variable effect are rubbing alcohol and baking soda.

It is not uncommon for the rash, itching and burning to recur after these symptoms have resolved initially because tiny, microscopic fragments of living coral can remain in the wound. In addition, a cyclic immune response (redness, inflammation, itching and swelling, itching or burning) can persist for a few weeks after the incident.

Treatment for the inflammatory response is symptomatic. Steroid creams are rarely helpful and they can prolong a skin infection. If the inflammation is severe, systematic steroids in a moderate, tapering dose may be administered under the supervision of a trained medical provider. Oral antihistamines can sometimes help reduce the itching or burning sensation.

When you are under the water avoid contact with coral or any other living creature. Whenever possible wear a wetsuit or diveskin to protect yourself.

Ocean divers should consider a marine animal first aid kit for their travels. For divers who want to learn more about the various marine life injuries, DAN has a course as well as a variety of books on this topic.

DAN’s First Aid for Hazardous Marine Life course is designed to provide divers with knowledge regarding specific types of marine creature injuries and the general first aid treatment for those injuries.

Fire Coral

Millepora alcicornis

Taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Cnidaria

Class Hydrozoa

Order Capitata

Family Milleporidae

Habitat

Fire corals are most commonly found in shallow reefs where an optimum level of sunlight is available and a variance exists in the flow of water. In regions with a high and strong currant, Fire corals may thrive in abundance and some also exist on reef faces or the edges of reefs. They are seen mainly in the warmer regions of the oceans (Shedd, 2011). However, fire corals are absent from the coral reefs of Hawaii (Borneman, 2011).

Resources

Fire corals feed mainly on zooplankton or phytoplankton by sifting the water with their tentacles, once the animal/plant is detected it is shot down by nematocysts and covered with mucus before being delivered to the mouth of the coral (Shedd, 2011).

Reproduction

The Fire coral goes through sexual reproduction by alternation of generations, when conditions are right the polyp releases a medusa, the free flowing form that releases its eggs into the water stream which another male medusa comes to fertilize and a planula is formed. A planula is bean shaped and simply swims around in the water column until it finds a reef where it grows back into a polyp that settles on a hard surface. The polyp then continues to grow asexually and reproduces many duplicates of itself to form a colony of fire coral (Shedd, 2011).

Behavior

The Fire coral is actually not a coral, but rather a hydrozoa undergoing two different life forms. It can take on many different shapes depending on its environment. In places with a light current, the coral might grow in long thin strands that form a lattice, whereas in an area with mildly strong currents, the choral will grow thick branches or columns. In extremely strong water currents, the coral will grow to form a thin crust. The coral also carries on a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae, an algae that lives in the coral providing it food while feeding on the Fire coral waste and retaining shelter. Unlike most corals, Fire corals have tiny polyps that are almost microscopic and there are two specialized polyps, one with nematocysts released for protection as a defense mechanism and the other for sexual reproduction. Fire corals are also hollow tubes that store oxygen to offset any organism that bumps into it (Shedd, 2011).

Anatomy

Fire coral have a rather smooth skeleton despite the texturized appearance. Their skeleton has a hollow structure that incases the living polyps until they are ready to be released. Along the surface, are many pores including the gastropores that include the short, plump feeding polyps; dactylopores that contain the stinging polyps; and ampullae, which release the polyps specialized in sexual reproduction. These polyps only survive a few hours but only die after releasing eggs/sperm (Borneman, 2011).

Recent Research

In 2003, Banaszak and several of his colleagues, experimented with two different colonies of Fire coral in the Mexican Caribbean. Both colonies were exposed to different levels of light, with one having 5.9 times lower the light available to the other colony. At a time when the water temperature rose 1.5 degrees above average, the corals in the higher amount of light were bleached while the coral in the lesser light showed no affect. The difference in the two coral colonies proves that a raise in temperature alone will not bleach Fire corals, but will need the aid of higher availability of light to do so (Banaszak et al, 2003).

Personal Interest

Fire coral has a very interesting name as well as characteristics. I became interested in it just based on the name and it’s facts haven’t failed to hold my interest. Fire coral is not extremely attractive but it is attractive and alluring but will sting you upon touching it. It works together in a colony by tripping fish in their path and making them fall on other fire corals around it.

References

Banaszak AT, Ayala-Schiaffino BN, Rodriquez-Roman A, Enriquez S, and Iglesias-Prieto R. 2003. Response of Millepora alcicornis (Milleporina: Milleporidae) to two bleaching events at Puerto Morelos reef, Mexican Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop., 51, 4:57.

Borneman, Eric. “Venomous Corals: The Fire Corals by Eric Borneman – Reefkeeping.com.” Reefkeeping Blog. Web. 27 May 2011.< http://reefkeeping.com/issues/2002-11/eb/index.php>.

“Shedd Aquarium.” Shedd Aquarium – Chicago | Home. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://sea.sheddaquarium.org/sea/fact_sheets.asp?id=93>.

Links

Interesting facts: http://therightblue.com/2007/11/fire-coral-look-but-do-not-touch.html 

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Coral Cuts, Scrapes and Rashes

Of the 12,000 to 13,000 information calls DAN receives each year, a little more than 2% (250-300 calls) are related to marine envenomation, bites or stings. Out of those calls, DAN gets 40 or 50 calls – about one a week – relating to someone who has come into contact with coral.

It is not uncommon for a diver to have a red raised rash resulting from a coral encounter. A burning sensation, pain and itching may also accompany a rash if the coral is actually a hydroid, such as fire coral, which is not a true coral, but a stinging creature. The extent of the reaction to fire coral depends on the amount of exposure to toxins, the extent of the abrasion, and pre-existing sensitivity of the victim.

You did the correct thing to clean the wound with soap and water: reactions may be reduced by immediately cleansing the affected area. The most frequent complications from non-stinging coral scrapes are inflammation which leads to poor healing, and, less commonly, a secondary infection. Proper cleansing, therefore, is very important.

If fire coral is the culprit, then a diluted acetic acid solution such as household white vinegar, is a reasonable topical decontaminant and should be used as a soak to reduce the pain. It’s inexpensive and readily available. Immersion in hot water can reduce the symptoms. If hot water is not available then application of instant hot packs may be used. If heat sources are not available instant cold packs or ice packs may be used.

Treatment for the inflammatory response is symptomatic. Steroid creams are rarely helpful, and they can prolong a skin infection. If the inflammation is severe, systemic steroids in a moderate, tapering dose may be administered under the supervision of a trained medical practisioner. Oral antihistamines can sometimes, but not always, help reduce the itching or burning sensation.

When underwater, try to avoid contact with coral or any other living creature. Whenever possible, wear a wetsuit or diveskin to protect yourself during those times when you are pushed into coral by another diver or by a current.

Ocean divers should consider a marine animal first aid kit for their travels. This will speed up the time to properly administer first aid for injuries. Additionally, for divers who want to learn more about the various marine life injuries, there are courses in marine life identification, first aid courses, and a variety of books and publications available.

Marine Stings and Scrapes | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Topic Overview

Walking on a beach or swimming in the ocean can be fun and relaxing. But just like any other activities, accidents can happen. This topic will help you determine the next steps to take if you have a jellyfish or Portuguese man-of-war sting, seabather’s eruption, or a coral scrape.

Stings

Jellyfish and Portuguese man-of-wars are members of a large group of venomous marine animals that also includes fire coral and sea anemones. They are present all over the world and cause injury and illness through the release of venom when their tentacles come in contact with skin (stinging). Tentacles are long, slender, flexible growths found on jellyfish, Portuguese man-of-wars, squid, and octopuses. Tentacles are used for grasping, feeling, moving, and killing prey by stinging. While the sting of a jellyfish or Portuguese man-of-war can cause severe illness and extreme pain, documented deaths are rare.

Jellyfish are often present in coastal waters, having been brought ashore by winds or ocean currents. They are most common in warm ocean waters, especially along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Stings result from contact with the tentacles, which trail from the jellyfish’s see-through body. Jellyfish swimming in the water are often hard to see. Beached jellyfish, which may look like the cellophane wrapper from a cigarette pack, can sting if touched.

Jellyfish stings cause immediate, intense pain and burning that can last for several hours. Raised, red welts develop along the site of the sting, which may look like you have been hit with a whip. The welts may last for 1 to 2 weeks, and itchy skin rashes may appear 1 to 4 weeks after the sting. Fortunately, most jellyfish stings are not severe. Extensive stings, allergic reactions, or severe reactions are not common but do occur. To avoid the risk of drowning, swimmers should get out of the water as soon as they realize they have been stung.

The box jellyfish, which is found in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, can cause a fatal reaction. It is the only jellyfish for which a specific antidote (antivenom) exists. If you get this antivenom, it may save your life.

Seabather’s eruption is a rash that develops from the stings of jellyfish or sea anemone larvae. The rash can be quite itchy and annoying, but it usually goes away without medical treatment in 10 to 14 days.

Portuguese man-of-wars (hydrozoans) live in warm seas throughout the world but are most common in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Indian oceans and in the Gulf Stream of the North Atlantic Ocean. They float on the surface of the water with their long, stinging tentacles trailing in the water below. Detached tentacles that wash up on the beach may remain dangerous for months.

Portuguese man-of-war stings produce immediate burning pain and redness where the tentacles touched the skin. The affected area develops a red line with small white lesions. In severe cases, blisters and welts that look like a string of beads may appear. Stings that involve the eye may cause pain, swelling, excessive tears, blurred vision, or increased sensitivity to light. Severe reactions are most likely to occur in children and small adults. Severe toxic reactions to the venom can also occur.

Stingrays are members of the shark family. They have sharp spines in their tails that can cause cuts or puncture wounds. The spines also have venom. Stingrays do not bite but can suck with their mouths and leave a bruise.

Coral scrapes

Coral scrapes and cuts are common injuries that may occur when you walk on a beach or swim, snorkel, or dive in warm water. Coral polyps, the soft living material that covers the surface of coral, can be easily torn away from the rigid and abrasive structure underneath if you touch, bump, or fall on coral. A skin infection may develop when small pieces of coral, other debris, and bacteria get inside the wound. Scrapes and cuts from sharp-edged coral may take weeks or even months to heal.

How to Make Sure Fire Coral Doesn’t Ruin your Life

Here’s the deal, fire coral is not even coral. It’s worse than that. Fire coral is actually more closely related to jellyfish than coral. The good news is that you won’t find it cruising around the ocean like a jellyfish. Fire coral is fixed to one spot, and with any luck, you won’t go anywhere near it.

Fire coral often has an orange-brown color with white tips. While they are more difficult to see, fire coral is also covered with thin, hair-like stingers. Often times, the stingers reach past the structure of the coral itself, so you may think you still have some room between you and the coral only to be surprised by an excruciating sting.

How to prevent fire coral stings

Before getting in the water, ask your dive instructor (if you are a diving) or your tour guide, if there is significant quantities of fire coral in the area. If they can tell you where it is concentrated, that will already be a big help.

Many coral reefs have a shallow shelf. Avoid getting hung up here. Many fire coral stings happen in this shallow water, because it’s easy to run out of room, and divers or snorkelers can panic.

Wear a wet-suit. A wet-suit won’t provide 100% protection, but it will certainly help.

Always swim with a buddy. This is standard protocol for scuba diving and snorkeling. Two sets of eyes are better than one, and your buddy can help point out patches of fire coral that you may have missed.

What do you do if you have been stung by fire coral?

Fire coral stings typically don’t begin to burn until five to thirty minutes after initial contact. In cases where the structure of the fire coral has broken the skin, you will notice the pain a lot sooner. Go figure.

Expect red welts and rashes. You will want to put vinegar on the affected areas as soon as possible. This will help neutralize the stinging cells that haven’t yet fired their miniature poison-tipped harpoons (this is actually what’s happening on a near-microscopic level).

Once you get to dry land, you should go to a medical facility and get a diagnosis from a doctor. In some cases, you may need a preemptive course of antibiotics to prevent infection. Anti-itch cream will also help keep you from scratching the affected areas.

Fire coral stings are not fatal, and your life is not at risk. However, if you have been swimming in an area that has potentially deadly marine life, you should get to a medical facility immediately in order to have a proper diagnosis. You may think that you were stung by fire coral, but it’s best to make sure that you didn’t come into contact with something more sinister.

It’s also possible that you are allergic to fire coral. In this case, you may begin to experience swelling and shortness of breath. If either occur, get to a medical facility as quickly as possible. If you have any Benadryl or similar antihistamine, take it on the way. Depending on the severity of the reaction, it should help stave off an intensification of the symptoms.

If you have had any run-ins with fire coral, please talk about it in the comments below.


90,000 Egyptian underwater world – fish, animals and corals – World of Countries

Red Sea – the world of colorful corals and fish

Egypt became a tourist mecca thanks to at least two unique phenomena: the timeless pyramids and the amazing underwater world of the Red Sea. If it is not always possible to visit the first wonder of the world, then everyone who has just stepped off the plane is in a hurry to wet the flippers in the Red Sea.

Your first scuba diving will be even more interesting if you familiarize yourself with the local flora and fauna in advance. Then safe fish will not scare you, despite their large size, and you can stay away from all poisonous representatives.

Fish of Egypt

Plunging into clear water, the temperature of which is always warmer than fresh milk, you will be captured by a kaleidoscope of multi-colored dots. Having mastered a little, you can notice a huge variety of unusual, bright and strange creatures.

Clownfish (Red Sea amphiprion, Three-ribbon clownfish, Anemone clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris)

Clownfish

Watching the legendary “Nemo” can be a joyful shock for a child and a fascinating sight for an adult.Amphiprions live in anemones, poisonous corals to which striped fish have an innate immunity.

They are rare couch potatoes and in every possible way defend their territory from uninvited guests. For example, if a diver swims close to their habitat, the little minke will attack the alien, driving him away.

Butterfly fish

Butterfly fish on coral background

Butterfly fish is a typical inhabitant of coral reefs, or rather a whole family of fish that attract attention with their unusual rich coloring.Often these are variations of black-yellow color with stripes, but there are also white-black, white-yellow fish.

A distinctive feature of butterfly fish is stripes along the entire body, and they can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal and even form patterns. In the dark, the color of such fish becomes darker.

Fish – surgeon (Arab surgeon, Arabian surgeon)

Fish surgeon (Arabian surgeon)

The Arab surgeon is an inhabitant of warm seas, recognizable by bright yellow front fins.The second distinctive feature of this fish is its crescent-shaped tail. Such fish, although poisonous, peacefully coexist with people on the same territory, and their sharp bone plates are pressed to the body and will not harm if you do not try to harm the fish.

Radiant lionfish (Zebra lionfish)

Deadly Radiant Lionfish

Deadly animal , as well as very beautiful. A night hunter is usually inactive during the daytime, so it seems that the fish, like a butterfly, hovers in the air.However, the lionfish’s fins are studded with poisonous spines. They hunt in flocks, driving trifles into a circle and burning them with their fluffy “feathers”.

They are quite friendly towards people and can swim past a few centimeters without causing any harm. If you do not panic and wave your hands, trying to drive away the lionfish, then it will not bristle and will follow on about its business.

Risk divers interested in night diving will be curious to watch flocks of these predators follow a group of scuba divers.At the same time, sea hunters will keep exclusively in the shadow zone, not falling under the light of flashlights.

Red Sea pedestrian (Filiform wart)

Red Sea pedestrian (Filiform wart)

Just the case when an animal can be difficult to isolate from the environment is a master of disguise. His entire body completely merges with the bottom topography: color, growths, perfectly imitating coral sticks, lack of a form that is familiar to the underwater inhabitants of the sea.Sometimes the fish is mistaken for a drifting snag carried by the current.

The wart got the name of the pedestrian due to the way of movement. With its lower fins, it pushes off the bottom, leaving traces in the sand. The upper fins are equipped with poisonous spines that protect it from predators.

Stingray Stingray (Taniura Limma)

Stingray stingray

Exotic light green pancake with blue polka dots. Attention is drawn to the strange way in which it buries itself in the ground: it raises a whirlwind of sand around and falls asleep.This is how the stingray spends the day, and at night it goes hunting, feeding on shrimps, worms and crustaceans.

The stingray stingray is completely safe for humans, if not deliberately disturbed. Otherwise, there are sharp thorns on its tail with which the animal will defend itself.

Fish-Napoleon

Fish-Napoleon

This fish grows to a solid size and reaches 190 kg. It is very interesting for its appearance, reminiscent of a human face and a “head of hair”.

By nature, this inhabitant of the deep sea is very sociable, he gladly makes contact with divers who treat the giant with boiled eggs.In nature, it feeds on small mollusks.

Mediterranean Coast

This area is characterized by warm waters, which determines the distribution of tropical species of marine life. It is noteworthy that after the opening of the Suez Canal, which connected two bodies of water, more than twenty new species of fish appeared in the Mediterranean Sea.

Sea Pike (Barracuda)

Sea pike (Barracuda)

Close up, this fish can scare even an experienced submariner, because it can reach two meters in length.The predatory nature of the animal’s diet determined an elongated jaw with sharp teeth. However, for humans, barracuda is not terrible. They feed on small fish at night, and during the daytime they can freeze in one place for hours, probably falling into a nap.

There are four different species of Mediterranean pike.

Sharks

There are about 50 shark species in the Mediterranean Sea.

The threat posed by these animals is greatly exaggerated. There is a wide variety of sharks in the Mediterranean – about 50 species.At the same time, 15 species are considered potentially dangerous to humans, they reach 3 meters in length. However, the statistics of incidents of attacks is 0.42 per year, which, given the huge number of people swimming, is a negligible figure.

The fact is that sharks feed mainly on tuna and do not lack food in the Mediterranean waters. And the image of the killer fish is more likely inspired by popular science fiction films in the past.

Dolgoper (Flying Fish)

Dolgoper – flying fish

These representatives of the marine fauna are rightfully considered the most beautiful fish. They inhabit the seas and oceans with a tropical climate, and in the Mediterranean there are up to a dozen of their relatives.

Longsper, fleeing from predators, flies over the wave and, flapping its fins-wings, can fly several meters. In this state, it is easy to confuse him with some kind of wonderful bird. To see a flock of longsipers in flight means to witness the diversity of underwater life and get an indescribable experience.

Marine Animals of Egypt

Turtles Byssa and Green Turtle

Turtles Byssa

Graceful creatures of the Byssa species and the Green Turtle live in the warm waters of the Red Sea.You can quite calmly approach them and take pictures – these animals are one of the most peaceful creatures of the underwater kingdom. They feed on small fish, squid, algae. The turtles get ashore only during the period of laying their eggs; the rest of the time they spend in the depths of the sea, smoothly migrating across the water area.

Dolphins (bottlenose dolphins)

Dolphins (bottlenose dolphins) are friendly predators.

Meeting a dolphin is always a good omen for a diver. These mammals have a high intelligence and a huge reserve of friendliness.Sometimes they get curious when scuba divers make some sounds underwater.

Two kinds of bottlenose dolphins can be found in the waters of this area: common and long-snout dolphins. Despite the high degree of trust in this species of animals, it is still worth keeping calm and showing a correct attitude towards them. It is better not to try to stroke the bottlenose dolphin or grab the fin, and it is also not recommended to feed the predator from the hand.

Cone snails

Poisonous Cone Snails

Marine molluscs with a conical house of regular shape.There are a large number of species of these animals, and they are all very dangerous to humans. The fact is that this species preys on small marine life by throwing out a proboscis with a sting. And the poison that is produced by them has the strongest effect: it includes more than 50 different toxins against which modern medicine has not found an antidote.

It would be very prudent for a tourist, before starting his first underwater journey, to familiarize himself with the species of these creatures in order to stay away from them.

Egyptian Coral Reefs

The unique features of the Red Sea (the warmest sea in the world) have created the best breeding conditions for more than 250 coral species. Here you can find reefs in a wide variety of shapes, colors, textures and sizes. They form kilometer-long colonies along the coast of Egypt and are the basis of the life of hundreds of species of fish and arthropods.

Fire Coral

Poisonous Fire Coral

Colonies of polyps that closely resemble the branching structure of trees.They settle in shallow water. They are so beautiful that some divers cannot resist taking a piece for themselves. However, instead of a souvenir, the submariner receives a severe burn, as if touching a red-hot metal. Toxins from these animals (and corals are classified as animals) can lead to anaphylactic shock or leave marks on the skin. Poison breaks down only at high temperatures. Therefore, having seen a tree-like underwater creature, you can admire, photograph, but not touch!

Sun Coral (Tubastraea coccinea)

Predatory Sun Coral

Polyp amazes with the beauty of its pink and red tubules, gathered in a “tail”.Often settles in underwater caves, on canopies and reef slopes. Reaches 30 cm. Since the sun coral is a predator and feeds on plankton, it is easier to spot it in the dark during night dives.

Pulsating Xenia (Heteroxenia fuscescens)

Pulsating Xenia (Heteroxenia fuscescens)

Colonies of this species can have a wide variety of shades: pink, cream, purple and blue. They create a magical underwater color, settling along the reefs, in the most illuminated areas of the sea.They feed mainly on plankton and algae that the current brings.

Structure: Ksenia has a thick light leg, on which a ball is formed, overgrown with multi-colored polyps.

Egyptian Marine Areas

Ras Mohammed

Ras Mohammed – an underwater reserve in the Red Sea

The reserve is considered the pearl of the Red Sea, where an unprecedented variety of marine fauna is concentrated. Located 25 km from Sharm El Sheikh, it is becoming a favorite diving destination for many tourists.You can get to this paradise by boat, which will take you to the diving site in half an hour.

More than 150 species of coral and more than a thousand species of fish are concentrated in the depths of Ras Mohammed. The most frequently visited by scuba divers are Shark Reef, which is a seamount. From the northeastern side of this reef there is a sheer wall, up to fifty meters deep. This location of the mountain is conducive to the lush growth of coral reefs, which have formed “blooming” underwater gardens.This place with gorgonian, dish, head corals is the most spectacular sight.

Ras Mohammed is one of the ten most beautiful scuba diving spots in the world.

More details >>>

Abu Galum

Abu Gulum Marine Reserve

National Park is located 30 km from Dahab. Tourists can get there by booking a camel excursion. The reserve reveals to visitors the beauty of the desert, which is teeming with mountain ranges and geological formations of marine origin.

Mangroves are the highlight of the Sinai Peninsula. Their uniqueness lies in the consumption of salt water. These plants throw excess salt through their leaves. These are the only tropical mangroves in the world that grow at this latitude.

Precautions.

Not every hotel warns tourists about the rules of conduct at the resort. For example, night swimming is strictly forbidden, since the water area of ​​the Red Sea is replete with predators that go out to hunt after sunset.Also, many vacationers do not know that you should never touch corals. On the one hand, these animals can have rather sharp edges and injure a person, and on the other hand, dangerous fish, often poisonous, are disguised as them.

It is strongly discouraged to feed and flirt with fish (flirt precisely, since some species are distinguished by excessive curiosity and playfulness). And the story of the sea urchin, which was stepped on by negligence, has long been a talk of the town.

Going to Egypt it is worth taking extra money for an underwater trip. Diving is the most popular pastime of tourists in Egypt. It allows you to see all these underwater beauties in close proximity. It is enough to buy a ticket to Egypt and contact local guides.

90,000 Fire Mage (PvE Guide)
/
Archive | MMOBoom.ru

Currently, fire mages use a universal build that is suitable for both single target damage and AoE.

Basic symbols

– Symbol of a fireball – increases the chance of critical damage of your main spell, thereby increasing the chance of propelling the Path of Fire.
– Glyph of Block of Fire – Increases the chance of critical being hit by Block of Fire !, thereby increasing the chance of triggering Ignite, which is needed for Combustion.
– Glyph of Molten Armor – Increases Molten Armor’s crit bonus by 2%. This means that you will have more procs of the Path of Fire and Ignition.

Large Symbols

The only required large symbol is the Glyph of Surge. The rest of the large characters should be selected among the following:
– Glyph of Blast Wave – Increases the slowdown effect, so it is suitable for battles where you need to slow down adds.
– Dragon’s breath symbol – reduces the CD of this ability, so it can be useful in encounters in which you need to control a lot of adds.
– Glyph of Leap – Increases teleport range by 5 meters.

Minor symbols

– Symbol of arcane genius – reduces the mana cost of using this spell.
– Glyph of Creation – Another mana cost reduction.
– Slow Fall Symbol – Eliminates the need to collect reagents.

Single target rotation is reduced to the following priorities:
1. Use Pyroblast! When Fire Path is active.
2. Use Fire Orb on AC.
3. Place / upgrade the Living Bomb (wait for it to explode before upgrading).
4. Apply / renew Critical Mass with Burn.
5. Use the Fireball.

Using Cooldowns

Combustion is your only DPS cooldown.It creates a new DoT on your current target that combines the power of all other DoTs on it. When using it, follow these rules:
– Do not utter Combustion when Living Bomb is inactive on the target.
– Use Combustion after a hard critical hit with Fireball or Fireball !.

AoE Rotation

In AoE situations, use your standard rotation with Flame Blast to spread DoTs to nearby enemies (thanks to Concussion).

Armor

The only armor you need to use is Molten Armor. On rare occasions, you can use Magic Armor when you have no mana.

Additional Information

Single Target Battles

Ability Details :

– Fireball is your primary spell and source of DPS.
– Living Bomb – a spell that does no initial damage, does not apply DoT and explodes after 12 seconds, damaging the target and enemies around it.Can only be applied to 3 targets at a time.
– Burn is a free spell that can be used while running. Doesn’t do much damage.
– Block of fire! Is your most powerful spell. Due to the very long casting time, it should only be used when the Fire Path is active. Block of Fire! leaves DoT on the target.
– Path of Fire is a proc that grants you a free and instant Pyroblast! The proc is called every time you deal 2 critical hits with fire magic (including Fire Orb ticks, and excluding Living Bomb).He also has a chance to pierce after each crit.
– Fire Orb – a spell that summons a ball of fire flying away from you in the direction of your gaze. If there are enemies in its path, then it deals damage for 15 seconds, and then explodes and deals damage to all AoEs.
– Ignite – DoT that is applied every time you deal a critical hit with fire magic. It burns the target for 4 seconds for 40% of the crit produced.
– Critical Mass is a debuff that is applied by Scorch or Fireblock !.Increases crit chance by 5% and does not stack with similar effects.

A little about rotation

– Block of fire! must be pronounced as soon as the Path of Fire becomes active.
– The Fiery Orb can give you an increase in dps, to which it is instantly cast. Each of the 15 ticks of the ball can trigger a Path of Fire projectile.
– Living Bomb is also an instant. It always needs to be updated after an explosion.
– Before casting Fireball, it is advisable to apply the Critical Mass debuff.

What you need to know about Combustion

Combustion sums up active DoTs on your target and does not remove them, creating a new DoT. You will combine the following DoTs:
1. Living Bomb
2. DoT from the Block of Fire!
3. Ignite

Ignite is the most important DoT here, so make sure it is hanging on the target before using the Combustion.

Multi-Target Battles (AoE)

In addition to the abilities for damage to single targets, fire mages have a number of other abilities:
– Fire Blast – allows you to spread DoTs from your target to those closest to it when Concussion is active.DoTs are not updated during distribution.
– Flamestrike is an AoE ability that deals initial damage in a radius of 8 meters and additional damage for 8 seconds.
– Blast Wave – Deals damage to all enemies within a radius of 8 meters and slows them down by 70% for 3 seconds. With the Searing Pillar of Fire talent, casting Blast Wave will automatically activate Pillar of Fire.
– Dragon’s Breath – Deals damage to all targets in front of you and disorients them for 5 seconds.

More about AoE rotation

1. If the fight will only last a few seconds, start with Blast Wave, then Dragon’s Breath, and finally Flamestrike.
2. If the battle is long enough that you have time to utter a couple of Fire Lumps, then start with them until one is critical. Then use Blast Wave. Together with her, a Pillar of Fire will be uttered, which will give you a chance of a Concussion proc, with which you will spread the Ignition from the Pyroblast !.
3. If the duration of the battle is enough to detonate the Living Bomb, then use your usual rotation on a single target. Use Concussion and Blast on AC. You can also use Flamestrike to refresh the AoE effect when Blastwave is on CD.

Sometimes, when there are a lot of mobs, you can just spam the Firestrike, and it will be effective.

Buffs :
– Arcane Brilliance – spell power and increased mana. Does not stack with similar buffs – Demonic Pact, Flametongue Totem, Totem Fury, and Fel Intelligence.
– Time Warp is the equivalent of Heroism and Bloodlust.

Debuffs :
– Critical Mass – Increases the chance of a critical hit by spells by 5%. Does not stack with Darkness and Flame.

Useful Spells :
– Anti-magic – interrupt with 24-second CD.
– Removing the curse – decourse.
– Spell-stealer – disperses enemies, steals a useful magical effect.

Control :
– Blast Wave – AoE Slow
– Dragon’s Breath – AoE Interrupt & Confusion
– Ice Arrow – slow, single target
– Frostfire Arrow – Slow, Single Target
– Cone of cold – deceleration, cone AoE
– Fire Blast – Stun, Single Target
– Ice Nova – shackle, 8 seconds action and 10 meters radius
– Ring of Frost – shackle, 10 seconds action and 10 meters radius
– Transformation – transformation into an animal, 50 seconds action

Survival :
– Jump – teleports 20 meters forward
– Ice Block – immunity for 10 seconds
– Invisibility – reset threat and invisibility for 20 seconds
– Magic protection – absorption of arcane magic, magic of fire or ice
– Slow Fall – Slow Fall

The priority of the characteristics is as follows:
one. Intellect
2. Accuracy (17% cap)
3. Speed ​​rating to soft cap
4. Rating crit
5. Speed ​​rating after soft cap
6. Mastery

Intelligence is the main stat that increases your spell power, mana, and crit chance.

Hit rating is the second most important stat that affects the chance of hitting your target. The hit cap is 17%, after which hit importance tends to zero.

Critical rating increases the chance of a critical hit of your spells, which in turn increases the chance of propelling the Path of Fire and getting Ignition from Pyroblast (for Combustion).

Haste rating of affects the casting speed of spells, and also increases the number of ticks of the Living Bomb, Pyroblast and Combustion.

Mastery increases the damage of your DoTs (Immolation).

Speed ​​cap soft

The players were slightly divided over which crit or speed is better.The answer is: it all depends on the level of your equipment. Your stat priority will be based on your speed caps. Speed ​​caps are a certain amount of speed rating at which the number of ticks of your DoT will increase:

– 5% speed – 11 ticks of Combustion instead of 10.
– 12.5% ​​speed – 5 ticks of the Living Bomb and Pyroblast instead of 4.
– 15% speed – 12 ticks of Combustion.
– 25% speed – 13 ticks of Combustion.
– 37.5% speed – 6 ticks of Living Bomb and Pyroblast.

You will very easily reach the level of 25% speed, so this mark should be considered a soft cap. When calculating the cap, remember that in the raid you get an additional 5% of the raid buffs (Moonkin Form, Thought Speed, or Air Wrath Totem). After reaching soft cap speed, crit rating becomes more important than speed.

Stones :
Meta – Burning Shadowspirit Diamond
Red – Brilliant Royal Garnet / Brilliant Chimera’s Eye
Yellow – Disturbing Lava Coral / Disturbing Ember Topaz / Mighty Lava
381 – Concealed Shadow Spinel / Concealed Demon Eye

If the socket bonus is less than 10 intelligence, then put the Shining Royal Garnet / Shining Infernal Ruby, otherwise it is worth inserting a stone of the corresponding color.

Enchant :
Helmet – Magical Sign of Hyjal
Shoulders – Scroll of Enchant Cloak – Intellect II
Chestpiece – Scroll of Enchant for Chest – All Stats IX
Bracers for Bracers – Bracers for Bracers / Scroll of Enchant Bracer – Precision
Gloves – Scroll of Enchant Gloves – Haste II
Belt – Ebony Belt Buckle
Pants – Reinforced Enchanted Spellthread
– Boots Scroll of Enchant Shoes – Haste
Weapon – Scroll of Enchant Weapon – Power Torrent
Left Hand – Scroll of Enchant Left Hand – Intellect

Chemistry :
Food – Severed Sage Sage Head Seafood / Fortune Cookies
Flaska – Draconic Mind Flask
Pot 90 381 – Volcanic Potion

As a fire mage, you can use the Fiery Mouth, which is obtained by herbalists in Outland.

General Macros for Magicians

#showtooltip
/ stopcasting
/ cast [@ focus, exists] [@ target] Anti Magic

Macro casts Anti Magic on your focus, if any. If not, then the effect is applied to your current target.

#showtooltip
/ stopcasting
/ cast [@ focus, exists] [@ target] Spell Stealer

A similar macro, only for the Spell Stealer.

#showtooltip
/ stopcasting
/ cast Blink

This macro will interrupt your current spell and use Blink.

#showtooltip
/ stopcasting
/ cancelaura Ice Block
/ cast Ice Block

Macro activates Ice Block. Pressing the macro again will terminate its effect.

showtooltip
/ cast [@ mouseover, nodead, help] [nodead, help] [@ player] Slow Crash

Useful macro for Slow Crashes. If your cursor is over someone’s character (actually or over a raid frame), then you use Slow Fall on him.If not, it will cast on your target, provided that it is friendly. If the target is not friendly, then Slow Fall is used on you.

#showtooltip Conversion
/ clearfocus [modifier: alt]
/ focus [@ focus, noexists]
/ clearfocus [@ focus, help] [@ focus, noharm]
/ stopcasting
/ stopmacro [@ target, noharm]
/ cast [@ focus, exists, harm] [@ target] Polymorph
/ y Casting Casting on% F

This macro uses Casting on your focus or current target. The first time you use a macro, it makes your target the focus. Subsequent use of the macro will turn your focus into a sheep. But if you use it with Alt pressed, then the macro will erase your previous focus and select your current target as the new one. Then use it again to turn the sheep into your new focus.

Firemage specific macros

#showtooltip Combustion
/ stopcasting
/ cast Combustion

We recommend using Combustion via this macro.When you land a critical strike and the subsequent Ignite is enough to Combustion, you need to use it as quickly as possible, without waiting for the current spell to be cast.

Helm – Hood of the Time Lord – Warmaster Blackhorn (Heroic)
Neck – Plastic Choker – Majordomo Fandral Stag Helmet (Heroic)
Shoulders – Mantle of the Time Lord – Hagara (Heroic)
Cloak – Cape of Incredible Accuracy – 1250 Valor Points
Chestpiece – Robes of the Time Lord – Ultraxion Heroic
Wrist – Bracers of the Exiles – Hagara (Heroic)
Gloves – Gloves of Liquid Smoke – Deathwing’s Back (Heroic)
Belt – Cord of the Slain Protector – Zon’ozz (Heroic)
Pants – Leggings of the Time Lord – Yor’saj the Sleepless Heroic
Boots – Boots of the Instigator – Warmaster Blackhorn (Heroic)
Ring 1 – Ring of Infinity – all Dragon Soul bosses except Deathwing Madness
Ring 2 – Ring of Shattered – Hagara (Heroic)
Trinket 1 – Insignia of the Tainted Mind – Yor’saj the Sleepless Heroic
Trinket II – Will of Unbending – Deathwing Ridge Heroic
Weapon – Dragon’s Wrath, Tarecgosa’s Eternal Rest – Legendary Quest Chain
Wand – Finger of Zon’ozz – Zon’ozz (heroic)

This section presents all the equipment available for the mage, starting from level 346 gear. Just open the spoiler and watch. The equipment is ordered in ascending order of ilvl.

Head

Show equipment

Show equipment

Neck

Show equipment

Show equipment

Shoulders

Show equipment

Show equipment

Cloak

Show equipment

Show equipment

Bib

243 Show equipment

244 Show equipment equipment

Show equipment

Gloves

Show equipment

Show equipment

Belt

Show equipment

Show equipment

Pants

Show equipment

Show equipment

Boots

Show equipment

View equipment

Show equipment

44

Show equipment
Accessories

View equipment

View equipment

One-handed weapons

View equipment

View equipment line

Left hand

Show equipment

Show equipment

Staff

Show equipment

Show equipment

Wands

Show equipment

Show equipment

Development of a biology lesson in grade 7 on the topic “The diversity of coelenterates”

Lesson 32. The variety of coelenterates, significance in nature, human life.

Tasks :

– To develop knowledge about the peculiarities of the organization of multicellular animals of the “coelenterates” type.

– To teach students to determine the systematic position of an animal, to recognize the studied animals, to highlight the structural features and signs of the taxonomy of invertebrates, to understand the variety of representatives of the type.

Lesson type: assimilation of new knowledge.

Equipment : computer, multimedia projector

Lesson progress.

  1. Organizational moment: greeting, checking readiness for the lesson.

  2. Update

In the last lesson, we took a trip to the wonderful world of multicellular animals. And today I propose to continue our journey. But first, let’s repeat the knowledge that we received in the last lesson.

  1. Homework check (slide 1)

What layers does the polyp body wall consist of? What’s in between the layers. Consider a diagram of the internal structure of the body of a hydra.

1 – tentacles

2 – digestive cavity

3 – ectoderm

4 – endoderm

5 – epithelial-muscle cells

6 – intermediate cells

7 – stinging cells – epithelial cells 3

9000

9 – glandular cells
Slide 2

1 – stinging

2 – epithelial-muscular

3 – nervous

4 – skin-muscular

5.6 – sexual (ovum, spermatozoon)

    3

    new knowledge (slide 3).

The topic of our today’s lesson is “The variety of coelenterates, significance in nature, human life.” (write the topic in a notebook)

(slide 4).

To study the variety of coelenterates, show their role in nature and human life.

(slide 5). Lesson objective. Disassemble 2 classes of type Intestinal:

  1. Scyphoid

  2. Coral polyps

Slide 6-8.Type classification Intestinal

Slide 9-11.

Class SCIPHOID.

  • These include jellyfish

  • Body size: from 30 cm to 2 m

  • Move with “jerks”

  • tentacles 9 aperture and 4 oral lobes

  • The nervous system

  • is well developed: there are photosensitive and olfactory sensory organs

Reproduction of scyphoid cilia

    1 descend to the bottom

  • 3) Turn into polyps

  • 4) Polyps bud off jellyfish

Slide 12-28.

Demonstration of the variety of jellyfish with a teacher’s story about interesting facts.

Slide 29.

If stung by a jellyfish:

  • You can only rinse with sea water!

  • The remnants of the tentacles can be scraped off the body with a knife, a plastic card, a towel or even the palm of your hand.

  • Ice or menthol lotions can be applied to the affected area to relieve pain, and pain pills can be taken.

Slide 30.

Let’s analyze another class of Intestinal – class Coral polyps

Slide 31-32

Class Coral polyps

(sea anemones)

  • Colonial

  • other species

    9000

  • Habitat: bottom of the seas (from the coastal part to great depths)

  • Representatives: sea anemones, single corals (red, pink, black) and colonial corals

Slide 33.

Structure of coral polyps

  • Live at the bottom

  • Body with tentacles

  • Body size: from 1-2 mm to 1.5 m

  • They feed on crustaceans

    31

    Slide 34-36.

    Coral polyps have a calcareous skeleton and are sedentary

    .

    Corals settle deeper than 50 meters in warm, transparent, salty water, forming colonies, reefs, islands.

    • Reproduction. Fertilization and development of embryos occurs in the INTESTINAL CAVITY, and small anemones emerge THROUGH THE MOUTH

    Slide 37-39.

    Jewelry corals.

    Jewelry corals, although they have a very dense skeleton, do not participate in the formation of reefs. Jeweled black corals are found in small groups in tropical seas at a depth of 30-80 m. Their colonies look like bushes or pieces of wire.

    In red noble coral, the skeleton contains iron oxide, which gives it different shades of red. Colonies of noble corals live on the coastal slopes of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands at a depth of more than 20 m (usually from 50 to 150 m).

    In some peoples there is a custom to wear coral rosary, it is believed that coral has the ability to drive away evil spirits, helps to resist all kinds of temptations. For the same reason, coral amulets were hung at the head of babies.
    Coral also serves as an amulet that protects against lightning strikes.

    Slide 40.

    What is the importance of corals in nature and human life?

    • Coral skeletons are used as a good building material for building houses, embankments, for paving streets.

    • Used for filling water filters, for polishing and grinding wood and metal products.

    • Coral powder is used for the preparation of medicinal preparations.

    • Corals are used to make jewelry and souvenirs.

    • Corals are of great importance for the ecological balance in nature.

    Slide 41-42

    Demonstration of coral species

    Slide 43.

    Why do corals die?

    • 1.Chemical and thermal pollution of the ocean.

    • 2. Discharge of polluted waters and waste from fish farms lead to excessive development of microalgae in the water column.And these algae intercept the sunlight needed by the corals.

    • 3. Swimmers and divers damage and break off corals with flippers, and the silt raised by them settles on the corals, which also leads to their death. So while swimming, try not to touch the corals, it will be better for them and for you.

    Slide 44-48.

    Poisonous animals.

    The most poisonous jellyfish in the world is the Australian sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). After touching its tentacles, a person dies in 1-3 minutes, unless medical assistance arrives in time.The poison paralyzes the heart muscle.

    • Carukia barnesi, a killer jellyfish with a deadly sting, has a dome length of only 12 millimeters. Within an hour, the victims experience severe back pain, lumbago all over the body, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, sweating and coughing profusely.

    • Contact with a small Far Eastern cross jellyfish ( Gonionemus vertens ) can cost the bather his life. Within 15-20 minutes after chirping, there is a feeling of suffocation (exhalation is especially difficult), pain in the lower back, in the joints of the extremities.Fingers go numb, shortness of breath appears, chest tightness. The acute period lasts 4-5 days, and then the phenomena subside and disappear without any consequences.

    • False fire corals (Millepora ) (hydroid polyp), which can seriously injure the skin when touched. Often, after burns, long-lasting ulcers form on the skin.

    • Physalia poison is similar to cobra venom, resistant to drying and freezing, siphonophores thrown ashore retain the ability to sting anyone who touches them, and the tentacles that have been lying in the refrigerator for six years perfectly retained their toxic properties.For humans, the poison of a siphonophore is extremely dangerous.

    Slide 49.

    The value of coelenterates

    • Predators. They feed on small animals – fish, crustaceans, regulate their number in nature, are a link in the nutrition of marine communities

    • Symbionts

    • Corals create reefs. There are coastal reefs located along the shores of continents or islands. Barrier reefs some distance from the coast.(The Great Barrier Reef along the east coast of Australia. It stretches for 2000 km, its width is up to 150 km, and its height is 2 km

    • Atolls – ring-shaped coral islands

    Slide 50.

    world. Let’s write down the most important thing that we have learned today. Remember the purpose of our lesson? (To study the diversity of coelenterates, show their role in nature and human life.)

    Independent work of students.Complete the table using the tutorial on pages 104-110. “ The role of animals in nature and human life.”

    1. Fastening.

    • What are the common signs of coelenterates?

    • What do hydra and jellyfish have in common?

    • What are stinging cells for?

    • Which coelenterates have a calcareous skeleton?

    1. Reflection

    1.Explain why coelenterates received such a name? On what grounds can an animal be attributed to this type?

    2. Prove that coral, jellyfish and hydra belong to the same type of animal.

    3. What is the significance of coelenterates in nature?

    1. Lesson summary

    Now let’s summarize the lesson. Homework is indicated on the chalkboard and slide – pp. 104-107.

    (scoring marks, assigning marks for the lesson independently in the diary, the teacher only signs)

    Marine coelenterates – presentation on Slide-Share.ru 🎓

    one

    First presentation slide

    Marine coelenterates

    Slide image

    2

    Slide 2

    The origin of the intestinal cavity
    The main classes of Caviar:
    Class Hydroid
    Coral polyps class
    Class Scyphoid jellyfish
    The value of the coelenterates
    Interesting Facts
    Lesson plan

    Slide image

    3

    Slide 3

    All classes of Intestinal Cavities are known from the Precambrian (more than 600 million BC).years old).
    The coelenterates are considered an ancient group, close to the ancestors of all multicellular animals.
    The origin of the intestinal cavities

    Slide image

    4

    Slide 4

    Hydroid polyps should probably be considered the initial form.Subsequently, evolution followed the path of the loss of the polypoid stage (in scyphomedusa) or the medusoid stage (in corals).
    The origin of the intestinal cavities

    Slide image

    five

    Slide 5

    Due to the predominance of the remains of jellyfish, the end of the Proterozoic is called the “age of jellyfish” (about 700 million years ago).Since then, the jellyfish is one of the most numerous predators on Earth.
    The origin of the intestinal cavities

    Slide image

    6

    Slide 6

    2800 kinds
    Habitat:
    -slow flowing fresh water bodies
    – bottom part of the seas
    Class Hydroid

    Slide image

    7

    Slide 7

    LIFE FORMS
    POLYPNAYA
    (POLYPICAL BASIC)
    MEDUZNAYA
    (SHORT-TERM)
    LIFESTYLE
    SEDENTARY
    FLOATING
    http: // rybafish.umclidet.com/kishe4nopolost.html

    Slide image

    eight

    Slide 8

    Representatives:
    Freshwater hydras: common stalked, brown, green
    Marine hydroid polyps:
    Hydroid jellyfish
    Mixed hydroids (siphonophores)

    Slide image

    nine

    Slide 9: FRESHWATER HYDRA

    Found in lakes, rivers or ponds with clean, clear water, on the roots of duckweed, stems and leaves of other aquatic plants in ponds and rivers

    Slide image

    10

    Slide 10: MARINE HYDROID POLYPS

    Many hydroids look like openwork twigs.

    Slide image

    eleven

    Slide 11: HYDROID MEDUSA

    Hydroid jellyfish Bougainvillia
    (increased 3 times).Hydroid jellyfish reproduce sexually, releasing sex cells into the water.

    Slide image

    12

    Slide 12: MIXED HYDROID POLYPS (SIPHONOPHORS)

    The most beautiful representatives of siphonophores are undoubtedly physalia.Physalia’s body consists of a large bladder, which sometimes reaches the size of a child’s head, and a swimming column.
    “Portuguese military boat”

    Slide image

    13

    Slide 13

    6000 kinds
    Habitat: bottom of the seas (from the coastal part to great depths)
    Representatives: sea anemones, solitary corals (red, pink, black) and colonial madripor corals
    Coral polyps class

    Slide image

    fourteen

    Slide 14

    Distributed in the seas from the Arctic to the Antarctic.”Sea flowers” – sea anemones

    Slide image

    fifteen

    Slide 15

    “Sea flowers” – sea anemones
    Several types of anemones build houses from slime and sand.They are called “tubular anemones”. Like other anemones, they feed on small animals that touch their sticky and stinging tentacles

    Slide image

    sixteen

    Slide 16

    Corals

    Slide image

    17

    Slide 17

    Jewelry corals, although they have a very dense skeleton, do not participate in the formation of reefs.Jeweled black corals are found in small groups in tropical seas at a depth of 30-80 m. Their colonies look like bushes or pieces of wire.
    Jewelry corals
    There are about 200 species in the world.

    Slide image

    18

    Slide 18

    The skeleton of red noble coral contains iron oxide, which gives it different shades of red.Colonies of noble corals live on the coastal slopes of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands at a depth of more than 20 m (usually from 50 to 150 m).
    Jewelry corals

    Slide image

    nineteen

    Slide 19

    200 kinds
    Habitat: seas
    Representatives:
    jellyfish:
    eared jellyfish aurelia
    Ropilema
    polar jellyfish cyanea
    Class Scyphoid jellyfish

    Slide image

    twenty

    Slide 20: MEDUSA

    This is the life form of some coelenterates, in the life cycle of some species it alternates with a polyp.Leads an active swimming lifestyle (movement according to the reactive principle).

    Slide image

    21

    Slide 21: MEDUSA

    She is always devoid of a skeleton, has developed mesogleia, organs of balance and light-sensitive organs that allow her to orient herself in space.MEDUSA

    Slide image

    22

    Slide 22

    May be poisonous
    Form coral reefs
    Form symbiosis with other animal species
    Used to make jewelry
    May reduce fish numbers
    Serves as food for other fish species
    The value of coelenterates

    Slide image

    23

    Slide 23

    Poisonous animals
    The most poisonous jellyfish in the world is the Australian sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri).After touching its tentacles, a person dies in 1-3 minutes, unless medical assistance arrives in time. The poison paralyzes the heart muscle.
    One effective remedy is women’s tights, which were once used by lifeguards at a surfing competition in Queensland, Australia.

    Slide image

    24

    Slide 24

    Carukia barnesi, a killer jellyfish with a deadly sting, has a dome length of only 12 millimeters.Within an hour, the victims experience severe back pain, lumbago all over the body, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, sweating and coughing profusely.
    Poisonous animals
    The consequences are extremely serious: from paralysis to death, cerebral hemorrhage or cardiac arrest

    Slide image

    25

    Slide 25

    Poisonous animals
    Within 15-20 minutes after chirping, there is a feeling of suffocation (exhalation is especially difficult), pain in the lower back, in the joints of the extremities.Fingers go numb, shortness of breath appears, chest tightness. The acute period lasts 4-5 days, and then the phenomena subside and disappear without any consequences.
    Contact with a small Far Eastern cross jellyfish (Gonionemus vertens) can cost a bather his life.

    Slide image

    26

    Slide 26

    Poisonous animals
    False fire corals (Millepora) (hydroid polyp) that can severely injure the skin when touched.Often, after burns, long-lasting ulcers form on the skin.

    Slide image

    27

    Slide 27

    Physalia poison is similar to cobra venom, resistant to drying and freezing, siphonophores thrown ashore retain the ability to sting anyone who touches them, and the tentacles that have been lying in the refrigerator for six years perfectly retained their toxic properties.For humans, the poison of a siphonophore is extremely dangerous.
    Poisonous animals

    Slide image

    28

    Slide 28

    Certain groups of coral polyps, such as madrepore, horn corals and sea feathers, live mainly in the tropics and subtropics, where they form entire underwater gardens, striking with the beauty of shapes and colors, and coral reefs.Coral reefs

    Slide image

    29

    Slide 29

    This is scyphomedusa, which in Latin is called “Cassiopeia”, after the Ethiopian queen from Greek myths, but in Hebrew and English it is called “cauliflower”.In a normal state, the cassiopeia lies in the sand, well, if not “upside down”, then at least “upside down”, and catches plankton with short thick tentacles. This jellyfish has learned to grow symbiotic algae in its body.
    Symbiosis

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    thirty

    Slide 30

    Symbiosis of anemones and clown fish
    Symbiosis

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    Slide 31

    Coral jewelry

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    Slide 32

    Coral Jewelry

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    Slide 33

    By examining shoals of herring spawning off the coast of British Columbia, biologists found that in one day, crystal jellyfish ate all herring offspring.In addition, jellyfish harm fish and those that devour their food.
    Jellyfish – fish eaters

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    Slide 34

    Among the main enemies of jellyfish are tuna, sea turtles, ocean moonfish and some ocean birds.Salmon is not averse to jellyfish either.
    Jellyfish – animal feed

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    Slide 35

    Medusa colobonema Colobonema sericeum discards tentacles, and it has 32 of them.Interesting facts

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    Slide 36

    Interesting Facts
    The largest jellyfish in the world is the Arctic giant jellyfish (Cyanea), which lives in the Northwest Atlantic.One of these jellyfish, washed ashore in the Massachusetts Bay, had a bell diameter of 2.28 m, and its tentacles extended to 36.5 m.Each jellyfish eats about 15 thousand fish during its life

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    Slide 37

    Extreme jellyfish Lake Mogilnoe on Kildin Island near the Kola Bay is unique: sea water seeps into it.Sea water and fresh water do not mix due to their different density. From the surface to a depth of 5-6 m there is a layer of fresh water, and below, up to 12 m, there is a layer of sea water, in which jellyfish, cod, and crustaceans live. Even deeper is the layer of water contaminated with hydrogen sulfide, in which there are no animals.
    Interesting facts

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    Slide 38

    Since September, thousands of giant jellyfish, over a meter in size and weighing about 100 kilograms, have been observed off the coast of the city of Echizen (Fukui Prefecture).They can reach up to 5 meters in length, have poisonous tentacles, but are not fatal to humans. Their migration to the Sea of ​​Japan is associated with an increase in water temperature.
    Interesting facts

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    Last slide of presentation: Marine coelenterates

    As a result of advances in genetic engineering, it became possible to insert a gene into the genome of a potato plant… jellyfish! Thanks to this gene, the body of the jellyfish retains fresh water, and if there is a lack of water in the soil, potatoes with this gene will also retain water. In addition, thanks to this gene, the jellyfish glows. And this property is preserved in potatoes: when there is a lack of water, its leaves glow green in infrared rays.
    Interesting facts

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    90,000 The most dangerous fish in the Red Sea

    Dangerous Inhabitants of the Red Sea | Fish of the Red Sea

    It is believed that the brightest and most beautiful fish are the most dangerous and poisonous.This is not entirely true.

    Here are some bright and spectacular fish of the Red Sea: butterfly fish (Chaetodon), royal and imperial angels, amphiprions , some types of surgeons ( Arabian surgeon, Yellow-tailed zebrasoma ), parrot fish , fish- grumblers, antias. But none of them is poisonous, although some pose a danger, but not poisonous damage, but the possibility of getting wounds from thorns or bites.

    Let’s consider each of these species separately and start with butterfly fish.

    Butterflyfish
    (Chaetodon). In general, catching them or trying to touch them is problematic. Although these fish are not shy, they stay away from snorkelers, as a rule, at the bottom, under the cornices of coral reefs and in crevices. They let divers come closer, but when you try to make a sharp movement with your hand, butterfly fish will dart away from you in different directions. Even if you manage to grab one of them, butterfly fish will not bring harm, since it does not have poisonous glands and butterfly fish do not have sharp protruding thorns.

    Angel Pisces . Bright and beautiful – these are Imperial Angel and Royal Angel . If you have the opportunity to take these fish in your hands, then you need to be wary of their spines, which are located at the bottom of the gill covers and are directed backward. These fish are not poisonous, but pricks with thorns are very painful, and an infection can get into the wound, therefore, when taking them in your hands, you need to be careful, ideally avoid contact with them altogether – this will be better for you and for the fish themselves.

    Amphipryos are sometimes called clowns or mute.The peculiarity of these small fish is that they use some species of anemones to protect themselves from their enemies, the tentacles of which are poisonous and lethal to small fish, and when in contact with them, you can get very painful burns. At the same time, amphiprions have protection against deadly touches – their body is covered with mucus, and anemones do not bring them any harm. By themselves, amphiprions are completely harmless, but they are so aggressive and so bravely defend their territory that they even drive away divers.

    All types of surgical fish have sharp bony spines at the base of the tail, directed forward. They pose the greatest danger to snorkelers and divers. Fish-surgeons can be quite aggressive towards humans. They seem to be playing with you at the very edge of the water, but this impression is deceiving. The fish themselves are not poisonous, and there is no poison in the thorns either, but the wounds inflicted by these thorns can be so deep that an ambulance from a surgeon may be required.

    Parrotfish feed on corals, they have powerful jaws and strong teeth, so the worst thing they can do is bite you. Although I do not quite imagine how this can happen – this fish is not shy, pays little attention to snorkelers or divers swimming around it and will not come into contact with you.

    Thus, bright and beautiful Red Sea fish do not pose any danger unless you yourself provoke them, try to catch or pick them up.

    Now let’s look at the most dangerous inhabitants of the Red Sea and start with the scorpion family.

    Scorpionfish (Scorpaenidae). All representatives of this species are extremely dangerous! Don’t try to touch them. If you are walking on a sandy bottom in a strip of coastal coral, be very careful not to step on a lying wart or flathead scorpionfish. Although this is unlikely in the immediate vicinity of hotels, but if warned, then armed – it is extremely difficult to notice them for an inexperienced eye, they lead a sedentary lifestyle, lying on the bottom for a long time and burrowing in the sand, while they become overgrown with algae and small crustaceans, merging with rocks and corals!

    Sharp and hard spines of scorpion fish can easily pierce beach shoes and penetrate deep into the foot of a person who accidentally stepped on a fish.After a short time, a person can lose consciousness from damage to vital nerve centers. If the poison enters the large blood vessels, death can occur!

    Also beware of trying to swim up to or touch any kind of lionfish . The thorns of these beautiful, slow and majestic fish contain poison. The bright color of Radiant lionfish is a warning to its enemies, and perhaps it is the only exception to the statement at the very beginning that bright and beautiful fish are not dangerous, the lion’s thrust is very painful.However, the spiky rays of the dorsal and anal fins contain very little venom, and although it is identical to the venom of the cobra, the effect of the prick directly depends on the number of pricked rays. The poison of the lionfish causes severe pain in the human body, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, numbness, dizziness, diarrhea and heavy sweating. In addition, lionfish venom can cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylactic shock, but no deaths have been recorded among injected people.For healthy people, it is dangerous for its consequences, and the effect of poisoning can last up to several days. For the elderly, children, people with weakened immune systems and allergy sufferers, the consequences can be much more serious. Therefore, given the painful shock, and possibly individual intolerance to the poison, one should not try to catch or touch this fish.

    As first aid to a person injured by a lionfish sting, you should wipe the wound with alcohol and place the damaged area in hot water – at high temperatures, the poison is neutralized.However, no self-medication is acceptable, you need to seek medical help so that the victim is administered an antidote.

    The gray reef shark is the most common type of reef shark in the Indian Ocean basin, to which the Red Sea belongs.

    These animals are swift and agile predators, due to their aggressive behavior they are the dominant species among other reef sharks, even despite their small size – only about 2 meters in length.

    Gray reef sharks are very curious and often approach divers. There are confirmed cases of unprovoked attacks, an attack is also possible with persistent pursuit and the desire of the diver to get closer. The shark demonstrates aggression in a kind of “hunched over” posture: the predator raises its snout, lowers its pectoral fins and arches its back. In case of aggressive behavior, you should not try to photograph the shark, the flash can provoke an attack. It should not be forgotten that, despite its modest size, the predator is capable of inflicting very serious wounds.

    Titanium triggerfish (Balistodes viridescens) is the largest representative of the triggerfish family, its length is about 75 cm, weight – up to 10 kg. A particular danger for diving and snorkeling lovers is during the breeding season – the triggerfish builds a huge nest, about 2 meters in diameter and 75 cm deep, and selflessly protects it. The diver can be attacked when approaching and even at a sufficient distance from the nest. Trigger bites are not poisonous, but rather painful.The same can be said about another representative of the triggerfish – the Yellow-faced pseudobalista. It is slightly smaller than the Titanium triggerfish, its length is no more than 60 cm, but almost everything that was said above is also true for the Yellow-faced pseudobalist – the female builds a huge nest and also selflessly protects it. Therefore, meeting this “fish” during the breeding season does not bode well for the swimmer.

    Moray eels – one species of these eel-like ray-finned fish suggests that it is better not to approach them, they are often presented as vicious ruthless aggressors.In fact, everything is somewhat different. Moray eels prefer to hide in the crevices of the coral reef base and not attack divers, we are not talking about snorkelers, because moray eels lead a bottom life at depths of 10 meters. Known cases of attacks, as a rule, are associated with self-defense – moray eels attack only those who come too close to its burrow and are persistent in irritating this predator. Another real opportunity to suffer from moray eels is hand-feeding during popular tourist attractions offered by local diving companies.The fact is that moray eels have very weak eyesight and most of them rely on their sense of smell, so it does not matter what food (a piece of meat) or a diver’s fingers, when a moray eels bite, it hangs on the victim with a stranglehold, like a bull terrier, while shaking jaw, causing lacerations with sharp teeth. Usually it is not possible to free oneself on its own, help is required.

    Stingray stingrays pose a danger to humans due to the spiky spine on the tail. Stalkers feed on molluscs, crustaceans, and sometimes small fish.They hunt buried in the sand, which makes them completely invisible to humans. The stingrays use the poisonous spike on the tail only as self-defense. A person who accidentally steps on a stingray can get a painful blow from the tail. The stingray venom causes severe pain, edema, muscle cramps, and a secondary fungal, bacterial or mixed infection is possible. The tip of a venomous thorn often breaks off in a wound, and the victim requires surgery to remove it. However, a stalker strike rarely leads to death, only in cases where a vital area is affected.So on September 4, 2006, the popular Australian naturalist Steve Irwin died, having received a stinging sting in the heart area during the filming of the documentary “Deadly Ocean Creatures”.

    Barracuda – out of 21 naturally occurring species, 8 live in the Red Sea, including the great barracuda. This fish is known for its large size and very formidable appearance. A striking feature is the presence of a powerful lower jaw protruding beyond the upper one. Small sharp teeth dot the visible part of the jaw, inside – the teeth are larger. Barracuda can reach over 2 meters in length and weigh over 50 kilograms.

    It is believed that barracudas rarely attack humans. However, similar cases have been recorded. This most often occurs in muddy or dark water, where they show considerable aggression, mistaking the swimmer’s legs or arms for prey. Sometimes barracudas are attracted to shiny objects (watches, metal jewelry, shiny parts of diving equipment). The sharp teeth of a predator can seriously injure a person, damage large blood vessels and cause severe bleeding.

    Snail Cone . It would seem what a danger a shell, known to everyone from childhood as a souvenir with a mother-of-pearl inner coating and rustling with the sea surf, can pose if you put it to your ear. But! This is a large genus of predatory poisonous sea snails, sea gastropods. In total, there are about 550 species, while the list is annually replenished with new species. Received the name for the special shape of the shell in the form of a regular cone.

    Distributed throughout tropical and subtropical seas, the greatest variety of species can be found in the western part of the Indo-Pacific region, which includes Red Sea .

    All cones are predators, some of them feed on sea worms, others on snails, and others on fish. Despite the fact that these predators are not too agile, they have adapted to hunt very successfully from an ambush, buried in the sand. Having poor eyesight, the cone determines its prey by smell. The mollusk hunts with a long proboscis ending in a mouth. Its teeth are transformed into small harpoon-like needles with venom glands inside. Sensing the approach of prey, the cone shoots out one of its teeth, and holding it with its mouth, plunges into the victim’s body.The venom of the cone is so toxic that the fish is paralyzed within a second.

    It is the fish-eating cones that pose the greatest danger to humans. The venom of the cone is composed of 50 different toxins called conotoxins and has no antidote. The most dangerous for humans: Geographic cone (Conus geographus) and Brocade shell or Textile cone (Conus textile) – pictured.

    The geographic cone is nocturnal, burrowing in the sand during the day.This is the most dangerous of all the cones. All reliable descriptions of deaths have been caused by a shot of this particular type. The mortality rate from geographic cone bites reaches 70%. The bite causes severe, increasing pain, convulsions, profuse salivation, difficulty swallowing, upset gastrointestinal tract, difficulty speaking. In severe cases of poisoning, death is possible.

    First aid to the victim consists in removing the thorn fragments, treating with alcohol and applying a bandage. Self-medication is impossible, you must immediately seek qualified medical help.

    Starfish The Crown of Thorns (Acanthaster planci) is a multi-beam starfish that gets its name from the poisonous thorns that cover the entire surface of its body. The size of an adult star usually varies from 25 to 35 cm, although there are especially large specimens up to 50 cm in diameter. “ Crown of Thorns ” has 12-19 rays, with age their number increases to 21-23. The star is colored with combinations of bright orange and purple colors, and the strong yellow or pink thorns of this animal exposed outside warn of the danger of close contacts.The body of the Crown of Thorns is completely covered with long (up to 3 cm) needles equipped with poisonous glands.

    The needle prick from this star is very painful and can cause serious poisoning in a person, accompanied by rash, nausea, bleeding and inflammation. When providing assistance, first of all, it is necessary to remove fragments of thorns from the wound, immerse the affected limb in hot water and bandage with a tourniquet at the bend to prevent further spread of the poison.

    Reticulated Fire Coral (Millepora dichotoma) is a colonial marine organism that looks exactly like coral but is not.Real corals are classified as coral polyps, while fire corals are classified as hydroids or polymedusa.

    Millepora or fire corals are widespread in tropical and subtropical waters of the World Ocean. They form large colonies on exposed reef slopes and in shallow waters with strong currents.

    The colony consists of widely spread flat bushes with short twigs. The ends of the branches are rounded. The color is yellow or brownish.Polyps 1 – 2 mm long. It feeds on plankton. Polyps live in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. The colonies are growing very quickly. It settles in strong currents in well-lit areas of the reef. The defenders of the colony are dactylozoids, armed with many tentacles with stinging cells (nematocytes). Fire coral burns with them.

    Colonies of millepora look very picturesque and often make you want to take a piece with you as a souvenir. It is categorically impossible to do this. At the moment of touching, a person receives a very sensitive burn, which in pain is comparable to a burn of a red-hot metal.After a few hours, a bubble appears at the site of the burn, which bursts within a few days, exposing the ulcer. In turn, the ulcer heals for a very long time and painfully, and in its place a noticeable scar remains for life. A fire coral burn is not fatal, but it can cause painful shock and loss of consciousness, which is very dangerous when diving. Sometimes the lymph nodes in the victims are significantly enlarged. In some cases, an allergic reaction develops. If you have not been able to avoid contact with fire coral, in the absence of medical attention, the following actions are recommended: rinse the wound with sea water, remove visible remnants of tentacles and treat with vinegar or alcohol.

    Siguatera is a disease that occurs after the consumption of certain types of reef fish, whose flesh accumulates toxin secreted by dinoflagellates – organisms that live on coral reefs and near algae. Coral and herbivorous fish become prey for larger predators at the top of the food chain, such as barracudas, moray eels, sea bass, etc.

    Siguatera has been known for a very long time, the first mention dates back to the 7th century. Warm-blooded creatures, including humans, are much more sensitive to poison than fish and shellfish.The disease-causing ciguatoxin is highly heat-resistant and does not degrade during cooking. Symptoms develop within 1-6 hours after eating toxic fish and include gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, muscle pain, numbness, dizziness, and hallucinations. The disease causes long-term disability. There is no specific antidote; treatment consists of detoxifying and rehydrating the victim’s body.

    Here are some more dangerous species of the inhabitants of the Red Sea:

    • Swarthy Sigan – Siganus luridus
      Dangerous species, must not be touched! If on a sea fishing you are lucky and you catch a swarthy whitefish on a hook, be careful – the thorns on its dorsal and pelvic fins have deep notches along the edge – there are glands secreting a poisonous substance. The pricks of these fish are extremely painful. Pain and numbness in the limbs last from several hours to several days.Sensitive people may experience swelling, nausea, vomiting and heart palpitations. Lethal outcomes have not been recorded in the scientific literature. When pricking with a thorn, it is necessary to lower your hand into hot water, since the poison decomposes quickly at high temperatures.
    • Moon Medusa – Aurelia aurita
      Dangerous species, you must not approach!
    • Needle-cushioned sea urchin – Asthenosoma marisrubri
      Dangerous species, must not be touched!
    • Giant anemone – Heteractis magnifica
      Dangerous species, must not be touched!
    • Whiplash coral – Juncella rubra
      Dangerous species, no approach!
    • Spotted needlefoot – Siganus stellatus
      Dangerous species, must not be touched!
    • Arothron stellatus
      Dangerous species, must not be touched!

    And in conclusion, a few simple tips that may be useful to you in order to maintain your health and not spoil the rest for yourself or your fellow travelers.

    1. Enter the water, even on a sandy beach, only in special beach shoes. It will protect your feet from small, sharp stones and pieces of coral, as well as from young and very small sea urchins that may wander on the beach or sandbank.
    2. Refrain from walking in shallow water, especially on the outside of coral reefs. Remember that the length of the needles of the sea urchin can reach 50 cm. And even if you do not step on it, you can easily touch it with unprotected parts of the legs.
    3. During low tide, do not go into large puddles left in shallow water, they may contain stingrays buried in the sand.
    4. If you are snorkeling (i.e. swimming with a snorkel on the surface of the water), observe the following precautions:
    • Do not swim into areas where no one can see you and will not be able to help if necessary.
    • Put on a T-shirt, or better, a special neoprene thin T-shirt. For the temperature of the water in the Red Sea at any time of the year, a T-shirt with a thickness of 1.5 mm is suitable. This, firstly, will protect you from sunburn, especially in the first days of rest, and secondly, it will protect you from small accidental contact with corals, anemones and fish.
    • Do not swim above the surface of a coral reef if it is less than one meter from the surface of the water. You might just be thrown at the corals by the wave!
    • Do not touch the corals, do not try to break them off or stand on them, it is better not to touch anything unnecessarily. Even a light touch of the coral can either burn you badly or cause cuts that take a long time to heal.
    • Do not try to grab or touch various fish swimming near you, do not tease them – some species, even the most friendly and harmless ones, and, according to local residents, not dangerous to humans, can show aggression towards you, for example, Elegant rhinos or Arabian surgeons, which have very sharp protruding spines.
  • If you or anyone around you do have to meet one of the dangerous inhabitants of the Red Sea, do not panic and remain calm. Get out of the water first or help the victim.
  • Tourist divers are advised not to dive alone or to swim in unfamiliar places, as they may find themselves in the shark habitat. Do not feed the fish underwater or attract the attention of local inhabitants with the smell of fresh blood. If you get scratched, it’s best to return to a safe place right away.Also try to pay attention to the unusual behavior of the fish, if you have already noticed a shark nearby, then do not hit the water with your hands and do not create unnecessary noise, do not try to swim away immediately. Control yourself and remember that the shark also sees you as a threat. If a predator tries to attack, hit on the head and nose, this is the fish’s most vulnerable spot. Chances are high that, feeling resistance, the shark will swim away by itself.
  • If you have suffered from the needles of a sea urchin, get out of the water carefully, a needle may remain in the wound, try not to break it off.As soon as you find yourself on the shore, you need to get it out first. But at the same time, do not try to pick up the fragile needle with something hard, such as tweezers, otherwise it will instantly break or crumble! Take a soft rag, handkerchief, or at least a napkin and try to gently pull out the foreign object. Then disinfect the wound. If the hedgehog’s needles break off at the root and it is almost impossible to pull them out, do not panic – disinfect the affected area with alcohol. The next day, the pain usually subsides, and then it goes away altogether.Limestone needles will eventually dissolve in your blood and leave the body without a trace. If the meeting occurred with a young hedgehog, whose needles are still small and not so hard, then it is only necessary to disinfect the wound and apply a bandage. The needles, most likely, cannot be removed, but this is not scary, for several days (2-3) the wound will remind of itself, but after the needles dissolve, the pain will go away. The most important thing is disinfection. On the Internet, you can find three ways to remove sea urchin needles from a wound.The methods are barbaric, we will not describe them here and we do not recommend using them!
  • If someone you know is injured by an electric stingray, gently pull the person out of the water, place him in the shade and let him recover. No additional assistance is required in this case.
  • If the wound is received by a stingray or a fish from the scorpion family, then a hot compress should be applied to the affected skin area as soon as possible, or even better, it should be immersed in hot water.The water temperature should be at least fifty degrees, this will help neutralize the effect of toxins. In this case, you need to be prepared for the fact that a person may lose consciousness, and he will have to do artificial respiration. After providing first aid, it is strongly recommended to go to the hospital so that the victim is administered an antidote there.
  • Finally, if after meeting a lionfish or some other fish you notice redness and irritation on your body, just rinse your skin with hot water.All these traces are the action of a weak poison.
  • Any open wound, be it a bite, prick or cut, should be treated with an antiseptic or alcohol solution to prevent infection. Remember that fish teeth and scales, like seawater itself, are far from sterile.
  • If the cone is damaged by poison, it is necessary to isolate the injection site with two tourniquets on both sides and urgently take the victim to the hospital. It is better to see a doctor immediately after the bite, he will prescribe pain relievers and make the necessary vaccinations.You may also need additional supervision. Remember that the cones are very beautiful, so children often suffer from them! The cones can lie in the sand, while being deeply pulled into their shell. The needle is fired from the tip of the throat, very quickly and unexpectedly.
  • When going on a trip, do not forget to put in your first-aid kit, in addition to the usual medicines for headaches, blood pressure, and disorders, also antibiotics and antihistamines, antibiotic ointment (tetracycline, erythromycin), iodine and brilliant green.Keep in mind that in a foreign country, and especially in Egypt, the names of medicines in pharmacies will be completely unfamiliar to you, and the inscriptions and annotations will only be in English and Arabic.
  • One last thing. Remember that the underwater world, no matter how beautiful it is, is a different universe, which is often hostile towards humans!
  • Andrey Velichko
    Prepared on the basis of personal experience, as well as open sources on the Internet:

    • Wikipedia
    • www.terramia.ru
    • redsea.dive.ru
    • pro100turist.ru
    • warps.ru
    • www.tech-diving.ru
    • travelsmedia.ru
    • See the Dangerous Inhabitants of the Red Sea checklist in PDF.

      90,019

      10 most dangerous fish in the world

      Piranhas, also called caribe or piraia, are one of more than 60 species of sharp-toothed predatory fish found in the rivers and lakes of South America, with a somewhat exaggerated reputation for being ferocious.Films such as Piranha (1978) portray the piranha as a predatory indiscriminate killer. However, most species are scavengers or feed on plant material.
      Most piranha species never grow more than 60 cm (2 ft) in length, with colors ranging from silver with an orange underside to almost completely black. These common fish have a deep body, a pointed belly, and large, usually blunt heads with strong jaws with sharp triangular teeth that converge in a scissor fashion.
      Piranhas live from northern Argentina to Colombia, but they are most diverse in the Amazon River, home to 20 different species. The most notorious is the red-bellied piranha ( Pygocentrus nattereri ), with the strongest jaws and sharpest teeth of all, this species, which can grow up to 50 cm (about 20 inches) in length, especially during dry periods, hunts in groups of over 100 people. Several groups can converge in frantic feeding if a large animal is attacked, although this is rare.Red-bellied piranhas prefer prey that is only slightly larger or smaller than themselves. Usually a group of red-bellied piranhas scatters in search of prey. Upon detection, the attacking scout signals to others. This is probably done acoustically, as the piranhas have excellent hearing, and everyone in the group rushes to grab a bite and then swims away to make room for the rest.
      Loottooth piranha ( P. denticulate ), which occurs mainly in the Orinoco River basin and tributaries of the lower Amazon, and the San Francisco piranha ( P.piraya ), a species native to San Francisco. The Francisco River in Brazil is also dangerous to humans. However, most piranha species never kill large animals, and piranha attacks on humans are rare. Although piranhas are attracted to the smell of blood, most species kill more than they kill. About 12 species, called slender piranhas (genus Catoprion ), survive solely by chunks ripped from the fins and scales of other fish, which then swim freely to heal completely …

      .

      10 most dangerous fish in the world

      Fish are some of the most beautiful creations of nature and are most likely considered one of the many species that live freely in any environment. But besides the fact that the fish are beautiful, they are also quite dangerous, let’s not forget about the giant and dangerous shark structures. We are all fans of the knowledge of unusual things, the knowledge of the secrets of nature and everything that is mysterious in it, instantly attracts our attention. Today we presented you a list of the 10 most deadly fish that live on our land, read and enjoy.

      We present you a list of the 10 most dangerous fish in the world.

      10. Electric eel

      You must have heard of them in science class at school, and many of you have wondered about their existence. Well, they really exist. And they not only exist, but, as the name suggests, exhibit a powerful electrical shock; Nature has endowed the corresponding creature with the ability to survive. According to its resources, the electric eel generates up to 600 volts of electric current, which is enough to kill a person or any other living creature.Undoubtedly, this is one of the deadliest fish in the world. In addition, the longest lifespan of an eel is around 150 years.

      9. Tigerfish

      As the name suggests, the Tigerfish is one of the most dangerous fish with razor-sharp teeth and the abilities of a real fighter and hunter. Commonly found in the Congo River and Lake Tanganyaka, Africa, tiger fish attack in flocks and feed on large animals. Two of the most famous tiger fish are the goliath tiger fish and the tiger fish, both of which are the largest of their species.

      Tiger fish is the most dangerous predator fish. The goliath tiger fish is the most famous tiger fish. He’s the biggest. According to official figures, he weighed 70 kg. Found in Africa.

      8. Gunchfish

      The gunch is found in the Kali River, which flows between India and Nepal. The fish belongs to the catfish family with dangerously sharp teeth and a length of more than seven feet. What makes guncha fish even more dangerous and terrifying is its awareness of the taste of human meat.An alarming number of disappearances and drowning in the Kali River are attributed to this giant man-eater. The guncha fish is also called the river monster. There are several known cases of Guncha attacking swimmers after he developed a taste for human flesh.

      7. Stonefish

      Stonefish is not only one of the most dangerous fish, but also one of the strangest sea creatures. unless you step on it.Stonefish are known as the most poisonous fish on Earth. The pain caused by his bite is incurable, and the victim has to suffer for hours. There is little disagreement about whether stonefish kills. While some believe that it is only pain, others argue that the poison can kill within two hours.

      6.Snaphead fish

      The snakehead fish is native to China, Russia and Korea, but can also find its way to other countries and their ecosystems.When it gets into any lake or pond, it eats up all living things in the water. After “cleaning” the water, he gets out on land and eats everything that gets in his way until he reaches another body of water. The snakehead is a valuable commercial fish, as well as one of the most dangerous fish in the world.

      5. Vandellia Cirrhosa

      Extremely dangerous fish on our list. The fish is the true and accurate embodiment of “size does not matter”, the fish is about 2.5 cm long and 3.5 mm wide and is also known as “toothpick fish”.Fish causes relatively enormous, and we do mean enormous disasters to humans. Vandellia is attracted to blood and urine as it draws from it its main food source, urea. The fish easily passes through the anus, vagina or penis and begins to suck blood, causing great pain to the victim. In many cases, amputation is the only cure for this, which is even more terrible. Read more about Candiru or Vandellia cirrhosa here.

      4. Piranha

      Remember the movie Piranha, in which the fish attack the beaches? Yes, we are talking about the same fish.The piranha’s origins are found in South America and Brazil. Like Vandellia Cirrhosa, the piranha is small in size and more dangerous. It is known for its poisonous bite power, as it instantly bites prey to the bone. As one of the deadliest fish, they are known for their sharp teeth as well as powerful jaws. Although piranhas are often referred to as one of the most dangerous fish in the world, they usually do not pose a serious threat to humans. However, some attacks have occurred.Piranhas attack a person, especially when they are in a stressful situation.

      3. Pufferfish

      Pufferfish is considered one of the most poisonous fish found to date. The poisonous reservoir of fish tetrodotoxin is found in the liver, ovaries, intestines and skin. Tetrodotoxin poison damages the brain and can cause weakness, paralysis and death even with minimal poison consumption, making this fish very dangerous. Most blowfish species are toxic and poisonous and pose a serious danger to humans.

      2. Box Jellyfish

      Box Jellyfish are different in many ways from other members of their family, as they have a more developed nervous system and a true pair of eyes. It has long flagella and deadly venom. According to sources, the venom of a box jellyfish can cause death within minutes, while its bite marks remain forever. Its venom attacks the heart as the victim has an extremely low heart rate.It is the deadliest and most dangerous fish in the world.

      1. Payara – the most dangerous fish

      Payara is also known as the “vampire fish” and is an even more dangerous and vicious predator than piranhas. It can grow up to four feet and is absolutely capable of hunting almost its own fish. size. Apart from sharp teeth and two front outer fangs, Payara is the only fish capable of devouring Piranhas, which indicates that they are more deadly than Piranhas.

      .

      Britain’s Most Dangerous Fish – Sea Angler

      If you are new to sea fishing, it is helpful to know the hidden dangers that can be found among British saltwater fish.

      There are a large number of fish species that can cause serious harm to humans.

      Any trauma caused by fish can lead to blood poisoning. The spines of some fish contain an anticoagulant that stops blood clotting or contains bacteria.

      Basically, you need to be careful when handling any fish you catch, and if you are unsure of which species, be extra careful.

      Some anglers wear gardening or filleting gloves for protection (pictured below).

      Here’s a guide on what to watch out for.

      Weaver: Small weaver is usually found on the beaches in summer. At first glance, it looks like a slight pout or blue whiting. Large weaver is a rarer deep-sea species. Both have venomous spines on the operculums and dorsal fin. The venom can cause severe pain and was fatal; the very young and old are at greatest risk.If you are stung, you should take a dip in the hottest water you can handle to kill the poison. The wound will swell. Get medical attention.

      DOG & FISH: Beware of leather, it is like sandpaper and can instantly peel your skin off if handled roughly. Grasp the saltwater fish by the head and tail with one hand to remove the hook. Dogfish also have sharp teeth, so use a degorger. Smooth hounds have hard bony plates, but no teeth.

      SPURDOG & TOPE: The Spurdog has sharp, bony spurs on the leading edges of its dorsal fins, and as it wriggles when held in its hands, they can inflict a nasty wound. Handle with care. Top is a mini shark with razor-sharp teeth. Wear gloves when handling larger fish and use a T-bar degasser to remove hooks. Never put your fingers to your mouth.

      SHARK: Very sharp teeth and rough skin are dangerous to hands, feet and fingers. Be very careful.

      BEAM OF STING: The spine, halfway to the tail of this ray, carries poison and has proved fatal. Be careful, because the stingray on the hook is whipping with its tail. If stung, seek medical attention.

      OTHER RAYS: Many have sharp thorns and thorns on their back, underside and tail, so handle them with care.Many anglers take this species by the nose or tail, but these areas also have many small spines that can peel the skin off your fingers, so always use gloves or a cloth. No teeth, but crushing plates, so fingers could be in danger from a large specimen.

      CLUTCH: All flounders have a sharp spike in the upper abdomen, near the gills.

      WRASSE, BREAM & SCAD: Various small thorns.

      PROTEIN: Small, razor-sharp teeth. The damage can go unnoticed until the worm’s juice gets into the wounds.

      BASS: Although the bass has a pointed dorsal fin, beware of razor-sharp gill edges. Handle with care. Take a small school bass by the mouth.

      KONGER’S EEL: He is not aggressive, but he has his jaws on his fingers, so remove the hooks with a degorger.

      TRIGGER FISH: There is a sharp spine on the dorsal fin. He has very sharp teeth. An aggressive look that will bite your finger if the opportunity presents itself.

      .

      7 most dangerous lizards and turtles in the world

      © Andrey Armagov / Fotolia

      For many, lizards and turtles are strange creatures. Many lizards are considered dangerous due to their seemingly expressionless faces combined with claws and teeth, while turtles are considered slow and obedient creatures.In fact, most lizards are harmless to humans, like most turtles; however, there are certain members of both groups who can kill, maim, cause illness, or inflict even mild pain on their unfortunate human victims. Some lizards are actually venomous, and some are quite aggressive.


      • Gila Monster (

        Heloderma suspectum )

        Gila Monster ( Heloderma suspectum ).

        Richard Weymouth Brooks / Photographic Researchers

        The Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum) was named after the Gila River Basin and is found in several US states: Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and New Mexico, as well as in the Mexican states of Sonora.and Sinaloa. It grows to about 50 cm (about 20 inches), a thick body with black and pink spots or stripes, and bead-like scales. These are the largest lizards in the United States.
        In warm weather, the Gila monster feeds on small mammals, birds and eggs at night. The fat that is deposited in the tail and abdomen at this time is used during the winter months. The large head and muscular jaws of the Gila monster give a strong bite that is held in place as the poison seeps into the wound. Many teeth have two grooves along which poison, nerve poison, leaves the glands of the lower jaw.Bites as well as deaths in humans are rare, and the last known report of death from a bite from the monster Gila came in 1939.

      • Snapping turtles (

        Chelydra serpentina and Macrochelys temminckii )

        Snapping turtles

        Common snapping turtle ( Chelydra serpentina ).

        Walter Dawn

        Snapping turtles are freshwater turtles (family Chelydridae) named for their bite method, which are known for their large size and aggressive nature.Snapping turtles are found throughout North America east of the Rocky Mountains and in pockets from Mexico and Central America to Ecuador. They are brown to black in color and have a rough upper shell, a small cruciform lower shell, a long tail, and a large head with hooked jaws.
        The common snapping turtle ( Chelydra serpentine ) is often found buried in silt in shallow water. He is omnivorous, although he prefers the prey of animals. Usually not aggressive in water; however, on land, it can lunge and break.The alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys (or sometimes Macroclemys ), temminckii , is the largest freshwater turtle in the United States. It is found in the southern and central regions and is a sedentary turtle with three protruding longitudinal ridges on the upper part of the shell. They can grow to a shell length of about 40-70 cm (16-28 inches), and their weight ranges from 18 to 70 kg (40 to 155 lb) with a record of around 100 kg! The alligator turtle has a vermiform appendix at the bottom of its mouth.Often he lies quietly on the bottom with his mouth open and with the help of this structure lures fish within reach. He also eats plants. Fossil tortoises have been found in Miocene sediments in Europe and North America.

      • Mexican beaded lizard (

        Heloderma horridum )

        Mexican beaded lizard © fivespots / Fotolia

        A closely related species, Mexican beaded lizard ( H. horridum [about 32 cm to ]) and darker than the Gil monster, but otherwise similar to it.This species inhabits most of the Pacific coast of Mexico from the border between the states of Sinaloa and Sonora south to the border of Mexico with Guatemala.
        The Mexican beaded lizard resembles the Gila monster in its habits. It relies on stored fats to help it survive the winter, and it also bites its enemies by pinching its jaws on its prey while its jagged teeth channel nerve poison into its victim’s wound. The bite is painful; however, no confirmed human deaths associated with this species have been reported.
        This species is part of the illegal international pet trade, and some Mexican beaded lizards are sold to pet distributors in the United States, Europe and Japan.

      • Iguanas (subfamily Iguaninae)

        Common iguana

        Common iguana ( Iguana iguana ).

        © Miroslav Hlavko / Shutterstock.com

        The most famous species of iguana is the common, or green, iguana ( Iguana iguana ), which is found from Mexico in the south to Brazil.Males of this species reach a maximum length of over 2 meters (6.6 ft) and 6 kg (13.2 lb). He can often be seen basking in the sun on tree branches overhanging the water, into which he can dive if disturbed. The common iguana is green with dark stripes forming rings on the tail; females are grayish green, their weight is about half that of males. Other genera include the West Indian iguana ( Cyclura ) and the desert iguana ( Dipsosaurus ) in the southwestern United States and Mexico.The Galapagos Islands are home to two genera: the marine iguana ( Amblyrhynchus ) and the terrestrial form ( Conolophus ). The latter genus includes the pink iguana ( C. rosada ), which lives on the slopes of Wolf Volcano on Isabela Island (Albemarle).
        Iguanas possess atrophied venom glands that produce mild, harmless venom and are common pets for gatherers of reptiles. However, iguanas have dozens of sharp, jagged teeth. Although relatively rare, bites can cause serious injuries to the face, fingers, wrists, and ankles.Some of the warning signs of an impending iguana strike include crawling on all fours, taking a deep breath to make the body appear larger, and dropping the animal’s suspension (a skin flap under the chin). However, some iguanas are known to attack without warning.

      • Wood Crocodile or Crocodile Monitor (

        Varanus salvadorii )

        Crocodile Monitor Cursed Senses – iStockphoto / Thinkstock

        Crocodile monitors found in New Guinea.Most of them prefer the lowlands of the island near the coast, some of them live in highlands up to 650 meters (about 2,100 feet) above sea level. They are mainly painted black with spots of green, yellow or white. Crocodile monitors weigh up to 90 kg (almost 200 lb). Although the Komodo dragon ( V. komodoensis ) is larger in weight, adult crocodile thieves are longer, reaching 5 meters in length from snout to tail.
        Crocodile thieves are sometimes hunted for meat and leather, from which clothing and drum records are made.Crocodile crocodiles are known for their very aggressive activities, so hunting them is considered risky, so most of the prey is associated with trapping them in traps intended for other animals.

      • Plain or Malay Water Monitor (

        Varanus salvator )

        Water Monitor Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Bay of Bengal and South China Sea from Sri Lanka through southern China Like other monitor lizards, the Malay water monitor has an elongated head and neck, a relatively heavy body, a long tail, and well-developed legs.Their tongues are long, forked and snake-like, and adults can grow up to 2.7 meters (9 feet).
        Common aquatic monitor lizards are carnivorous and often feed on large insects and spiders, other lizards, small mammals, fish, molluscs and birds. These lizards do not surprise their prey; they actively stalk their prey by swimming, climbing or running after it. They also eat carrion and human corpses, which are known to dig up and devour. People hunted this species for food and their skins, which are used in traditional medicine and in leather goods.
        People who have been bitten by ordinary water heaters can be injected with poison, which has a mild but not fatal effect, and also be exposed to infectious bacteria. This monitor can also use its whip-like tail and sharp claws as weapons. While there are some reports of people dying as a result of attacks by large people, they are probably not true.

      • Komodo dragon (

        Varanus komodoensis )

        Komodo dragon © mgkuijpers / Fotolia

        Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard.The dragon is a monitor lizard from the Varanidae family. It is found on the island of Komodo and several neighboring islands of the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia. Popular interest in the large size of lizards and their predatory habits allowed this endangered species to become an ecotourism target, which contributed to its protection.
        The lizard grows to 3 meters (10 feet) in length and weighs about 135 kg (about 300 lbs). It digs a hole up to 9 meters deep and lays eggs, which hatch in April or May. Newly hatched juveniles, approximately 45 cm (18 in) long, live in the trees for several months.Adult Komodo dragons eat smaller members of their own species, and sometimes other adults as well.
        However, they can run fast enough to attack and kill people. (A number of attacks on the humans of Komodo dragons, both wild and captive, were reported between 2000 and 2014; carrion, however, is their staple food, although they usually wait along the paths to ambush pigs, deer and cattle: They rarely have to catch live prey directly, as their venomous bite releases toxins that prevent blood clotting.It is believed that their victims go into shock from the rapid blood loss. Some herpetologists note that physical trauma from the bite and the ingress of bacteria from the mouth of the Komodo dragon into the wound also play a role in slowing and killing prey. Komodo dragons often find their prey in the process of death or shortly after death.

      .

    Marine Cavities – Online Presentation

    Author: Karagulyan O.V.
    Biology teacher MOU
    School No. 1, Odintsovo
    Intestinal – the most ancient of
    real multicellular animals.
    Cavities have occurred from
    ancient colonial protozoa.
    Currently in type
    Intestinal, there are 9000
    species of animals.
    Development of modern multicellular organisms
    animals comes from one cage
    (eggs)
    Hydra digestive cells have
    flagella and pseudopods
    The germ cells of the hydra are similar in shape to
    unicellular organisms: egg
    – for amoeba, sperm – for
    flagellate.
    Grade Hydroid
    Coral polyps class
    Class Scyphoid jellyfish
    2800 species
    Habitat:
    -slow
    current fresh
    bodies of water
    – bottom part
    seas
    Representatives:
    Freshwater Hydras: Marine
    hydroid polyps
    Hydroid jellyfish
    Mixed Hydroids
    (siphonophores)

    8.MARINE HYDROID POLYPES

    9. HYDROID Jellyfish

    Hydroid Jellyfish
    breeding
    sexually,
    releasing into water
    germ cells
    Hydroid Jellyfish
    Bougainvillia
    (increased 3 times)
    LIFE FORMS
    POLYPNAYA
    (POLY BASIC)
    MEDUZNAYA
    (SHORT-TERM)
    LIFESTYLE
    SEATED
    FLOAT

    11. MIXED HYDROID POLYPS (SIPHONOPHORS)

    “Portuguese military
    boat “
    The most beautiful
    representatives
    siphonophore indisputably
    are physalia.Body
    Physalia consists of
    big bubble,
    which reaches
    sometimes the values ​​
    baby head, and
    swimming post.

    200 kinds
    Habitat: seas
    Representatives:
    jellyfish:
    eared jellyfish aurelia
    ropilema
    polar jellyfish cyanea

    13. MEDUSA

    This is a life form
    some
    coelenterates
    animals, in life
    cycle of some species
    alternating with a polyp.
    Leads actively
    floating lifestyle
    (movement on
    reactive principle).
    MEDUSA
    6000 species
    Habitat: bottom of the seas (from
    coastal part to great depths)
    Representatives: sea anemones, corals
    single (red, pink, black)
    and colonial madripor corals
    There are
    in the world
    about 200 types
    Jewelry
    corals, although they have
    very dense skeleton,
    do not participate in
    the formation of reefs.
    Jewelry black
    corals occur
    small groups
    in tropical seas
    at a depth of 30-80 m. There are
    colonies are similar to
    bushes or pieces
    wire.
    Red noble
    coral skeleton contains
    iron oxide, which is
    gives it different
    shades of red.
    Colonies of nobles
    corals live on
    coastal slopes
    Mediterranean and near
    Canary Islands at
    deeper than 20 m
    (usually – from 50 to 150 m).
    One of the effective
    protective equipment – female
    tights that once
    used by rescuers at
    surfing competition in
    Queensland, Australia.
    The most poisonous jellyfish
    worldwide – Australian
    sea ​​wasp (Chironex
    fleckeri). After
    touching her
    tentacles man
    dies in 1-3min,
    if not arrive in time
    health care.
    Poison paralyzes
    heart muscle.
    Consequences extremely
    serious: paralysis to
    death, hemorrhage in
    brain or cardiac arrest
    Killer Medusa
    Carukia barnesi,
    possessing
    deadly sting,
    has a dome length of
    total 12
    millimeters.B
    within sacrifice hour
    experiencing strong
    back pain,
    lumbago all over
    body, convulsions,
    nausea, vomiting,
    sweat profusely and
    cough.
    Within 15-20 minutes
    after chirping
    there is a sensation
    suffocation (especially
    difficulty exhaling), pain in
    lower back, joints
    limbs. Go Numb
    fingers,
    appears
    shortness of breath, chest tightness.
    The acute period lasts 4-5
    days, and then the phenomena are
    decrease and disappear without
    any consequences.
    Contact with small
    Far Eastern jellyfish cross
    (Gonionemus vertens)
    may cost bather
    life.
    False fire
    corals (Millepora)
    (hydroid polyp),
    who may
    seriously
    injure the skin
    when touched.
    Often after burns

    are formed on the skin
    long non-healing
    ulcers.
    Physalia poison is similar to poison
    cobras, resistant to
    drying and
    freeze,
    beached
    siphonophores save
    ability to sting
    anyone who joins them
    touches, and the tentacles,
    lying during
    six years in the refrigerator,
    perfectly preserved their
    toxic properties.For
    human poison siphonophores
    extremely dangerous.

    28. Homework

    Paragraph 14, answer questions 1 – 3 in
    end of paragraph

    Presentation on “Marine coelenterates”

    Presentation on theme: Marine coelenterates

    Download this presentation

    Download this presentation

    Slide No. 1

    Slide Description:

    Work performed by: 7th grade student of FML Afanasyeva Anastasia 900igr.net

    Slide No. 2

    Slide Description:

    The origin of the intestinal cavity The main classes of the intestinal cavity: Class Hydroids Class Coral polyps Class Scyphoid jellyfish The value of intestinal Cavities Interesting facts

    Slide No. 3

    Slide Description:

    All classes of Intestinal cavities are known from the Precambrian (more than 600 million years). The coelenterates are considered an ancient group, close to the ancestors of all multicellular animals.

    Slide No. 4

    Slide Description:

    Hydroid polyps should probably be considered the initial form. Subsequently, evolution followed the path of the loss of the polypoid stage (in scyphomedusa) or the medusoid stage (in corals).

    Slide No. 5

    Slide Description:

    Due to the predominance of the remains of jellyfish, the end of the Proterozoic is called the “age of jellyfish” (about 700 million years ago). Since then, jellyfish is one of the most numerous predators on Earth.

    Slide No. 6

    Slide Description:

    2800 species Habitat: – slow flowing fresh water bodies – bottom part of the seas

    Slide No. 7

    Slide Description:

    LIFE FORMS POLYPSE (POLYPSE BASIC) MEDUSAL (SHORT-TERM) LIFESTYLE SEATED FLOATING

    Slide No. 8

    Slide Description:

    Representatives: Freshwater hydras: common stalked, brown, green Marine hydroid polyps: Hydroid jellyfish Mixed hydroids (siphonophores)

    Slide No. 9

    Slide Description:

    FRESHWATER HYDRA Found in lakes, rivers or ponds with clean, clear water, on the roots of duckweed, stems and leaves of other aquatic plants in ponds and rivers

    Slide No. 10

    Slide Description:

    MARINE HYDROID POLYPS Many hydroids look like openwork twigs.

    Slide No. 11

    Slide Description:

    HYDROID Jellyfish Bougainvillia hydroid jellyfish (increased 3 times). Hydroid jellyfish reproduce sexually, releasing sex cells into the water.

    Slide No. 12

    Slide Description:

    MIXED HYDROID POLYPS (SIPHONOPHORS) The most beautiful representatives of siphonophores are undoubtedly the physalia. Physalia’s body consists of a large bladder, which sometimes reaches the size of a child’s head, and a swimming column.”Portuguese military boat”

    Slide No. 13

    Slide Description:

    6000 species Habitat: bottom of the seas (from the coastal part to great depths) Representatives: sea anemones, solitary corals (red, pink, black) and colonial madripor corals

    Slide No. 14

    Slide Description:

    Distributed in the seas from the Arctic to the Antarctic.

    Slide No. 15

    Slide Description:

    Several species of anemones build houses from slime and sand.They are called “tubular anemones”. Like other anemones, they feed on small animals that touch their sticky and stinging tentacles

    Slide No. 16

    Slide Description:

    Slide No. 17

    Slide Description:

    Jewelry corals, although they have a very dense skeleton, do not participate in the formation of reefs. Jeweled black corals are found in small groups in tropical seas at a depth of 30-80 m. Their colonies look like bushes or pieces of wire.There are about 200 species in the world.

    Slide No. 18

    Slide Description:

    The skeleton of red noble coral contains iron oxide, which gives it different shades of red. Colonies of noble corals live on the coastal slopes of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands at a depth of more than 20 m (usually from 50 to 150 m).

    Slide No. 19

    Slide Description:

    200 species Habitat: seas Representatives: jellyfish: eared jellyfish aurelia Ropilema polar jellyfish cyanea

    Slide No. 20

    Slide Description:

    MEDUSA This is the life form of some coelenterates; in the life cycle of some species it alternates with a polyp.Leads an active swimming lifestyle (movement according to the reactive principle).

    Slide No. 21

    Slide Description:

    She is always devoid of a skeleton, has developed mesogleia, organs of balance and light-sensitive organs that allow her to orient herself in space. MEDUSA

    Slide No. 22

    Slide Description:

    May be poisonous Form coral reefs Form symbiosis with other species of animals Used to make jewelry May reduce the number of fish Serves as food for other species of fish

    Slide No. 23

    Slide Description:

    The most poisonous jellyfish in the world is the Australian sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri).After touching its tentacles, a person dies in 1-3 minutes, unless medical assistance arrives in time. The poison paralyzes the heart muscle. One effective remedy is women’s tights, which were once used by lifeguards at a surfing competition in Queensland, Australia.

    Slide No. 24

    Slide Description:

    Carukia barnesi, a killer jellyfish with a deadly sting, has a dome length of only 12 millimeters. Within an hour, the victims experience severe back pain, lumbago all over the body, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, sweating and coughing profusely.The consequences are extremely serious: from paralysis to death, cerebral hemorrhage or cardiac arrest

    Slide No. 25

    Slide Description:

    Within 15-20 minutes after chirping, there is a feeling of suffocation (exhalation is especially difficult), pain in the lower back, in the joints of the extremities. Fingers go numb, shortness of breath appears, chest tightness. The acute period lasts 4-5 days, and then the phenomena subside and disappear without any consequences. Contact with a small Far Eastern cross jellyfish (Gonionemus vertens) can cost a bather his life.

    Slide No. 26

    Slide Description:

    False fire corals (Millepora) (hydroid polyp), which can severely injure the skin when touched. Often, after burns, long-lasting ulcers form on the skin.

    Slide No. 27

    Slide Description:

    Physalia poison is similar to cobra venom, resistant to drying and freezing, siphonophores thrown ashore retain the ability to sting anyone who touches them, and the tentacles that have been lying in the refrigerator for six years perfectly retained their toxic properties.For humans, the poison of a siphonophore is extremely dangerous.

    Slide No. 28

    Slide Description:

    Certain groups of coral polyps, such as madrepore, horn corals and sea feathers, live mainly in the tropics and subtropics, where they form entire underwater gardens, striking with the beauty of shapes and colors, and coral reefs.

    Slide No. 29

    Slide Description:

    This is scyphomedusa, which in Latin is called “Cassiopeia”, after the Ethiopian queen from Greek myths, but in Hebrew and English she is called “cauliflower”.In a normal state, the cassiopeia lies in the sand, well, if not “upside down”, then at least “upside down”, and catches plankton with short thick tentacles. This jellyfish has learned to grow symbiotic algae in its body.

    Slide No. 30

    Slide Description:

    Symbiosis of anemones and clown fish

    Slide No. 31

    Slide Description:

    Slide No. 32

    Slide Description:

    Slide No. 33

    Slide Description:

    By examining shoals of herring spawning off the coast of British Columbia, biologists found that in one day, crystal jellyfish ate all herring offspring.In addition, jellyfish harm fish and the fact that they devour their food

    Slide No. 34

    Slide Description:

    Among the main enemies of jellyfish are tuna, sea turtles, ocean moonfish and some ocean birds. Salmon is not averse to jellyfish either.

    Slide No. 35

    Slide Description:

    Medusa colobonema Colobonema sericeum discards tentacles, and she has 32.

    Slide No. 36

    Slide Description:

    The largest jellyfish in the world is considered to be the Arctic giant jellyfish (Cyanea), which lives in the Northwest Atlantic.One of these jellyfish, washed ashore in the Massachusetts Bay, had a bell diameter of 2.28 m, and its tentacles extended to 36.5 m.Each jellyfish eats about 15 thousand fish during its life

    Slide No. 37

    Slide Description:

    Extreme jellyfish Lake Mogilnoe on Kildin Island near the Kola Bay is unique: sea water seeps into it. Sea water and fresh water do not mix due to their different density. From the surface to a depth of 5-6 m there is a layer of fresh water, and below, up to 12 m, there is a layer of sea water, in which jellyfish, cod, and crustaceans live.Even deeper is the layer of water contaminated with hydrogen sulfide, in which there are no animals.

    Slide No. 38

    Slide Description:

    Since September, thousands of giant jellyfish, over a meter in size and weighing about 100 kilograms, have been observed off the coast of the city of Echizen (Fukui Prefecture). They can reach up to 5 meters in length, have poisonous tentacles, but are not fatal to humans. Their migration to the Sea of ​​Japan is associated with an increase in water temperature.

    Slide No. 39

    Slide Description:

    As a result of advances in genetic engineering, it became possible to insert a gene into the genome of a potato plant.