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Is boron safe: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Abbas, D. K., Thrane, P., and Othman, S. J. Effectiveness of Veadent as a plaque-inhibiting mouthwash. Scand J Dent.Res 1985;93(6):494-497. View abstract.

Affleck, A. G. and Varma, S. A case of do-it-yourself Mohs’ surgery using bloodroot obtained from the internet. Br.J Dermatol 2007;157(5):1078-1079. View abstract.

Fukuda, R., Hirode, M., Mori, I., Chatani, F., Morishima, H., and Mayahara, H. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 24). Testicular toxicity of boric acid after 2- and 4-week administration periods. J Toxicol Sci 2000;25 Spec No:233-239. View abstract.

Garabrant, D. H., Bernstein, L., Peters, J. M., and Smith, T. J. Respiratory and eye irritation from boron oxide and boric acid dusts. J Occup Med 1984;26(8):584-586. View abstract.

Goldbloom RB and Goldbloom A. Boron acid poisoning: report of four cases and a review of 109 cases from the world literature. J Pediatrics 1953;43(6):631-643.

Hunt, C. D. The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 7:35-43. View abstract.

Hunt, C. D., Herbel, J. L., and Idso, J. P. Dietary boron modifies the effects of vitamin D3 nutrition on indices of energy substrate utilization and mineral metabolism in the chick. J Bone Miner.Res 1994;9(2):171-182. View abstract.

Hunt, C. D., Herbel, J. L., and Nielsen, F. H. Metabolic responses of postmenopausal women to supplemental dietary boron and aluminum during usual and low magnesium intake: boron, calcium, and magnesium absorption and retention and blood mineral concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(3):803-813. View abstract.

Ishii, Y., Fujizuka, N., Takahashi, T., Shimizu, K., Tuchida, A., Yano, S., Naruse, T., and Chishiro, T. A fatal case of acute boric acid poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1993;31(2):345-352. View abstract.

Jansen, J. A., Andersen, J., and Schou, J. S. Boric acid single dose pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration to man. Arch.Toxicol. 1984;55(1):64-67. View abstract.

Lee, I. P., Sherins, R. J., and Dixon, R. L. Evidence for induction of germinal aplasia in male rats by environmental exposure to boron. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 1978;45(2):577-590. View abstract.

Limaye, S. and Weightman, W. Effect of an ointment containing boric acid, zinc oxide, starch and petrolatum on psoriasis. Australas.J Dermatol. 1997;38(4):185-186. View abstract.

Linden, C. H., Hall, A. H., Kulig, K. W., and Rumack, B. H. Acute ingestions of boric acid. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1986;24(4):269-279. View abstract.

Litovitz, T. L., Klein-Schwartz, W., Oderda, G. M., and Schmitz, B. F. Clinical manifestations of toxicity in a series of 784 boric acid ingestions. Am J Emerg.Med 1988;6(3):209-213. View abstract.

Murray, F. J. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water. Regul.Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995;22(3):221-230. View abstract.

Newnham RE. The role of boron in human nutrition. J Applied Nutrition 1994;46(3):81-85.

Nielsen FH and Penland JG. Boron supplementation of peri-menopausal women affects boron metabolism and indices associated with macromineral metabolism, hormonal status and immune function. J Trace Elements Experimental Med 1999;12(3):251-261.

Orley, J. Nystatin versus boric acid powder in vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 12-15-1982;144(8):992-993. View abstract.

Prutting, S. M. and Cerveny, J. D. Boric acid vaginal suppositories: a brief review. Infect.Dis Obstet.Gynecol. 1998;6(4):191-194. View abstract.

Restuccio, A., Mortensen, M. E., and Kelley, M. T. Fatal ingestion of boric acid in an adult. Am J Emerg.Med 1992;10(6):545-547. View abstract.

Shinohara, Y. T. and Tasker, S. A. Successful use of boric acid to control azole-refractory Candida vaginitis in a woman with AIDS. J Acquir. Immune.Defic.Syndr.Hum.Retrovirol. 11-1-1997;16(3):219-220. View abstract.

Travers RL and Rennie GC. Clinical trial: boron and arthritis. The results of a double blind pilot study. Townsend Lett Doctors 1990;360-362.

Travers RL, Rennie GC, and Newnham RE. Boron and arthritis: the results of a double-blind pilot study. J Nutritional Med 1990;1:127-132.

Valdes-Dapena MA and Arey JB. Boric acid poisoning. J Pediatr 1962;61:531-546.

Van Slyke, K. K., Michel, V. P., and Rein, M. F. The boric acid powder treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. J Am Coll.Health Assoc 1981;30(3):107-109. View abstract.

Wallace, J. M., Hannon-Fletcher, M. P., Robson, P. J., Gilmore, W. S., Hubbard, S. A., and Strain, J. J. Boron supplementation and activated factor VII in healthy men. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1102-1107. View abstract.

Woods, W. G. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry. Environ.Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 7:5-11. View abstract.

Acs N, Banhidy F, Puho E, Czeizel AE. Teratogenic effects of vaginal boric acid treatment during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006;93:55-6. View abstract.

Aysan E, Idiz UO, Elmas L, Saglam EK, Akgun Z, Yucel SB. Effects of boron-based gel on radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Invest Surg 2017;30(3):187-192. doi: 10.1080/08941939.2016.1232449. View abstract.

Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2007;30:829-34. View abstract.

Di Renzo F, Cappelletti G, Broccia ML, et al. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: a suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity. Appl Pharmacol 2007;220:178-85. View abstract.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.

Green NR, Ferrando AA. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:73-7. View abstract.

Guaschino S, De Seta F, Sartore A, et al. Efficacy of maintenance therapy with topical boric acid in comparison with oral itraconazole in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:598-602. View abstract.

Heindel JJ, Price CJ, Field EA, et al. Developmental toxicity of boric acid in mice and rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1992;18:266-77. View abstract.

Hjelm C, Harari F, Vahter M. Pre- and postnatal environmental boron exposure and infant growth: results from a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina. Environ Res 2019;171:60-8. View abstract.

Jovanovic R, Congema E, Nguyen HT. Antifungal agents vs. boric acid for treating chronic mycotic vulvovaginitis. J Reprod Med 1991;36:593-7. View abstract.

Kuru R, Yilmaz S, Balan G, et al. Boron-rich diet may regulate blood lipid profile and prevent obesity: a non-drug and self-controlled clinical trial. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019;54:191-8. View abstract.

Makela P, Leaman D, Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal trichosporonosis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2003;11:131-3. View abstract.

Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:341-5. View abstract.

Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effects of boron supplementation on bone mineral density and dietary, blood, and urinary calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and boron in female athletes. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102(Suppl 7):79-82. View abstract.

Naghii MR, Samman S. The effect of boron supplementation on its urinary excretion and selected cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;56:273-86. View abstract.

Newnham RE. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:83-5. View abstract.

Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JR. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1987;1:394-7. View abstract.

Nielsen FH. Biochemical and physiologic consequences of boron deprivation in humans. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:59-63.. View abstract.

Nikkhah S, Dolatian M, Naghii MR, Zaeri F, Taheri SM. Effects of boron supplementation on the severity and duration of pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2015;21(2):79-83. View abstract.

Penland JG. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:65-72. View abstract.

Rein MF. Current therapy of vulvovaginitis. Sex Transm Dis 1981;8:316-20. View abstract.

Ringdahl EN. Treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am Fam Physician 2000;61:3306-12, 3317. View abstract.

Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.

Singh S, Sobel JD, Bhargava P, et al. Vaginitis due to Candida krusei: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1066-70. View abstract.

Sobel JD, Chaim W, Nagappan V, Leaman D. Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1297-300. View abstract.

Sobel JD, Chaim W. Treatment of Torulopsis glabrata vaginitis: retrospective review of boric acid therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:649-52. View abstract.

Swate TE, Weed JC. Boric acid treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Obstet Gynecol 1974;43:893-5. View abstract.

Thai L, Hart LL. Boric acid vaginal suppositories. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1355-7. View abstract.

Usuda K, Kono K, Iguchi K, et al. Hemodialysis effect on serum boron level in the patients with long term hemodialysis. Sci Total Environ 1996;191:283-90. View abstract.

Van Kessel K, Assefi N, Marrazzo J, Eckert L. Common complementary and alternative therapies for yeast vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003;58:351-8. View abstract.

Van Slyke KK, Michel VP, Rein MF. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:145-8. View abstract.

Volpe SL, Taper LJ, Meacham S. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review. Magnes Res 1993;6:291-6.. View abstract.

Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, Dose, Precautions & Warnings

Banner, W., Jr., Koch, M., Capin, D. M., Hopf, S. B., Chang, S., and Tong, T. G. Experimental chelation therapy in chromium, lead, and boron intoxication with N-acetylcysteine and other compounds. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 3-30-1986;83(1):142-147. View abstract.

Barranco, W. T. and Eckhert, C. D. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Lett 12-8-2004;216(1):21-29. View abstract.

Beattie, J. H. and Peace, H. S. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 1993;69(3):871-884. View abstract.

Benevolenskaia, L. I., Toroptsova, N. V., Nikitinskaia, O. A., Sharapova, E. P., Korotkova, T. A., Rozhinskaia, L. I., Marova, E. I., Dzeranova, L. K., Molitvoslovova, N. N., Men’shikova, L. V., Grudinina, O. V., Lesniak, O. M., Evstigneeva, L. P., Smetnik, V. P., Shestakova, I. G., and Kuznetsov, S. I. [Vitrum osteomag in prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results of the comparative open multicenter trial]. Ter.Arkh. 2004;76(11):88-93. View abstract.

Biquet I, Collette J, Dauphin JF, and et al. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by administration of boron. Osteoporos Int 1996;6 Suppl 1:249.

Burnham, B. S. Synthesis and pharmacological activities of amine-boranes. Curr Med Chem 2005;12(17):1995-2010. View abstract.

Chao, T. C., Maxwell, S. M., and Wong, S. Y. An outbreak of aflatoxicosis and boric acid poisoning in Malaysia: a clinicopathological study. J Pathol 1991;164(3):225-233. View abstract.

Chapin, R. E. and Ku, W. W. The reproductive toxicity of boric acid. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 7:87-91. View abstract.

Chebassier, N., El Houssein, O., Viegas, I., and Dreno, B. In vitro induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in keratinocytes by boron and manganese. Exp Dermatol 2004;13(8):484-490. View abstract.

Chebassier, N., Ouijja, el H., Viegas, I., and Dreno, B. Stimulatory effect of boron and manganese salts on keratinocyte migration. Acta Derm.Venereol 2004;84(3):191-194. View abstract.

Chung, M. K., Lee, H., Mizuno, A., Suzuki, M., and Caterina, M. J. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate activates and sensitizes the heat-gated ion channel TRPV3. J Neurosci. 6-2-2004;24(22):5177-5182. View abstract.

Enfissi, A., Prigent, S., Colosetti, P., and Capiod, T. The blocking of capacitative calcium entry by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate (2-APB) and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) inhibits proliferation in Hep G2 and Huh-7 human hepatoma cells. Cell Calcium 2004;36(6):459-467. View abstract.

Fukuda, R., Hirode, M., Mori, I., Chatani, F., Morishima, H., and Mayahara, H. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 24). Testicular toxicity of boric acid after 2- and 4-week administration periods. J Toxicol Sci 2000;25 Spec No:233-239. View abstract.

Garabrant, D. H., Bernstein, L., Peters, J. M., and Smith, T. J. Respiratory and eye irritation from boron oxide and boric acid dusts. J Occup Med 1984;26(8):584-586. View abstract.

Goldbloom RB and Goldbloom A. Boron acid poisoning: report of four cases and a review of 109 cases from the world literature. J Pediatrics 1953;43(6):631-643.

Gordon, A. S., Prichard, J. S., and Freedman, M. H. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication. Can Med Assoc J 3-17-1973;108(6):719-721. View abstract.

Hunt, C. D. The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 7:35-43. View abstract.

Hunt, C. D., Herbel, J. L., and Idso, J. P. Dietary boron modifies the effects of vitamin D3 nutrition on indices of energy substrate utilization and mineral metabolism in the chick. J Bone Miner.Res 1994;9(2):171-182. View abstract.

Hunt, C. D., Herbel, J. L., and Nielsen, F. H. Metabolic responses of postmenopausal women to supplemental dietary boron and aluminum during usual and low magnesium intake: boron, calcium, and magnesium absorption and retention and blood mineral concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(3):803-813. View abstract.

Ishii, Y., Fujizuka, N., Takahashi, T., Shimizu, K., Tuchida, A., Yano, S., Naruse, T., and Chishiro, T. A fatal case of acute boric acid poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1993;31(2):345-352. View abstract.

Jansen, J. A., Andersen, J., and Schou, J. S. Boric acid single dose pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration to man. Arch.Toxicol. 1984;55(1):64-67. View abstract.

Kageji, T., Nagahiro, S., Uyama, S., Mizobuchi, Y., Toi, H., Nakamura, M., and Nakagawa, Y. Histopathological findings in autopsied glioblastoma patients treated by mixed neutron beam BNCT. J Neurooncol. 2004;68(1):25-32. View abstract.

Kouri, M., Kankaanranta, L., Seppala, T., Tervo, L., Rasilainen, M., Minn, H., Eskola, O., Vahatalo, J., Paetau, A., Savolainen, S., Auterinen, I., Jaaskelainen, J., and Joensuu, H. Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma may respond to single-fraction boron neutron capture therapy. Radiother.Oncol 2004;72(1):83-85. View abstract.

Lee, I. P., Sherins, R. J., and Dixon, R. L. Evidence for induction of germinal aplasia in male rats by environmental exposure to boron. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 1978;45(2):577-590. View abstract.

Limaye, S. and Weightman, W. Effect of an ointment containing boric acid, zinc oxide, starch and petrolatum on psoriasis. Australas.J Dermatol. 1997;38(4):185-186. View abstract.

Linden, C. H., Hall, A. H., Kulig, K. W., and Rumack, B. H. Acute ingestions of boric acid. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1986;24(4):269-279. View abstract.

Litovitz, T. L., Klein-Schwartz, W., Oderda, G. M., and Schmitz, B. F. Clinical manifestations of toxicity in a series of 784 boric acid ingestions. Am J Emerg.Med 1988;6(3):209-213. View abstract.

Miggiano, G. A. and Gagliardi, L. [Diet, nutrition and bone health]. Clin Ter. 2005;156(1-2):47-56. View abstract.

Miljkovic, D., Miljkovic, N., and McCarty, M. F. Up-regulatory impact of boron on vitamin D function — does it reflect inhibition of 24-hydroxylase? Med Hypotheses 2004;63(6):1054-1056. View abstract.

Murray, F. J. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water. Regul.Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995;22(3):221-230. View abstract.

Newnham RE. The role of boron in human nutrition. J Applied Nutrition 1994;46(3):81-85.

Nielsen FH and Penland JG. Boron supplementation of peri-menopausal women affects boron metabolism and indices associated with macromineral metabolism, hormonal status and immune function. J Trace Elements Experimental Med 1999;12(3):251-261.

O’Sullivan, K. and Taylor, M. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants. Arch Dis.Child 1983;58(9):737-739. View abstract.

Orley, J. Nystatin versus boric acid powder in vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 12-15-1982;144(8):992-993. View abstract.

Pahl, M. V., Culver, B. D., and Vaziri, N. D. Boron and the kidney. J Ren Nutr 2005;15(4):362-370. View abstract.

Prutting, S. M. and Cerveny, J. D. Boric acid vaginal suppositories: a brief review. Infect.Dis Obstet.Gynecol. 1998;6(4):191-194. View abstract.

Rainey, C. J., Nyquist, L. A., Christensen, R. E., Strong, P. L., Culver, B. D., and Coughlin, J. R. Daily boron intake from the American diet. J Am Diet.Assoc 1999;99(3):335-340. View abstract.

Restuccio, A., Mortensen, M. E., and Kelley, M. T. Fatal ingestion of boric acid in an adult. Am J Emerg.Med 1992;10(6):545-547. View abstract.

Schillinger, B. M., Berstein, M., Goldberg, L. A., and Shalita, A. R. Boric acid poisoning. J Am Acad.Dermatol. 1982;7(5):667-673. View abstract.

Shinohara, Y. T. and Tasker, S. A. Successful use of boric acid to control azole-refractory Candida vaginitis in a woman with AIDS. J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr.Hum.Retrovirol. 11-1-1997;16(3):219-220. View abstract.

Tangermann, R. H., Etzel, R. A., Mortimer, L., Penner, G. D., and Paschal, D. C. An outbreak of a food-related illness resembling boric acid poisoning. Arch Environ.Contam Toxicol 1992;23(1):142-144. View abstract.

Travers RL and Rennie GC. Clinical trial: boron and arthritis. The results of a double blind pilot study. Townsend Lett Doctors 1990;360-362.

Travers RL, Rennie GC, and Newnham RE. Boron and arthritis: the results of a double-blind pilot study. J Nutritional Med 1990;1:127-132.

Valdes-Dapena MA and Arey JB. Boric acid poisoning. J Pediatr 1962;61:531-546.

Van Slyke, K. K., Michel, V. P., and Rein, M. F. The boric acid powder treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. J Am Coll.Health Assoc 1981;30(3):107-109. View abstract.

Wallace, J. M., Hannon-Fletcher, M. P., Robson, P. J., Gilmore, W. S., Hubbard, S. A., and Strain, J. J. Boron supplementation and activated factor VII in healthy men. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1102-1107. View abstract.

Woods, W. G. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry. Environ.Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 7:5-11. View abstract.

Acs N, Banhidy F, Puho E, Czeizel AE. Teratogenic effects of vaginal boric acid treatment during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006;93:55-6. View abstract.

Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2007;30:829-34. View abstract.

Di Renzo F, Cappelletti G, Broccia ML, et al. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: a suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity. Appl Pharmacol 2007;220:178-85. View abstract.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.

Green NR, Ferrando AA. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:73-7. View abstract.

Guaschino S, De Seta F, Sartore A, et al. Efficacy of maintenance therapy with topical boric acid in comparison with oral itraconazole in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:598-602. View abstract.

Heindel JJ, Price CJ, Field EA, et al. Developmental toxicity of boric acid in mice and rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1992;18:266-77. View abstract.

Jovanovic R, Congema E, Nguyen HT. Antifungal agents vs. boric acid for treating chronic mycotic vulvovaginitis. J Reprod Med 1991;36:593-7. View abstract.

Makela P, Leaman D, Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal trichosporonosis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2003;11:131-3. View abstract.

Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:341-5. View abstract.

Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effects of boron supplementation on bone mineral density and dietary, blood, and urinary calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and boron in female athletes. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102(Suppl 7):79-82. View abstract.

Naghii MR, Samman S. The effect of boron supplementation on its urinary excretion and selected cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;56:273-86. View abstract.

Newnham RE. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:83-5. View abstract.

Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JR. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1987;1:394-7. View abstract.

Nielsen FH. Biochemical and physiologic consequences of boron deprivation in humans. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:59-63.. View abstract.

Penland JG. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:65-72. View abstract.

Rein MF. Current therapy of vulvovaginitis. Sex Transm Dis 1981;8:316-20. View abstract.

Ringdahl EN. Treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am Fam Physician 2000;61:3306-12, 3317. View abstract.

Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.

Singh S, Sobel JD, Bhargava P, et al. Vaginitis due to Candida krusei: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1066-70. View abstract.

Sobel JD, Chaim W, Nagappan V, Leaman D. Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1297-300. View abstract.

Sobel JD, Chaim W. Treatment of Torulopsis glabrata vaginitis: retrospective review of boric acid therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:649-52. View abstract.

Swate TE, Weed JC. Boric acid treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Obstet Gynecol 1974;43:893-5. View abstract.

Thai L, Hart LL. Boric acid vaginal suppositories. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1355-7. View abstract.

Usuda K, Kono K, Iguchi K, et al. Hemodialysis effect on serum boron level in the patients with long term hemodialysis. Sci Total Environ 1996;191:283-90. View abstract.

Van Kessel K, Assefi N, Marrazzo J, Eckert L. Common complementary and alternative therapies for yeast vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003;58:351-8. View abstract.

Van Slyke KK, Michel VP, Rein MF. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:145-8. View abstract.

Volpe SL, Taper LJ, Meacham S. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review. Magnes Res 1993;6:291-6.. View abstract.

Boron: MedlinePlus Supplements

When taken by mouth: Boron is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in doses that don’t exceed 20 mg per day. Boron is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in higher doses. There is some concern that doses over 20 mg per day might harm a man’s ability to father a child. Large quantities of boron can also cause poisoning. Signs of poisoning include skin inflammation and peeling, irritability, tremors, convulsions, weakness, headaches, depression, diarrhea, vomiting, and other symptoms.

When applied into the vagina: Boric acid, a common form of boron, is LIKELY SAFE when used vaginally for up to six months. It can cause a sensation of vaginal burning.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Boron is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women age 19-50 when used in doses less than 20 mg per day. Pregnant and breast-feeding women age 14 to 18 should not take more than 17 mg per day. Taking boron by mouth in high doses is POSSIBLY UNSAFE while pregnant and breast feeding. Higher amounts may be harmful and should not be used by pregnant women because it has been linked lower birth weights and birth defects. Intravaginal boric acid has been associated with a 2.7-to 2.8-fold increased risk of birth defects when used during the first 4 months of pregnancy.

Children: Boron is LIKELY SAFE when used in doses less than the Upper Tolerable Limit (UL) (see dosage section below). Boron is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in higher doses. Large quantities of boron can cause poisoning. Boric acid powder, a common form of boron, is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when applied in large amounts to prevent diaper rash.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Boron might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, avoid supplemental boron or high amounts of boron from foods.

Kidney disease or problems with kidney function: Do not take boron supplements if you have kidney problems. The kidneys have to work hard to flush out boron.

Boron – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Boron

Boron possibly could be included in the list of essential trace elements because it has been shown to be required by zebrafish and frogs to complete their life cycle. However, boron has not been definitively established as a requirement to complete the life cycle of any mammal, and does not have an established biochemical function in higher animals or humans. Nonetheless, there is substantial evidence indicating that high versus low intakes of boron from foods are beneficial for humans. Beneficial actions of boron have been reported for arthritis alleviation or risk reduction, bone growth and maintenance, central nervous system function, cancer risk reduction, hormone facilitation, and immune response, inflammation, and oxidative stress modulation. The diverse effects of boron indicate that it influences the formation and/or activity of an entity that is involved in many biochemical processes. Formation of boron esters with the ribose moiety of compounds involved in numerous reactions, such as S-adenosylmethionine and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), might be the reason for beneficial bioactivity of boron.

Both animal and human data were used by the World Health Organization to suggest that an acceptable safe range of population mean intakes of boron for adults could be 1–13 mg day−1. This suggestion implies that intakes of <1.0 mg day−1 are inadequate for optimal boron beneficial bioactivity. Several food intake surveys indicate that a significant number of people consume less than the apparent desirable amount of boron.

Boron has a low order of toxicity when administered orally. Toxicity signs in animals generally occur only after dietary boron exceeds 100 mg kg−1. The low order of toxicity of boron for humans is substantiated by the use of boric acid and sodium borate as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920 without any reported harm. However, it was reported in 1904 that, when doses of more than 0.5 g of boric acid were consumed daily, disturbances in appetite, digestion, and health occurred. The relatively nontoxic nature of boron has resulted in the setting of relatively high ULs by the US Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, which are shown in Table 1. The World Health Organization changed the suggested safe upper intake of boron from 13 mg day−1 to 0.4 mg kg body weight−1 day−1, which translates to 28 mg day−1 for a 70 kg person. Interestingly, they concluded that 1.0 mg l−1 would be a safe drinking water standard for boron, which would make many waters in the world unsafe. This would be especially true for some areas in China, Italy, Turkey, and France, but scientists in these areas have reported that drinking water much higher in boron than 1.0 mg l−1 did not have any apparent harmful effects. Instead of harmful effects, the high boron in drinking water was associated with beneficial effects in some of these areas.

References providing the sources of the material presented and further information about boron are Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2001), Nielsen (2010, 2012, 2013), and Nielsen and Meacham (2011).

European authority sets safety levels for boron

However a scientific dossier for the nutrient is being prepared for
borate/boric acid, according to UK trade association HFMA, in order
to support its addition to the list of approved nutrients. Industry
sources have also claimed that the recent opinion, published last
week, confirms the safety of boron for supplement and food use, and
supports its inlcusion on the primary list of vitamins and minerals
allowed under the directive (annex 1).

“It is a very strong message for the Commission, justifying
boron’s safety,”
​ said David Pineda, regulatory affairs director
at IADSA. “This opinion…confirms that boron as a mineral is
safe and that the Commission can include it in Annex 1.”

An EFSA spokesperson was more cautious however and noted that
while the panel working on the food supplement directive would
consider the new information (from a different group of
scientists), it could not yet confirm how this would influence the
nutrient’s status under the food supplements legislation.

Boron is a trace mineral found in foods like fruits, mushrooms,
nuts, as well as wine and beer as borate and boric acid. It has not
been established as an essential nutrient in humans but there is
some evidence that it may influence the metabolism of other
nutrients such as vitamin D, which in turn stimulates the
absorption of calcium.

It is therefore widely used in bone health formulations, many of
which are selling well in markets such as the UK.

“We have a calcium, magnesium and boron formula that sells
really well and there are a lot of formulas like ours out
there,”
​ confirmed Paul Chamberlain, director of technical
affairs at Solgar UK.

He added however that scientific opinion on the use of boron
remains divided. Research suggests that boron may be essential in
the conversion of vitamin D to its active form and may reduce body
calcium loss by increasing the beneficial effects of oestrogen on
bone health.

There is also evidence that at levels of greater than 13mg/kg of
body weight the mineral can have developmental and reproductive
effects in animals. But while there are reports of intoxication in
humans causing vomiting and diarrhoea, there is a lack of clinical
data forcing EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products,
Nutrition and Allergies to base upper intake level on animal
studies.

They have concluded a tolerable upper intake level of 10 mg/day
for adults, which was welcomed by industry associations for being
above the average levels currently used in supplements in Europe.
The level recommended by the US Food Nutrition Board was 20 mg/day
and the UK’s expert working group on vitamins and minerals (EVM)
recommended 6mg.

However Chamberlain cautioned: “The problem ultimately is
that boron is not on annex 1. In the worst case scenario [if a
dossier is not completed or not approved] we would have to
reformulate which is time-consuming and expensive. People will also
see this nutrient has been removed from a formula which may be
working well for them.”

European authorities have already issued tolerable upper intake
levels for more than 20 vitamins and minerals, which will be used
to define maximum levels for the 2002 food supplements directive
(2002/46/EC) and a proposed regulation on addition of vitamins and
minerals to foods.

Much of this work was done by the former Scientific Committee on
Food (SCF) but the remainder – vitamin C, chloride, fluoride, iron,
phosphorus, potassium – has been taken over by EFSA. The safety
panel was also asked by the Parliament, while debating the
supplements directive, to allow boron, nickel, silicon, vanadium
and tin in food supplements, requiring scientific opinions on these
additional nutrients.

Boron (B) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects

Boron is a non metallic element and the only non-metal of the group 13 of the periodic table the elements. Boron is electron-deficient, possessing a vacant p-orbital. It has several forms, the most common of which is amorphous boron, a dark powder, unreactive to oxygen, water, acids and alkalis. It reacts with metals to form borides.
At standard temperatures boron is a poor electrical conductor but is a good conductor at high temperatures.

Applications

The most economically important compound of boron is sodium tetraborate decahydrate Na2B4O7 · 10H2O, or borax, used for insulating fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach. Boric acid is an important compound used in textile products.
Compounds of boron are used in organic synthesis, in the manufacture of a particular type of glasses, and as wood preservatives. Boron filaments are used for advanced aerospace structures, due to their high-strength and light weight.
An early use of borax was to make perborate, the beaching agent once widely used in household detergents. Boron compound also came into the average home in the guise of food preservatives, expecialy for margarine and fish.

Boron in the environment

Boron is not present in nature in elemental form. It is found combined in borax, boric acid, kernite, ulexite, colemanite and borates. Vulcanic spring waters sometime contains boric acids.
Borates are mined in US, Tibet, Chile and Turkey, with world production being about 2 million tonnes per year.

Humans can be exposed to boron through fruit and vegetables, water, air and consumer products. we have a regular daily intake of about 2 mg and about 18 mg in out body in total.

When humans consume large amounts of boron-containing food, the boron concentrations in their bodies may rise to levels that can cause health problems. Boron can infect the stomach, liver, kidneys and brains and can eventually lead to death. When exposure to small amounts of boron takes place irritation of the nose, throat or eyes may occur. It takes 5 g of borc acid to make a person ill and 20 grams or more to put its life in danger.

Eating fish or meat will not increase the boron concentrations in our bodies, as boron does not accumulate within the tissues of animals.

Boron is an element that occurs in the environment mainly through natural processes.

Boron occurs naturally in the environment due to the release into air, soil and water through weathering. It may also occur in groundwater in very small amounts. Humans add boron by manufacturing glass, combusting coal, melting copper and through the addition of agricultural fertilizers. The concentrations of boron that are added by humans are smaller that the naturally added concentrations through natural weathering.

Boron exposure through air and drinking water is not very likely to occur, but the risk of exposure to borate dust in the workplace does exist. Boron exposure may also occur from consumer products such as cosmetics and laundry products.

Plants absorb boron from the ground and through plant-consuming animals it can end up in food chains. Boron has been found in animal tissue, but it is not likely to accumulate.

When animals absorb large amounts of boron over a relatively long period of time through food or drinking water the male reproductive organs will be affected. When animals are exposed to boron during pregnancy their offspring may suffer from birth defects or delayed development. Furthermore, animals are likely to suffer from nose irritation when they breathe in boron.

Now visit our boron in water page

Back to chart periodic elements

Recommended daily intake of boron

 

Fantastic Benefits of Boron! | Boyd’s Alternative Health

1. Increases Concentration and Brain Function

Research shows low levels of boron can contribute to a sluggish brain, poor cognitive development, and trouble learning or retaining information. Boron is often thought of as a “brain nutrient” because it can help with task performance, better motor control, attention and even short-term memory.

2. Helps Reverse Arthritis

Boron plays an important role in the integration of calcium into the joint’s cartilage, which helps prevent joint deterioration and arthritis pain. Research shows people with lower boron concentrations in their bones and synovial fluid experience higher rates of arthritis than those with higher levels. Other study observations show evidence that bones of patients using boron supplements are much harder to cut than those of patients not using supplements.

3. Strengthen Bones

Boron uses also include the ability to prevent bone loss by facilitating calcium, the main mineral involved in bone mineralization, directly into the bones, where it helps prevent porous and weak bones from developing. Boron also protects bones because of its role in regulating estrogen function.

Additionally, studies show boron can help the body produce and use vitamin D better, which is a crucial nutrient for healthy bone formation, in addition to many other things like immune function and cognitive processes.

4. Balances Hormones

As a mineral that can help balance levels of sex hormones in both women and men, including estrogen and testosterone, boron helps relieve menopause symptoms as well as PMS, and also for increasing fertility. In animal studies, boron depletion is linked with fertility problems and birth defects, which suggests that boron can play a role in healthy reproduction and fetus development.

5. Promotes Healthy Muscle Mass

Certain vitamins and minerals are better absorbed and utilized by the body when boron levels are higher, which is important for building muscle, burning fat and preventing pain by recovering muscle-tissue tears following exercise. And because boron helps promote healthy testosterone production, it might lead to higher energy levels and quicker strength gains.

6. Prevents and Treats Yeast Infections

Boron is an active ingredient in tablets used to treat yeast infections in women. Boron, in the form of boric acid, is used as a natural alternative to messy over-the-counter yeast infection medicines or creams. Boric acid is considered safe and effective when inserted into the vagina to speed up healing of painful infections.

7. Heals Skin and Prevents Infections

Boron uses include acting as an astringent to help prevent or treat infections on the skin, so it’s useful for lowering redness, inflammation, pain and other signs of irritation. For the same reason, some people also use boron as a natural eye wash to help kill bacteria that can lead to sties and other infections.

8. Fights Diabetes

Animal studies show that low levels of boron can increase physiological effects tied to diabetes, including changes in blood glucose (sugar) levels and triglyceride concentrations. It appears that boron can help with the metabolism of carbohydrates and the production of insulin from the pancreas that better controls stable blood sugar levels, so in the future we might see that boron uses include acting as a treatment for forms of insulin resistance.

Best Food Sources of Boron

While a comprehensive list of boron content within common foods isn’t yet available, below are 18 of the highest sources of boron. Another fun fact about boron uses? Boron acts as a natural food preservative within foods, because boron helps diminish bacteria growth, it’s a natural way to prevent crops from spoiling. During World War I and II it was added to foods to prolong their freshness and reduce food pathogens when refrigeration wasn’t always possible.

  • Beans
  • Artichokes
  • Berries   
  • Cherries
  • Sweet potatoes    
  • Onions
  • Pecans    
  • Walnuts
  • Figs    
  • Prunes/plums
  • Peaches   
  • Apricots
  • Cocoa
  • Avocado
  • Apples   
  • Pears
  • Grapes      
  • Oranges

Fantastic Benefits of Boron!2017-05-052017-05-05https://boydsalternativehealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/boyds_red_final. pngBoyd’s Alternative Healthhttps://boydsalternativehealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/bah-blog-branded.png200px200px

90,000 The Krasny Bor landfill will be made safe by 2023

Natalia Orlova

Town

03 December 2020


Since the RF Ministry of Natural Resources included the Krasny Bor hazardous waste landfill in the register of accumulated harm objects in 2018 and instructed the Federal Environmental Operator Rosatom (FEO) to eliminate it, Moscow specialists have become frequent visitors to St. Petersburg.Work is underway on a liquidation project. The case will be long, complex and expensive, considering that waste has been accumulating at the landfill for about half a century. At the same time, Rosatom is forced to acquaint the public with every step it takes. Otherwise, protests cannot be avoided.

PHOTOS pixabay

This fall, the first deputy arrived in St. Petersburg on a regular visit. Maxim Korolkov, General Director for the Implementation of Environmental Projects at FGUP FEO. One of his goals was to meet with members of the public council of the environmental management committee and representatives of environmental organizations.

Korolkov told the public about the conclusions of specialists who studied the state of “Krasny Bor”: the landfill is still “alive”, chemical processes are taking place in it. Therefore, neatness and neatness again.

– We have completely abandoned the idea of ​​burning the accumulated waste , – said Korolkov. – The landfill should be approached as a location for recyclable chemical products.

However, according to Korolkov, while the project is at the stage of elaborating a concept, in which scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences are taking an active part.

Now Rosatom intends to focus on solving immediate problems. According to experts, a system has not yet been created at the landfill that gives one hundred percent guarantee against precipitation from entering the pit maps. According to Korolkov, employees of Krasny Bor still reduce the water level using the old old-fashioned methods – shovels and buckets.“In some cases, only 10 cm was left to the edge of the cards. And this is the threat of overflow of content. This cannot be allowed. ” So in the near future all the pits will have to be covered. Experts are preparing a draft protective screen, which will become such a shelter. In addition, the landfill is equipped with installations for pumping out and cleaning liquid from pits. By 2023 FEO intends to completely secure Krasny Bor.

In turn, Victoria Markova, chairman of the Interregional Initiative Group for the Environmental Safety of St.

should prevent the penetration of waste into the ground, there are already cracks.Consequently, the cause of flooding can be not only precipitation, but also groundwater. In 2014, in samples taken from wells located along the perimeter of the landfill, significant excess of MPCs for phenol (160 – 430 times), organic content (83 – 367 times), biochemical substances (78 – 367 times) were found. Markova suggested drilling more test wells and automating the monitoring system.

Korolkov agreed with the proposal, noting that the Federal Environmental Operator has also already recognized the need for an automated control system.And it will be created. An anti-filtration curtain will be installed around the landfill. In fact, it is a wall in the ground, buried to a layer of Cambrian clay. Sensors will be placed on this wall, which will monitor the situation in real time. If there is a threat of overflow of the contents of the cards, the automation will pump out excess liquid.

Maxim Korolkov also said that in Europe, such landfills were dealt with 20 years ago. Green zones have been created in their place. Including golf courses.

The material was published in the newspaper “St. Petersburg Vedomosti” No. 221 (6819) dated 03.12.2020 under the heading “Let’s play golf at Krasny Bor?”

Materials of rubric

INSULATION – ETIPRODUCTS LTD. ETIPRODUCTS LTD.

Insulating materials, which are an important element of heat and sound insulation with fire retardant properties, are made from natural materials.Insulating materials consisting of a mixture of cellulose and boron products have a wide range of applications. With a long service life, they can be used indoors. Insulating materials that are in harmony with nature, save energy in closed rooms, prevent heat loss due to their high thermal insulation properties, do not harm human health in any way. They can be used to insulate all types of surfaces, ensuring the maximum level of comfort in living quarters.Boron cellulose insulation is a safe, economical and durable material.

Boron compounds are also an important raw material for sound insulation. In music studios, industrial premises, they serve for sound insulation, reduce the penetration of noise both from the room and into it to a minimum level and make places comfortable. In addition to thermal and acoustic insulation, in the event of a fire, these materials have fire retardant properties, retarding the formation of a flame by preventing it from contacting oxygen.Boron compounds prevent smoke generation and significantly reduce the formation of carbon monoxide. Boron insulating materials are used in many sectors related to products subject to fire and explosion hazards, such as the textile industry. Eco-friendly insulating materials containing boron compounds guarantee the highest level of safety and comfort in living spaces.

Affordable and effective insulation

Affordable and durable boron insulation materials are made from natural raw materials.They are dustproof, heat and water resistant, it can be damaged by insects and rodents, do not have a carcinogenic effect on human health due to their structure, which is free from chemical components. Being a chemically passive medium, it does not cause corrosion of metals in contact with it.

Boron insulating materials create a safe, inexpensive and comfortable living space, while providing heat, sound insulation and fire safety.

90,000 More than 60% of oil wells near the national park in the Orenburg region are environmentally safe – company | 31.01.20

The user of three hydrocarbon deposits in the Orenburg region, located in the area of ​​the Buzuluksky Bor national park, Novy Potok Oil Company LLC (NKNP) reconditioned 44 wells drilled during geological exploration more than 50 years ago, some of which posed an environmental hazard due to the emergence of oil and gas. The general director of the society, Stepan Asaulov, told TASS about this.

The environmental situation at the oil and gas fields located near the Buzuluk Bor national park in the Orenburg region remains an area of ​​increased attention.The pine forest is adjacent to oil wells drilled in the course of geological exploration in the 1960-70s and since then have remained ownerless. Based on the results of analyzes of the background state of the environment, carried out in 2014 and 2016, it became clear that most of these wells are a source of environmental risk, oil and gas shows around the wellheads became more and more every year. One of the items of the NKNP’s licensing obligations provides for “advanced work on re-liquidation and re-conservation of environmentally hazardous wells”.

“The historical stock of emergency wells located within the license areas of LLC“ NKNP ”is 68 wells. The company is implementing a program for the overhaul of environmentally hazardous wells by two teams according to a schedule agreed with the management of the Buzuluk Bor national park, in accordance with the zonal project and taking into account the recommendations of the management of the Buzuluk Bor national park and the Steppe Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Academician A. A. Chibileva. At the moment, at 44 wells, including the most dangerous ones, liquidation and conservation works have been completed, wellhead equipment has been replaced, and liquidation stalls have been restored, ”Asaulov said.

The wells of the Vorontsovskoye field have already been brought into a safe technical and environmental condition. At other fields, work is planned to be completed in early 2021, the company said. Experts named the complete absence of geological information and the inaccuracy of information about the quality of previously carried out repair work as the main difficulty in the overhaul of wells. To solve the problem, in September 2016, at the request of the company, the Orenburg Region branch of the Center for Laboratory Analysis and Technical Measurements in the Volga Federal District examined all sites of 68 wells and determined their technical condition.

The process of bringing a well into a safe technical and environmental condition takes several stages, the company explained. After the preparation of the territory aimed at protecting the soil and groundwater from the ingress of pollutants, the faulty equipment is dismantled and a new Christmas tree is installed – this work is carried out by special teams from Gazprom Gazobezopanost. Then the well is overhauled. For example, the liquidation works at well No. 115 of the Mogutovskoye field made it possible to prevent the release of associated petroleum gas to the surface.Upon completion of the repair work, the site is reclaimed.

The company added that at present, hydrocarbon production is not being carried out in the indicated areas. “For the purpose of geological exploration of the subsoil, in 2018 the construction of an exploration well No. 45r was carried out in the eastern part of the Gremyachevskoye field outside Buzuluk Bor. Also, work is being carried out on the geological study of productive and prospective formations in the process of assessing the technical condition and overhaul of wells of previous years, ”- said in response to a TASS request.

Russian News Agency TASS
90,000 By 2022, an improved source for boron neutron capture therapy will be ready

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method of selectively affecting cells of malignant tumors. A boron-containing solution is injected into the human blood, after which boron accumulates in cancer cells. Then the tumor is irradiated with a stream of epithermal neutrons, boron nuclei absorb neutrons, nuclear reactions with a large energy release occur, as a result, diseased cells die.The technique has been tested in nuclear reactors that were used as a neutron source, but it is difficult to introduce BNCT into clinical practice. Particle accelerators are more suitable for these purposes because they are compact, safe and provide better neutron beam quality.

The idea of ​​an epithermal neutron source based on a new type of charged particle accelerator – a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and a lithium neutron-generating target – was proposed at the INP SB RAS in 1998, after which a setup was created here and the first neutron beam was obtained.The high quality of the beam has been confirmed by experiments on cell cultures and laboratory animals.

“The effectiveness of the method in relation to tumor tissues was shown by experiments on cell cultures and laboratory animals (mice),” said Vladimir Kanygin, head of the laboratory of biomedical problems of boron neutron capture therapy at NSU, neurosurgeon, oncologist, candidate of medical sciences. – In the near future, the issue of irradiation of mammals that are closer to humans in physiological parameters, namely cats and dogs, will be resolved.The stage of preclinical work is also planned to be carried out on the basis of the laboratory of biomedical problems of the BNZT NSU with the participation of a number of large research organizations in Novosibirsk and Moscow. ”

Recently, the INP SB RAS completed the next stage of modernization of the accelerator neutron source for BNCT, which made it possible to improve the beam parameters. The ultimate goal of such work is to achieve the technical characteristics required for carrying out boron neutron capture therapy in a clinical setting.

The BNCT technique has two most difficult scientific and technical problems that need to be solved. The first is the creation of a reliable compact neutron source with the required characteristics. The second is the development of a suitable method for delivering boron-10 atoms to damaged tissue. In Russia, many scientific groups are engaged in solving the latter, including specialists from the ICBFM SB RAS. They are developing a domestic boron-10-containing drug in three directions, but the ultimate goal is the same – the creation of a drug that will deliver boron to tumor cells with high efficiency.

90,000 Niels Bohr thought not only about the structure of the atom – about the structure of the world

The future Nobel Prize winner Lev Landau published his first works on quantum mechanics while still an employee of Leningrad University, but his participation in the activities of the Copenhagen Institute for Theoretical Physics, headed by the outstanding Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, had a special influence on his formation as a Soviet scientist.

He was born on October 7, 1885. If mother Ellen was the soul and heart of the family, then Father Christian, professor of physiology at Copenhagen University, is her intellectual focus. His colleagues and friends were the flower of Danish science in the early nineteenth century. Parental education bore fruit: at school, Niels became the best student in physics and mathematics. Then he easily entered a prestigious university and surprised the teachers with the ability to think deeply and independently. Where other classmates found only one solution to the problem, Niels looked for several options.

While still a student, Niels took part in a competition on the topic “Using jet vibration to determine the surface tension of liquids.” As a result of serious work, he received the gold medal of the Danish Royal Society. After graduation, he successfully defended his dissertation on the physical properties of metals and received a master’s degree. To expand his knowledge, in the fall of 1911 he went on an internship at Cambridge, the scientific center of England, to the famous professor Joseph John Thomson, who was considered an ardent adherent of classical physics.

At the first meeting with him, twenty-six-year-old Bohr, instead of his dissertation, put on the scientist’s table his own article with errors noted in the text, which he pointed out to the author with the words: “Isn’t it, Sir Joseph, how important it is that errors have been discovered!” A few years later, the Nobel Prize laureate Pyotr Kapitsa heard a different version of what happened. According to it, a young Dane, unsteady in English, simply said: “Sir Joseph, here you wrote nonsense!”

At the annual feast of scientists at the Cavendish Laboratory, which has become a scientific mecca for research physicists from different countries, including the USSR, Bohr met with its leader, an outstanding English theorist in the field of physics, Ernest Rutherford, and decided to work with him.But this responsible act had to be coordinated with Thomson, who could not fully understand Bohr’s way of thinking, but apparently did not want to interfere with him, so he gave his consent without hesitation.

Having moved to Manchester, Bohr took up in Rutherford’s laboratory the creation of a new theory of the quantum model of the atom, which was then based on two postulates that contradicted the laws of classical physics. Bohr managed to eliminate these contradictions, as a result, the quantum theory of the planetary atom appeared.For these studies, as well as for his services in the study of atomic radiation, Bor was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922.

Photo: pixabay.com

Having become a world-renowned scientist, he did a lot for the development of science in Denmark. Thanks to him, Copenhagen turned into a center for theoretical physics, where an institute was created, which played an important role for broad communication of scientists from different countries.Bor himself, being the administrative and scientific director of the institute, managed to create in it his own style of work, built on respect, friendship, complete freedom of speech and thought. He was always surrounded by young scientists and researchers, among whom was the Swiss Wolfgang Pauli. He joined Bohr as an assistant and made important additions to his theory of the planetary atom, which opened a new direction in physics called quantum mechanics.

The first decades of the twentieth century were a time of stormy discoveries in the field of atomic physics, for the development of which Bohr also did much.In 1938, at the World Congress of Anthropology and Ethnography, he gave a paper against the Nazi racial theory. The German delegation then left the hall, and the scientist was included in the list of implacable opponents of the Third Reich. His stay in Nazi-occupied Denmark became dangerous: in early September 1943, Bohr was taken to England in an aircraft hatch, and from there he soon moved to the United States, where work was underway on the creation of an atomic bomb. The fact that it has become a threat to humanity was confirmed by the American bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.Immediately after this brutal act, Bohr published an article in the English newspaper The Times, in which he popularly explained that only honest dialogue and a desire to resolve all issues related to their production and use, with equal cooperation of scientists, can make the world safe from weapons of mass destruction. and governments of all countries. In his opinion, the biggest risk factor in the use of nuclear energy is a person.

Returning to Copenhagen, Niels Bohr was elected president of the Danish Academy of Sciences, he was awarded the prestigious international award “Atoms for Peace”, in his honor the government of the country instituted a gold medal, on one side of which was a profile of a scientist, and on the other – a model atom with an inscription around it: “Opposites are complements.”A theoretical physicist and public figure, a member of more than twenty foreign academies of sciences, including the USSR Academy of Sciences, Niels Bohr came to our country twice, visited Moscow, Leningrad, Dubna, got acquainted with research institutes, lectured to scientists and students. In 1963, half a century of his theory of the atom was celebrated, and a year before that date, the great scientist passed away.

GPON or FTTB technologies: which one to choose for fast Internet

If you need an Internet that works stably and without interference, so that the speed is enough for downloading TV shows, music, watching movies online and visiting websites, then you can connect GPON or FTTB.But before leaving a connection request, let’s figure out what is the difference between FTTB and GPON technologies, and what is right for you.

When connected to GPON, a technician pulls optical fiber from the operator’s station directly to your apartment. An optical modem is installed in the hallway, to which a cable with the Internet is connected, and a special socket for powering the modem.

The difference between GPON and FTTB is that with such a connection, the Internet “comes” to the house without interference and failures, because there are no “intermediaries” on the path of the optical fiber – intermediate nodes.The result is ultra-fast connectivity that opens up a wide range of online options, from watching social media to downloading movies as Blue-Ray.

Advantages

One of the main advantages is high quality communication without interference at speeds up to 1 Gbit / s. This speed will allow the whole family to simultaneously use the network, download and upload heavy files, connect a laptop, computer, smartphones and tablet via Wi-Fi at the same time.

With a GPON cable, you can use not only the Internet, but also other digital services such as television and telephone.You will not need to run several cable lines for each device into the apartment, drill holes in the wall and pull wires through rooms. Just one GPON cable will connect all devices and devices to the network.

Even if the house is far from the operator’s station, this will not affect the quality of communication. GPON signal does not depend on distance, it is always stable. This is especially important outside the city or in the region where it is not always possible to connect to high-speed Internet.

Your phone will perform much better if connected via GPON. You will clearly hear your interlocutor: no interference, hiss and distortion of sound in the receiver.

No electrical current is required to transmit the signal over the GPON optical cable. This means that you will pay much less electricity bills. And if the energy suddenly turns off at home, the Internet will still continue to work.

GPON is also safe for children and animals: it is impossible to get an electric shock from an optical cable.

By the way, to use Wi-Fi, you do not need to purchase and configure a router. An optical modem will be responsible for Wi-Fi, which the technician will configure when the technology is connected.

Disadvantages

Optical fiber that is routed to an apartment or house is rather fragile. Minor bending can damage it. If suddenly something happens to the fiber, then you will lose the Internet, television, Wi-Fi and the ability to receive calls to your home phone.

Only a specialist can connect to the technology.It is difficult to find the equipment that will be supported by the operator. And the process of connecting and configuring itself is quite complicated.

GPON connection is more expensive due to the cost of optical cable.

Who needs the technology

Those who spend a lot of time on the Internet and need high internet speed to work, play online games or download Full-HD TV series. The connection will not be interrupted, there will be no interference or interruptions, even when the whole family goes online at once.

If you need a stable connection that does not depend on electricity, for example, for video surveillance of an apartment or house, you cannot do without GPON. With technology, you will always be in touch, even if the electricity is turned off in the entire area.

If you think FTTB or GPON is better, then rest assured: GPON is the best solution for those who live in the private sector and want to have fast Internet, but there are no other options to connect to the network. In the private sector, a GPON connection will cost much less than, for example, a satellite dish.

Optical fiber is also used in the technology, but it is carried only up to an apartment building, gets to a special distribution point in the basement or on the roof, and a copper wire is already pulled into the apartment.

FTTB allows you to use the Internet up to 100 Mbps, which is enough to solve most of the tasks in the network, but at the same time the technology is cheaper and easier to connect than GPON.

Advantages

It is much easier for an operator to connect an apartment building using FTTB technology than using GPON.Therefore, even in small towns, almost everyone can get FTTB Internet at home with good speed.

Also with FTTB, the connection process will take very little time. The technician will lead the cable into the hallway, after which it is enough to connect it to the computer and you can go online.

The speed of connection to the network via FTTB is limited only by the tariff plan and the speed of the network inside the building.

Disadvantages

Dependence of speed on the number of people connected at the same time: the more devices in the network, the weaker the signal.

Inability to connect to FTTB technology in the private sector. It is unprofitable for operators to build networks where there are no apartment buildings.

FTTB copper wires are susceptible to power surges, weather conditions and electromagnetic interference from household appliances.

Who is suitable for

Those who live in the city and want to use reliable and affordable Internet. Operators’ tariff plans will allow you to choose the Internet at the price and with the characteristics that you need.

Nizhny Novgorod ONF activists drew the attention of the Bor authorities to the state of the monument to the hero pioneer

Activists of the regional branch of the Popular Front in the Nizhny Novgorod region during an inspection of monuments dedicated to the Great Patriotic War, revealed two monuments, the state of which raises concerns for their future fate. After criticism of the ONF, the authorities of the city of Bora promised to repair one of the monuments by May 9, 2016

“Front-line soldiers” examined the monument to the youngest hero of the Soviet Union – Vale Kotik, erected next to school # 10 of the Bor city district.

According to local residents, the monument to Vale Kotik has never been repaired.

In an even more deplorable state, representatives of the Popular Front found a memorial complex located on the territory of the Bor Lyceum at Kommunisticheskaya Street, house 11. In the center of the site is a monument to Arkady Gaidar, behind it are bas-reliefs depicting a horse detachment and children holding symbols of different sciences. The pedestal of the sculpture, cast from concrete, is destroyed, parts of the bas-reliefs are missing, and there is no information plaque about who this memorial group is dedicated to.

At a meeting with the head of the Bor city district administration, Alexander Kiselev, representatives of the Popular Front drew the authorities’ attention to the deplorable state of these cultural sites. In response, the head of the administration spoke about the large-scale preparations that had been carried out in the city district for the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the Victory. According to Kiselev, in the city of Bor, the authorities put in order the fraternal burials of the Great Patriotic War participants, the main city Victory Monument, which turns 50 this year, was reconstructed, the Alley of Glory was laid in the Victory Park and 350 named trees were planted.