Where can i buy cyanide poison: Mumbai: Student takes cyanide, saved after 24-hour race for antidote from Hyderabad | Mumbai News
Mumbai: Student takes cyanide, saved after 24-hour race for antidote from Hyderabad | Mumbai News
MUMBAI: Doctors at the Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General (LTMG) Hospital, popularly known as Sion hospital, achieved a rare success recently when they saved the life of a 23-year-old student who had consumed potassium cyanide mixed in water.
Cyanide is known to kill within minutes if a person is exposed to a large dose. The LTMG doctors managed to keep the young man alive with crucial supportive treatment for 24 hours, till the time the antidote arrived by air from Hyderabad 700km away and pulled him out of the abyss.
For the municipality-run hospital, which treats up to 300 cases of poisoning annually, it was only the third case of cyanide poisoning in 20 years. In the two past cases, only one person had survived.
The 23-year-old student had consumed the lethal substance on the evening of November 1, purportedly because he was frustrated that a job offer and an opportunity to pursue an MBA abroad had slipped away in the Covid-19 pandemic.
He said he had sourced the potassium cyanide from a jewellery shop in Zaveri Bazar for Rs 200. Within seconds of the first sip of water that had cyanide pills added to it, he felt a burning sensation in the throat and recalled spitting out the second sip.
When he collapsed, a passer-by picked up his phone and dialled a friend’s number.
The friend took him to a private nursing home, where the doctor induced vomiting and said he would require critical care. His family moved him to Sion hospital, where doctors from the medicine department put him on a ventilator. “We had to stop the respiratory paralysis and, subsequently, his heart from shutting down,” Dr Niteen Karnik, head of medicine at LTMG, said.
After a night-long search, the doctors and the family realised that the city did not have a single unit of the cyanide antidote kit that comprises amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate. An online search revealed that a Hyderabad chemist had it. The kit cost around Rs 28,000.
“Cyanide starts to deprive tissues of oxygen. The key here was to keep him oxygenated, ventilated and hydrated till the antidote came. We gave medicines to support his blood pressure and heart functions. We could give him hydroxocobalamin, a form of vitamin B12, and that helped too. Fortunately, he had told his friend about taking cyanide” Dr Trupti Tridevi, in-charge of the medicine ICU at LTMG, said.
Dr Karnik recalled treating the last case of cyanide poisoning a decade ago, an engineering student from a premier institute. After the death, the institute head had donated an antidote kit to Sion hospital. These kits have a shelf life of only a year.
Dr Karnik said as the 23-year-old student was unconscious, they had to give him the amyl nitrite through the ventilator tubes.
His health started turning around after 48 hours. He came off the ventilator on November 4 and was moved out of the ICU by November 7.
“My son was born in Sion hospital, so they have given him a second lease of life,” the student’s mother said.
The student has developed tremors in his hands and slurred speech. Dr Karnik said an MRI revealed that a part of the brain had developed lesions. Dr Trivedi said he had been started on physiotherapy.
“I couldn’t believe I was alive when I first opened my eyes. My message to others is, don’t lose hope,” the survivor said.
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CDC | Facts About Cyanide
What cyanide is
- Cyanide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that can exist in various forms.
- Cyanide can be a colorless gas, such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or cyanogen chloride (CNCl), or a crystal form such as sodium cyanide (NaCN) or potassium cyanide (KCN).
- Cyanide sometimes is described as having a “bitter almond” smell, but it does not always give off an odor, and not everyone can detect this odor.
- Cyanide is also known by the military designations AC (for hydrogen cyanide) and CK (for cyanogen chloride).
Where cyanide is found and how it is used
- Cyanide is released from natural substances in some foods and in certain plants such as cassava, lima beans and almonds. Pits and seeds of common fruits, such as apricots, apples, and peaches, may have substantial amounts of chemicals which are metabolized to cyanide. The edible parts of these plants contain much lower amounts of these chemicals.
- Cyanide is contained in cigarette smoke and the combustion products of synthetic materials such as plastics. Combustion products are substances given off when things burn.
- In manufacturing, cyanide is used to make paper, textiles, and plastics. It is present in the chemicals used to develop photographs. Cyanide salts are used in metallurgy for electroplating, metal cleaning, and removing gold from its ore. Cyanide gas is used to exterminate pests and vermin in ships and buildings.
- If accidentally swallowed, chemicals found in acetonitrile-based products that are used to remove artificial nails can produce cyanide when metabolized by the body.
- Hydrogen cyanide, under the name Zyklon B, was used as a genocidal agent by the Germans in World War II.
- Reports have indicated that during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, hydrogen cyanide gas may have been used along with other chemical agents against the inhabitants of the Kurdish city of Halabja in northern Iraq.
How you could be exposed to cyanide
- You could be exposed to cyanide by breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or touching soil that contains cyanide.
- Cyanide enters water, soil, or air as a result of both natural processes and industrial activities. When present in air, it is usually in the form of gaseous hydrogen cyanide.
- Smoking cigarettes is probably one of the major sources of cyanide exposure for people who do not work in cyanide-related industries.
How cyanide works
- The extent of poisoning caused by cyanide depends on the amount of cyanide a person is exposed to, the route of exposure, and the length of time that a person is exposed.
- Breathing cyanide gas causes the most harm, but swallowing cyanide can be toxic as well.
- Cyanide gas is most dangerous in enclosed places where the gas will be trapped.
- Cyanide gas evaporates and disperses quickly in open spaces, making it less harmful outdoors.
- Cyanide gas is less dense than air; so it will rise.
- Cyanide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. When this happens, the cells die.
- Cyanide is more harmful to the heart and brain than to other organs because the heart and brain use a lot of oxygen.
Immediate signs and symptoms of exposure to cyanide
- People exposed to a small amount of cyanide by breathing it, absorbing it through their skin, or eating foods that contain it may have some or all of the following signs and symptoms within minutes:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Rapid breathing
- Rapid heart rate
- Exposure to a large amount of cyanide by any route may cause these other health effects as well:
- Loss of consciousness
- Low blood pressure
- Lung injury
- Respiratory failure leading to death
- Slow heart rate
- Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to cyanide.
Long-term health effects of exposure to cyanide
Survivors of serious cyanide poisoning may develop heart, brain and nerve damage.
How you can protect yourself, and what to do if you are exposed to cyanide
- Since breathing it is likely to be the primary route of exposure to cyanide, leave the area where the cyanide gas was released and get to fresh air. Quickly moving to an area where fresh air is available is highly effective in reducing exposure to cyanide gas.
- If the cyanide gas was released outdoors, move away from the area where it was released.
- If you cannot get out of the area where the cyanide gas was released, stay as low to the ground as possible.
- If the release of cyanide gas was indoors, get out of the building.
- If you are near a release of cyanide gas, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or “shelter in place” (stay put and take cover) inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. For more information on evacuation during a chemical emergency, see Facts About Evacuation. For more information on sheltering in place during a chemical emergency, see Facts About Sheltering in Place.
- If you think you may have been exposed to cyanide, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible.
Removing your clothing:
- Quickly take off clothing that may have cyanide on it. Any clothing that has to be pulled over the head should be cut off the body instead of pulled over the head.
- If you are helping other people remove their clothing, try to avoid touching any contaminated areas, and remove the clothing as quickly as possible.
- As quickly as possible, wash any cyanide from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will help protect people from any chemicals on their bodies.
- If your eyes are burning or your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes with plain water for 10 to 15 minutes. If you wear contacts, remove them and put them with the contaminated clothing. Do not put the contacts back in your eyes (even if they are not disposable contacts). If you wear eyeglasses, wash them with soap and water. You can put your eyeglasses back on after you wash them. If you are wearing jewelry that you can wash with soap and water, you can wash it and put it back on. If it cannot be washed, it should be put with the contaminated clothing.
Disposing of your clothes:
- After you have washed yourself, place your clothing inside a plastic bag. Avoid touching contaminated areas of the clothing. If you can’t avoid touching contaminated areas, or you aren’t sure where the contaminated areas are, wear rubber gloves or turn the bag inside out and use it to pick up the clothes, inverting the bag over the clothes when you have all the clothes picked up. An alternative method is to put the clothes in the bag using tongs, tool handles, sticks, or similar objects. Anything that touches the contaminated clothing should also be placed in the bag. If you wear contacts, put them in the plastic bag, too.
- Seal the bag, and then seal that bag inside another plastic bag. Disposing of your clothing in this way will help protect you and other people from any chemicals that might be on your clothes.
- When the local or state health department or emergency personnel arrive, tell them what you did with your clothes. The health department or emergency personnel will arrange for further disposal. Do not handle the plastic bags yourself.
- For more information about cleaning your body and disposing of your clothes after a chemical release, see Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing.
- Seek medical attention right away. Dial 911 and explain what has happened.
How cyanide poisoning is treated
Cyanide poisoning is treated with specific antidotes and supportive medical care in a hospital setting. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning are most useful if given as soon as possible after exposure. Clinicians should treat suspected cases accordingly and not wait for laboratory confirmation. The most important thing is for victims to seek medical treatment as soon as possible.
How you can get more information about cyanide
You can contact one of the following:
- Regional poison control center: 1-800-222-1222
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Public Response Hotline (CDC)
- 888-232-6348 (TTY)
- E-mail inquiries: [email protected]
- Public Response Hotline (CDC)
Cyanide Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Inna Leybell, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center
Inna Leybell, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Student Association/Foundation, Phi Beta Kappa
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Stephen W Borron, MD, MS, FAAEM, FACEP, FAACT, FACMT Professor of Emergency Medicine and Medical Toxicology, Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; Associate Medical Director, West Texas Regional Poison Center
Stephen W Borron, MD, MS, FAAEM, FACEP, FAACT, FACMT is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Industrial Hygiene Association, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, American College of Medical Toxicology
Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Meridian Pharmaceuticals for consulting.
Carlos J Roldan, MD, FAAEM, FACEP Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Assistant Professor of Pain Medicine, Department of Pain Medicine, MD Anderson Cancer Center
Carlos J Roldan, MD, FAAEM, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Pain Society, American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, International Association for the Study of Pain, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Colleen M Rivers, MD Senior Fellow in Medical Toxicology, New York City Poison Control Center, Bellevue Hospital Center
Colleen M Rivers, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Medical Toxicology, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Michael A Miller, MD Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine, Medical Toxicologist, Department of Emergency Medicine, Texas A&M Health Sciences Center; CHRISTUS Spohn Emergency Medicine Residency Program
Michael A Miller, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Medical Toxicology
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Frederic J Baud, MD Director, Professor, Toxicological and Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Lariboisiere of Paris, France
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
John G Benitez, MD, MPH, FACMT, FAACT, FACPM, FAAEM, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Medical Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Managing Director, Tennessee Poison Center
John G Benitez, MD, MPH, FACMT, FAACT, FACPM, FAAEM, is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Medical Toxicology, American College of Preventive Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, and Wilderness Medical Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Robert S Hoffman, MD, FAACT, FACMT Associate Professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Services, Bellevue and New York University Hospital
Robert S Hoffman, MD, FAACT, FACMT is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Medical Toxicology, American College of Physicians, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
David C Lee, MD Research Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Associate Professor, North Shore University Hospital and New York University Medical School
David C Lee, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Medical Toxicology, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Jorge A Martinez, MD, JD Clinical Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans; Clinical Instructor, Department of Surgery, Tulane School of Medicine
Jorge A Martinez, MD, JD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Cardiology, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, and Louisiana State Medical Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Heather Murphy-Lavoie, MD, FAAEM Assistant Professor, Assistant Residency Director, Emergency Medicine Residency, Associate Program Director, Hyperbaric Medicine Fellowship, Section of Emergency Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans; Clinical Instructor, Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine
Heather Murphy-Lavoie, MD, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Lewis S Nelson, MD, FACEP, FAACT, FACMT Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University Medical Center
Lewis S Nelson, MD, FACEP, FAACT, FACMT is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Medical Toxicology, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Andre Pennardt, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FAWM Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University; Assistant Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Eisenhower Army Medical Center
Andre Pennardt, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FAWM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, International Society for Mountain Medicine, National Association of EMS Physicians, Special Operations Medical Association, and Wilderness Medical Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Erik D Schraga, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mills-Peninsula Emergency Medical Associates
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment
John T VanDeVoort, PharmD Regional Director of Pharmacy, Sacred Heart & St. Joseph’s Hospitals
John T VanDeVoort, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Suzanne White, MD Medical Director, Regional Poison Control Center at Children’s Hospital, Program Director of Medical Toxicology, Associate Professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Suzanne White, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Epidemiology, American College of Medical Toxicology, American Medical Association, and Michigan State Medical Society
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
ELEMENT OF DEATH SUDDENLY CYANIDE HAS A HIGH – AND LETHAL – PROFILE
Eight deaths later, it is still the only suspect in custody.
It is potassium cyanide, a white, odorless substance known to chemists by its nomenclature, KCN. It’s available generally in three forms: as briquettes slightly smaller than those used in charcoal fires, in a granular form and as a fine powder. All three forms are used in a wide variety of industrial processes.
The chemical, authorities say, was also used to contaminate Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules linked to the Feb. 8 death of a New York State woman and in the seven deaths in the Chicago area during October 1982.
No arrests have been made in connection with the Chicago deaths. Authorities are still investigating the recent death of Diane Elsroth, a 23- year-old woman who died after taking Tylenol capsules laced with the poison, but police in Yonkers, Westchester County, have said they have no suspects.
All that remains is the chemical itself, which is widely used in chemical processes and is readily available, chemical industry spokesmen say.
Besides heightening public awareness of product tampering in general, both highly publicized cases have brought attention to a chemical that already has a high public profile. Most people associate cyanide with the pill the spy swallows before he divulges information to the enemy, or the mainactor in the gas chamber execution, but are less familiar with the many industrial uses of the chemical.
Potassium cyanide, for example, is used to make indigo dye, used in dying blue jeans. Sodium cyanide, which is as toxic as potassium cyanide, is a common element in large- and small-scale electroplating processes. It is a common chemical found on many jewelers’ shelves.
Of the types of cyanide products commonly used in this country, the most common and least expensive is hydrogen cyanide, also known as hydrocyanic acid, a major raw material in the manufacture of nylon. Unlike the two other forms of cyanide used in industry, hydrogen cyanide is most often a liquid.
Sodium cyanide, which is used extensively in mining as a agent to extract gold and silver from their natural ores, is slightly more expensive than hydrogen cyanide and is not as commonly used.
Potassium cyanide, of the three types of cyanide used in the United States, is the most expensive – costing an average of $1.25 a pound, and less frequently used. Like sodium cyanide, it is used in electroplating processes.
Of the three forms of potassium cyanide available, the powder form is used the least frequently of the three, according to Ronald Geyer, a senior technical service engineer for E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., the largest domestic manufacturer of cyanide products in the United States.
Although Johnson & Johnson officials say potassium cyanide was involved in both tampering cases, the chemical involved in the recent New York case was structurally different than the chemical involved in the Chicago cases.
Johnson & Johnson officials have refused to elaborate on the structural difference. However, Geyer, the senior Du Pont technician offered this explanation:
“In the original Tylenol situation, the purity of the potassium cyanide was such – this is my understanding – that it was taken from a drum or a bottle of essentially new material. In this (latest tampering case), the cyanide was probably taken from some process operation.” Elements of metals not normally found as impurities in potassium cyanide were also discovered in the potassium cyanide involved in the New York state case.
To the untrained eye, both sodium and potassium cyanide are indistinguishabl e from each other.
True to popular conceptions, all three forms of cyanide are highly toxic. However, potassium cyanide is not as toxic as other substances, according to Dr. Robert O. Warwick Jr., who works with the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy’s toxicological department.
The toxicity level for any substance is measured as the amount of the substance that is required to cause death. In general, toxicity is measured relative to body weight. If 10 grams of substance X produces the death of half of a group of laboratory rats, and if 5 grams of substance Y produces the same result, then substance Y is considered more toxic than X. For some non-toxic substances like modeling clay or crayons for example, no amount will cause death although ingesting large amounts may cause much discomfort.
A lethal dose of potassium cyanide for humans ranges from about 50 milligrams to 200 milligrams, according to Warwick, which makes it far less toxic when compared to some of the most toxic substances know to scientists. Among these are plutonium and dioxin, the active ingredient in Agent Orange, the defoliant used widely in Vietnam.
For its part, potassium cyanide has one characteristic that makes its high public image somewhat warranted: It causes death quickly, although the death is extremely painful.
Dr. George W. Harrington, a chemistry professor at Temple University, said potassium cyanide, once ingested, prohibits the hemoglobin contained in the bloodstream from absorbing oxygen. The victim literally suffocates to death. In addition, the cyanide interacts with liquids in the stomach and forms a type of gas, which is also extremely toxic, Harrington says.
“It is a very painful way to go,” Harrington said. “At least it is quick.”
Despite the deaths associated with potassium cyanide tampering, there will likely be no movement to restrict the sale of the chemical. Large suppliers like DuPont make sure that first-time customers are aware of the hazards of cyanide products but it is possible to order smaller amounts of the substance through smaller chemical suppliers, by mail or by telephone, chemists say.
“Sometimes they (suppliers) ask what I want to do with a toxic substance, but most of the time, they don’t,” said Warwick, the toxicologist. “I could be Joe Blow from Mars and they wouldn’t know any difference.”
Some states, but not Pennsylvania, require purchasers of potentially dangerous substances to sign for them at the place of purchase, but these types of laws are not considered effective in controlling the substances, according to William Grigg, a spokesman for the Food and Drug Administration. Because cyanide is neither a food nor a drug, it is not regulated by the FDA.
Cyanide disposal is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the Materials Transportation Bureau of the Transportation Department. Labeling warnings for cyanide are controlled by Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations.
But tighter government control of cyanide would most likely be ineffective in preventing another death associated with cyanide tampering, chemical industry spokesmen say. They cite the general availability of the substance -a total of between 50 and 75 million pounds of sodium and potassium cyanide are produced each year – and the relative ease of synthesizing cyanide from common chemicals.
O41: Dark Web shopping: A case report of a cyanide suicide
We report an uncommon case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after cyanide poisoning in a context of suicide. Cyanide was apparently ordered on the Deep Web. The purpose of this case is to compare it with a review of literature about cyanide poisoning (clinical facts and epidemiology), toxic deaths in hotel and scientific observations about black-market and illegally-ordered products on the Dark Web.
a 28 years old man was found unresponsive in a hotel room by the cleaner around 12.00 pm. The investigations of the crime scene were as follows: a white young man dressed and clean lean, lying on his back in a bed, a farewell letter left on the bedside table, as well as two small plastic bags (around 5×8 cm) and an empty glass containing a lemon slice. Each bag was numbered, one with a “1” and the second with a “2”. A radiological imagery and an autopsy were performed. Bilateral oedematous and congestive lungs and a visceral congestion without any trace of external or internal traumatism were observed. The family revealed the notion of chronic illegal chronic drug abuse and of the potential purchase of a suicide kit on the Dark Web.
Femoral and cardiac blood, vitreous humor, gastric content, urine, hair and bile samples were collected during the autopsy. Toxicological screening was performed for ethanol, drugs, illicit drugs and cyanide in the biological samples and both plastic bags. The toxicological results were positive for morphine in femoral blood (11.4 ng/mL), urine, bile and vitreous humour and for cyanide in femoral blood (7,2 mg/L). Alprazolam traces were detected in all biological samples and dextromethorphan (an antitussive drug) was present in the gastric content. Analysis of both plastic bags could only identify dextromethorphan traces in bag “1”.
Cyanide intoxication can be intentional (suicide or homicide) or accidental (occupational accident, consumption of cyanogenic plants or food), but it is a rare kind of poisoning, reported previously in few cases. Lethal suicide poisoning with cyanide is even more unusual, especially when the drug is shopped and shipped from Internet. In the present case, the concentration of CN- in femoral blood is very high and corresponds unambiguously to a lethal concentration, considering life-threatening intoxications with cyanide are reported in the literature for blood concentrations superior to 1–2 mg/L. It allows to conclude here that the cause of death is asphyxia by cyanide poisoning and the manner of death is suicide. Although cyanide intoxication with clinical and visceral effects and cyanide-related deaths are well-documented, this case report appears somewhat unusual regarding the association of a toxic death in a hotel room through lethal cyanide poisoning with a shipped and pre-manufactured suicide kit shopped on the Deep Web. Dark Web (or Dark Net) is currently better known, especially since the soar of virtual money named “bit coin” has been used on the Deep Web for shopping. The Dark Web is the part of the web without an indexation on conventional internet search engines. To access to that anonymous web, the user has to know the address that he wants to shop on and to use anonymous devices like TOR. In this case report, two arguments are present to suspect that the young man went to those particular websites: first, the high possibility to perform anonymous shopping of cyanide on the Dark Web, and second, the prudence of the sellers (multiple plastic bags, industrial packaging with no drug trace in bags and no reference on the bags). Moreover, the profile of customers of those websites has been previously shown to correspond to males, young (between 20 and 40 yrs), white, heterosexual, employees or students with a preference for MDMA, LSD and cannabis; the present case is in agreement with this aforementioned profile.
Oh, Those Movie Spies and Their Cyanide Pills
Last spring, I went with my younger son to see the James Bond movie Skyfall. He loved it. I obsessed over one of the major plot points. A chemical one, of course. The villain – a twisted former spy played by Javier Bardeem – was seeking revenge for what he perceived as a betrayal by his agency. According to the story line, he’d been captured, left to be tortured, and when he tried to end it with his cyanide capsule, the poison had dissolved his jaw, disfiguring him instead of killing him.
The poison, he said, was hydrogen cyanide. That can’t be right, I said to my son. I believe his response was something along the lines of “Mom, knock it off.” Only possibly not quite as polite as that. So I let it go but, yeah, while muttering “But I know I’m right” to myself in a slightly sulky way. So when the talented chemistry blogger, See Arr Oh, organized a Chemistry in the Movies blog carnival this week, I decided this was my moment. (It’s actually a terrifically fun blog carnival, with some very smart science bloggers deconstructing movies from Evolution to The Absent Minded Professor). Thislink will get you to many of the posts or you can track them on Twitter at #ChemMovieCarnival.
But about Skyfall and the old cyanide pill story. Cyanide is a famously fast-acting poison due to its ability to induce extreme chemical suffocation of cells and to disrupt enzymatic processes. It’s probably most lethal in the gaseous form of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which the Nazis infamously employed in their concentration camp gas chambers. At a high dose, about 3000 ppm in the air, it can kill in one-to-three minutes. When we swallow cyanide, it’s usually as one of the two cyanide salts, potassium cyanide (KCN) and sodium cyanide (NaCN). Sodium cyanide is slightly more toxic but either of these will kill in a trace amount – somewhere between 100-300 milligrams – in five minutes or so. If you want watch the real thing in action – not that I’m recommending it – last year an ex-banker, shortly after being convicted of malfeasance, killed himself with potassium cyanide, acquired on-line, in the courtroom. The website LiveLeaks hasposted a video of the incident.
So cyanide is fast and it is, as I’ve written before, reliably lethal. It was the poison found, earlier this year, in the body of a murdered Chicago lottery winner. There’s a history – usually dated back to World War II – of spies carrying suicide pills, just in case they were captured. These were reportedly calledL-pills (L for Lethal). The International Spy Museum, in Washington D.C.,displays eyeglasses that contained a tiny L-pill compartment – the captured spy could supposedly casually chew on the temple (or arm) of the glasses and release the poison. The Encyclopedia of Espionage cites the case of a CIA mole in the Soviet Union, who eluded prison or worse by biting the cyanide loaded tip of a fountain pen.
If I’m following the Skyfall story right, though, the fictional spies of the British spy used the old fashioned cyanide-in-a-glass-capsule-hidden-in-a-tooth scenario. The idea was that the spy could crunch down if needed; if the capsule worked loose and was accidentally swallowed, the glass would contain the poison. My guess is that this would be usually sodium or potassium cyanide, mostly because they are the versions usually found in pill or capsule form.
But, in the movie scenario, it’s identified as hydrogen cyanide. And according to the script, it’s not lethal but corrosive. So – since my son wouldn’t put up with me doing it – let’s pick that apart here. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is best known as a lethal gas (it actually has a chemical warfare classification), it can also be found in liquid form, where it is usually referred to as Prussic Acid or hydrocyanic acid. This is what I suspect the Skyfall scriptwriter grabbed onto when he chose it for his destructive suicide pill. It’s worth noting that KCN and NaCN are considered mildly corrosive salts and tend to cause distinctive lesions the intestinal walls.
90,000 The 4 most famous poisons: how they work
Many people know the names of poisons, but few understand what happens in the body when they do their dirty work.
Perhaps the most popular of all poisons, it is deadly for humans in very low doses – 1.5 mg / kg of body weight. Cyanides are actually all chemicals that contain a carbon-nitrogen bond. However, only sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide and hydrogen cyanide are deadly.Hydrogen cyanide is the most abundant and deadliest of these.
Cyanide acts on the work of the circulatory system. It attaches to the gland in red blood cells, which are responsible for transporting oxygen. Due to the fact that the ability of cells to bind to oxygen is inhibited, oxygen starvation of the whole organism occurs: important organs, including the brain and heart, are affected after a few moments. The victim falls into a deep coma, and then her heart stops.
The compound can enter the body accidentally through groundwater, food (eg rice). A low dose of the poison can cause headaches, drowsiness, diarrhea, and confusion, while high doses are fatal.
Like cyanide, arsenic destroys cells at the molecular level, but not at the expense of oxygen. Instead, it mimics phosphate by influencing the processes that allow cells to store energy. By replacing this essential chemical, arsenic can block energy production and cellular signaling, making it impossible for the cell to function normally.Arsenic is a particularly dangerous poison due to the fact that it simultaneously affects several functional systems of the body, which is painful for the victim.
Only a few berries of this plant are capable of killing an adult. Belladonna contains tropane alkaloids, some of which are capable of blocking neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous system. Thus, the heart rhythm, breathing is disturbed, involuntary movements of smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal tract are caused.
A widely used pesticide and rat poison, strychnine is lethal by blocking the function of an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The latter is present in the spinal cord and brain and is responsible for the suppression of motor nerves. Without this neurotransmitter, motor neurons spiral out of control and the victim suffers from spastic, painful muscle contractions. These seizures can cause hyperthermia, exhaustion and oxygen deprivation, which ultimately leads to asphyxiation.
Based on materials from www.medicaldaily.com
This publication is for informational purposes only.
The sale of all of the above substances is illegal.
90,000 Prosecutors: Praliac accepted potassium cyanide at the Hague Tribunal
Photo author, ICTY
Hearing the judge’s verdict that his appeal was rejected, the former general announced in front of television cameras: “I took poison “
Former Bosnian Croatian general Slobodan Praljak died of cyanide poisoning, a preliminary conclusion was made by Dutch pathologists after an autopsy.
Praljak, sentenced to 20 years in prison for war crimes, swallowed liquid during the hearing at the Hague Tribunal on his appeal.
The findings of the pathologists were reported on Friday by the Dutch prosecutor’s office. Consumption of the poison led to heart failure, “which is listed as the presumed cause of death,” the report said.
The International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague has launched an internal investigation, which it hopes to complete by the end of the year.The main focus will be on how General Praljak managed to obtain the poison.
Earlier, the Dutch police began their investigation into the death of Praljak, who was 72 years old.
Lawyers told the BBC that any liquids sent to prisoners (such as perfumes) are recorded, but no chemical analysis is carried out. And relatives who visit the defendants of the tribunal are searched before visits.
Peter Robinson, a lawyer for the former President of the Republika Srpska Radovan Karadzic, who was sentenced to 40 years in prison, previously told the BBC that he could not understand how the poison could be passed on to the prisoner.
“We are going through two examinations before visiting the prisoners,” he said. “You cannot bring drinks – not even a bottle of water or Coke. Everything is searched before you go inside.”
What happened at the tribunal
A possible revision of Praljak’s sentence was discussed at the court session, but it was confirmed. Hearing the judge’s decision, the former general got up and announced in front of the television cameras: “Slobodan Praljak is not a war criminal, I reject the court’s decision.”
Then he drank the liquid from the brown bottle in his hand and said: “I have taken poison.”
The presiding judge interrupted the session, Praljak was hospitalized. He quickly passed out and died in the hospital.
The Hague Tribunal was considering an appeal by Praljak and five other Bosnian Croats against his 2013 verdict. Praljak was convicted of crimes against humanity.
In Bosnia on Wednesday, about a thousand Bosnian Croats gathered in a square in the city of Mostar, where they lit candles in memory of the deceased.Croatian Prime Minister Andrei Plenkovic has sharply criticized the tribunal, saying that the death of the general demonstrates the injustice shown to the convicted Bosnian Croats.
This is not the first such case in the history of the Hague Tribunal. Bosnian Serb Slavko Dokmanovic, who was accused of war crimes, hanged himself in his cell in 1998. Serbian Milan Babic committed suicide in 2006 – also in a cell.
Last week, the Hague War Crimes Tribunal in the former Yugoslavia sentenced former general of the Bosnian Serb army Ratko Mladic to life in prison.
Roskachestvo told which vegetables and fruits contain poison
Potatoes with green “barrels” contain solanine, a vegetable glycoalkaloid. According to the candidate of biological sciences Artem Ovod, all colored formations on the root crop must be cut off.
“If the formation is extensive and covers more than half of the tuber, then it is better to throw it away. Eating solanine can cause severe poisoning, vomiting and even hallucinations. When heat treated, solanine is completely destroyed only at temperatures above 250 degrees,” the expert noted.Therefore, during normal cooking or frying, it still remains in some amount in the final product.
If the potatoes start to rot, then a large amount of carbon dioxide will be released, which is also dangerous / You can get poisoned with old and wormy edible mushrooms. Overripe mushrooms contain toxic substances, protein decomposition products.
In addition, fungi absorb nutrients from the entire surface of the body (mycelium). If the soil, forest floor or wood on which the mushrooms grow contains heavy metals, radionuclides, agricultural pesticide residues and other toxic compounds, they enter the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms.
Cherry pits contain amygdalin. If you chew, chew or otherwise damage the bone, then hydrogen cyanide – cyanide – will immediately enter the body. True, from a few bones, says Artem Ovod, nothing bad will happen. But if you constantly eat cherries with seeds, then you can get poisoned. The lethal dose of cyanide is 1.7 mg per 1 kg of human body weight (about 50 nucleoli).
The apricot kernels also contain amygdalin, which forms cyanide when biting and interacting with saliva.Often, excessive consumption of apricot seeds can cause poisoning. Poisoning can provoke 20-40 grams of the product. But if the kernels are pre-boiled or dried in the oven, then they lose their toxic properties.
Radish contains a toxic substance glycoside, it releases essential oil containing sulfur and gives this vegetable a specific smell. Eating too much radish can cause liver pain or dizziness.
Nutmeg contains a psychoactive substance – myristicin, which causes a hallucinogenic, stimulating effect on the central nervous system.In small quantities, the nut is not dangerous, but it is not recommended to consume more than 10 grams of nutmeg per day.
Stems and leaves of tomatoes, green, unripe, fruits contain solanine (as in potatoes), which causes headaches and indigestion. When the fruit turns pink or red, the solanine content is reduced to a minimum and the fruit is safe to consume.
Before eating tomatoes, you must cut out the stalk, as it also contains solanine.
Apple seeds are pretty tricky too. They contain hydrocyanic acid. And seeds with broken integrity additionally emit a small amount of cyanide. Apple seed contains about 0.4 mg of cyanide, a weak body may be enough this dose for poisoning.
Any beans, especially red beans, contain phytohemaglutinin. This substance increases the permeability of cell membranes, as a result of which harmful substances and even poisons can penetrate into them. Phytohemaglutinin is destroyed by high temperatures, so it is necessary to process the beans until they are fully cooked.It is also recommended to soak it for a few hours before cooking.
Unripe black elderberries also contain hydrocyanic acid. Therefore, it is recommended to include fully ripe berries in the diet, which ripen in late August or early September. At the same time, compote can be cooked from unripe fruits, heat treatment will help get rid of the poison.
ICSC 0671 – POTASSIUM CYANIDE
ICSC 0671 – POTASSIUM CYANIDE
|POTASSIUM CYANIDE||ICSC: 0671|
|POTASSIUM CYANIDE||May 2018|
| CAS #: 151-50-8
| UN #: 1680
| EINECS #: 205-792-3
|SPECIAL HAZARDS||PREVENTIVE MEASURES||FIRE EXTINGUISHING|
|FIRE AND EXPLOSION||Not flammable, but forms flammable gas on contact with water or moist air.In case of fire, gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases).||DO NOT use aqueous agents. DO NOT use water. DO NOT use carbon dioxide. In the event of a fire in the work area, use proper extinguishing media. In case of fire: cool drums, etc. spraying water.|
|AVOID ANY CONTACT! FIRST AID: USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.|
|SYMPTOMS||PREVENTIVE MEASURES||FIRST AID|
|Inhalation||Nausea. Dizziness. Drowsiness. Sore throat. Headache. Clouding of consciousness. Weakness. Shortness of breath. Convulsions. Loss of consciousness.||Use local exhaust or respiratory protection.||Oxygen supply may be required.Fresh air, peace. Do not use mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. Seek medical attention immediately.|
|Leather||MAY BE ABSORBED! Redness. Pain. Further See Inhalation.||Protective gloves. Protective clothing.||Wear protective gloves when providing first aid. Take off contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Seek medical attention immediately.See Notes.|
|Eyes||Redness. Pain. See Inhalation below.||Use face mask or eye protection in combination with respiratory protection.||First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easy to do), then seek medical attention.|
|Ingestion||Burning sensation.Nausea. Vomiting. Diarrhea. See inhalation.||Do not eat, drink or smoke while working. Wash your hands before eating.||Rinse mouth. Oxygen supply may be required. Do not use mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. DO NOT induce vomiting. Seek medical attention.|
|SPILLAGE DISPOSAL||CLASSIFICATION AND MARKING|
|Leave the danger area! Consult a specialist! Personal protection: full protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.Do NOT allow this chemical to enter the environment. Ventilate. Dry lockable labeled Sweep spilled substance into closed containers. Carefully neutralize residue with sodium hypochlorite solution.||
According to UN GHS criteria
Fatal if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
|Separated from strong oxidants, acids, food and feedstuffs, carbon dioxide and products containing water. Keep dry. Close well. Store in a well ventilated area. Store in an area without drain or drain access|
Place unbreakable packaging in an unbreakable container.
Do not transport with food or animal feed.
Contaminates the marine environment.
Background information in English prepared by a group of international experts working on behalf of the ILO and WHO with financial support from the European Union.
|POTASSIUM CYANIDE||ICSC: 0671|
|PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES|
Aggregate Condition; Appearance
|EFFECTS ON THE BODY AND EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE|
Effects from short-term exposure
Risk of inhalation
Effects from prolonged or repeated exposure
|Maximum permissible concentration|
TLV: (ceiling value): 5 mg / m 3 as STEL; (leather).
EU-OEL: 1 mg / m 3 as TWA; 5 mg / m 3 as STEL; (leather)
|The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms.|
| The exposure limit value should not be exceeded during any part of the occupational exposure.
Specific treatment is required in case of poisoning with this substance; appropriate means with instructions must be available.
Insulate contaminated clothing in a bag or other container.
DO NOT take work clothes home.
Never work alone in an area if hydrogen cyanide exposure is possible.
Depending on the severity of exposure, periodic medical examination is recommended.
|(en)|| Neither the ILO, WHO, nor the European Union are responsible for the quality and accuracy of the translation or for the possible use of this information.
© Version in Russian, 2018
Veteran’s story The American newspaper learned how Hermann Goering managed to avoid the gallows: Lenta.ru
The American newspaper The Los Angeles Times published an article about a man who, in his own words, unwittingly became an accomplice in the suicide of Hermann Goering, and who did not get to the gallows for his atrocities. For nearly sixty years, historians have puzzled over the question of where the “Nazi number two” got the vial of poison that allowed him to escape justice.It turns out that the whole point is that the young American Herbert Lee Stivers, who in 1946 served in the company for the protection of Nazi criminals in Nuremberg, was very fond of pretty German women. Vip.Lenta.Ru publishes a full translation of the article in an American newspaper.
Former private confesses to his involvement in Goering’s death
This was one of the most incomprehensible mysteries of the Second World War.
PHOTO OF THE NURNBERG PROCESS. From the site www.archives.karelia.ru. Click to enlarge in a separate window
Lenta.Common crawl en
How did Hermann Goering, convicted of war crimes, manage to poison himself on the very day that American soldiers prepared him to be hanged?
Over the past half century, a dozen conflicting theories have emerged explaining how the former Nazi number two managed to commit suicide despite the fact that his cell in a military prison was under round-the-clock surveillance.
Some historians claim that a lethal dose of cyanide was at Goering’s during all 11 months, which lasted the trial of war criminals in the German city of Nuremberg.According to the supporters of this version, Goering could hide the poison in his mouth under a golden crown or in the hollow of a tooth, or under his smoothly combed hair, or in the navel, or in the anus.
Other historians are of the opinion that someone secretly passed on poison to him shortly before he committed suicide – perhaps someone from the American military whom Goering could bribe with his watch, or a German doctor who regularly examined him in prison, or someone from the former Nazi SS men who sent him cyanide in a bar of American government soap, or even his wife Emma, who put an ampoule of poison in her husband’s mouth during the farewell “kiss of death” during their last meeting.
But according to Herbert Lee Styvers, they are all wrong.
“I gave him the poison,” says a retired former Esperia, Calif. Rolling mill worker.
September 30 – October 1, 1946 the verdict of the International Military Tribunal was announced. The Tribunal sentenced Goering, Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick, Streicher, Sauckel, Jodl, Seyss-Inquart and Bormann (in absentia) to death by hanging; Hessa, Funka and Raeder – to life imprisonment; Schirach and Speer – 20 years in prison; Neurath – to 15 years in prison and Doenitz – to 10 years in prison.
Stivers, 78, claims to have been hiding his role in Goering’s suicide for nearly sixty years for fear of prosecution by the US Army. Only now, at the insistence of his daughter, he decided to confess everything publicly.
It is no longer possible to establish how true the story told by Stivers is today, since all the key figures related to the Goering case have died.
A Pentagon spokesman declined to comment on Stivers’ statement.But military archives confirm that Stivers did serve as a guard for the inmates of the Nuremberg Tribunal.
A number of WWII historians contacted by the LA Times for clarification say Stivers’ words are very close to the truth. At least, they argue, his story once again draws attention to the fact that we still do not know anything about how one of the worst criminals of the twentieth century managed to escape retribution from justice.
“It doesn’t seem like he came up with this,” comments Stivers’ statement by Cornelius Schnauber, professor at the University of Southern California, head of the Max Cade Institute for the Study of Austro-German-Swiss History and Culture.“His words are more like the truth than the usual tales about the poison hidden under the dental crown.” may well have been this soldier, “the historian believes.
* * *
AMERICAN GUARDS IN THE COURT HALL. NURNBERG, 1946
According to Stivers, Goering escaped the gallows thanks to his youth.
Stivers, who was only 19 years old when he was assigned to guard the Nuremberg prisoners, claims that he agreed to give the “medicine” to the allegedly sick Goering only because he wanted to impress a German girl he met on the street.
Stivers served in the 26th regiment of the 1st Infantry Division. His D Company was assigned to the Tribunal’s honor guard. Security guards in white helmets escorted 22 Nazi defendants to the courtroom at the Palace of Justice, and during the hearing stood behind them, maintaining an official parade posture.
According to Stivers, it was very tiring.
“Each shift lasted two hours, and then we could rest for four hours. We were required not to lose our vigilance and look like a brand. People from all over the world came to see the tribunal,” Stivers recalls.
“We had no weapons, only short police batons that we held behind our backs. The baton gave rest to the hands, which had to be held at the back all the time. It is very difficult to maintain an official parade posture for a long time.”
The guards were allowed to talk to the defendants and even take their autographs.
“Goering was very polite. He spoke English quite well. We chatted about sports, ball games. He was a pilot and we talked about Lindbergh with him,” Stivers says. Charles Lindbergh, the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic, received a medal from Goering shortly before World War II.
But during the hours free from service, the guards had nothing to do.”The only entertainment was partying together,” Stivers says. “And also the German women.”
Stivers had a German girlfriend, an eighteen-year-old girl named Hildegard Bruner, to whom he handed over candy, peanuts and cigarettes bought from the army store so that Hildegard or her mother could exchange them for food on the black market.
But he did not miss other pretty girls either. One day not far from the hotel where the military officers’ club was located, Stivers says, a flirty, dark-haired beauty who called herself Mona approached him.
Soviet poster of the 1950s. From the site davno.ru
“She asked me where I serve, and I replied that I am a guard. She said:” So you see the prisoners? “-” Every day, “I replied She didn’t believe: “You don’t look like a security guard.” – “Do you want me to prove it?” I took out the autograph of [the defendant] Baldur von Schirach and showed her.
“She said:“ Oh, can I leave him yourself? “- and I said:” Of course. ” The next day I guarded Goering, took his autograph and gave it to Monet again.Then she said that she had a friend with whom she wanted to introduce me. The next day we went to his house together. “
There, Stivers says, he met two men, Erich and Matthias, who told the American that Goering was” very ill “and that he was not given the necessary medication in prison.
Twice, says Stivers, he handed Goering the notes hidden in the ink pen The third time Erich put a capsule in the pen that Stivers was supposed to give to Nazi number two.
“He said that this medicine and that if it worked and Göring got better, they would give him more,” Stivers says. “He also said that it would take about two weeks to wait and what Mona would say if they wanted to give through me the medicine. ”
According to Stivers, having handed the “medicine” to Goering, he returned the pen to Monet.
“I never saw her again. I think she was using me,” Stivers says. “I had no idea of any suicide when I passed the pen to Goering.He was never in a bad mood, never looked like a potential suicide. I would never do anything on purpose to help someone avoid the gallows. “
October 16, 1946 the verdict of the International Military Tribunal, sentencing to hanging Ribbentrop, Keitel, Rosenberg, Kaltenbrunner, Frick, Frank, Streicher, Jodl, Sauckel and Seyss-Inquart, executed in the building of the Nuremberg Prison, Goering committed suicide 2 hours before his execution by taking cyanide.
But two weeks later – October 15, 1946 – Goering successfully escaped from the hands of the military executioner. He left a suicide note in which he boasted that he had kept the cyanide throughout the trial. When, after his death, they searched his belongings stored in the prison warehouse, they found another cyanide bottle in his suitcases – one of those that had been specially prepared for the Nazi leaders.
Stivers was shocked by Goering’s suicide.The soldiers who were guarding the cell at the time he died were dragged by military investigators for interrogations for a long time. But Stivers and the other security members were only asked if they had noticed anything suspicious.
Investigators concluded that Goering had indeed kept the poison with him all this time. The official report highlighted the content of the suicide note and concluded that Goering hid the capsule either “in the umbilical cavity”, then “in the digestive tract”, then under the rim of the toilet bowl installed in his cell.
Many historians and others have long doubted the veracity of this conclusion. Some of the Jewish statesmen and public figures more than once publicly wondered whether some of the Americans who sympathized with the Nazis helped Goering escape from the hands of the executioner.
In his 1984 book The Mystery of the Suicide of Hermann Goering, the late Ben Schweringen resolutely dismissed the conclusions of military investigators and numerous other theories.
Schweringen suggested that US Army Lieutenant Jack Willis, who had the keys to the prison warehouse, had allowed him to enter the warehouse shortly before Goering’s suicide and take poison from the items stored there.For this, Goering allegedly gave Willis (who died in 1954) his wristwatch and other personal belongings.
Schweringen did not explain how Goering, who was constantly under surveillance, could have entered the warehouse. But his findings help to understand how “Nazi number two” could for a short time hide from the guards something like a “medicine” that Stivers, according to him, gave him two weeks before his death.
Goering, who was obese, lost a lot of weight in prison.By the end of the trial, he was covered in hanging folds of skin, in which it was really easy to hide the capsule. And just two weeks before his suicide, Goering began to refuse to bathe, which took place under the close supervision of guards in the shower room, where a hidden bottle could be found.
* * *
Stivers says the story of the fountain pen has haunted him for 58 years.
He claims to have specifically followed the theories explaining Goering’s suicide, in the futile hope that some plausible version would help him get rid of his guilt.
“I felt very bad after his suicide. I had a very strange feeling – I was sure that he could not hide the poison on his body,” says Stivers.
The military investigators’ explanations never struck Stivers as convincing. According to him, Goering “was in prison for almost a year – why would he have to wait so long if he had cyanide?”
Stivers agreed to reveal his role in this story at the insistence of his daughter, Linda Dadley. He told her about the episode with the ink pen 15 years ago.
“I told him:” Dad, you have become a part of history. You have to talk about it while you’re still with us, “says Dadley, 46, a resident of Beaumont.” This episode hung on his conscience throughout his life. ”
Stivers agreed to publicize his involvement in Goering’s death only after he learned that the statute of limitations for his crime had long expired and no one could bring him to justice.
According to Aaron Breitbart, senior investigator at the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles, Stivers’ story is “crazy enough to be true.””But it is no longer possible to verify it. Nobody knows how everything was, except for the person who directly took part in this.”
As for Stivers, he is sure that he is that person. And, he says, “I’m not happy about that at all.”
Translation from English Vip.Lenta.Ru
Poisonous foods in your kitchen
Do you think that only food like fast food can be harmful? In fact, even harmless fruits and vegetables contain a proportion of organic poisons that can enter the body.Immediately, we note that all these toxins are necessary for plants in order for them to reach ripeness and not be eaten ahead of time by insects or other parasites. The amount of poisons depends on the maturity, processing methods, consumption volumes and the part of the plant product.
Experts from Roskachestvo told where exactly the danger lies, what is better to do to protect yourself.
In Russia, potatoes are used quite often.This is one of the diet-forming foods. But few people know that potatoes with green “barrels” contain solanine: it is a vegetable glycoalkaloid, it is produced in the light and gives the skin a green color.
k. b. n. Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A.Timiryazev, head of the analytical center of JSC “GC SHANEKO”
– All colored formations on the root crop should be cut off. If the formation is extensive and covers more than half of the tuber, then it is better to discard such a tuber.Eating solanine can cause severe poisoning, vomiting, and even hallucinations. During heat treatment, solanine is completely destroyed only at temperatures above 250 ° C, that is, during normal cooking or frying, it still remains in some amount in the final product.
- The content of solanine in different parts of potatoes varies: in unripe tubers – about 1%, sprouts – no more than 0.5%, and in the skin of tubers its lowest content is no more than 0.06%.
- In addition to the alkaloid, potatoes can be harmful with their fumes from rotting fruit, which emit large amounts of carbon dioxide.
Experienced mushroom pickers know that not only fly agarics, false hooters and toadstools can be dangerous. Even an edible mushroom can pose a poisoning threat if it is old and wormy. Overripe mushrooms form toxic substances, protein decomposition products, which can provoke poisoning.
– We take the freshness of meat and fish products very seriously. But usually such seriousness does not apply to mushrooms, although rotting mushrooms are no more useful than rotting meat, – explained Maxim Dyakov, mycologist, leading specialist of the biological faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
In addition, mushrooms are distinguished by an osmotrophic type of nutrition; they absorb nutrients from the entire surface of the body (mycelium). If the soil, forest floor or wood on which the mushrooms grow contains heavy metals, radionuclides, agricultural pesticide residues and other toxic compounds, they end up in the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms we collect.
Cherry, or rather its seed, contains amygdalin. If you chew, chew, or otherwise damage a bone, you will immediately expose your body to hydrogen cyanide – cyanide.
– If you swallow a few bones, nothing will happen. The body can handle some cyanide, but large amounts can be dangerous. Depending on the dose, this can be fraught with increased blood pressure or dizziness, – noted Artem Ovod .
The published lethal dose of cyanide is 1.7 mg per kg of human body weight (approximately 70-100 nucleoli).
The apricot kernels also contain amygdalin, which forms cyanide when biting and interacting with saliva. Frequent and excessive use of apricot pits can cause poisoning. The risk of poisoning may arise already when taking 20-40 g of the product, while a dose of 50-60 g of kernels can become dangerous.By the number of seeds, this is from 50 to 70 pieces, depending on the size. The damage to the kernels is minimized if they are pre-boiled or dried in the oven.
Radish contains a toxic substance glycoside. It releases the sulfur-containing essential oil and gives this vegetable a specific smell. Eating a lot of radish can cause liver pain or dizziness.
Nutmeg contains a psychoactive substance called myristicin. The chemical component causes a hallucinogenic, stimulating effect on the central nervous system. But do not be afraid of it in small quantities in ready-made meals or drinks. It can only harm in large enough quantities. Therefore, it is not recommended to consume more than 10 g of nutmeg per day (the average rate for children and adults).The norm of nutmeg for the human body is 0.33 g per 1 kg of body weight.
The ripe tomato fruit itself is harmless, but along with this, the stems and leaves, the green fruits of the plant contain a toxin that causes headaches and indigestion. This is solanine, already familiar to us from potatoes. Tomatoes and potatoes belong to the nightshade family, the shoots, stems and leaves of which are poisonous.
– Solanine is a poisonous substance, and it is also found in large quantities in green tomatoes.Therefore, lovers of such fruits should be careful with eating them. It is better to wait a little for the ripening of the tomatoes until they at least turn a milky shade, – explained Artem Ovod .
When the fruit turns pink or red, the solanine content is reduced to a minimum and the fruit is safe to consume. Cut out the stem before eating tomatoes, as it also contains solanine.
Conservation versus concentration
During heat treatment, solanine is destroyed only after heating over 250 ° C.Boiling and even frying (the boiling point of the oil does not exceed 180 ° C) will not completely destroy the natural toxin. But conservation reduces the amount of solanine. You can partially get rid of the unwanted substance by keeping finely chopped tomato parts in salt water for some time. This method reduces the concentration of the dangerous alkaloid.
The fruit, or rather the peel and pulp, are very useful, they do not pose the slightest danger to the body.The same cannot be said about seeds. Only a few apple seeds that contain hydrocyanic acid can be safely eaten. But damaged seeds additionally release a small amount of cyanide, which, as we already know, is also considered highly toxic. Apple seed contains about 0.4 mg of cyanide – this dose may be enough for a weak body for poisoning.
Any beans, especially red beans, contain phytohemagglutinin.This is a substance that increases the permeability of cell membranes, as a result of which harmful substances and even poisons can penetrate into them. At the same time, phytohemagglutinin tends to break down under the influence of high temperatures, therefore, it is necessary to process the beans until fully cooked. It is also recommended to soak it for a few hours before cooking and then drain the water.
The unripe fruits of black elderberry also contain hydrocyanic acid: by eating such berries, you can easily get poisoned.Therefore, it is recommended to include fully ripe berries in the diet, usually their ripeness occurs in late August or early September. At the same time, compote can also be cooked from unripe fruits – heat treatment will help get rid of the poison.
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General Pralak died as a result of the action of potassium cyanide | News from Germany about Europe | DW
Former Bosnian-Croatian general Slobodan Pralak died as a result of exposure to potassium cyanide.As reported on Friday, December 1, the Dutch Prosecutor General’s Office, Praljak’s death was due to heart failure. On November 29, Praljak, during the examination of his appeal at the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, announced that he had drunk poison. A few hours later, he died in one of the clinics.
“Preliminary results of toxicological examination indicate the concentration of potassium cyanide in Pralak’s blood,” the Prosecutor General’s Office said in a statement.At the same time, investigators continue to find out how he managed to gain access to chemicals and bring poison into the courthouse despite strict security measures.
On November 29, the ICTY announced that the sentence of 20 years imprisonment handed down to former Major General Pralak in May 2013 has been upheld. Before drinking the poison, directly in the courtroom, in front of the judges, Praljak publicly protested against the verdict, stating that he was not a criminal and rejected the court’s verdict.
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
Transporting migrants is the fastest growing business in the Balkans. Locals, like the Kosovar Albanian Lyridon Bizazli, stand outside a refugee camp in Presevo and sell bus tickets to Croatia for 35 euros. According to Bizazli, working as a bartender, he earns no more than eight euros a day, and selling tickets – 50-70 euros a day.
How to earn money from refugees in Serbia
A gesture of solidarity
Despite the relatively high earnings, Bizazli is not proud of his work. It often organizes free travel for refugees who cannot afford to buy bus tickets. “I myself was a refugee, so I understand everything,” says Bizazli. “These bus trips should be free. Europe gives Serbia money to help refugees, but our government is doing little.”
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
Demand creates supply
Every day from 8 to 10 thousand refugees arrive at the camp in Presevo. In supermarkets and restaurants located nearby, there is no end to customers. To meet the increased demand, these establishments are now operating longer and prices have doubled and sometimes tripled. “I’ve never seen a hamburger in Serbia cost that much,” Bizazli notes.
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
From SIM cards to wheelbarrows
Once in a new place, refugees first try to get a SIM card to contact relatives and friends.Near the camps, you can buy not only prepaid cards, but also such things as, for example, cars for people who cannot walk for a long time. Like this elderly Kurdish woman from Syria.
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
Despite the approaching winter and frequent showers, many refugees continue their journey barefoot. As a result, they suffer serious injuries and skin infections, explains Stefan Kordez, coordinator of the South Serb branch of the international organization Médecins sans Frontières.Seeing this as an opportunity to earn extra money, many local residents began to sell shoes and socks near the camps.
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
Countries through which the migrant route passes must register newly arrived refugees. Sometimes many kilometers of queues line up for registration. Volunteer Daniela Gabriel says that some bus drivers have started collecting registration documents from passengers bound for Croatia and then selling them to people who do not want to queue.
How they make money on refugees in Serbia
Victims of scammers
Gabriel also says that some taxi drivers and bus drivers charge refugees to travel to Croatia, but then drop them off in Serbian cities under the pretext that they need to issue documents in non-existent registration centers. In an effort to help refugees not fall prey to fraudsters, Gabrielle placed a basic information board at the entrance to the Presevo camp.
How to make money from refugees in Serbia
Robbery on the roads
Other volunteers said they received death threats for directing refugees to buses and advising them to avoid potentially dangerous taxi drivers. According to a volunteer from Presevo, Alexander Travelle, last week a taxi driver, threatening with a pistol, robbed a family of five people, having previously charged 80 euros from each of them for travel to Croatia.
How they make money on refugees in Serbia
Bribes to police officers
Liridon Bizazli admits that he pays police officers 100 euros per week to be allowed to sell tickets at the refugee camp in Presevo.”Just give them what they want and they’ll leave you alone,” he says. Other volunteers also saw taxi drivers bribe police officers. “But this does not mean that all police officers take bribes,” one of the volunteers explained.
How to make money on refugees in Serbia
No places, with rare exceptions
As the weather gets colder, hotels located on the refugee path are accommodating more and more migrants.According to the volunteers, hotel owners are extremely selective in their choice of clients. Single rooms are in increasing demand, and hotels often refuse to accept refugees if they are unable to pay the higher price.
Author: Diego Kupolo, Serbia