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Symptoms of zyrtec: Side Effects of Zyrtec (Cetirizine), Warnings, Uses

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Understanding Common Allergy Symptoms | ZYRTEC®

Understanding Common Allergy Symptoms | ZYRTEC®
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Wondering if you have allergies? Read about common symptoms associated with allergies and ways to experience relief.

NASAL CONGESTION AND A RUNNY OR STUFFY NOSE

A runny nose is one of the most common allergy symptoms in both adults and children. When allergens enter your nose, the membrane swells and presses fluid out of small blood vessels in your nasal passages – typically in the form of a thin, clear liquid. To help reduce symptoms of a stuffy nose and nasal congestion, it’s helpful to drink plenty of fluids and stay hydrated.

SNEEZING

Although often not considered a severe allergy symptom, sneezing can cause friends and coworkers to keep their distance. Your body’s reaction to histamine includes itchiness and swelling inside your nose and throat. When these membranes become irritated, your brain tells your chest to contract and you sneeze to remove the irritants. To reduce sneezing fits, avoid outdoor and indoor allergy triggers or try relieving other symptoms causing irritation in your nose and throat.

ITCHY, WATERY EYES

Many allergens are airborne and come into direct contact with your eyes. That’s why more than 80% of people with allergies experience itchy, watery, or teary eyes. If they already feel irritated, help soothe them by washing your face and then placing a cool, moist washcloth over your eyes.

ITCHY NOSE OR THROAT

The membranes in both your nose and throat are sensitive to allergens you breathe in and can become irritated. Itchy nasal passages or an itchy throat can also be a reaction to too much histamine in your system, or the result of mucus drain from a runny nose. To help reduce this itchiness, try a throat lozenge.

SINUS CONGESTION

If your allergies include upper respiratory symptoms – sneezing and an itchy or runny nose – your sinuses might become swollen and blocked. Many people feel the blockage in their face resulting in sinus pressure, especially under the eyes, and may find it difficult to breathe through their nose. Learn more about decongestants, and try ZYRTEC-D® to help relieve nasal congestion, sinus congestion and pressure, and other allergy symptoms.

ZYRTEC® PROVIDES 24-HOUR ALLERGY SYMPTOM RELIEF

ZYRTEC® provides strong relief day after day for common allergy symptoms, including runny nose, sneezing, itchy nose or throat, and itchy, watery eyes. Explore our products for both adults and children for powerful allergy symptom relief for you and your family.

More About Allergy Symptoms

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Cetirizine And Pseudoephedrine (Oral Route) Side Effects

Side Effects

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of Overdose

  1. Changes in mood, irrational behavior, depersonalization hallucinations

  2. convulsions (seizures)

  3. extreme sleepiness or unusual drowsiness

  4. fast, slow, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse

  5. feeling anxious

  6. giddiness

  7. headache

  8. irritability

  9. muscle weakness or tenderness

  10. nausea

  11. restlessness

  12. shallow, irregular, fast, or slow breathing

  13. sleeplessness or trouble in sleeping

  14. abdominal and/or chest pain

  15. thirst

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Rare

  1. Breathing, troubled

  2. back, leg, or stomach pain

  3. blurred vision

  4. bloody, cloudy, or dark urine, sudden decrease in amount of urine

  5. black, tarry stools, diarrhea, light-colored stools

  6. confusion

  7. dizziness, feeling faint, or lightheaded

  8. fever or chills

  9. increased blood pressure

  10. rapid weight gain

  11. skin rash or hives

  12. swelling of face, mouth, throat, fingers, glands, feet, and/or lower legs

  13. stillbirth

  14. twitching, twisting, or uncontrolled repetitive movements of the face

  15. sudden sweating

  16. vomiting blood, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, unusual bleeding or bruising

  17. pale or yellow eyes or skin

  18. unusual tiredness or weakness

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More Common

  1. Sleepiness or unusual drowsiness, extreme tiredness
Less common

  1. Dry mouth

  2. weakness
Rare

  1. Dizziness

  2. sore throat

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

 

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Cetirizine: Side Effects & Withdrawal Symptoms – Video & Lesson Transcript

Antihistamines

Antihistamines work by stopping the effects of a substance called histamine. Histamine is released in the body when something harmful is detected in the environment, whether it is breathed in, touches the skin, or is ingested (eaten). Histamine is just doing its job by protecting the body from things that could bring it harm, but in people with allergies, the effects of histamine are far from pleasant. Itchy and watery eyes, runny nose, hives, swelling, or trouble breathing are all effects of histamine mistaking something harmless (such as grass or pollen) as a threat to the body. When antihistamine medications are taken, they can stop histamine from being released in response to outside threats, or make a reaction that has already occurred less severe.

Zyrtec is a second-generation antihistamine, which is newer than medications such as Benadryl. The older medications are more sedating and can cause more side effects. The newer medications cause less drowsiness, although some sleepiness may still occur.

Side Effects

Suppose you’re planning on going to a picnic at a park. You know the park has lots of trees and plants, and you are highly allergic to these things. The morning of the picnic, you take a Zyrtec pill. However, you’re worried that you may experience side effects from the antihistamine. You don’t want to be too tired to have fun with your friends! So you read the bottle’s label to find out more…

  • Common nervous system side effects of Zyrtec include: drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. These are the most commonly reported side effects of Zyrtec.
  • Common gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
  • Common respiratory side effects are: sore throat, runny nose, coughing, and nosebleeds.
  • In children, the most common side effects are: stomach pain and vomiting.

Zyrtec Withdrawal Symptoms

You had a great time at the picnic. You were a slightly tired, and noticed that your mouth was a bit dry, but other than that, you haven’t noticed many side effects. You listened to a recommendation from your doctor, who said to take the medication at night to reduce daytime drowsiness, and that tip has helped a lot. However, you have read online that some people have a hard time stopping Zyrtec and have reported ”withdrawal”-type symptoms. You want to know what the research says, so you ask your doctor.

Your doctor tells you that there is very little in the medical literature about Zyrtec withdrawal symptoms. There was one study (done in the Netherlands in 2016) that studied 12 cases of unbearable pruritus (itching) following discontinuation of Zyrtec. In all cases, these patients had been using Zyrtec for months or years. Every time they tried to stop taking Zyrtec, they experienced unbearable itching. Eventually, they found that slowly tapering the drug (taking less and less each day, over a period of time) allowed them to successfully stop taking it. Results of the study also showed that using steroids helped ease withdrawal symptoms in these patients.

Patients anecdotally report severe itching and hives as symptoms of stopping Zyrtec that they previously took daily. The itching may begin as soon as 12 hours after the most recent dose and can affect the whole body. Many say that this itching is worse than the allergy symptoms that led them to take Zyrtec in the first place. In general, these patients say that slowly reducing the dose over time is the best way to discontinue Zyrtec.

Lesson Summary

Cetirizine (Zyrtec) helps reduce symptoms of allergies. It’s a second-generation antihistamine, meaning it doesn’t have as many sedating effects as first-generation antihistamines, such as Benadryl. By blocking histamine release in the body, Zyrtec helps allergy sufferers be in the presence of substances to which they are allergic without as many negative reactions. However, Zyrtec does occasionally have some side effects, the most common of which are drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches. There have been reports, through few studies, of withdrawal symptoms in people attempting to stop taking Zyrtec. These people report unbearable pruritus (itching) and/or hives. These symptoms are generally less if people taper, or gradually reduce, their dose of Zyrtec over a period of time.

Medical Disclaimer: The information on this site is for your information only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice.

You CAN become dependent on Zyrtec and have itchy withdrawals from the allergy drug

For some, trying to quit taking the allergy medication, Zyrtec, causes such horrible, itchy withdrawals that they are nearly driven to madness. 

The antihistamine is prescribed to treat symptoms of allergies – including itching itself. 

But for some, including writer Jessica Misener, who chronicled her unbearable itch for Medium, trying to get off the over-the-counter drug after an allergy season, means spiraling into an unbearable withdrawal.  

Its a well-documented phenomenon, but not one that the drug’s maker, Johnson & Johnson, has not bothered to warn consumers about on Zyrtec’s packaging in the US. 

Zyrtech is a popular over-the-counter allergy medication and, although it isn’t addictive, the body can become dependent on it, leading to awful itchy withdrawal symptoms 

Zyrtec is among the arsenal of drugs that brings much needed relief to the more than 50 million Americans that suffer through months of allergies.

But after the season is over, the big itch starts up. 

Online forums abound with horror stories as well as confusion over what’s happening.

One poster, fire_thorn, describes developing migraines when they stopped taking Zyrtec. 

‘I also get hives all over. I’m at the point now where I don’t know if that’s actually withdrawal or if it’s proof that the Zyrtec works and I need to stay on it. When I have stopped it for allergy testing, my skin is so reactive that they can’t test me anyhow,’ they wrote.  

This is the paradoxical trap that these users fall into. 

In 2016, a Netherlands study documented 12 cases of what it dramatically called ‘Unbearable Pruritus After Withdrawal of (Levo)cetirizine,’ the generic name for Zyrtec. 

The people suffering terrible itches were of all ages (19-95) and were mostly women and one man. 

They had all been taking Zyrtec long-term and most started itching within a few days of quitting the allergy med. 

A majority of the withdrawal sufferers had tried multiple times to quit Zyrtec, but finally given up and just popped half a pill or more  because the itch was simply too unbearable. 

There’s long been a debate surrounding antihistamines and addiction. 

With older, first generation antihistamines, the most serious concern was over their sedative effects. 

Further, antihistamines are among a longer list of over the counter remedies that patients can misuse, overuse, and even on some level get addicted to

Dr Anna Lembke, Stanford University addiction expert  

But newer medications – including Zyrtec – have been reformulated so that they are less likely to make users drowsy and in such a way that they don’t cross the blood-brain barrier.  

Ostensibly, those alterations made the drugs minimally addictive and safer. 

So in the 2000s, Zyrtec became an over-the-counter drug. Doctors and the US Food and Drug Administration deemed patients capable of diagnosing themselves with allergies and the treatments safe enough for them to pick up at the pharmacy without approval.  

Zyrtec contains pseudoephedrine, the same ingredient in Sudafed that has caused controversy and concern over illicit use – but not in its own right. 

The compound can cause drowsiness and can be used in the making of methamphetamine. 

But pseudoephedrine doesn’t itself have an addictive chemical profile. 

And there is little research on the possible ‘addictive’ quality of antihistamines across the board. 

‘In general, withdrawal from antihistamines does not compare to withdrawal from opioids or benzodiazepines,’ says Dr Anna Lembke, who studies addiction and withdrawal at Stanford University. 

‘Opioid withdrawal can be excruciating, although not usually life threatening. Benzodiazepine withdrawal can be life threatening, like alcohol withdrawal. 

‘Antihistamine withdrawal, on the other hand, certainly causes some discomfort, but is generally tolerable. Patients commonly experience rebound symptoms like restlessness, anxiety, agitation, and insomnia.

‘Opioid withdrawal can be excruciating, although not usually life threatening. Benzodiazepine withdrawal can be life threatening, like alcohol withdrawal.’ 

Like all other forms of dependence, the brain undergoes a process of neuroadaptation to the molecule

But the fact that its withdrawal symptoms are relatively mild, one can still become chemically dependent upon Zyrtec or misuse it – and many other seemingly innocuous drugs. 

‘Further, antihistamines are among a longer list of over the counter remedies that patients can misuse, overuse, and even on some level get addicted to, especially when combined with addictive substances like sedatives or stimulants,’ says Dr Lembke.  

‘Like all other forms of dependence, the brain undergoes a process of neuroadaptation to the molecule. ‘   

Neuroadaptation is the process by which the brain learns and gets used to stimuli that were once new and become repetitive. 

We need our brains to do this – imagine if every time you heard a car horn honk, it was as shocking and disruptive as the very first time you heard one. 

But sometimes this adaptation backfires, as is the case with drugs that the brain becomes used to and doesn’t realize, so to speak, that it should be able to adjust to doing without. 

So the brain is slow to re-adapt to not having whatever receptors a drug – or other stimulus interacted with – be constantly engaged, and goes a bit haywire. 

In the case of Zyrtec, the stimulus in question might be the compound, cetirizine, which blocks the histamine receptors that react inappropriately to environmental factors, like pollen, preventing the allergens from having their irritant effects.

It might be that by being blocked by cetirizine so regularly, tolerance goes up and the someone becomes vulnerable to dependence, and therefore withdrawal, keeping them up all night counting all the ways and places that they itch.

The mechanism may not be documented in the scientific literature, but the incidence certainly is in the FDA’s adverse events database. 

By September 2018, nearly 1,500 people in the US had reported pruritus – excessive itching – reactions to Zyrtec. The previous year, there were 2,234 reports. 

The itching tends to subside after a few days, and many people manage to eventually ween themselves off the drug by taking incrementally smaller doses or switching to a different allergy medication. 

But it still makes for a maddening few days.  

 

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Descripción:

ZYRTEC® es la marca especialista en alergias más recomendada entre antihistamínicos orales de venta libre. Proporciona un rápido* alivio de los peores síntomas de la alergia, como estornudos, goteo nasal, ojos llorosos e irritados y picazón en nariz y garganta, provocados por alérgenos de interior y exterior, como polvo, moho y caspa de animales, polen de los árboles, malezas y hierbas.

*ZYRTEC® (comprimidos de cetirizina HCL 10 mg) comienza a actuar durante la primera hora de administración.

Zyrtec for Dogs

Zyrtec is an over-the-counter human allergy medication sometimes given to dogs with atopic dermatitis or mild to moderate environmental allergies. Vets may suggest Zyrtec as a course of action for dogs who scratch excessively, are sensitive to insect bites, or have dermatitis. 

Dosage

Zyrtec comes in 5 and 10-milligram tablets and can be given either every 24 hours for atopic dermatitis or every 12 hours for allergy symptoms.   The 10 mg pills are okay for dogs between 10 and 50 lbs, though 5-10 lb dogs should only take half (or a 5-mg tablet.) Canines who exceed 50 lbs may take up to two 10 mg tablets if necessary. Dogs under 5 lbs should only take a quarter of a 10 mg tablet or half of a 5 mg pill. 

Zyrtec also comes in a liquid form that must be dosed with a syringe or dropper. This form can be drizzled over pet food or squirted directly into the pet’s mouth. Liquid Zyrtec may be easier to dose out for smaller dogs since the tablets are small and can be difficult to cut evenly.

If you have any questions or concerns about the correct dosage of Zyrtec for dogs, consult your vet or chat with a vet now.

Efficacy

Zyrtec’s active ingredient, cetirizine, is closely related to hydroxyzine, a powerful antihistamine that is sometimes used before surgeries to help patients relax. Zyrtec is considered a second-generation antihistamine and doesn’t cause drowsiness like first-generation alternatives. So how does Zyrtec stack up to other antihistamines?  

One study of dogs with atopic dermatitis found that Zyrtec reduced itching in 18% of the dogs studied. The only side effects noted in this study were vomiting in two dogs after taking the drug.

In another, more successful study, dogs who took Zyrtec before being injected with histamine had less inflammation around the injection site than those who didn’t receive the drug. This experiment had a 100% efficacy rate in the small 8-dog study group. 

A separate study of 12 dogs injected with histamines found that the active ingredient in Zyrtec was notably more effective than Benadryl at minimizing the body’s immune response.

Side effects

Side effects from Zyrtec in dogs are rare, but occasionally some dogs experience:

Considerations

Experts do not recommend Zyrtec for pregnant or breastfeeding dogs since there is little research on its use in these groups. Some veterinarians will still prescribe Zyrtec for pregnant and nursing dogs on an individual basis if the benefits outweigh the risks. 

Never give Zyrtec to dogs who are allergic to antihistamines, especially those with cetirizine or hydroxyzine in them. This may cause a life-threatening reaction called anaphylactic shock.  

Use this medication carefully in dogs with kidney or liver problems since it can stay in their system for much longer than healthy dogs. Stop treatment immediately if your dog begins showing signs of urine retention or other severe side effects. 

Giving an antihistamine inappropriately may mask signs of other disease, so it is best to ask you veterinarian if this medication is right for your dog.  

Drug interactions

  • Opioids (such as codeine, hydrocodone, or morphine)
  • Anti-anxiety or sleep medications (such as alprazolam, lorazepam, zolpidem, diazepam, and clonazepam)
  • Muscle relaxers (such as carisoprodol andcyclobenzaprine)
  • Oral or topical antihistamines (such as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine)
  • Pseudoephedrine (found in nasal decongestants)

Allergic reactions and sensitivity

It sounds strange, but pets can be allergic to allergy medications, including Zyrtec. Tell your vet if your pet’s allergy symptoms worsen or if they have signs of anaphylaxis like trouble breathing or swelling of the face. 

Symptoms of a severe drug reaction include:

  • Hives

  • Swelling of the face, muzzle, tongue, or paws

  • Uncontrollable itching

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Confusion

  • Racing heartbeat

  • Abrupt loss of bladder or bowel control

  • Cold gums and mouth

  • Shock

  • Involuntary muscle twitching

Frequently asked questions

Can I give Zyrtec for my dog with a meal?

Food does not affect Zyrtec’s efficacy, so feel free to give it to your pup with or without food.  

What should I do if I miss a dose of Zyrtec for my dog?

  • For dogs taking Zyrtec twice daily: give the next dose at the usual time.

  • For dogs taking Zyrtec once daily: give the medication when you think of it, and resume the normal dosage time the next day. 

  • Refrain from “doubling up” to make up for missed doses. 

Is it normal for Zyrtec to make my dog tired?

Zyrtec is one of the few antihistamines that do not cause drowsiness for most dogs, though there are some exceptions. If Zyrtec makes your dog sleepy, try giving it to them before bedtime to see if that helps their energy levels during the day.    

How should I store Zyrtec for dogs?

Keep your pup’s Zyrtec in a cool, dry area away from bright light. Liquid Zyrtec is shelf-stable while sealed. While it may be tempting to put liquid Zyrtec in the refrigerator after opening, this can actually make it less effective.

Can I give my dog Zyrtec-D?

Never give your dog Zyrtec-D since it contains powerful decongestants that can harm dogs. While one pill might seem innocuous, there’s data that shows a single dose of Zyrtec-D can kill or inflict irreversible harm to small dogs.

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Cetirizine | Health Navigator NZ

Cetirizine is an antihistamine used to treat and prevent allergies such as hay fever. Find out how to take it safely and possible side effects.




Type of medicine Also called

  • Belongs to a group of medicines known as antihistamines (allergy treatment)
  • Non-sedating antihistamine

  • Zista®
  • Histaclear®
  • Allerid C®
  • Cetirizine-AFT® 
  • Zyrtec®
  • Razene®
  • Zetop®

What is cetirizine?

Cetirizine is used to treat and prevent allergies such as hay fever (sneezing, runny or itchy nose, itchy eyes) or skin allergies such as hives (itching, redness, lumps).  It works by blocking a chemical in your body, called histamine, which is released during an allergic reaction. 

Cetirizine belongs to a group of medicines known as antihistamines. Cetirizine is a non-sedating antihistamine, which means that it is less likely to cause drowsiness or make you feel sleepy. In New Zealand, cetirizine is available as tablets or as a liquid. Read more about antihistamines.

Dose

  • The usual dose of cetirizine for adults and children over 12 years, is 1 tablet (10 milligrams) once a day.
  • The dose for children under 12 years will depend on their age and weight. Your doctor or pharmacist will advise you on the correct dose for your child.
  • You can just take cetirizine on the days you need it. It can be restarted if the symptoms come back. 
  • Some people take cetirizine for a few weeks when their allergies are a problem, such as in springtime. Others take it long-term to help control allergy symptoms.  

How to take cetirizine

  • Timing: Take cetirizine once a day at the same time each day. You can take cetirizine with or without food. Swallow the tablet whole, with a glass of water.
  • Limit drinking alcohol while you are taking cetirizine. It may increase your chance of side effects such as sleepiness.  
  • Missed dose: It is not harmful if you miss your cetirizine dose. If you forget to take your dose, and you usually take it regularly, take it as soon as you remember that day. If it is less than 12 hours for your next dose, just take the next dose at the right time. Do not take double the dose.

Precautions before starting cetirizine

  • Are you are pregnant, trying for a baby or breastfeeding?
  • Do you have epilepsy?
  • Do you have any problems with the way your kidneys work?
  • Are you taking or using any other medicines? This includes any medicines that you can buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines.

If so, it’s important that you tell your doctor or pharmacist before you start cetirizine. Sometimes a medicine isn’t suitable for a person with certain conditions, or it can only be used with extra care.

What are the side effects of cetirizine?

Like all medicines, cetirizine can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them. Often side effects improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine.




Side effects What should I do?

  • Try taking cetirizine at night.
  • Be careful when driving or using tools until you know how this medicine affects you.
  • Limit drinking alcohol – it makes these symptoms worse.

  • Changes in eyesight
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Feeling dizzy or confused
  • Problems passing urine
  • Constipation
  • Headache

Interactions

Cetirizine may interact with some medicines so check with your pharmacist before starting cetirizine or before starting any new medicines.  If taken with other antihistamines (such as some cough and cold medication) it may cause added sleepiness.

Learn more

Razene Medsafe, NZ
Cetirizine New Zealand Formulary

References

  1. Cetirizine hydrochloride New Zealand Formulary
  2. Antihistamines New Zealand Formulary

According to the instructions, the dosage of Zyrtek for an adult is

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Data obtained in clinical trials. Review The results of clinical studies have demonstrated that the use of cetirizine at the recommended doses leads to the development of minor adverse effects on the central nervous system, including drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness and headache. In some cases, paradoxical stimulation of the central nervous system was recorded. Despite the fact that cetirizine is a selective blocker of peripheral h2-receptors and practically does not have an anticholinergic effect, isolated cases of difficulty urinating, disturbances in accommodation and dry mouth have been reported.Abnormal liver function has been reported, accompanied by an increase in hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. In most cases, adverse events resolved after discontinuation of cetirizine dihydrochloride. List of adverse reactions There is evidence from double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing cetirizine and placebo or other antihistamines used in recommended doses (10 mg once daily for cetirizine) in more than 3200 patients, based on which a reliable analysis of safety data can be carried out. According to the results of the pooled analysis, in placebo-controlled studies when using cetirizine at a dose of 10 mg, the following adverse reactions were identified with a frequency of 1.0% or higher: General disorders and disorders at the injection site: fatigue; Nervous system disorders: dizziness, headache; Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain, dry mouth, nausea; Mental disorders: drowsiness; Respiratory, chest and mediastinal disorders: pharyngitis.Although the incidence of drowsiness in the cetirizine group was higher than that in the placebo group, in most cases this adverse event was mild to moderate in severity. Objectively, other studies have confirmed that the use of cetirizine at the recommended daily dose in healthy young volunteers does not affect their daily activities. Children In placebo-controlled studies, in children aged 6 months to 12 years, the following adverse reactions were identified with a frequency of 1% or more: Disorders from the gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea; Mental disorders: drowsiness; Disturbances from the respiratory system, chest and mediastinal organs: rhinitis; General disturbances and disturbances at the injection site: fatigue. Post-marketing experience In addition to the adverse events identified during clinical trials and described above, the following adverse reactions were observed during the post-marketing use of the drug. Adverse events are presented below according to the classes of the MedDRA organ system and the frequency of development, based on the data of post-marketing use of the drug. The incidence of adverse events was determined as follows: very often (> 1/10), often (> 1/100, 1/1000, 1/10000,

This product can be supplied by several manufacturers at once.For this reason, the information differs. Product-specific data is always presented on the label. The appearance of the product in the store may also differ from the image in the photo.

ALLERGIC CONJECTIVITIS IN ADULTS – SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT

Details
Author: LDC Neuron
Published: 10 November 2015

Among all ophthalmic pathologies, conjunctivitis in adults is the most common disease. Various forms of conjunctivitis are diagnosed in one third of patients who seek medical help from an ophthalmologist. In most cases, with timely treatment started, no problems arise, and the disease is easily cured. However, conjunctivitis should not be considered a harmless disease, because it can lead to complications such as blepharitis, keratitis, dry eye syndrome, scarring of the eyelids and cornea, corneal perforation, etc.

Causes of conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane (conjunctiva) that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the front of the eyeball.Due to the anatomical features of the eye, the conjunctiva is constantly exposed to various external stimuli: microorganisms, dust particles, chemicals, hot or cold air, smoke. The action of these factors can cause inflammation of the conjunctival membrane of the eye, in this case, the resulting conjunctivitis will be primary. Secondary conjunctivitis develops as a symptom of certain diseases, its occurrence is not associated with direct irritation of the conjunctiva.

Varieties of conjunctivitis

Primary conjunctivitis, depending on the cause, are subdivided into:

  • bacterial: pneumococcal, streptococcal, gonococcal, diplobacillary, chlamydial, etc.
  • viral: adenoviral, herpetic, epidemic hemorrhagic, measles;
  • fungal: candidal, actinomycotic;
  • parasitic: helminthic, toxoplosmic;
  • reactive, arising in response to physical or chemical stimuli entering the conjunctival sac.

Among the secondary conjunctivitis are distinguished:

  • developed against the background of common diseases: measles, chickenpox, tuberculosis, syphilis, urogenital chlamydia;
  • allergic – develop against the background of general sensitization of the body.

Depending on the morphological changes developing in the conjunctival membrane, catarrhal, follicular, diaper, papillary and hemorrhagic conjunctivitis are isolated. In the course of the disease, conjunctivitis are acute, subacute and chronic.

Signs of conjunctivitis

The clinical picture of the disease largely depends on its cause and the degree of morphological changes in the conjunctiva. But the main symptoms of conjunctivitis are observed in any form of this disease, these include the following manifestations:

  • pain in the eye of varying intensity, in the form of burning, tingling, cramps;
  • feeling of a foreign body, accompanied by itching;
  • conjunctival injection – manifested by superficial hyperemia, more pronounced at the periphery of the eye;
  • photophobia – bright light causes discomfort in patients and increases pain;
  • lacrimation – occurs as a defensive reaction;
  • the presence of discharge from the conjunctival sac.Its nature depends on the causative agent of the disease and can be mucous, mucopurulent, suppurative. The branches can be scanty or profuse, watery or viscous.

Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults

The disease manifests itself as one of the symptoms of general body sensitization. Its treatment requires, first of all, a complete cessation of contact with the allergen. However, unfortunately, it is extremely rare to exclude the effect of the agent that caused the allergy.Treatment interventions consist of general and local desensitizing therapy. Treatment begins with the appointment of antihistamines: suprastin, claritin, zirtek.

For severe allergies, hormonal agents are used: prednisolone orally, in severe cases intravenously as part of infusion therapy with calcium chloride, rheopolyglucin. Topically applied drops with hydrocortisone, dexamethasone. An eye toilet is mandatory every 2-3 hours using antiseptic agents.

ldc “Neuron”

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90,000 first aid at home, consequences and treatment

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“Allergy can kill”: what to do if a wasp bites

Wasp sting: first aid at home conditions, consequences and treatment

“Allergy can kill”: what to do if a wasp bites

Traditionally, the peak of activity of wasps occurs in August-September, because over the summer their families manage to grow and develop.What to do after a wasp bite in the hand or … RIA Novosti, 09/16/2021

2021-09-16T17: 30

2021-09-16T17: 30

2021-09-16T23: 04

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first aid

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MOSCOW, September 16 – RISC NewsTraditionally, the peak of activity of wasps occurs in August-September, since their families manage to grow and develop over the summer. What to do after a wasp bite on the arm or other part of the body, how to provide first aid at home and relieve pain at the site of injury – in the material RIA Novosti. Signs of a wasp sting at the site of the bite, which cannot be overlooked or ignored. Insect venom tends to destroy cell walls and cause inflammation in tissues.Sometimes during the penetration of the sting, blood vessels can be affected, causing a slight hemorrhage. But the first and main signs of a wasp attack are still considered to be painful sensations and redness, which persist for the first two to three hours. In some cases, the temperature may rise and itching may begin. Then the initial unpleasant sensations are replaced or supplemented by other, more dangerous to health consequences. What is the difference between bee, hornet and wasp stings? In addition, a wasp is larger than a bee (it can reach a length of 2.5 centimeters) and has much more neurotoxins and other substances that have a destructive effect on human tissue.By nature, these insects are more aggressive – if bees never attack first, then wasps, as a rule, are very intrusive towards a person, especially if there is food next to him. As for hornets, this is the largest species of hymenoptera. They are able to bite several times in a row, however, they do it extremely rarely, for example, in the event of a real threat, when a person attacks the offspring or ruins the nest. The hornet’s sting contains poison, but less toxic, therefore, not as dangerous as that of a wasp.First aid What to do when a wasp has bitten, explains the doctor of the first category Tatyana Sharkovskaya: the body. “According to the expert, if a person is somewhere in nature, and there is no ice at hand, you can replace it with a flask of water or a cloth soaked in cold water. As soon as the condition has improved slightly, the site of the bite should be examined, perhaps a sting remains there.If it is, then you need to try to get it. In no case should the poison be squeezed out, because in this way it will begin to enter the bloodstream faster and increase pain. To get the sting as safe as possible, you need to pry it with a fingernail, a sharp object or take it out with tweezers, while not forgetting about sanitation.If this is not possible, it is necessary to treat the skin around the bite with a disinfectant (this can be any alcohol tincture, corvalol in drops, hydrogen peroxide , miramistin, etc.) and consult a doctor. It is imperative to wipe the place where the poison enters, because an infection can enter the body with a sting. If you do not have any of the above with you, then it is worth rinsing the bite area with clean water. Treatment As a rule, in the absence of an allergic reaction, the edema subsides within two to three hours and does not require further treatment. But if, two hours after the bite, the redness does not decrease, it is necessary to take an antihistamine (Suprastin, Tavegil, Zirtek, Zodak, Loratadin, etc.If itching appears at the site of the bite, then you need to try to avoid scratching and use an ointment in which the substance “hydrocortisone” should be present, which relieves discomfort. Serious allergic reactions are treated only under the supervision of an allergist and, as a rule, are accompanied by anti-inflammatory prescriptions, pain relievers and antihistamines, as well as injections of adrenaline and drip solutions to lower blood pressure. The consequences of a bite For some they are insignificant, but for others they are extremely dangerous.If, after a bite, a person has a sore throat, headache, nausea, severe dizziness, convulsions and a sharp drop in pressure, these are signs of anaphylactic shock. It is important to seek immediate medical attention; the severity of the effects is also influenced by the number of bites. If the wasp stung once, then the risk of a strong reaction is small, but if it was attacked by a whole swarm, the harm to health can be very significant. In addition, a lot depends on the place where the poison enters. For example, the tongue from a wasp bite can be very swollen, and if poison enters the eye, there is a high risk of serious vision problems.Prevention of a bite How to avoid a wasp bite, said allergist-immunologist Tatyana Sharkovskaya.

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MOSCOW, September 16 – RIA Novosti. Traditionally, the peak of activity of wasps occurs in August-September, as their families manage to grow and develop over the summer. What to do after a wasp bite on the arm or other part of the body, how to provide first aid at home and relieve pain at the site of injury – in the material RIA Novosti.

Signs of a wasp bite

The first thing that a person feels after an unsuccessful meeting with a wasp is severe and lingering pain at the site of the bite, which cannot be overlooked or ignored. Insect venom tends to destroy cell walls and cause inflammation in tissues.

September 9, 11:23

What to do if bitten by a tick – doctor’s advice

Sometimes during the penetration of the sting, blood vessels can be affected, causing a slight hemorrhage. But the first and main signs of a wasp attack are still considered to be painful sensations and redness, which persist for the first two to three hours.In some cases, the temperature may rise and itching may begin. Then the initial discomfort is replaced or supplemented by other, more dangerous health consequences.

What is the difference between bee, hornet and wasp stings?

“A wasp is a hymenoptera insect that is dangerous with its multiple bites. For example, a bee stings only once and dies, as its sting, breaking off along with the abdomen, remains in the human body,” explains the expert of the UniProf Academy of Physicians. allergist-immunologist Tatiana Sharkovskaya.

In addition, a wasp is larger than a bee (it can reach a length of up to 2.5 centimeters) and has much more neurotoxins and other substances in stock that have a destructive effect on human tissue.

By nature, these insects are more aggressive – if bees never attack first, then wasps, as a rule, are very intrusive towards a person, especially if there is food next to him.

As for the hornets, this is the largest species of Hymenoptera. They are able to bite several times in a row, however, they do it extremely rarely, for example, in the event of a real threat, when a person attacks the offspring or ruins the nest.The hornet’s sting contains poison, but less toxic, therefore, not as dangerous as that of a wasp.

July 6, 04:57

Russians were warned about parasites that can penetrate the skin through water

First aid

What to do when a wasp bitten, explains the doctor of the first category Tatyana Sharkovskaya: “If the attack of a wasp could not be avoided, the first what needs to be done is to apply ice to the site of the bite in order to reduce the development of edema and, due to vasospasm, prevent further spread of the poison throughout the body. “

According to the expert, if a person is somewhere in nature, and there is no ice at hand, you can replace it with a flask of water or a cloth soaked in cold water. As soon as the condition has improved slightly, the site of the bite should be examined, perhaps a sting remains there. If it is, then you need to try to get it. In no case should the poison be squeezed out, because in this way it will begin to enter the bloodstream faster and increase pain. To get the sting as safe as possible, you need to pry it off with your fingernail, a sharp object or remove it with tweezers, while not forgetting about sanitation.

If this is not possible, it is necessary to treat the skin around the bite with a disinfectant (it can be any alcohol tincture, corvalol in drops, hydrogen peroxide, miramistin, etc.) and consult a doctor. It is imperative to wipe the place where the poison enters, because an infection can enter the body with a sting. If you have none of the above with you, then you should rinse the bite area with clean water.

August 30, 12:42 PM In Russia, the residents of the Russian Federation were warned about mosquitoes that transmit West Nile fever

Treatment

As a rule, in the absence of an allergic reaction, the edema subsides within two to three hours and does not require further treatment.But if, two hours after the bite, the redness does not decrease, it is necessary to take an antihistamine (Suprastin, Tavegil, Zirtek, Zodak, Loratadin, etc.).

If itching appears at the site of the bite, then you need to try to avoid scratching and use an ointment in which the substance “hydrocortisone” should be present, which relieves discomfort.

March 17, 04:00 Said on air Rospotrebnadzor explained when to vaccinate against ticks

Serious allergic reactions are treated only under the supervision of an allergist and, as a rule, are accompanied by the appointment of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihistamines, as well as injections of adrenaline and drip solutions to lower blood pressure.

The consequences of a bite

For some they are insignificant, but for others they are extremely dangerous. If, after a bite, a person has a sore throat, headache, nausea, severe dizziness, convulsions and a sharp drop in pressure, these are signs of anaphylactic shock. It is important to seek immediate medical attention.

August 11, 10:38 AM It said on the air How not to catch bedbugs in the hotel?

The severity of the consequences is also influenced by the number of bites.If the wasp stung once, then the risk of a strong reaction is small, but if it was attacked by a whole swarm, the harm to health can be very significant.

In addition, much depends on the location of the poison. For example, the tongue from a wasp bite can be very swollen, and if poison enters the eye, there is a high risk of serious vision problems.

Prevention of a bite

How to avoid a wasp sting, said allergist-immunologist Tatyana Sharkovskaya.

  • When going outdoors, stop using perfume, deodorant and other hygiene products with a pungent odor.

  • If wasps are flying near you, never wave your arms. Try to quickly move away from this place, insects will not fly after you.

  • Wasp bites are especially dangerous for children. When going on a vacation with children, be sure to use repellents (insect repellents). If wasps start flying around the baby, you can spray on them. They contain alcohol, due to which insects’ wings burn, and they instantly fall to the ground.

July 23, 04:00 It is said on the air “You damned midge!” When a mosquito bite can bring 90,000 to the hospital instructions for use, analogues, composition, indications

Possible side effects are listed below by body systems and frequency of occurrence: very often (> 1/10), often (> 1/100, <1/10), infrequently (> 1/1000, <1/100), rarely ( > 1/10000, <1/1000), very rare (<1/10000), frequency unknown (due to insufficient data).

from the immune system:

Rare: hypersensitivity reactions

Very rare: anaphylactic shock

From the nervous system Uncommon: paresthesia.

Rare: convulsions.

Very rare, taste perversion, dyskinesia, dystonia, fainting, tremor.

Frequency unknown: deafness, amnesia, memory impairment,

Psychiatric disorders Uncommon: agitation

Rarely: aggression, confusion, depression, hallucinations, sleep disturbances.

Very rare: teak

Frequency unknown: suicidal thoughts

From the side of the organ of vision

Very rare, violation of accommodation, blurred vision, nystagmus.

Frequency unknown: vasculitis

On the part of the organ of hearing and balance: Frequency unknown: vertigo

From the digestive system Uncommon, diarrhea

From the cardiovascular system Rarely: tachycardia.

From the urinary system Very rare: dysuria, enuresis.

Frequency unknown: urinary retention

Skin side

Uncommon: rash, pruritus

Rare: urticaria

Very rare: angioedema, persistent erythema.

On the part of laboratory parameters

Rare: changes in liver function tests (increased levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamate transferase and bilirubin).

General disorders Uncommon: asthenia, malaise Rarely: peripheral edema

On the part of laboratory parameters:

Rare: weight gain

In case of adverse reactions, as well as reactions not mentioned in the instructions, you should consult a doctor.

How to treat tonsillitis | Throat Encyclopedia HEXORAL®

11/15/2021

73 167

17 minutes

Contents:

The diagnosis of tonsillitis is many signs.This unpleasant condition can take you by surprise and interfere with your normal life. Tonsillitis today is an urgent problem, as it can occur at any age and with various diseases, such as herpes, diphtheria, streptococcal infections, scarlet fever and others. Often tonsillitis (or simply tonsillitis) acts as an independent disease. To understand the diagnosis and start the correct treatment, you need to consult your doctor. Remember that self-medication can lead to complications.What is tonsillitis? And how to cope with this ailment? We will consider the answers to these questions below.

Up to the table of contents

Forms of tonsillitis

Tonsillitis (or tonsillitis) is an inflammation of the palatine tonsils, often accompanied by colds.

Types of sore throats

Sore throats are acute:

  • Banal (vulgar or typical) sore throats: there are catarrhal, follicular, lacunar, mixed.
  • Atypical sore throats: herpetic, sore throat of Simanovsky-Plaut-Vincent, phlegmonous, fungal and mixed forms.Usually they are difficult, as they manifest themselves against the background of a decrease in immunity.
  • Angina associated with infectious diseases (with scarlet fever, diphtheria, angina with HIV infection, and others).
  • Angina in blood diseases: monocytic, agranulocytic, angina in leukemia.

Tonsillitis can also be chronic (compensated and decompensated) 1 .

Interesting fact!

The pharynx contains our defense against infection – an anatomical structure made up of lymphoid tissue.The lymphoid elements in the pharynx are located around the pharynx in the form of a ring, therefore it was called the “lymphadenoid pharyngeal ring” by Valdeyer-Pirogov. It is formed by two palatine tonsils (those that are sometimes called “tonsils”), one pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal (located on the back of the pharynx), one lingual (an accumulation of lymphoid follicles at the root of the tongue) and two tubal (located in the thickness of the nasopharyngeal mucosa near the holes eustachian tubes). Tubal tonsils are most pronounced in children under 5-7 years of age, and later undergo a reverse development.In adults, due to their small size, they are almost invisible.

The pharyngeal ring is an additional barrier for bacteria between the external and internal environment of the body. Antibodies and lymphocytes, cells of the immune response, are also produced in these structures.

Acute tonsillitis

This is an acute inflammatory disease of the tonsils. Their mucous membrane becomes edematous, hyperemic, purulent deposits may appear in the crypts of the tonsils. But depending on the factors that caused the disease and the patient’s condition, the process is not limited to the defeat of the tonsils alone.A severe infection can invade the entire body. The most dangerous complications are rheumatic heart defects, joint damage, kidney damage (glomerulonephritis). Therefore, self-medication can be dangerous. For correct diagnosis and effective treatment, you must consult a specialist.

Purulent tonsillitis – one of the forms of angina, can be a complication of acute or chronic tonsillitis. It is characterized by the presence of purulent discharge in the crypts of the tonsils. More often accompanies a bacterial infection.Improper treatment can lead to chronicity of the process.

Chronic tonsillitis is a persistent chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils, characterized by recurrent exacerbations in the form of tonsillitis, a sluggish course, and a decrease in the body’s resistance to infection. Slight hypothermia or draft causes exacerbation of tonsillitis. Many factors play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the tonsils. Most often, the disease occurs after repeated tonsillitis.Chronic tonsillitis is of two types: compensated and decompensated. This is important for further treatment tactics.

With compensated chronic tonsillitis, the examination reveals some looseness of the tonsils, hyperemia, edema, purulent plugs or plaques in the crypts of the tonsils, but this process is limited to the tonsil, does not extend beyond its limits. This precarious balance between local immunity and the body’s resistance on the one hand, and the presence of pathogenic organisms in the inflamed tonsils, on the other, can shift towards decompensation in an unfavorable course of the disease.With decompensated chronic lesions of the lymphoid apparatus of the pharynx, local signs of chronic tonsillitis are usually clearly expressed. With this form, exacerbations often occur in the form of tonsillitis, peritonsillitis, paratonsillar abscesses, regional lymphadenitis, and in clinically advanced cases – a disruption in the work of other organs and systems (kidney pathology, formation of heart flows, articular syndrome, damage to the nervous system).

Up to the table of contents

Symptoms of tonsillitis

Clinical manifestations are quite varied and depend on the type of tonsillitis.The disease debuts acutely, against the background of hypothermia or stress. A sore throat appears first. It can be aggravated by swallowing, after smoking, eating solid dry food. There is a cough, a feeling of a foreign body in the throat, “rawness”, sore throat. The body temperature rises, the patient feels weak, weak, malaise, gets tired quickly, there are pains in the joints and muscles. On examination, the doctor reveals enlarged and painful submandibular and cervical lymph nodes, the pharyngoscopic picture varies from hyperemia of the tonsils to looseness, purulent changes (lacunae and follicles), enlargement of the tonsils.The mucous membrane becomes edematous. In the presence of purulent deposits, a characteristic bad breath may appear.

Treatment of tonsillitis depends on its type and cause. Let’s analyze it in detail:

Etiotropic treatment (impact on the cause of the disease) depends on the causative agent of the disease. With the bacterial nature of sore throat and if indicated, antibiotics are used, which are prescribed by a doctor. Self-treatment of tonsillitis with antibiotics is not recommended, since an insufficient dose or the wrong choice of the drug can lead to the development of resistance (resistance) in the microorganism, as well as to complications of angina (for example, paratonsillar, pharyngeal abscess, diphtheria croup in children, acquired heart defects).With a viral infection, symptomatic therapy is prescribed, since the patient’s general condition remains satisfactory. Physiotherapy methods are also effective: ultraviolet irradiation increases the barrier function, the resistance of the tonsils, improves, stimulates local and general immunity, and has an antimicrobial effect. Treatment of tonsillitis with a laser – on the submandibular region is performed daily, in a course. The therapeutic effect is achieved by means of dilating small blood vessels and increasing blood circulation in the focus of inflammation 1 .

Symptomatic treatment

Anti-inflammatory drugs (paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin) have proven themselves well in the treatment of tonsillitis. They reduce swelling, inflammation and, as a result, pain. Antihistamines (Zyrtec, Tavegil) and analgesics are also used. For the duration of the treatment, smoking, alcohol intake, spicy, hot food is excluded. A sparing diet is prescribed, bed rest for 5-7 days.

If the general condition of the patient does not suffer, you can limit yourself to the use of local remedies for the treatment of tonsillitis.

Local treatment consists in the appointment of drugs with antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect2. Preparations for local therapy should not only relieve sore throat, but also have a wide range of antibacterial activity, low allergenicity, and be non-toxic.

All these properties are possessed by Hexoral ® . The drug is active against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria, as well as pathogenic fungi of the genus Candida, the drug Hexoral ® can have its effect in the treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus.At a concentration of 100 mg / ml, the drug inhibits the growth of most bacterial strains. Hexetidine, being the active ingredient of the drug Hexoral ® , also has an anesthetic effect on the mucous membrane 3 . The variety of dosage forms of the drug Hexoral ® makes its use available to the whole family. Spray Hexoral ® is a convenient, effective and proven form for treating tonsillitis in adults and children from 3 years of age. In the line of Hexoral ® there is also a rinse solution (from 3 years old), Hexoral ® tabs (from 4 years old), Hexoral ® tabs Classic (from 6 years old), Hexoral ® tabs Extra (from 12 years old).In the form of a rinse solution, lozenges and sprays, the drug is convenient to use, which makes the patient adherence to the treatment high.

In all cases of tonsillitis, it is necessary to consult a doctor, as only a specialist can prescribe adequate treatment and prevent complications.

Surgery

Tonsillectomy – removal of tonsil tissue with an underlying capsule. It is used in cases of unsuccessful conservative therapy, in the presence of a focus of chronic infection in the tonsils.Tonsillectomy is performed by an ENT doctor. Before the operation, you should consult with a therapist, do blood and urine tests, perform an ECG, chest X-ray. In case of concomitant diseases, undergo additional examination by specialized specialists.

Tonsillectomy is usually performed under local anesthesia while the patient is sitting. Local anesthesia is performed, and then the palatine tonsils are exfoliated along with the capsule. The operation does not last long, about 10 minutes, complications are rare.The indication for surgical treatment is chronic persistent inflammation of the palatine tonsils in the stage of decompensation, frequent exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis, purulent complications in the form of abscesses and phlegmon.

Contraindications for tonsilloectomy are: blood diseases (hemorrhagic diathesis), neuropsychiatric diseases in the stage of decompensation, which can impede the course of the operation and adherence to the postoperative regimen, open form of respiratory tuberculosis, heart, renal failure, severe diabetes mellitus.In each case, the issue of the operation is decided individually 1 .

Cryotherapy is a gentle method of semi-surgical treatment. Cryotonsillotomy – the impact on the tonsils with a special applicator (cryoprobe), in a closed system of which liquid nitrogen circulates at a temperature of -196 ° C 4 . Areas of chronic inflammation are removed, where the amygdala no longer performs its functions. Since cryotherapy is painless and bloodless, it is the method of choice for debilitated patients, patients with blood diseases and those who are contraindicated for surgical treatment (allergy to novocaine, severe diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension, severe cardiac, renal failure, hemophilia) a also in children.After cryodestruction, there is a faster recovery of the body and the return of the patient to his usual life. However, along with the advantages, the cryosurgical method has a number of disadvantages: several stages are assumed within 1.5 months, but in some cases it is not possible to achieve complete removal of the tonsil tissue.

Contraindications to cryotherapy: decompensation of diabetes mellitus, some cancers, acute myocardial infarction, high-grade heart failure, severe hypertension.

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Home Treatment

Contact your healthcare professional to diagnose and begin treatment. If you have a diagnosis of acute tonsillitis, you must observe strict bed rest in the early days of the disease, then limit physical and psycho-emotional stress, which will help get rid of, including complications. The patient is given a personal plate, spoon, mug and, if possible, isolated. Prescribe non-irritating, soft food, mainly vegetable, dairy, vitamin C, plentiful warm drink.Symptomatic therapy is also carried out: taking antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, painkillers.

Rinsing

Special attention should be paid to local therapy. Useful for tonsillitis rinsing the throat with antiseptic solutions (Geksoral ® rinsing solution). The drug Hexoral ® has broad antibacterial activity, including against gram-positive microbes, is also active against the pathogenic genus of Candida fungi, and has an effect in the treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus.The antimicrobial effect of the drug is associated with the suppression of metabolism in bacteria, their oxidative reactions, without which the latter cannot exist (thiamine antagonist). At a concentration of 100 mg / ml, the drug inhibits the growth of most bacterial strains. The development of resistance to Hexoral ® is not observed. The active substance hexetidine has a mild analgesic effect on the mucous membrane of the pharynx and tonsils, is able to linger on it for a long time and is practically not absorbed.Therefore, it does not have a systemic effect. When using the drug Hexoral ® , a regression of inflammatory changes in the pharynx can be observed 5 . It is recommended to apply 15 ml of undiluted solution 2 times a day after meals, unless otherwise prescribed by a doctor. Consult a specialist before use.

Rinsing is an effective method and an important component in the fight against tonsillitis, which can be successfully used in home treatment. Rinsing with a salt solution, irrigation of the oropharynx with seawater sprays, decoction of chamomile, sage, chlorhexidine and other antiseptics helps well.Gargling with solutions of body temperature (36-37 degrees) reduces inflammation, mechanically cleans the mucous membrane of the oropharynx from viruses, bacteria, pus, helps to relieve swelling, and as a result, to reduce sore throat. Rinsing is completely safe for children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Washing tonsil lacunae with antiseptics is used for many types of both acute and chronic tonsillitis. The most common method of washing tonsil lacunae according to N.V. Belogolovov. and Ermolaev V.D 1 . This effective procedure is performed by an otorhinolaryngologist. Under the control of pharyngoscopy, the doctor sequentially through each lacuna into the crypt of the amygdala introduces a thin cannula, and with a syringe filled with an antiseptic, under pressure flushes out all excess from the lacuna. As a rule, 2-3 crypts of the upper part of the amygdala are washed. All the crypts of the tonsils are usually connected to each other, so the entire tonsil is flushed and drained. After that, the treated mucous membrane is lubricated with Lugol’s solution, iodinol, 5% collargol.The positive effect of the procedure is achieved by mechanically flushing the lacunae from pus and restoring their draining function. Treatment is carried out in a course of 10-15 washes, which are prescribed every other day.

Sprays

In some cases, rinsing is not convenient, for example, outside the house it is difficult to apply. The situation is different with sprays for the treatment of angina. This convenient method has found widespread use among patients. Thanks to the sprays, there is a higher adherence to treatment. The variety of sprays differs in composition and properties.There are antiseptic, pain relieving, antimicrobial, antifungal combinations. Geksoral ® spray has not only antiseptic and analgesic, but also enveloping and refreshing properties. The active ingredient of the spray Hexoral ® – Hexetidine is active against a wide range of microorganisms and fungi, in particular the genus Candida 3 .

Most of us have used the spray several times, but it is important to remember some of the nuances of its use.For treatment, it is important not to eat or drink for at least an hour after irrigation with a pharyngeal spray. When irrigating the mucous membrane, hold the bottle vertically, direct the dispenser alternately to the left and right tonsils. Hold your breath while spraying. Hexoral ® spray should be used in the morning and evening after meals, unless otherwise prescribed by the attending physician. Lozenges Hexoral ® tabs are just as effective and have a pleasant taste. Approved for use in children from 4 years old 6 .The tablet should be resorbed until it is completely dissolved, moving it sequentially in the mouth. Do not eat or drink for 1 hour after use.

Following the recommendations of your doctor, you will get rid of sore throat and prevent the complications of tonsillitis. Be healthy!

The information in this article is for reference only and does not replace professional medical advice. Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.

Sources:

  1. Otorhinolaryngology: textbook for universities / V.T. Palchun, M.M. Magomedov, L.A. Luchikhin. – 2nd ed., Rev. and add. – 2008, p. 261-277.
  2. T.S. Polyakova, A.V. Gurov, A.M. Polyvod – A modern look at the problem of tonsillopharyngitis. // “RMZh” – No. 2 dated January 27, 2007 – p. 146.
  3. Register of Medicinal Products of Russia. Instructions for use of drugs Geksoral ® rinsing solution and Geksoral ® spray for topical use.
  4. V.A. Silantyev, S.V. Movergoz – Possibilities of modern cryomedicine.Scientific journal Successes of modern natural science. – 2009. – No. 9 – p. 199-201.