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Red antibiotic pill: Cephalexin: MedlinePlus Drug Information

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Common and Rare Side Effects for cephalexin oral

COMMON side effects

If experienced, these tend to have a Severe expression i

Sorry, we have no data available. Please contact your doctor or pharmacist.

If experienced, these tend to have a Less Severe expression i

  • indigestion
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • intense abdominal pain

INFREQUENT side effects

If experienced, these tend to have a Severe expression i

Sorry, we have no data available. Please contact your doctor or pharmacist.

If experienced, these tend to have a Less Severe expression i

  • a yeast infection of the vagina and vulva
  • a type of stomach irritation called gastritis

RARE side effects

If experienced, these tend to have a Severe expression i

  • diarrhea from an infection with Clostridium difficile bacteria
  • an infection due to the fungus Candida
  • a type of blood disorder where the red blood cells burst called hemolytic anemia
  • low blood counts due to bone marrow failure
  • a decrease in the blood clotting protein prothrombin
  • decreased blood platelets
  • very low levels of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell
  • increased eosinophils in the blood
  • bleeding
  • inflammation of the large intestine
  • inflammation of the liver called hepatitis
  • a blockage of the bile duct that resulting in high bilirubin levels
  • a type of kidney inflammation called interstitial nephritis
  • kidney failure
  • decreased kidney function
  • pemphigus, a type of skin disorder
  • erythema multiforme, a type of allergic skin reaction
  • a skin disorder with blistering and peeling skin called toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • a skin disorder with blistering and peeling skin called Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • itching
  • hives
  • hallucinations
  • seizures
  • high amount of bilirubin in the blood
  • abnormal liver function tests
  • a significant type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis
  • a type of allergic reaction called angioedema
  • a hypersensitivity reaction to a drug
  • a serum sickness reaction
  • a yellowing of the eyes or skin from buildup of bilirubin called jaundice
  • a type of skin disorder called acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
  • a type of significant allergic skin reaction called DRESS syndrome

If experienced, these tend to have a Less Severe expression i

  • confusion
  • agitation
  • inflammation or infection of the vagina
  • itching of the anus
  • itching of the genital area
  • joint pain
  • dizziness
  • low energy
  • headache
  • a feeling of pins and needles on skin
  • inflammation of the vein, or phlebitis after infusion

Effectiveness, Ease of Use, and Satisfaction

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Effectiveness

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Most voted positive review

68 People found this comment helpful

I am taking this prescription for an upper respiratory infection with a very sore throat, body aches, and fever — was unable to eat or sleep. I had almost immediate relief of symptoms after taking the medication and have had none of the side effects described by other reviewers. I wonder if people only review drugs if they have a bad result…

Most voted negative review

13 People found this comment helpful

My gut hurt for four days, after which I started throwing up my toenails. NEVER again will I take this drug!!!!

Shared reviews and ratings

Condition: Other EffectivenessEase of UseSatisfaction

Makes my body tingle and feel funny, yet does the job as I’m on the East coast in the woods with many mosquitoes, spiders, and gnats. Yet have a few cuts that are healing quickly.

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got an infected eyelid that was swollen and in pain. was prescribed cephalexin and eye drops. was told to take 3 500g tablets a day. after my first tablet cam down with a headache but thought nothing of it as i frequently get headaches. has my second dose at 8:40, two hours later i’m laying in bed relaxing and i get sudden severe dizziness. i struggled to walk and it took 5 minutes to feel relatively okay again. became extremely nauseous and almost threw up. next morning i still feel lightheaded and queasy. had only taken two tablets and my body reacted horribly. would not recommend if you have a sensitive stomach. Read More Read Less

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Prescribed this medication 500 mg twice daily for 7 days after rhinoplasty for prevention of infection. Side effects outweigh the benefit to me, especially since I had no condition just given after surgery. Side effects included major mood swings like crying spells for no reason at all, minor anxiety attacks, fatigued insomnia vivid nightmares only sleeping 30 min if that off and on, frontal headaches that opioids or even Tylenol couldn’t cure, generally feeling unwell and vaginal yeast infection, nausea/vomiting if taken without a huge meal. Hopefully I never have to be prescribed this medication ever again!Read More Read Less

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Ive been taking it for 5 nights now. I have stitches in the webbing of my toe, and i can already walk somewhat normal. I haven’t had any real side effects other than lack of appetite. It does suck that based on my dosage i have to take it 4 times a day to prevent infection.

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I had two lacerations in the palm of my hand that required stitches. Prescription was for a 5 day supply as a precaution against infection. I felt no side effects. The injury healed amazingly quickly.

1 ShapeCreated with Sketch.thumb_up copy 5Created with Sketch.Report this postFill 3Created with Sketch. Condition: Infection of the Middle Ear caused by Staphylococcus EffectivenessEase of UseSatisfaction

This tablet give me awful side effects, heart palpitations, non stop headaches and diarrhoea! It also gave me anxiety which I never had before! Once I stopped taking these tablets all symptoms went away thankfully! Do not recommend

2 ShapeCreated with Sketch.thumb_up copy 5Created with Sketch.Report this postFill 3Created with Sketch. Condition: infection caused by bacteria EffectivenessEase of UseSatisfaction

I was prescribed this medication to prevent infection after abscess drainage After the first dose I was itching from head to toe..Im going toy Dr.tomorrow to get another antibiotic im convinced I had an allergic reaction this wasn’t the right treatment for me!

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I am taking 500mg for a bacterial infection caused by a bad burn on my arm that left it very red and swollen to double the size I have been taking for 2 days and already notice a difference in my level of pain and swelling I have not experienced any side effects

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I have been taking this for around 2 years now for an infection that will not go away. I take 4 grams a day, and no side effects at all.

4 ShapeCreated with Sketch.thumb_up copy 5Created with Sketch.Report this postFill 3Created with Sketch. Condition: Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection EffectivenessEase of UseSatisfaction

I was prescribed this pill after going to the ER with major pain in my lower abdominal area as well as my back. Within 2 hours of taking this I received a horrible headache as well as the pain in my back started up again severely. And I have a excruciatingly painful case of diarrhea. 1 hour straight I was on the toilet crying because of the amount of pain I was in. Also had some vaginal itching which I read was a â??side effect â?? as well as blood when I pee. This drug isnâ??t worth the pain I am experiencing from taking it. Read More Read Less

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I have had to take Cephalexin several times for eczema-related skin infections. It has always worked very well for me. In fact, I see results within 24 hours every time. It can dry out your skin, but in a “good” way. You just need to moisturize.

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Took this medication for a week to help treat an unknown upper respiratory infection that landed me in the hospital. It seemed to help clear up my symptoms quite quickly to where I was back on my feet before even finishing the course. However, I did experience some constipation as a result of taking this, but a couple weeks on a probiotic seemed to fix that.

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I was prescribed Cephalexin 500mg 3 times a day 7 days for cellulitis. From day 1 horrible headache, sore throat, extreme tiredness, hard time sleeping even though I was exhausted, agitation, back pain, guts were gurgling and very gassy (started a probiotic and this went away), and mentally I had a hard time remembering words I was trying to say. I saw pictures of what I wanted to say but the words eluded me. Voiced my concerns to medical staff and was recommended to just take Ibuprofen and Tylenol. I rarely take any prescriptions but if I ever have to again will never take this. Horrible. I took a very good probiotic several hours after my last daily dose to keep my good bacteria alive. Most doctors will not recommend taking a probiotic which should be done with any antibiotic given. Antibiotics kill good and bad bacteria which weakens a persons immune system even further. Read More Read Less

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Was given this medication for a preorbital cellulitis eye infection, not happy at all very bad side affects..I’ve had non stop headaches, nausea, dizziness, uncontrollable itching, lethargy, tired,very irritable

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As soon as I started taking this medication it made me have no appetite and nauseous. I lost weight but in a bad way, had loose stools from it also. 04/22/2019

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Omg within 5 min of taking this medication the first pill my lips swelled up, my chest got tight, hard to breath, my skin got extremely itchy ,corners r of my eyes are so itchy…. should I go to the hospital? .. my right ear drum is in pain as I think I had a ear infection… so so itchy what to I’ll wait it out for 30 min

12 ShapeCreated with Sketch. 4 thumb_up copy 5Created with Sketch.Report this postFill 3Created with Sketch. Condition: Infection of a Joint EffectivenessEase of UseSatisfaction

Was prescribed this for olecran bursitis of the elbow. No side effects.

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I am a pianist 85 years of age and have had skin peal on my fingers and two split open so I could not play the piano. Then I started having swollen feet and sores that leaked fluids. I went into a health clinic where the Dr. prescribed cephalexin 500. I take it 3x a day and fingers have cleared up and feet getting better. No side effects! Hooray!!

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Prescribed for cellulitis on foot by podiatrist. Third time taking in 3 months. It clears up great but doesnt cure. Have to perhaps see dermatologist.

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I was prescribed this medication as a preventative of infection after surgery on my arm to remove a benign tumor. Within a couple days, i began experiencing side effects: extreme lethargy, weakness, headaches, stomach issues, dizziness, no appetite (I could not eat for days). I rarely take drugs of any kind and this one hit me hard. I have also never had adverse affects to antibiotics. I am 54 years old. After reading a lot of reviews, I think this drug is dangerous. Another side note, my mother told me today that she had adverse affects as well several years ago from this drug, she passed out in the bathroom and cut herself as she fell. Read More Read Less

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Teva-Cephalexin – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions

How does this medication work? What will it do for me?

Cephalexin is an antibiotic that belongs to the family of medications known as cephalosporins. It is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. Cephalexin is most often used to treat infections of the throat, skin, ear, bladder, respiratory tract, and bone. It works by killing the bacteria causing the infection.

This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.

Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.

Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.

What form(s) does this medication come in?

Capsules

250 mg
Each hard gelatin orange capsule, imprinted “NOVO” and “250” on opposing body and cap portions of the capsule, contains cephalexin 250 mg.  Nonmedicinal ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, gelatin, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, starch, titanium dioxide, and black S-I-8114 / S-I-8115 ink.

500 mg
Each hard gelatin, opaque orange and opaque grey capsule, imprinted “NOVO” and “500” on opposing body and cap portions of the capsule, contains cephalexin 500 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: black iron oxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, gelatin, magnesium stearate, starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, starch, titanium dioxide, and black S-I-8114 / S-I-8115 ink.

Suspension 

125 mg/5 mL
Each 5 mL of orange-coloured, orange-banana-flavoured suspension, when reconstituted, contains cephalexin equivalent to 125 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: citric acid, edetate disodium, FD&C Yellow No. 6, natural and artificial orange/banana flavor, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sucrose.

250 mg/5 mL
Each 5 mL of pink, cherry-flavoured suspension, when reconstituted, contains cephalexin equivalent to 250 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: citric acid, edetate disodium, FD&C Red No. 3, natural and artificial wild cherry flavour, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sucrose.

Tablets

250 mg
Each light orange, paramette-shaped, film-coated tablet, engraved “N 250” with partial bisect on one side and plain on the reverse, contains cephalexin 250 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: natural and artificial vanilla flavour, cetyl alcohol, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Yellow No. 10, dibutyl sebacate, ethylcellulose, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, starch, and titanium dioxide.

500 mg
Each orange, paramette-shaped, film-coated tablet, engraved “N 500” with partial bisect on one side and plain on the reverse, contains cephalexin 500 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: natural and artificial vanilla flavour, cetyl alcohol, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Yellow No. 10, dibutyl sebacate, ethylcellulose, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, starch, and titanium dioxide.

How should I use this medication?

The recommended adult dose of cephalexin ranges from 250 mg to 1,000 mg 4 times daily. It can be taken with food or on an empty stomach.

The usual dose of cephalexin for children is based on body weight. The recommended dose is 25 mg to 50 mg per kilogram of body weight each day, divided into 4 equal doses.

Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.

Although it may be absorbed more quickly if it is taken on an empty stomach, cephalexin may be taken with food or on an empty stomach. The overall effect is not changed by taking it with food.

The liquid form of this medication should be measured accurately with a medication spoon or oral syringe, as these are more accurate than household measuring spoons. Shake the bottle of medication well before measuring each dose.

Finish all of this medication, even you start to feel better. This will reduce the chance of the infection returning.

It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Store the liquid form of this medication in the refrigerator for up to 14 days.  Do not freeze. The tablets should be stored at room temperature, protected from light and moisture. Keep this medication out of the reach of children.

Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.

Who should NOT take this medication?

Do not take this medication if you:

  • are allergic to cephalexin, or any ingredients of the medication
  • are allergic to any other cephalosporin antibiotics

What side effects are possible with this medication?

Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent. The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.

The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.

Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.

  • agitation
  • diaper rash
  • dizziness
  • fatigue
  • headache
  • mild diarrhea
  • mild stomach cramps
  • nausea
  • vaginal itching or discharge
  • vomiting

Although most of these side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

  • abdominal tenderness
  • behaviour changes in young children
  • confusion
  • hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there)
  • hearing loss (young children)
  • ringing in the ears
  • sensation of spinning
  • severe abdominal or stomach cramps and pain
  • signs of liver problems (e. g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools)
  • skin rash, itching, redness, or swelling

Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:

  • convulsions (seizures)
  • diarrhea (watery and severe; may also be bloody)
  • fever that appears after starting the antibiotic
  • signs of a serious allergic reaction (e.g., abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, or swelling of the face and throat)
  • signs of a severe skin reaction (e.g., blistering, peeling, a rash covering a large area of the body, a rash that spreads quickly, or a rash combined with fever or discomfort)

Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.

Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?

Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.

Allergy: Some people who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics also experience allergic reactions to cephalosporins, including cephalexin. Before you take cephalexin, tell your doctor about any previous adverse reactions you have had to medications, especially cephalosporins and penicillins. Contact your doctor at once if you experience signs of an allergic reaction, such as skin rash, itching, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the face and throat.

Other hypersensitivity reactions involving the skin and other organs have also been reported with the use of other, similar antibiotics. Stop taking the medication and get immediate medical attention if you have symptoms of a severe allergic reaction, including fever, swollen glands, yellowing of the skin or eyes, or flu-like symptoms with skin rash or blistering.

Antibiotic-associated colitis: This medication, like other antibiotics, may cause a potentially dangerous condition called antibiotic-associated colitis (or pseudomembranous colitis). Symptoms include severe, watery diarrhea that may be bloody. If you notice these symptoms, stop taking cephalexin and contact your doctor as soon as possible.

Bacterial resistance: Misuse of an antibiotic such as cephalexin may lead to the growth of resistant bacteria that will not be killed by the antibiotic. If this happens, the antibiotic may not work for you in the future. Although you may begin to feel better when you first start taking cephalexin, you need to take all of the medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor to finish ridding your body of the infection and to prevent resistant bacteria from taking hold. Do not take cephalexin or other antibiotics to treat a viral infection such as the common cold; antibiotics do not kill viruses, and using them to treat viral infections can lead to the growth of resistant bacteria.

Kidney function: People with severe kidney problems may require a lower dose of cephalexin. People with kidney disease or reduced kidney function should discuss with their doctor how this medication may affect their medical condition, how their medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

Liver function: Cephalexin can cause a decrease in liver function, although this happens only occasionally. People with liver disease or reduced liver function should discuss with their doctor how this medication may affect their medical condition, how their medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. If you experience signs of decreasing liver function, such as yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, or pale stools, contact your doctor as soon as possible.

Overgrowth of organisms: Prolonged or repeated use of cephalexin may result in an overgrowth of bacteria or fungi and organisms that are not killed by the medication. This can cause other infections to develop, such as yeast infections.

Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Breast-feeding: This medication passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking cephalexin, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.

What other drugs could interact with this medication?

There may be an interaction between cephalexin and any of the following:

  • BCG
  • cholera vaccine
  • metformin
  • multivitamins with minerals
  • sodium picosulfate
  • typhoid vaccine
  • warfarin
  • zinc

If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.  Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:

  • stop taking one of the medications,
  • change one of the medications to another,
  • change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
  • leave everything as is.

An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.

Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Teva-Cephalexin

Differences, similarities, and which is better for you

Drug overview & main differences | Conditions treated | Efficacy | Insurance coverage and cost comparison | Side effects | Drug interactions | Warnings | FAQ

A bacterial infection is caused by an opportunistic overgrowth of bacterial organisms in the body’s tissue or organs. A common condition known as “strep throat” is actually an overgrowth of the bacteria streptococcus pyogenes, sometimes referred to as group A streptococcus, in the throat or on the tonsils. Earaches may be caused by bacteria in the inner or outer ear, and they may lead to fluid buildup and pressure. A toothache could be an abscess of bacteria below the gums. Bacterial infections come in many forms.

Antibiotics are the pinnacle of treatment against bacterial infections. The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin, and it belongs to a group of antibiotics known as beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams attack the cell wall of bacteria, rendering the bacteria powerless and allowing the body to resolve the infection. Since the discovery of penicillin, there have been many classes and types of beta-lactam antibiotics developed. Cephalexin and amoxicillin are two commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics.

What are the main differences between cephalexin and amoxicillin?

Cephalexin is a prescription medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which belongs under the larger classification of beta-lactam antibiotics. Cephalexin interferes with cell wall synthesis by binding penicillin-binding proteins inside the cellular wall. Ultimately, when cephalexin is dosed appropriately, it causes lysis, or destruction, or the bacterial cell. Different bacterial types contain different bacterial binding proteins, so the effectiveness of cephalexin varies with different types of bacteria.

Cephalexin is available as an oral tablet or capsule, as well as an oral suspension. The brand name of cephalexin is Keflex. It is used by infants, children, and adults.

Amoxicillin is a prescription medication also used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a penicillin antibiotic but also falls under the larger classification of beta-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin, like cephalexin, interferes with cell wall synthesis by binding penicillin-binding proteins inside the cellular wall leading the destruction of the bacterial cell.

Amoxicillin is available as an oral tablet or capsule, chewable tablet, as well as an oral suspension. The brand name of amoxicillin is Amoxil or Polymox. It is used by infants, children, and adults.

RELATED: Cephalexin details | Amoxicillin details

Main differences between cephalexin and amoxicillin
Drug class Cephalosporin/ Beta-lactam antibiotic Penicillin/ Beta-lactam antibiotic
Brand/generic status Brand and generic available Brand and generic available
What is the brand name? Keflex Amoxil, Polymox
What form(s) does the drug come in? Tablet, capsule, suspension Tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, suspension
What is the standard dosage? 500 mg four times daily 500 mg two to three times daily
How long is the typical treatment? 7-14 days 7-14 days
Who typically uses the medication? Infants, children, adults Infants, children, adults

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Conditions treated by cephalexin and amoxicillin

Cephalexin has been shown to be active against a variety of bacterial organisms including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The sensitivity of these organisms allows cephalexin to also be effective in treating many common types of infections including upper respiratory infections such as sinusitis, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis. Amoxicillin is also effective against lower respiratory infections such as community-acquired pneumonia. Other uses of cephalexin include skin infections (cellulitis), bone and joint infections, otitis media, and urinary tract infections (UTI).

Amoxicillin has been shown to be active against a variety of bacterial organisms including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative), Helicobacter pylori, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The sensitivity of these organisms allows amoxicillin to also be effective in treating many common types of infections including upper and lower respiratory infections. Other uses include skin tissue infections, otitis media, and urinary tract infections.

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Both cephalexin and amoxicillin have commonly been used off-label for endocarditis prophylaxis. Patients with congenital heart defects or prosthetic heart valves are at an increased risk of developing an infection in the lining of their heart after dental procedures. Prophylactic doses of antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin given prior to these procedures have been shown to decrease the risk of such infections.

Upper respiratory infections Yes Yes
Pharyngitis Yes Yes
Tonsillitis Yes Yes
Sinusitis No Yes
Community-acquired pneumonia Yes Yes
Non-specific lower respiratory infections Yes Yes
Cellulitis Yes Yes
Impetigo Yes No
Otitis media Yes Yes
Osteomyelitis Yes No
Infectious osteoarthritis Yes No
Urinary tract infections Yes Yes
Mastitis Yes No
Bacterial endocarditis Off-label Off-label
Lyme disease No Off-label
Dental infections No Off-label
H. pylori duodenal ulcer No Off-label

Is cephalexin or amoxicillin more effective?

The effectiveness of cephalexin or amoxicillin will vary with each bacteria type and each patient. With any sensitive bacteria, each drug may be effective so long as it is dosed appropriately at the correct intervals. The effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics are dependent upon the amount of time that free, non-protein bound drug is above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria.

Another factor in antibiotic therapy is antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria changes in response to an exposure to an antibiotic. The change is adaptive to allow it to survive in spite of the antibiotic. In the case of beta-lactam antibiotics, the bacteria produce beta-lactamase enzymes,` which render the antibiotic ineffective. Repeated or overuse of antibiotics, as well as suboptimal dosing, may contribute to antibiotic resistance.

One study sought to compare the symptomatic relapse in pediatric patients with streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. This was done by comparing return visits and symptomatic complaints following each type of treatment. The study compared four treatment groups including amoxicillin and first-generation cephalosporins, including cephalexin. The study found that the incidence of symptomatic relapse was higher in the amoxicillin group than in the first-generation cephalosporin group.

The Infectious Disease Society maintains in its guidelines that amoxicillin is the first choice for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cephalexin is an acceptable alternative for patients with a penicillin-related allergy.

Only your doctor can determine which treatment is appropriate for your bacterial infection.

Coverage and cost comparison of cephalexin vs. amoxicillin

Cephalexin is a prescription medication that is covered by both commercial and Medicare drug insurance plans. A typical prescription for cephalexin would be written for 28 capsules of the 500mg strength. The average cash price for this prescription without insurance can be close to $50 or higher. With a coupon from SingleCare, you can get it for as low as $9.

Amoxicillin is a prescription medication that is also covered by both commercial and Medicare drug insurance plans. The cash price for a prescription written for 21 capsules of the 500mg strength of amoxicillin is over $20, but with a coupon from SingleCare, you can get this prescription starting as low as $5.

Typically covered by insurance? Yes Yes
Typically covered by Medicare? Yes Yes
Standard dosage 28, 500 mg capsules 21, 500 mg capsules
Typical Medicare copay Typically less than $10, but varies by plan Typically less than $10, but varies by plan
SingleCare cost $9-$17 $5-$10

Get the SingleCare prescription discount card

Common side effects of cephalexin vs.

amoxicillin

Cephalexin and amoxicillin have a similar list of side effects. The most common side effect of both medications is diarrhea. Other gastrointestinal side effects include nausea, vomiting, and gastritis. In rare instances, cases of pseudomembranous colitis have been reported.

Anaphylactic reactions may happen with both cephalexin and amoxicillin. Anaphylactic reactions are a severe allergic reaction that may present with hives, swelling of the tongue or lips, and/or a restrictive airway. Anaphylactic reactions require immediate medical attention.

The following list is not intended to be a complete list of possible side effects. Please consult a pharmacist, doctor, or another medical professional for a complete list of possible side effects.

Side effect Applicable? Frequency Applicable? Frequency
Diarrhea Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Dyspepsia Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Gastritis Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Abdominal pain Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Nausea Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Vomiting Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Pseudomembranous colitis Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Rash Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Urticaria Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Dizziness Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Headache Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Jaundice Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Anaphylaxis Yes Not defined Yes Not defined
Mucocutaneous candidiasis No Not defined Yes Not defined
Black hairy tongue No Not defined Yes Not defined

Source: Cephalexin (DailyMed) Amoxicillin (DailyMed)

Drug interactions of cephalexin vs.

amoxicillin

Cephalexin may increase the serum concentrations of the common antidiabetic agent metformin. Most courses of cephalexin are a short duration, so the drugs may be used concurrently as long as the patient is monitored.

Amoxicillin may interfere with the serum concentrations of important immunosuppressants. Serum concentrations of methotrexate have been shown to be increased with concurrent use with amoxicillin, while mycophenolate concentrations may be decreased. These immunosuppressant drugs are used in patients with serious conditions, and therefore patients who require the use of amoxicillin while on these drugs should be monitored closely.

Probenecid, when given with cephalexin or amoxicillin, may increase the serum concentrations of either antibiotic. While the use of both at the same time is not contraindicated, patients should be monitored.

Metformin Biguanide, Antidiabetic Yes No
Methotrexate Antifolate, Immunosuppressant No Yes
Mycophenolate Immunosuppressant No Yes
Probenecid Uricosuric Yes Yes
Tetracyclines Antibiotic No Yes
Vitamin K Coagulant Yes Yes

Warnings of Cephalexin and amoxicillin

Patients with a penicillin allergy should not take amoxicillin. There is evidence to suggest that patients with a penicillin allergy may also have a cross-sensitivity to cephalosporins, including cephalexin. Caution should be used when prescribing cephalexin in penicillin-allergic patients with no prior use of cephalosporins.

Pseudomembranous colitis is a rare but serious condition. It involves the swelling and inflammation of the colon due to an overgrowth of clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis can occur with a variety of antibiotics, including cephalexin and amoxicillin.

Cephalexin and amoxicillin are renally excreted. Patients with decreased or impaired renal function must have their doses adjusted accordingly.

Cephalexin is considered pregnancy category B, meaning that animal studies have not shown any teratogenic effects. It is considered generally safe in pregnancy. Cephalexin crosses into breast milk but is generally considered safe while breastfeeding.

Amoxicillin is also considered pregnancy category B. It is considered generally safe in pregnancy. Amoxicillin crosses into breast milk but is also considered safe while breastfeeding.

Frequently asked questions about cephalexin vs. amoxicillin

What is cephalexin?

Cephalexin is a first-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic. It belongs to a bigger classification of antibiotics known as beta-lactam antibiotics. It is generally effective against bacteria involved in upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, mastitis, and skin, bone, and joint infections.

What is amoxicillin?

Amoxicillin is a penicillin derivative antibiotic. It belongs to a bigger classification of antibiotics known as beta-lactam antibiotics. It is generally effective against bacteria involved in upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis, media, and skin infections.

Are cephalexin and amoxicillin the same?

While cephalexin and amoxicillin are each beta-lactam antibiotics, they are not the same. Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic, and amoxicillin is a penicillin derivative. While they cover some of the same bacterial organisms, they each cover unique organisms.

Is cephalexin or amoxicillin better?

There are many factors to choosing the most effective antibiotic for any infection. While one study showed that amoxicillin may be associated with more relapses of strep pharyngitis versus cephalexin, it remains in the treatment guidelines as the first-line treatment.

Can I use cephalexin or amoxicillin while pregnant?

Cephalexin and amoxicillin are considered safe during pregnancy. There is no known harm to the fetus despite the fact that both drugs cross the placenta.

Can I use cephalexin or amoxicillin with alcohol?

While there is no contraindication to taking these antibiotics while consuming alcohol, patients should be aware that alcohol consumption may increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects.

Is cephalexin or amoxicillin stronger?

When dosed appropriately, both antibiotics are effective against their covered organisms. The organism coverage of cephalexin makes it effective in some conditions that amoxicillin is not, including mastitis and bone and joint infections.

How quickly does cephalexin work?

Antibiotics begin working against the organism as soon as you begin therapy. It may take several days before a patient begins to experience symptomatic relief depending on the type of infection.

Is amoxicillin or cephalexin better for ear infection?

The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) maintains in its guidelines that amoxicillin is the treatment of choice for otitis media. Other antibiotics, like cephalosporin, may be used when there is an allergy or if resistance is suspected.

Side Effects of Keflex (Cephalexin), Warnings, Uses

000932238_PB

oval, white, imprinted with TEVA, 22 38

000932240_PB

oval, white, imprinted with TEVA, 22 40

000933145_PB

capsule, gray/orange, imprinted with TEVA, 3145

000933147_PB

capsule, orange, imprinted with TEVA, 3147

420430140_PB

capsule, green/white, imprinted with KLX 140

422910208_PB

capsule, white, imprinted with 801

422910209_PB

capsule, white, imprinted with 802

596300112_PB

capsule, green/white, imprinted with KEFLEX 250 mg

614420161_PB

capsule, green/white, imprinted with CCC 250, CCC 250

658620019_PB

capsule, green, imprinted with A 43, 500mg

681800121_PB

capsule, green/white, imprinted with 250, LUPIN

681800122_PB

capsule, green/light green, imprinted with 500, LUPIN

Cephalexin 250 mg-CAR

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Cephalexin 250 mg-IVA

capsule, gray/red, imprinted with Z4073, Z4073

Cephalexin 250 mg-LUP

capsule, green/white, imprinted with 250, LUPIN

Cephalexin 250 mg-NOR

capsule, green/white, imprinted with A 42, 250 mg

Cephalexin 250 mg-RAN

capsule, green/white, imprinted with RX675, RX675

Cephalexin 250 mg-TEV

gray/red, imprinted with 93 3145, 93 3145

Cephalexin 250 mg-TEV

capsule, gray/orange, imprinted with TEVA, 3145

Cephalexin 250 mg-WES

capsule, green/white, imprinted with J1, J1

Cephalexin 500 mg Cap-TEV

capsule, orange, imprinted with TEVA, 3147

Cephalexin 500 mg-CAR

capsule, green, imprinted with 294, 294

Cephalexin 500 mg-IVA

red, imprinted with Z4074, Z4074

Cephalexin 500 mg-NOR

capsule, green, imprinted with A 43, 500 mg

Cephalexin 500 mg-RAN

capsule, dark green/light green, imprinted with RX657, RX657

Cephalexin 500 mg-TEV

red, imprinted with 93 3147, 93 3147

Cephalexin 500 mg-WES

capsule, green, imprinted with J2, J2

Keflex 750 mg

capsule, green, imprinted with Keflex 750 mg

Cefalexin 250mg / 5ml Suspension – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)

This information is intended for use by health professionals

Keflex Suspension 250 mg/5ml.

Cefalexin 250 mg/5 ml Granules for oral suspension

When prepared as directed, each 5 ml of reconstituted suspension contains as the active ingredient, cefalexin monohydrate equivalent to 250 mg of cefalexin base.

Excipients with known effect

Contains 2.972 g of Sucrose per 5 ml after reconstitution.

Also contains Allura Red AC (E129).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

Granules for oral suspension.

White granules.

Cefalexin is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration.

Cefalexin is indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible micro-organisms:

Respiratory tract infections

Otitis media

Skin and soft tissue infections

Bone and joint infections

Genito-urinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis

Dental infections

Posology

Adults

The adult dosage ranges from 1-4 g daily in divided doses; most infections will respond to a dosage of 500 mg every 8 hours. For skin and soft tissue infections, streptococcal pharyngitis and mild, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, the usual dosage is 250 mg every 6 hours, or 500 mg every 12 hours.

For more severe infections or those caused by less susceptible organisms, larger doses may be needed. If daily doses of cefalexin greater than 4 g are required, parenteral cephalosporins, in appropriate doses, should be considered.

The elderly and patients with impaired renal function

As for adults. Reduce dosage if renal function is markedly impaired (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population

The usual recommended daily dosage for children is 25-50 mg/kg (10-20 mg/lb) in divided doses. For skin and soft tissue infections, streptococcal pharyngitis and mild, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, the total daily dose may be divided and administered every 12 hours. For most infections the following schedule is suggested:

Children under 5 years.

125 mg every 8 hours.

Children 5 years and over:

250 mg every 8 hours.

In severe infections, the dosage may be doubled. In the therapy of otitis media, clinical studies have shown that a dosage of 75 to 100 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses is required.

In the treatment of beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections, a therapeutic dose should be administered for at least 10 days.

Method of administration

For oral use.

For instructions on reconstitution of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. Cefalexin is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics or to any of the excipients listed in section 6. 1.

Before instituting therapy with cefalexin, every effort should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to the cephalosporins, penicillins or other drugs. Cefalexin should be given cautiously to penicillin-sensitive patients. There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins. Patients have had severe reactions (including anaphylaxis) to both drugs.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with virtually all broad-spectrum antibiotics, including macrolides, semisynthetic penicillins and cephalosporins. It is important, therefore, to consider its diagnosis in patients who develop diarrhoea in association with the use of antibiotics. Such colitis may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuance alone. In moderate to severe cases, appropriate measures should be taken.

If an allergic reaction to cefalexin occurs, the drug should be discontinued and the patient treated with the appropriate agents.

Prolonged use of cefalexin may result in the overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Cefalexin should be administered with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function. Careful clinical and laboratory studies should be made because safe dosage may be lower than that usually recommended. If dialysis is required for renal failure, the daily dose of cefalexin should not exceed 500mg.

Concurrent administration with certain other drug substances, such as aminoglycosides, other cephalosporins, or furosemide (frusemide) and similar potent diuretics, may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.

Positive direct Coombs’ tests have been reported during treatment with the cephalosporin antibiotics. In haematological studies, or in transfusion cross-matching procedures when antiglobulin tests are performed on the minor side, or in Coombs’ testing of newborns whose mothers have received cephalosporin antibiotics before parturition, it should be recognised that a positive Coombs’ test may be due to the drug.

A false positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict’s or Fehling’s solutions or with copper sulphate test tablets.

This product contains sucrose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

Also contains Allura Red AC (E129), which may cause allergic reactions.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 5ml, that is to say essentially ‘sodium-free’.

Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) has been reported in association with cefalexin treatment. At the time of prescription patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms and monitored closely for skin reactions. If signs and symptoms suggestive of these reactions appear, cefalexin should be withdrawn immediately and an alternative treatment considered. Most of these reactions occurred most likely in the first week during treatment.

As with other beta-lactam drugs, renal excretion of cefalexin is inhibited by probenecid.

In a single study of 12 healthy subjects given single 500mg doses of cefalexin and metformin, plasma metformin Cmax and AUC increased by an average of 34% and 24%, respectively, and metformin renal clearance decreased by an average of 14%. No side-effects were reported in the 12 healthy subjects in this study. No information is available about the interaction of cefalexin and metformin following multiple dose administration. The clinical significance of this study is unclear, particularly as no cases of “lactic acidosis” have been reported in association with concomitant metformin and cefalexin treatment.

Hypokalaemia has been described in patients taking cytotoxic drugs for leukaemia when they were given gentamicin and cefalexin.

Pregnancy.

Although laboratory and clinical studies have shown no evidence of teratogenicity, caution should be exercised when prescribing for the pregnant patient.

Breast-feeding

The excretion of cefalexin in human breast milk increased up to 4 hours following a 500 mg dose. The drug reached a maximum level of 4 micrograms/ml, then decreased gradually and had disappeared 8 hours after administration. Caution should be exercised when cefalexin is administered to a nursing woman, since the neonate is presented with the risk of candidasis and CNS toxicity due to immaturity of the blood-brain barrier. There is a theoretical possibility of later sensitisation.

Gastro-intestinal: Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis may appear either during or after antibiotic treatment. Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely. The most frequent side effect has been diarrhoea. It was very rarely severe enough to warrant cessation of therapy. Dyspepsia and abdominal pain have also occurred. As with some penicillins and some other cephalosporins, transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported rarely.

Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions have been observed in the form of rash, urticaria, angioedema, and rarely erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. These reactions usually subsided upon discontinuation of the drug, although in some cases supportive therapy may be necessary. Anaphylaxis has also been reported.

Haemic and Lymphatic System: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and haemolytic anaemia have been reported.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) has been reported with unknown frequency.

Other: These have included genital and anal pruritus, genital candidiasis, vaginitis and vaginal discharge, dizziness, fatigue, headache, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, arthralgia, arthritis and joint disorder. Reversible interstitial nephritis has been reported rarely. Slight elevations in AST and ALT have been reported.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Symptoms of oral overdose may include nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhoea and haematuria.

In the event of severe overdosage, general supportive care is recommended, including close clinical and laboratory monitoring of haematological, renal and hepatic functions, and coagulation status until the patient is stable. Forced diuresis, peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, or charcoal haemoperfusion have not been established as beneficial for an overdose of cefalexin. It would be extremely unlikely that one of these procedures would be indicated.

Unless 5 to 10 times the normal total daily dose has been ingested, gastro-intestinal decontamination should not be necessary.

There have been reports of haematuria without impairment of renal function in children accidentally ingesting more than 3.5g of cefalexin in a day. Treatment has been supportive (fluids) and no sequelae have been reported.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterials for systemic use, first-generation cephalosporins, ATC code: J01DB01.

In vitro tests demonstrate that cephalosporins are bactericidal because of their inhibition of cell-wall synthesis.

Cefalexin is active against the following organisms in vitro:

Beta-haemolytic streptococci

Staphylococci, including coagulase-positive, coagulase-negative and penicillinase-producing strains.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Escherichia coli

Proteus mirabilis

Klebsiella species

Haemophilus influenzae

Branhamella catarrhalis

Most strains of enterococci (Streptococcus faecalis) and a few strains of staphylococci are resistant to cefalexin. It is not active against most strains of Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii and Pr. vulgaris. It has no activity against Pseudomonas or Herellea species or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Penicillin-resistant Strptococcus pneumonia is usually cross-resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. When tested by in-vitro methods, staphylococci exhibit cross-resistance between cefalexin and methicillin-type antibiotics.

Absorption

Cefalexin is acid stable and may be given without regard to meals.

Cefalexin is almost completely absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, and 75-100% is rapidly excreted in active form in the urine. Absorption is slightly reduced if the drug is administered with food. The half-life is approximately 60 minutes in patients with normal renal function. Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis will remove cefalexin from the blood.

Distribution

Peak blood levels are achieved one hour after administration, and therapeutic levels are maintained for 6-8 hours.

Elimination

Approximately 80% of the active drug is excreted in the urine within 6 hours. No accumulation is seen with dosages above the therapeutic maximum of 4 g/day.

The half-life may be increased in neonates due to their renal immaturity, but there is no accumulation when given at up to 50 mg/kg/day.

Daily oral administration of cefalexin to rats in doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg prior to and during pregnancy, or to rats and mice during the period of organogenesis only, had no adverse effect on fertility, foetal viability, foetal weight, or litter size.

Cefalexin showed no enhanced toxicity in weanling and newborn rats as compared with adult animals.

The oral LD50 of cefalexin in rats is 5,000 mg/kg.

The granules contain the following excipients:

Sucrose

Imitation Guarana Flavour

Allura Red AC (E129)

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Methylcellulose 15

Dimeticone

Xanthan Gum

Pregelatinised Starch

Unreconstituted product: 3 years

After reconstitution: to be used within 10 days

Do not store granules above 25°C.

Reconstituted suspension should be stored in a cool place (6°C-15°C) or in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C).

The product is filled into 100 ml HDPE bottles with screw caps.

First invert the bottle and tap to loosen the powder then add a total of 60 ml water in two portions, shaking after each addition until suspended. The suspension is red.

Shake well before use.

No special requirements for disposal.

Flynn Pharma Limited

Marine House

Clanwilliam Place

Dublin 2

Ireland

Date of first authorisation: 14/03/1985

Date of latest renewal: 17/05/2001

Amoxicillin capsules or tablets

What is this medicine?

AMOXICILLIN (a mox i SIL in) is a penicillin antibiotic. It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections. It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Amoxil, Moxilin, Sumox, Trimox

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • kidney disease
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to amoxicillin, other penicillins, cephalosporin antibiotics, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on your prescription label. You can take it with or without food. If it upsets your stomach, take it with food. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Take all of your medicine as directed even if you think you are better. Do not skip doses or stop your medicine early.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

  • allopurinol
  • birth control pills
  • certain antibiotics like chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline
  • certain medicines that treat or prevent blood clots like warfarin

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better or if they get worse.

Do not treat diarrhea with over the counter products. Contact your health care professional if you have diarrhea that lasts more than 2 days or if it is severe and watery.

If you have diabetes, you may get a false-positive result for sugar in your urine. Check with your health care professional.

Birth control may not work properly while you are taking this medicine. Talk to your health care professional about using an extra method of birth control.

This medicine may cause serious skin reactions. They can happen weeks to months after starting the medicine. Contact your health care provider right away if you notice fevers or flu-like symptoms with a rash. The rash may be red or purple and then turn into blisters or peeling of the skin. Or, you might notice a red rash with swelling of the face, lips or lymph nodes in your neck or under your arms.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • bloody or watery diarrhea
  • breathing problems
  • feeling faint; lightheaded, falls
  • fever
  • redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth
  • seizures
  • signs and symptoms of kidney injury like trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine
  • signs and symptoms of liver injury like dark yellow or brown urine; general ill feeling or flu-like symptoms; light-colored stools; loss of appetite; nausea; right upper belly pain; unusually weak or tired; yellowing of the eyes or skin
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusually weak or tired

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • anxious
  • confusion
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • nausea, vomiting
  • stomach upset
  • trouble sleeping

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

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Meropenem meropenem antibiotic-carbapenem Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Methyluracil Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine Tissue repair stimulator Tablets
Methyluracil Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine Tissue repair stimulator Tablets
Methyluracil Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine Tissue repair stimulator Suppository
Methyluracil 10% Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine Tissue repair stimulator Ointment
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide Antiemetic – dopamine receptor central blocker Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Metoprolol Metoprolol Beta1-blocker selective Tablets
Metronidazole Metronidazole Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal agent Tablets
Migraineum Caffeine + paracetamol Combined analgesic agent (non-narcotic analgesic agent + psychostimulating agent) Tablets
Moxifloxacin Moxifloxacin Antimicrobial agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Sodium chloride Sodium chloride Plasma-substituting solution Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Nystatin Nystatin Antifungal agent Tablets
Novocaine Procaine Local anesthetic Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Novocaine Procaine Local anesthetic Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Ondansetron Ondansetron Antiemetic agent of serotonin receptors antagonist Solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration
Papaverine Papaverine Antispasmodic Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Papaverine Papaverine Antispasmodic Suppository
Paracetamol Paracetamol Analgesic non-narcotic drug Suppository
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline Vasodilator Powder for injection
Perindopril Perindopril Antihypertensive agent (ACE blocker) Tablets
Perindopril 4mg Perindopril angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor Tablets
Perindopril 8mg Perindopril angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor Tablets
Piracetam Piracetam Nootropic agent Capsule
Polyglyukin Dextran [cf. molecular weight 50000-70000] Plasma substitute Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Remantadine Rimantadine Antiviral agent Tablets
Riboxin Inosine Metabolic agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Riboxin Inosine Metabolic agent Tablets
Ringer Electrolytes balance reducing agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Salvisar® Local irritant of natural origin Ointment
Sulfur ointment simple Sulfur Anti-scab agent Ointment
Sinaflan Fluocinolone acetonide Topical glucocorticosteroid Ointment
Streptomycin Streptomycin Antibiotic – aminoglycoside Powder for injection
Sumatriptan 100 mg Sumatriptan Anti-migraine agent Tablets
Sumatriptan 50 mg Sumatriptan Anti-migraine agent Tablets
Tetracycline Tetracycline Antibiotic tetracycline Tablets
Tranexamic acid Tranexamic acid hemostatic agent, fibrinolysis inhibitor Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Trisol Trisol Rehydrating agent. Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Trisol Rehydrating agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Troxerutin troxerutin Venotonic and venoprotective agent Gel
Troxerutin Troxerutin Venotonic and venoprotective agent Capsule
Furosemide Furosemide Diuretic Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Hartmann solution Electrolytes balance reducing agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Chlorhexidine Chlorhexidine Antiseptic agent Suppository
Chloropyramine Chloropyramine antiallergic agent-H1-histamine receptor blocker. Solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration
Chloropyramine Chloropyramine antiallergic agent-h2 – histamine receptor blocker. Tablets
Chlosalt Chlosalt Rehydrating agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Chlosal® Rehydrating agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Choline alfoscerate Choline alfoscerate nootropic agent Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Cefazolin Cefazolin Antibiotic-cephalosporin Powder for injection
Cefoperazone + Sulbactam Cefoperazone + [sulbactam] antibiotic-cephalosporin + betalactamase inhibitor Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime Antibiotic-cephalosporin Powder for preparation of solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime Antibiotic-cephalosporin Powder for preparation of solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration
Ceftriaxone Ceftriaxone Antibiotic-cephalosporin Powder for injection
Ceftriaxone + water for injection Ceftriaxone Antibiotic-cephalosporin Powder for injection
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide Antineoplastic agent, alkylating compound Powder for injection
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin antimicrobial agent – fluoroquinolone Solution for intravenous infusion and injection
Etoria Etoricoxib Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Tablets

Antibiotics for COVID-19: An easy way to hurt yourself and bring the times when antibiotics won’t work | Hromadske TV

“Patients often ask me to give them some kind of“ magic pill ”that will cure them of coronavirus infection. And when I refuse, they start showing articles in the media, written by the so-called “specialists” – about what needs to be treated. Or they tell the stories of relatives and friends who allegedly recovered thanks to one or another miracle drug , ”says Irina Suvorkina, Ph.D., pulmonologist at the Oberig clinic.

Very often antibiotics pretend to be a “magic pill”. In the minds of patients, these are medicines that help almost everything: a runny nose, pain, bring down the temperature, and so on.

At the same time, the purpose of antibiotics is to kill bacteria that are the cause of a particular disease. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses at all, so it is simply impossible to cure COVID-19 with them. Just as there is no point in treating flu, measles, chickenpox, viral hepatitis or any other viral diseases with them.

Pneumonia is different

Patients are somewhat confused by the diagnosis of pneumonia, which often occurs as a complication of COVID-19. If we talk about ordinary pneumonia, then it is not only possible, but also necessary to be treated with antibiotics, because it is caused by pneumococci and some other bacteria. But there are pneumonias that are called atypical because they are caused by other pathogens – for example, the influenza virus or SARS-CoV-2 and other microorganisms.

The vast majority of patients do not know how to distinguish such pneumonias from “common” ones, how they develop and how they should be treated. But it should be admitted that not all doctors are good at doing this.

“Patients often prescribe computed tomography for themselves. At the onset of the disease, they see that 10% of their lungs are affected, and therefore prescribe antibiotics for themselves. A few weeks later, CT shows that 25% of the lungs are already affected. “So, we need more antibiotics,” the patient believes and continues to self-medicate. ”, says Irina Suvorkina.

According to her, after taking two or three types of antibiotics that could not help, such patients are often diagnosed with drug-induced hepatitis. That is, one more problem is added to the problems that have already existed.

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A woman buys medicine at a pharmacy, Kiev, Ukraine

Photo:

EPA / SERGEY DOLZHENKO

When COVID-19 needs antibiotics

But there are situations when a COVID-19 patient really needs to be prescribed antibiotics. This is done in cases where a bacterial one joins a viral infection.

“It can be suspected when a patient has a second wave of fever, purulent sputum is released when coughing, blood counts change and other symptoms that a doctor should know” , – says Irina Suvorkina.

But such cases are quite rare. According to American and British researchers, a concomitant bacterial infection occurs in 3-5% of patients with COVID-19. Despite this, more than 70% of patients with coronavirus infection in the United States were treated with antibiotics. Consequently, this problem does not only apply to Ukraine.

Drinking antibiotics “for prevention” with COVID-19 also makes no sense. They can harm the normal microflora, and this will not prevent possible complications in any way, but they can cause others, by no means less severe.

Antibiotics on the wave of popularity

The problem of misuse of antibiotics existed long before the coronavirus pandemic. But now it has acquired a special scale.

Health Minister Maxim Stepanov recently announced that the consumption of antibiotics this year has increased 3.5 times compared to the same period last year. According to the website apteka.ua, sales of azithromycin and ceftriaxone (antibiotics used, among other things, for the treatment of pneumonia) skyrocketed in the fall, which coincides with a significant increase in the incidence of COVID-19.

Similar trends, as we have already seen, are in other countries, including developed countries. The problem is not only in self-medication, but also in the fact that doctors often simply do not know how to treat a new disease and, at their discretion, prescribe various medications, including antibiotics.

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A woman in a hospital for COVID-19 patients in Kyrgyzstan

Photos:

EPA / IGOR KOVALENKO

This makes them stronger

But the misuse of antibiotics has much worse consequences than medical complications of hepatitis and other …We are talking about antibiotic resistance. In simple words, among bacteria well known to us, there are strains (varieties) that are insensitive to antibiotics, with which they were successfully treated earlier. Sometimes this means that they are not affected by any of the known antibiotics.

Already every year, at least 700 thousand people die from diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the world. We are not talking about some exotic diagnoses, but about well-known tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, the same pneumonia and the like.

By 2050, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are projected to kill 10 million people every year. WHO considers the problem of antimicrobial resistance (which includes antibiotics) as one of ten global health threats.

Our misconceptions

Several years ago, at the request of WHO, several countries conducted a study to find out how well people understand what antibiotic resistance is.

64% of study participants believe that colds and flu can be treated with antibiotics (although these are viral diseases).

Almost a third of people believe that if they feel better after taking antibiotics for a few days, then treatment should be stopped. But this is how we “select” resistant bacteria that are least vulnerable to antibiotics.

And another two-thirds of the respondents believe that people who take antibiotics correctly do not face the problem of antibiotic resistance.

But this is a dangerous delusion. The fact is that resistance is not something that occurs in the body of a person, but something that characterizes bacteria. If such bacteria have arisen in the body of one person, then another person can become infected with them, who did not violate any doctor’s prescriptions.

In other words, whether or not to take antibiotics and how to take them is not “everyone’s personal business.” If we do not change our practice of using antibiotics, the world will go back a hundred years – to a period when people were dying from common pneumonia and other diseases caused by bacteria.

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Two people in protective masks and shields near the diagnostic center in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Photo:

AP / Juan Ignacio Roncoroni

Science will save us, but not soon

Is it possible somehow avoid such a prospect?

The study just mentioned found that 64% of participants believed that doctors would solve the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria before it became too serious.

The truth is that humanity really needs new antibiotics, without which it will not be possible to defeat resistant bacteria. But, according to the WHO, among the antibiotics that pharmaceutical companies are developing today, very few are really innovative. Most of them differ little from those already on the market.

However, at the stage of preclinical trials there are drugs on which great hopes are pinned. But even in the best case, the first of them will be available to patients in about 10 years.This means that scientists and doctors themselves will not solve this problem.

How everyone can contain the emergence of resistant bacteria

Much depends on how responsibly each of us is about the use of antibiotics.

In particular, WHO recommends the following rules:

  • take antibiotics only if prescribed by a qualified doctor;
  • never ask the doctor for antibiotics if he says that this time they are not needed;
  • always follow your doctor’s recommendations for antibiotic use; in particular, this means that the course of treatment should last no less and no longer than prescribed by the doctor;
  • you cannot transfer your antibiotics for use to other people for whom they are not prescribed by a doctor.

There are other important rules that do not apply to taking antibiotics, but help to avoid the emergence of resistant bacteria. They are designed to protect against bacterial infections – so that the need for antibiotics does not even arise. These recommendations include regular hand washing, safe sex, and timely vaccinations to prevent diseases, including bacterial ones.

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Patients who are being treated for COVID-19 at home will be provided with medicines and masks – Newspaper.uz

Citizens who have confirmed coronavirus infection COVID-19 and who, on the recommendation of doctors, are treated at home, will be provided with medicines and disposable face masks free of charge. This decision was made on July 16 at a meeting of the Special Republican Commission on Combating Coronavirus, which was chaired by Prime Minister of Uzbekistan Abdulla Aripov.

According to the report of the commission, the list of drugs that should be provided to patients at home treatment includes “Hydroxychloroquine”, “Azithromycin”, “Paracetamol” and vitamin C.

The Ministry of Health and the relevant departments were instructed to urgently form a reserve of 50 thousand sets of these drugs and establish a system for their delivery to addresses.

In an interview with Gazeta.uz, a member of the headquarters for coronavirus, Professor Khabibulla Akilov noted that medical treatment at home is not required. According to him, treatment with drugs should be carried out under the supervision of doctors.

“Treatment that is carried out even to patients with mild symptoms in a hospital with Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine trademark – ed.), it should be performed strictly under the control of an electrocardiogram (ECG), because heart rhythm disturbances are observed. Without the presence of some symptoms and complications, azithromycin (a semi-synthetic antibiotic of a broad spectrum of action – ed.) Should not be recommended either, because it will be addictive, and then, when you really need to do azithromycin, it will no longer work. Therefore, at home, you need a treatment that increases immunity, and, possibly, some kind of mild antiviral prophylactic treatment … ”, – he said.

On July 15, at a meeting, the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev criticized the Ministry of Health and khokimiyats for improper work to prevent the spread of coronavirus and treat patients.

On behalf of the President, work has begun to strengthen the ambulance service, call centers, improve the COVID-19 test system and solve the problem of the availability of medicines in pharmacies.

Instruction for medical use of the drug Ingavirin® for adults

Pharmacodynamics

Antiviral drug.

Preclinical and clinical studies have shown the effectiveness of Ingavirin® against influenza A (A (h2N1) viruses, including pandemic strain A (h2N1) pdm09 (“swine”), A (h4N2), A (H5N1) ) and type B, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus; in preclinical studies: coronavirus, metapneumovirus, enteroviruses, including Coxsackie virus and rhinovirus.

Ingavirin® reduces the viral load, accelerates the elimination of viruses, shortens the duration of the disease, and reduces the risk of complications.

The mechanism of action is realized at the level of infected cells due to the activation of innate immunity factors, suppressed by viral proteins. Experimental studies, in particular, have shown that Ingavirin® increases the expression of the first type of interferon IFNAR receptor on the surface of epithelial and immunocompetent cells. An increase in the density of interferon receptors leads to an increase in the sensitivity of cells to signals from endogenous interferon.The process is accompanied by the activation (phosphorylation) of the STAT1 transmitter protein, which transmits a signal to the cell nucleus to induce the synthesis of antiviral genes. It has been shown that under conditions of infection, the drug activates the synthesis of the antiviral effector protein MxA (an early antiviral response factor that inhibits the intracellular transport of ribonucleoprotein complexes of various viruses) and the phosphorylated form of PKR, which suppresses the translation of viral proteins, thus slowing down and stopping the process of viral reproduction.

The effect of Ingavirin® consists in a significant decrease in the signs of the cytopathic and cytodestructive action of the virus, a decrease in the number of infected cells, limitation of the pathological process, normalization of the composition and structure of cells and the morphological picture of tissues in the zone of the infectious process, both in the early and in its later stages.

The anti-inflammatory effect is due to the suppression of the production of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6)), a decrease in the activity of myeloperoxidase.

Experimental studies have shown that the combined use of Ingavirin® with antibiotics increases the effectiveness of therapy in the model of bacterial sepsis, including that caused by penicillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus.

The experimental toxicological studies carried out indicate a low level of toxicity and a high safety profile of the drug.

According to the parameters of acute toxicity, Ingavirin® belongs to the 4th class of toxicity – “Low-toxic substances” (when determining the LD50 in experiments on acute toxicity, the lethal doses of the drug could not be determined).

The drug has no mutagenic, immunotoxic, allergenic and carcinogenic properties, does not have a local irritating effect. Ingavirin® does not affect reproductive function, has no embryotoxic and teratogenic effects.

There is no effect of Ingavirin® on the hematopoietic system when taking a dose appropriate for the age using the recommended regimen and course.

Pharmacokinetics

Suction and distribution.

In an experiment using a radioactive label, it was established that the drug quickly enters the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract, being distributed throughout the internal organs. Maximum concentrations in blood, blood plasma and most organs are reached 30 minutes after drug administration. The AUC values ​​(area under the concentration-time pharmacokinetic curve) of the kidneys, liver and lungs slightly exceed the blood AUC (43.77 μg.h / g). The AUC values ​​for the spleen, adrenal glands, lymph nodes and thymus are below the blood AUC.MRT (mean drug retention time) in the blood is 37.2 hours.

With the course of taking the drug once a day, it accumulates in the internal organs and tissues. At the same time, the qualitative characteristics of the pharmacokinetic curves after each administration of the drug are identical: a rapid increase in the concentration of the drug after each administration in 0.5-1 hour after administration and then a slow decrease by 24 hours.

Metabolism.

The drug is not metabolized in the body and is excreted unchanged.

Derivation.

The main process of elimination occurs within 24 hours. During this period, 80% of the dose taken is excreted: 34.8% is excreted in the time interval from 0 to 5 hours and 45.2% in the time interval from 5 to 24 hours. Of these, 77% is excreted through the intestines and 23% through the kidneys.

Inflammation of the gums: causes, how to treat, effective drugs

It is worth going to the doctor with suspected periodontitis if:

  • smells from the mouth,
  • gums bleed frequently or constantly;
  • gums itchy, sore, look red and swollen;
  • the spaces between the teeth are wider;
  • when food gets between the teeth, pain occurs;
  • There are a lot of dental calculi in the oral cavity (it is not always possible to find them on your own).

Periodontitis, like gingivitis, can pass into a chronic phase, which can have stages of exacerbation and remission. If left untreated, the inflammation leads to abscesses, in which the pus begins to destroy the soft and hard tissues. As a result, cavities with purulent contents may form.

Periodontitis has three degrees of severity, which are distinguished not by the patient’s sensations, but by the depth of the gingival pockets and the area of ​​tissue destruction. Untreated acute periodontitis becomes a chronic form, which, in turn, can lead to an even more serious disease – periodontal disease.

Periodontal disease deeply affects the tissues, causing their degenerative damage and covering the entire alveolar process. The volume of all tissues decreases, and depending on the level of bone reduction, a mild, moderate or severe degree of pathology is distinguished.

An advanced course of the disease can lead to the loss of teeth.

Treatment of periodontitis and periodontal disease

Treatment of periodontitis and periodontal disease of the gums primarily involves cleansing gingival pockets.This procedure can only be performed by a doctor using ultrasound equipment. After removing hard deposits, the spaces between the teeth and gums are treated with antibacterial agents. Further, the patient will have to strictly observe oral hygiene, monitor nutrition, and treat the oral cavity with antiseptics. According to the doctor’s prescription, anti-inflammatory drugs of local and (or) systemic action are also used.

However, with a severe course of the disease, with deep pockets (deeper than 3 mm), the treatment of periodontal disease of the gums will also require surgical intervention.The pockets will have to be cut open to completely clean out pus and hard deposits. After cleansing, the gums are treated with an antiseptic and sutured. In the future, the patient must follow a diet, treat the oral cavity according to the doctor’s instructions and take the prescribed drugs.

A pill, I know you – What you need to keep in mind so that the medicine heals and does not cripple

What needs to be borne in mind so that the medicine heals and does not cripple

Most Russians are prone to self-medication: just a little – we grab onto the pills and we are not afraid to overdo it.And we usually go to the doctor when we cannot cope on our own. It is predicted that by 2020 the number of people taking at least one medication daily will exceed half of the world’s population. The result of the uncontrolled use of medicines is deplorable – more than 50 percent of ground waters are polluted, traces of antibiotics, antidepressants, hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs are found in water and fish, this was discussed at the “Expert on the main thing” round table. The experts explained why you only need to take your medication when you need it and how to do it right.

Medicine is not food

“The results of the polls show that Russians are characterized by low personal responsibility for their health,” says Ekaterina Korkonosova, an analyst at Ipsos Comcon. We do not think about how to maintain good health, we reason something like this: “We will die anyway. So I’d better eat and drink now, but what will happen tomorrow is not important. ”

True, when health begins to fail, a person goes to the other extreme: he believes that with the help of drugs he will be able to regain vigor. Polls show that most people are not alert to the use of drugs. People are aware of the side effects and possible complications when taking them, but this does not affect consumer behavior.

“Many at the first stage may give preference to herbal preparations, considering them safer, but just as easily switch to potent chemicals.Moreover, there are no barriers to this – in a pharmacy you can easily buy an antibiotic and other prescription drugs that a doctor should prescribe, “the expert says.

Photo: RG Infographics / Anton Perepletchikov / Irina Nevinnaya

As a result, for example, people start taking antibiotics for colds, viral infections, which is not only useless, but sometimes just dangerous, and the long-term effect of excessive use of antibiotics – pathogens mutate, new antibiotic-resistant varieties appear.According to the WHO, more than 480 thousand new cases of diseases with especially severe forms of tuberculosis are registered annually in the world, which cannot be treated with all antibacterial drugs known today. The same is true with the use of antimalarial drugs and drugs needed to treat complications of HIV / AIDS.

There are no safe drugs

“There is a clear system for monitoring the quality of drugs,” explains the head of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Propedeutics of Internal Diseases of the Moscow State Medical University.Sechenov, professor Evgeniya Shikh. – Before a medicine is placed on the market, it must be registered by the Ministry of Health. And for this, the manufacturer is obliged to provide documents proving the safety and effectiveness of the drug. At the preclinical stage, the new drug is tested for toxicity. Research is underway at the genetic level. The effect on the reproductive system is checked – on pregnant animals, etc. And only if the preclinical stage has passed successfully, the regulator gives permission to conduct clinical trials, when the effectiveness of the drug is determined, as well as the ratio of effectiveness / safety already in patients. “

We treat drugs too lightly, and this reduces the effectiveness of treatment

But even after the drug has entered the market, control continues – the pharmacovigilance system is working. All studies are carried out on a limited number of people and for a limited time, and pharmacovigilance helps to track possible long-term effects of drug exposure.

Now in the USA, for example, another pharmacological scandal has flared up. Thousands of men who received testosterone preparations for the sake of maintaining male strength were at risk for heart attacks and strokes – these are the long-term consequences of using the drug.

Side effects identified during clinical trials are indicated in the instructions for the drug, as well as contraindications, and cases in which the drug should be used with caution. Therefore, the paper insert that comes with every package is worth exploring. As for distant reactions, here you also need to know how to behave correctly.

“If during the intake of the drug there are undesirable phenomena, the patient should inform the doctor about it. And the doctor should transfer this information to pharmacovigilance.Only by collecting a certain database, it is possible to clearly determine whether this is an undesirable phenomenon as a side effect of the drug, “explained Evgenia Shikh.

Only if needed

There is no system for the disposal of unused drugs in Russia. Private companies offer such services, but in most cases leftovers and expired medicines are liquidated in the same way as counterfeit withdrawn from circulation: they are burned, poured into the industrial sewer, and most often buried at ordinary landfills.From there, the active components seep into the soil and pollute the water. Therefore, experts recommend, at least at the household level, not to buy more medicines than is necessary for the course of treatment, not to accumulate stocks in a home first-aid kit.

Specifically

How to check the authenticity

1. Examining the packaging

– The design of each drug package is unique. Moreover, from time to time, pharmaceutical manufacturers change it to make the medicine more difficult to counterfeit. The manufacturer registers any changes in the appearance of the packaging with the Ministry of Health.You can see what the “correct” drug packaging looks like on the manufacturer’s official website.

– When buying a medicine in a pharmacy, we pay attention to the packaging, it must be whole, not wrinkled. Inside – instructions for medical use are mandatory.

– On the packaging are indicated: registration number, batch number of the drug, date of manufacture and expiration date, barcode.

– Homeopathic medicines are registered with the Ministry of Health on an equal basis with other medicines.The package must be labeled “homeopathic medicine”.

– Biologically active additives (BAA) are not a medicine. This means that when they are registered, clinical trials with an assessment of effectiveness are usually not performed. The label “is not a drug” must be present on the package.

– Rospotrebnadzor is responsible for state registration of dietary supplements.

2. We ask for a certificate

– If there are any doubts, we have every right to ask the pharmacist for a certificate for the medicine.This document duplicates all the data indicated on the package.

3. Check the registration

– The registration number of the medicinal product always starts with a letter (for example, LP-001450). If you bought a dietary supplement, its registration number contains letters in the middle of the number.

– You can check the registration certificate number on the Roszdravnadzor website.

More than 100 percent loss. The story of a COVID-19 ventilator survivor

https: // ria.ru / 20211018 / kovid-1754789325.html

“The defeat is more than 100 percent.” COVID-19 Ventilator Survivor’s Story

Over 100 Percent Defeat. The story of a survivor after mechanical ventilation with COVID-19 – RIA Novosti, 10/18/2021

“The defeat is more than 100 percent.” The story of a survivor after mechanical ventilation with COVID-19

“Resuscitation as the last journey to the cemetery,” says Leonid Ponomarev sadly. In the spring and summer of last year, he suffered from COVID-19 in a severe form … RIA Novosti, 18.10.2021

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MOSCOW, October 18 – RIA Novosti. “Resuscitation is the last journey to the cemetery,” says Leonid Ponomarev sadly. In the spring and summer of last year, he suffered severe COVID-19. Total lesion of the lungs, twice connected to mechanical ventilation. The doctors did not believe that he would survive. It is still far from complete recovery, but Leonid is optimistic about the future, he moved to the Moscow region, closer to nature. He found the strength to tell RIA Novosti how he got into the red zone, what he saw while he was in an artificial coma, and how he managed to get back from there.Interviewed by Tatyana Pichugina. The first crisis When quarantine was declared in Moscow, I strictly observed it – I wore masks, did not go anywhere much, I washed products from the store. I was very surprised at the cough and other cold symptoms. The doctor, seeing my poor condition, advised me to do a CT scan of my lungs, gave me the addresses. I took a taxi late at night, there was a huge queue. After the CT scan, they said: COVID-19, lung damage – 25-50 percent. Prescribed drugs, given antivirals right there. I returned home, my condition worsened, called an ambulance at night, and I was taken to the UKB-1 on Sportivnaya (University Clinical Hospital No. 1 of Sechenov University.- Approx. ed.). It was April 29th, and the red zone was recently opened at UKB-1. They put me alone in a two-room box. In the morning I saw two neighbors and three more in another room. They spoke loudly, it annoyed me. I told them: “Do you at least understand what is in the covid hospital.” They: “No, we just have a cough.” I was terribly shivering, it seemed that it was coming through an open door, I was not thinking well, I could not get up, my consciousness was smoothly leaving. The subsequent events were then restored by my messages in WhatsApp. At two o’clock in the afternoon, I was transferred to a two-bed intensive care unit.The cough was already with bloody sputum. My neighbor was taken to the intensive care unit. The last message: “I’m probably next.” I vaguely remember how they were driving me, I ask you to call. I hear: “Then you will call.” They pick up the phone. Later, the nurse told me that I undressed myself, went to bed. I was intubated, connected to a ventilator. This was my first boot. The second boot. By May 15, I felt better, I was breathing on my own. The hole in the trachea was sealed, they were going to be transferred to the department. Everyone was happy, because corpses were constantly taken out of the intensive care unit.This is the last way, people entered there in a very difficult condition. And the treatment protocols were just being created, in fact, they were experimenting with us. And then a sharp deterioration, I again plunged into darkness. I heard someone say: “It is unlikely that they will save him.” They intubated again. They were constantly loading, I was in a coma, my mind was confused. It seemed that he flew over the Sechenovka building opposite, saw the balconies, sunrises, how doctors came and went. I do not want to describe in detail what I saw and heard. I remember how they talked about me in the third person.It felt like an old woman was lying next to me, she asked the nurse: I’ll give you earrings, just save me. She answered: hold on, Zoya, everything will be fine. Then the nurse confirmed that it was. The old woman died. When I got out of the “load”, I tried to pull myself together. And in me there are pipes from all sides. When he fell, he apparently broke his elbow. I am large, so they tied me in. I lay in front of the central post in the intensive care unit, so that I was monitored around the clock. Bed number 4. “Departure” number, so they said.For the toughest. Everyone asked if he had died. No, they answered, he is alive. I stayed there, and they thought I wouldn’t survive the second intubation for sure, because there was a huge load on the heart, the kidneys completely failed. My friends insisted that I undergo hemodialysis. The pressure dropped sharply – to 60/40. During the transfusion, they gave me the plasma of the wrong blood group, sepsis began, and then a bacterial infection joined. All that is bad in covid I have experienced myself.The tube is clogged. So that I don’t suffocate, they constantly clean it, drain it. Through the tube comes high-flow oxygen NIV (non-invasive ventilation of the lungs. – Ed.), It is necessary, but it makes me cold, it’s torture. Another torture is inhalation with an antibiotic. They put on a breathing mask, pour the contents of the ampoule into it, and this mixture with air enters me. At the end of May, I underwent another CT scan. In the discharge, there is a record: “the lesion is more than 100% of the lung volume”, CT-4. In fact, it is death. Endless commissions include breathing equipment.My arms and legs don’t work, I can’t turn around, I don’t even have bedsores, but abscesses to the bone, they hurt. Fed through a tube in the nose. Constant “loading”, droppers, coagulants, they pour into me, pour all this ad infinitum. There were catheters and devices all around. I began to come to my senses, the first impulse was to run away. I ask: “Let go, do not torment.” Well go, they say where you will go. And I forgot all the phones. This state is just a physical shell. The temperature is 39 degrees, minus 40 kilograms of weight. I don’t fully realize who I am, where I am.The nurse said it was a great miracle that I did not become a vegetable, I returned. I ask the manager to remove the pipe so that I can breathe on my own. They seal up the holes for me, make drainage, pump out what is left of my lungs. I have hydrothorex, when tissue decomposes and turns into a liquid. I gradually exercise to breathe, they put cannulas in me, connect to oxygen. He dries his mouth, his lips are constantly chapped, he is thirsty, and he has to knock to bring. The greatest happiness in this state is when water is given. Reanimation in the red zone is closed.Everyone is being translated. There are three of us in the ward. The neighbor is taken away. Then I find out that he died while moving. Of the survivors lying here, there are not many. A psychologist comes, they bring me a phone so that I can talk to my family. Isolation is very scary. You are fenced off from the world by a double cordon: a red zone and intensive care. The mortality rate is high, it seems that your life is devalued to a minimum. My turn is June 15, they are loaded into an ambulance. They don’t know where to take them yet – to UKB-3 or UKB-4. On the way, the oxygen in the tank runs out, but since I was practicing to breathe myself, I got there.Again in intensive care I was taken to the intensive care unit of UKB-3. Terrible sepsis, endlessly taking tests, the source of infection does not find what to do with me, it is not clear. I’m scared, but this is the first time I fall asleep with my own, not artificial, sleep. Finally I get enough sleep. I calm down, I’m on the mend, I’m conscious and I see people leaving. They do drainage of my lungs, they download a huge amount of yellow fluid. It is impossible to look at it, there are no lungs. But I’m alive! I ask the manager to reduce my oxygen load so that I can get used to breathing on my own.He permits, but slowly, he says: do not get carried away, there is a risk of forgetting that you have weakened, hypoxia begins and you will not wake up at night. put on their feet. The whole team are real professionals. Nearby, my grandfather was lying for 86 years, he was cured of covid. Everyone was happy when he was transferred to a rehabilitation center. Medical doctors see death every single day. I was admitted to a 40-year-old man. Dinner time, they bring me bed food.He himself sits, eats, talks. Literally a few hours later, it inflates like a ball – this is pneumotorex, when air accumulates in the chest. They can do nothing, he dies. The whole horror of the covid is that the deterioration occurs with lightning speed. When I was taken away from UKB-1, everyone saw off. I told the nurse that I would find her and I found her. And there they lost my track, they thought he died. She asks: take a photo, otherwise ours do not believe. On the way to recovery, I am transferred from intensive care to the department. I don’t walk yet, without oxygen my saturation drops to 76 percent, my body is completely destroyed.But I go home, and I am discharged on June 30. Friends order transportation, buy oxygen cylinders, walkers and everything you need. I still can’t sit for a long time, but every week I feel an improvement, it’s not for nothing that they say that my own walls heal. A month after discharge, a crisis begins, what is called postkovid. But I understand where I came from, and I look at all these difficulties with optimism, I rejoice every day, the sun. Because where I was, there is nothing, there is infinity, another world, a continuous stream of double black packages.Better to live as it is now. The elbow has healed, the sensitivity of the limbs has not yet recovered, but I know that it will return to normal over time, like everything else. I had CT scans twice and twice called an ambulance because my lungs are bad. It depends on what the bad ones are. About 100 percent or relative to normal? I breathe on my own, I love karaoke, I already sing, although I can’t hold the sound for a long time, because my lung capacity has decreased. I’m a real estate manager, although I studied at the VMK Moscow State University, applied mathematics.This is how life turned out. He served in the Navy for three years. Smoked. Doctors privately, of course, say, maybe this saved, they say, the lungs, affected by nicotine, the virus was not able to finally destroy. Well, now I have nothing to smoke with, I quit, I am leading a healthy lifestyle. I moved from Moscow to the Moscow region, there is fresh air, exercise, more chances to avoid another wave of covid. The virus has not gone anywhere, and there is no effective cure yet. It’s a big lottery whether you survive or not. I went through all this, I will not wish it on anyone.I have a medical withdrawal from vaccination as I suffered from severe covid. But I tell everyone: get vaccinated. A vaccine is a small part of a virus that the body gets to know so that when it meets a real virus, it can say: I have already seen you somewhere and am not afraid. Because if he has not encountered it, he will launch a cytokine storm – the body’s defense reaction. I explain it this way: in order to protect a person as a species, not to keep the virus in the population, the body kills itself. I don’t tell a lot about it.About thrombosis, for example. All flesh becomes like plasticine, you squeeze it, but it does not return to its original state. You are not alive – dead. About doctors in spacesuits. When I woke up, I began to distinguish them by stripes. Blue – junior staff, yellow – older, the manager has a special suit. They inject three pairs of rubber gloves, put in droppers, catheters, do a tracheostomy. I tried not to watch, it’s an eerie sight. I am grateful to my support group, karaoke friends, who helped all two months.They united in a chat, organized a round-the-clock watch, collecting funds for missing medicines (they needed really rare ones), and delivered them. Thank you, I am still seen by a cardiologist at UKB-1, heart problems, kidneys do not function, I take 15 pills a day, but they do not give disability. I’m not offended. After what happened to me, I just want to live, admire the sun, drops of rain, enjoy every day given by God.

https://ria.ru/20211015/koronavirus-1754706580.html

https://ria.ru/20211014/kovid-1754586603.html

https://ria.ru/20200319/1568866842.html

https://ria.ru/20210929/postkovid-1752219949.html

https://ria.ru/20211006/kovid-1753170188.html

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MOSCOW, October 18 – RIA Novosti. “Resuscitation as the last journey to the cemetery,” says Leonid Ponomarev sadly. In the spring and summer of last year, he suffered severe COVID-19. Total lesion of the lungs, twice connected to mechanical ventilation. The doctors did not believe that he would survive. It is still far from complete recovery, but Leonid is optimistic about the future, he moved to the Moscow region, closer to nature.He found the strength to tell RIA Novosti how he got into the red zone, what he saw while he was in an artificial coma, and how he managed to get back from there. Interviewed by Tatiana Pichugina.

The first crisis

When quarantine was declared in Moscow, I strictly observed it – I wore masks, did not go anywhere much, products from the soap store. I was very surprised at the cough and other cold symptoms. The doctor, seeing my poor condition, advised me to do a CT scan of the lungs, gave me the addresses.

I took a taxi late at night, there is a huge queue.After the CT scan, they said: COVID-19, lung damage – 25-50 percent. Prescribed drugs, given antivirals right there. I returned home, my condition worsened, called an ambulance at night, and they took me to the UKB-1 on Sportivnaya (University Clinical Hospital No. 1 of Sechenov University. – Ed.). It was April 29th.

A red zone was recently opened at UKB-1. They put me alone in a two-room box. In the morning I saw two neighbors and three more in another room. They spoke loudly, it annoyed me.I told them: “Do you at least understand what is in the covid hospital.” They: “No, we just have a cough.” I was terribly shivering, it seemed that it was coming from an open door, I was thinking badly, I could not get up, my consciousness was smoothly leaving.

Subsequent events were then restored by my messages in WhatsApp. At two o’clock in the afternoon, I was transferred to a two-bed intensive care unit. The cough was already with bloody sputum. My neighbor was taken to the intensive care unit. Last message: “I guess I’m next.”

I vaguely remember how they were driving me, I ask you to call.I hear: “Then you will call.” They pick up the phone. Later, the nurse told me that I undressed myself, went to bed. I was intubated, connected to a ventilator. This was my first download.

Second load

By May 15, I felt better, I was breathing on my own. The hole in the trachea was sealed, they were going to be transferred to the department. Everyone was happy, because corpses were constantly taken out of the intensive care unit. This is the last way, people entered there in a very difficult condition. And the treatment protocols were just being created, in fact, they were experimenting on us.

And then a sharp deterioration, I again plunged into darkness. I heard someone say: “It is unlikely that they will save him.”

Intubated again. They were constantly loading, I was in a coma, my mind was confused. It seemed that he flew over the Sechenovka building opposite, saw the balconies, sunrises, how doctors came and went. I do not want to describe in detail what I saw and heard. I remember how they talked about me in the third person. It felt like an old woman was lying next to me, she asked the nurse: I’ll give you earrings, just save me.She answered: hold on, Zoya, everything will be fine. Then the nurse confirmed that it was. The old woman passed away.

When I got out of the “load”, I tried to pull myself together. And in me there are pipes from all sides. When he fell, he apparently broke his elbow. I’m big, so they tied me up.

I was lying in front of the central post in the intensive care unit, so that I was watched around the clock. Bed number 4. “Departure” number, so they said. For the toughest. Everyone asked if he had died. No, they answered, he is alive.I stayed there.

We thought that I would not survive the second intubation for sure, because the enormous load on the heart, the kidneys completely failed. My friends insisted that I undergo hemodialysis. The pressure dropped sharply – to 60/40. During the transfusion, they gave me the plasma of the wrong blood group, sepsis began, and then a bacterial infection joined. I have experienced everything that is bad in covid.

© RIA Novosti / Evgeny Biyatov / Go to photobank

A patient with a doctor in the intensive care unit of the University Clinical Hospital No.M. Sechenov.

1 of 4

A patient with a doctor in the intensive care unit of the University Clinical Hospital No. 2 of the I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

2 of 4

Doctors wear suits in the green area before working with COVID-19-infected patients at UKB-2.

3 of 4

In the intensive care unit at the temporary hospital for patients with COVID-19 at the Sokolniki Exhibition and Convention Center in Moscow.

4 of 4

At the patient’s bed in the intensive care unit of the COVID-19 hospital in the Pirogov hospital No 1 in Moscow.

1 of 4

A patient with a doctor in the intensive care unit of the University Clinical Hospital No. 2 of the I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

2 of 4

Doctors wear suits in the green area before working with COVID-19-infected patients at UKB-2.

3 of 4

In the intensive care unit at the temporary hospital for patients with COVID-19 at the Sokolniki Exhibition and Convention Center in Moscow.

4 of 4

At the patient’s bed in the intensive care unit of the COVID-19 hospital in the Pirogov hospital No 1 in Moscow.

In intensive care, conscious

I have a tube in the trachea, air comes out of it, the ligaments do not work, I can’t speak or scream. The tube is clogged.So that I don’t suffocate, they constantly clean it, drain it. Through the tube comes high-flow oxygen NIV (non-invasive ventilation of the lungs. – Ed.), It is necessary, but it makes me cold, it is torture.

Another torture is inhalation with an antibiotic. They put on a breathing mask, pour the contents of the ampoule into it, and this mixture with air enters me.

At the end of May I had another CT scan. In the discharge, there is a record: “the lesion is more than 100% of the lung volume”, CT-4. In fact, it is death.

Infinite commissions, including breathing equipment. My arms and legs don’t work, I can’t turn around, I don’t even have bedsores, but abscesses to the bone, they hurt. Fed through a tube in the nose. Constant “loading”, droppers, coagulants, they pour into me, pour all this ad infinitum. Around catheters, devices.

October 15, 11:57 Spread of coronavirus In Russia, a new maximum death rate from COVID-19 per day was recorded

He began to come to his senses, the first impulse was to escape. I ask: “Let go, do not torment.”Well go, they say where you will go. And I forgot all the phones. This state is just a physical shell. The temperature is 39 degrees, minus 40 kilograms of weight. I don’t fully realize who I am, where I am. The nurse said it was a great miracle that I didn’t become a vegetable, I returned.

I ask the manager to remove the tube so that I can breathe on my own. They seal up the holes for me, make drainage, pump out what is left of my lungs. I have hydrothorex, when tissue decomposes and turns into a liquid.

I gradually exercise to breathe, they put cannulas on me, connect to oxygen.He dries his mouth, his lips are constantly chapped, he is thirsty, and he has to knock to bring. The greatest happiness in this state is when water is given.

The intensive care unit in the red zone is closed. Everyone is being translated. There are three of us in the ward. The neighbor is taken away. Then I find out that he died while moving. There are few survivors lying here.

A psychologist comes, they bring me a phone so that I can talk to my family. Isolation is very scary. You are fenced off from the world by a double cordon: a red zone and intensive care.The mortality rate is high, it seems that your life is devalued to a minimum.

My turn June 15th, they are being loaded into an ambulance. They don’t know where to take them yet – to UKB-3 or UKB-4. On the way, the oxygen in the tank runs out, but since I was practicing to breathe myself, I got there.

October 14, 16:03 ScienceScientists have discovered another unexpected consequence of COVID-19

Again in intensive care

I was taken to the intensive care unit of UKB-3. Terrible sepsis, endlessly taking tests, the source of infection does not find what to do with me, it is not clear.I’m scared, but this is the first time I fall asleep with my own, not artificial, sleep. Finally I get enough sleep. I’m calming down, I’m on the mend.

I am conscious and see people leaving. They do drainage of my lungs, they download a huge amount of yellow fluid. It is impossible to look at it, there are no lungs. But I’m alive!

I ask the manager to reduce my oxygen load so that I can get used to breathing on my own. He permits, but slowly, says: do not get carried away, there is a risk of forgetting that you have weakened, hypoxia begins and you will not wake up at night.

I am immensely grateful to the doctors of the UKB-1 for being pulled out of the other world, to the doctors of the UKB-3 for being put on my feet. The whole team are real professionals. Nearby, my grandfather was lying for 86 years, he was cured of covid. Everyone was happy when he was transferred to a rehabilitation center.

Physicians see death every single day. I was admitted to a 40-year-old man. Dinner time, they bring me bed food. He himself sits, eats, talks. Literally a few hours later, it inflates like a ball – this is pneumotorex, when air accumulates in the chest.They can do nothing, he dies. The whole horror of covid is that the deterioration occurs at lightning speed.

When I was taken away from UKB-1, everyone saw me off. I told the nurse that I would find her and I found her. And there they lost my track, they thought he died. She asks: take a photo, otherwise our people do not believe.

March 19, 2020, 20:30 ScienceThe doctor spoke about the main mistake of a deceased patient with COVID-19

On the way to recovery

I am being transferred from intensive care to the department. I don’t walk yet, without oxygen my saturation drops to 76 percent, my body is completely destroyed.But I ask to go home, and on June 30 I am discharged.

Friends order transportation, buy oxygen cylinders, walkers and everything you need. I can’t sit still for a long time, but every week I feel an improvement, it’s not for nothing that they say that my own walls heal.

A month after being discharged, a crisis begins, what is called a postcovid. But I understand where I came from, and I look at all these difficulties with optimism, I rejoice every day, the sun. Because where I was, there is nothing, there is infinity, another world, a continuous stream of double black packages.Better to live as it is now. The elbow has healed, the sensitivity of the limbs has not yet recovered, but I know that it will return to normal over time, like everything else.

September 29, 08:00 Science “Just like a vegetable”. Why do people continue to get sick even a year after covid

I had CT scans twice and an ambulance was called twice, because my lungs are bad. It depends on what the bad ones are. About 100 percent or relative to normal? I breathe myself, I love karaoke, I already sing, although I can’t hold the sound for a long time, because my lung capacity has decreased.

I am a real estate manager, although I studied at the VMK Moscow State University, applied mathematics. This is how life turned out. He served in the Navy for three years. Smoked. Doctors privately, of course, say, maybe this saved, they say, the lungs, affected by nicotine, the virus was not able to finally destroy. Well, now I have nothing to smoke, I gave up, I am leading a healthy lifestyle.

Moved from Moscow to the Moscow region, there is fresh air, exercise, more chances to avoid another wave of covid. The virus has not gone anywhere, and there is no effective cure yet.It’s a big lottery whether you survive or not. I went through all this, I will not wish it on anyone.

I have a medical withdrawal from vaccination because I suffered from severe covid. But I tell everyone: get vaccinated. A vaccine is a small part of a virus that the body gets to know so that when it meets a real virus, it can say: I have already seen you somewhere and am not afraid. Because if he has not encountered it, he will launch a cytokine storm – the body’s defense reaction. I explain it this way: in order to protect a person as a species, not to keep the virus in the population, the body kills itself.

I don’t talk about much. About thrombosis, for example. All flesh becomes like plasticine, you squeeze it, but it does not return to its original state. You are not alive – dead. About doctors in spacesuits. When I woke up, I began to distinguish them by stripes. Blue – junior staff, yellow – older, the manager has a special suit. They inject three pairs of rubber gloves, put in droppers, catheters, do a tracheostomy. I tried not to look, this is a terrible sight.

I am grateful to my support group, karaoke friends, who have been helping for two months.They united in a chat, organized a round-the-clock watch, collecting funds for missing medicines (they needed really rare ones), and delivered them. Thank you.

I still see a cardiologist at UKB-1, heart problems, kidneys do not function, I take 15 pills a day, but they do not give disability. I’m not offended. After what happened to me, I just want to live, admire the sun, drops of rain, enjoy every day given by God.