Yeast infection throughout body: Invasive Candidiasis | Candidiasis | Types of Fungal Diseases | Fungal Diseases
Candida infection of the skin Information | Mount Sinai
Skin infection – fungal; Fungal infection – skin; Skin infection – yeast; Yeast infection – skin; Intertriginous candidiasis; Cutaneous candidiasis
Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection of the skin. The medical name of the condition is cutaneous candidiasis.
This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)
This child has a large rash caused by candidiasis, affecting the skin around the mouth. There are also other lesions that aren’t connected to the large lesion, called satellite lesions.
Fungal infections are caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.
The body normally hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, some produce no harm or benefit, and some can cause harmful infections.
Some fungal infections are caused by fungi that often live on the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. They include yeast-like fungi such as candida. Sometimes, these yeast penetrate beneath the surface of the skin and cause infection.
In cutaneous candidiasis, the skin is infected with candida fungi. This type of infection is fairly common. It can involve almost any skin on the body, but most often it occurs in warm, moist, creased areas such as the armpits and groin. The fungus that most often causes cutaneous candidiasis is Candida albicans.
Candida is the most common cause of diaper rash in infants. The fungi take advantage of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is also particularly common in people with diabetes and in those who are obese. Antibiotics, steroid therapy, and chemotherapy increase the risk of cutaneous candidiasis. Candida can also cause infections of the nails, edges of the nails, and corners of the mouth.
Oral thrush, a form of candida infection of the moist lining of the mouth, usually occurs when people take antibiotics though only a small number of people who take antibiotics get thrush. It may also be a sign of an HIV infection or other weakened immune system disorders when it occurs in adults. Individuals with candida infections are not usually contagious, though in some settings people with weakened immune systems may catch the infection. When it occurs in the mouth or vagina, it is sometimes called mucocutaneous candidiasis.
Candida is also the most frequent cause of vaginal yeast infections. These infections are common and often occur with antibiotic use.
Candida infection of the skin can cause intense itching.
Symptoms also include:
- Red, growing skin rash
- Rash on the skin folds, genitals, middle of the body, buttocks, under the breasts, and other areas of skin
- Infection of the hair follicles that may look like pimples
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider can usually diagnose this condition by looking at your skin. Your provider may gently scrape off a sample of skin for testing.
Older children and adults with a yeast skin infection should be tested for diabetes. High sugar levels, seen in people with diabetes, act as food for the yeast fungus and help it grow.
Good general health and hygiene are very important for treating candida infections of the skin. Keeping the skin dry and exposed to air is helpful. Drying (absorbent) powders may help prevent fungal infections.
Losing weight may help eliminate the problem if you are overweight.
Proper blood sugar control may also be helpful to those with diabetes.
Antifungal skin creams, ointments, or powders may be used to treat a yeast infection of the skin, mouth, or vagina. You may need to take antifungal medicine by mouth for severe candida infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina.
Cutaneous candidiasis often goes away with treatment, especially if the underlying cause is corrected. Repeat infections are common.
These complications may occur:
- Infection of the nails may cause the nails to become oddly shaped and may cause an infection around the nail.
- Candida skin infections may return.
- Widespread candidiasis may occur in people with weakened immune systems.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of cutaneous candidiasis.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Fungal diseases: candidiasis. www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html. Updated June 28, 2022. Accessed January 3, 2023.
James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM. Diseases resulting from fungi and yeasts. In: James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM, eds. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 15.
Lionakis MS, Edwards JE. Candida species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 256.
Last reviewed on: 12/4/2022
Reviewed by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
6 Symptoms of Candida Overgrowth (Plus How to Get Rid of It)
Candida overgrowth can cause several health problems, including digestive issues, fatigue, and joint pain. Addressing the underlying cause can help ease symptoms of candidiasis and prevent recurring infections.
Many types of fungi live in and on the human body, including the genus of yeasts known as Candida.
Candida is typically found in small amounts in the mouth and intestines and on the skin.
At normal levels, the fungus is not problematic. However, when Candida begins to grow uncontrollably, it can cause an infection known as candidiasis.
In fact, Candida is one of the most common causes of fungal infections in humans (1, 2).
This article explores 6 symptoms of Candida overgrowth, how it’s caused, and how you can treat it.
Typically, the healthy bacteria in your body keep Candida levels under control.
However, if healthy bacteria levels are disrupted or the immune system is compromised, Candida can begin to overproduce.
Below are a few factors that can lead to Candida overgrowth (3, 4, 5, 6, 7):
- taking antibiotics
- eating a diet high in sugar and refined carbs
- high alcohol intake
- a weakened immune system
- taking oral contraceptives
- high stress levels
When Candida begins to overproduce, it can lead to health problems.
Candida can cause a range of symptoms, depending on which part of the body it affects.
Mouth symptoms with oral thrush
Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or throat is called “thrush.”
It’s most common in newborns, older adults, and people with a weakened immune system (8).
Individuals with poor oral hygiene or removable dentures are also at an increased risk (9).
People with oral thrush typically develop white, bumpy patches on their tongue, inner cheeks, gums, tonsils, or throat (10).
The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when scraped.
Oral thrush is also often associated with redness or soreness of the tongue and mouth (10).
In severe cases, it can spread to the esophagus and cause pain or difficulty swallowing.
When there is too much Candida in the mouth, it can cause white, bumpy lesions, redness, and pain in the mouth and throat. This is also known as oral thrush.
2. Tiredness and fatigue
One of the most common symptoms associated with Candida is fatigue.
While there’s no evidence that Candida causes fatigue, there are a couple of ways in which it could contribute to it.
First, candidiasis is often accompanied by nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B6, essential fatty acids, and magnesium (11).
In particular, magnesium deficiency has been known to cause fatigue (12).
Second, Candida infections commonly occur when the immune system is weakened.
A low-functioning immune system in itself may leave you feeling tired and fatigued.
One older study from 1995 suggests that prolonged candidiasis of the gut may even be a potential cause of chronic fatigue syndrome. However, more research is needed (13).
Candidiasis is most common in individuals with a weakened immune system and may be accompanied by various nutritional deficiencies. This can leave you feeling tired and fatigued.
3. Recurring genital or urinary tract infections
Candida is found in the vaginal tracts of about 20% of females (14).
An overgrowth of Candida can lead to candidiasis of the vagina, also known as a yeast infection.
It is estimated that 1.4 million people visit a doctor for a vaginal yeast infection each year in the United States (14).
Males can also get genital yeast infections, but it’s much less common (15).
Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis include redness, swelling, itching, painful intercourse, and a thick, white discharge from the vagina (16).
Although not common, Candida can also cause a urinary tract infection (UTI).
Candida-related urinary tract infections are most common in older adults and hospitalized or immune-compromised individuals (17).
Symptoms of a UTI include a burning feeling when you urinate, a frequent urge to urinate, cloudy, dark, or strange-smelling urine, and pain or pressure in your lower abdomen (18).
That being said, other bacteria like E. coli are more likely to cause UTIs (18).
However, if you experience recurring infections and believe they are a result of Candida overgrowth, you can talk to a doctor about having your urine tested to find out.
Candida can cause genital and urinary tract infections, both of which can lead to pain and discomfort.
4. Digestive issues
The health of your digestive system relies heavily on a good balance between the “good” and “bad” bacteria that live in your gut.
The “good” bacteria that normally reside in your gut are important for digestion, as they help process starches, fibers, and some sugars.
When the bacteria in your gut become imbalanced, you can experience digestive issues, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, gas, cramps, and bloating (19).
Recent studies indicate that an overgrowth of Candida is associated with several diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (20, 21).
Having small amounts of Candida in your gut is normal. However, if it starts to overproduce, it may cause various gut-related symptoms.
5. Skin and nail symptoms
Just like in your gut, there are bacteria on your skin that prevent Candida from growing uncontrollably.
All bacteria thrive in different conditions, including varying temperature, moisture, or acidity levels.
For this reason, a change in the environment on your skin can allow Candida to overproduce (22).
For example, antibacterial cosmetics, soaps, and moisturizers can often alter skin conditions (23).
While skin candidiasis can affect any part of the body, areas that are warm and moist, such as the armpits and groin, are particularly prone to infection (24).
Itching and a visible rash are the two most common symptoms of skin fungal infections.
While not life-threatening, skin fungal infections can cause several unpleasant and uncomfortable symptoms.
An overgrowth of Candida on the skin can cause symptoms like itching and a visible rash.
6. Joint pain
If a Candida infection enters your bloodstream and travels through your body, it can infect the joints and cause arthritis (25).
This typically only happens after surgery or when an overgrowth of Candida is left untreated for an extended period of time.
Candida arthritis is associated with pain, stiffness, and swelling in your joints and often affects the hips and knees.
Candida can also cause bone infections, or osteomyelitis, which can cause pain and tenderness in the infected area (26).
While bone and joint infections are not very common, they can be challenging to treat and often require medications prescribed by a doctor (27).
If an overgrowth of Candida is left untreated, it can enter your bloodstream and travel throughout your entire body. When this happens, Candida can infect bones and joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling.
The food you eat plays an important role in maintaining the balance of beneficial bacteria in your gut.
In particular, foods high in sugar, refined grains, dairy products, processed meats, and alcohol may promote the growth of Candida (28).
While more research is needed, one study found that people who avoided these foods during treatment for Candida had better outcomes after 3 months (28).
Additionally, certain foods may help protect against Candida infections, including:
- Garlic: Garlic contains several antifungal compounds like allicin, some of which have been shown to act against Candida yeasts in test-tube studies (29, 30).
- Coconut oil: Coconut oil is high in lauric acid, which has been shown to fight Candida infections in multiple test-tube studies (31, 32).
- Curcumin: Test-tube studies indicate that curcumin may kill Candida yeasts, or at least reduce their growth (33).
- Xylitol: According to one test-tube study, xylitol may possess powerful antimicrobial properties and could help reduce Candida growth (34).
- Aloe vera: Test-tube studies suggest that aloe vera gel may inhibit the growth of Candida, which could help protect against infection (35).
- Pomegranate: One animal study showed that certain compounds found in pomegranate peel extract could be beneficial against Candida yeasts (36).
- Kombucha: Kombucha tea is rich in tea polyphenols and acetic acid, both of which have been shown to kill Candida in test-tube studies (37).
- Probiotics: Probiotics like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces boulardii may reduce Candida growth and protect against infections (38, 39).
What are some home remedies for oral thrush?
The best way to treat candidiasis and prevent recurring infections is to address the underlying cause.
A doctor may prescribe an antifungal drug, such as:
- amphotericin B
The type of drug and the dosage will depend on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, a single dose will clear the infection. In others, a person may need ongoing treatment for up to 6 months (15).
Learn more here
Find out more about different types of Candida infections:
- Candidiasis of the skin
- Vaginal yeast infections
- What is oral thrush?
- How does thrush affect men?
How do you clear up Candida?
A doctor can prescribe antifungal medications such as nyastatin or clotrimazole. These are available as pills or creams, depending on which part of the body Candida affects and how severe the infection is (15).
What kills Candida quickly?
The time it takes to clear Candida will also depend on the severity of the infection and how soon a person gets treatment. Some cases only need a single treatment, For recurring vaginal infections, however, you may need treatment for up to 6 months (15).
Can diet improve Candida?
No foods can cure Candida, but items that are high in sugar, refined grains, dairy products, processed meats, and alcohol may make it worse. Foods that may help protect you from an infection include garlic, curcumin, kombucha, and probiotics.
Several factors can contribute to Candida overgrowth, including certain medications, underlying health conditions, and lifestyle factors.
Modifying your diet may be beneficial for candidiasis and could help ease symptoms related to infection, including fatigue, joint pain, and digestive issues.
A doctor can also help identify the cause of infection and determine the best course of treatment based on your needs.
Thrush in women – symptoms and treatment in St. Petersburg
How the disease develops: causes and pathogenesis
Normally, the mucous membrane of the external genitalia is not sterile. The microflora of the vagina includes friendly microorganisms, including the Candida fungus, which serve as the body’s defense against infection. Under adverse conditions, when the microbiome is disturbed, the fungus spreads rapidly, causing the characteristic symptoms of thrush. In some cases, the underlying tissues and blood vessels are also involved in the pathological process, which carry the fungus throughout the body.
The causes of thrush in women are varied:
Taking medications – antibacterial drugs, cytostatics, glucocorticosteroids, immunosuppressants.
Decrease in general immunity against the background of chronic diseases – diabetes mellitus, pyelonephritis, blood diseases, tonsillitis, metabolic disorders.
Changes in the hormonal background due to pathologies of the female genital area, pregnancy, hypothyroidism, the use of oral contraceptives.
Stress factors – climate change, nervous tension, physical and emotional overload.
Errors in matters of personal hygiene – untimely change of pads and tampons, the use of aggressive cleansers (violate the natural pH level of the vagina).
The presence of injuries of the mucous membrane, provoked by wearing tight underwear, sexual intercourse with a deficiency of natural lubrication.
Often, a decrease in local immunity is caused by malnutrition, hypothermia, vitamin deficiency, and untreated sexually transmitted diseases.
Signs of candidiasis
Vaginal candidiasis is called “thrush” because of the characteristic cheesy discharge that accompanies the spread of fungal colonies. In some cases, the discharge may be absent or change its character depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.
Another striking sign of candidiasis is itching and burning in the intimate area. Itchy sensations are so unbearable that they significantly worsen the quality of life of a woman. Itching increases in the morning, before menstruation, after hygiene procedures and sexual intercourse.
Other symptoms of thrush:
burning and pain during urination;
soreness during intimate contacts;
pungent sour smell of discharge.
If the disease becomes chronic, relapses of fungal infections of the external genital organs occur more often than four times a year. Recurrent candidiasis has an erased clinical picture, when signs of pathology are present, but weakly expressed.
With complicated thrush, the pathological process is more difficult. Deeper tissues are affected, ulcerations and cracks are observed on the vaginal mucosa.
How candidiasis is diagnosed
The treatment of vaginal candidiasis is preceded by a comprehensive diagnosis. The disease in women can be diagnosed already during the initial gynecological examination. The mucous membrane of the vagina looks edematous and inflamed. The natural pink color of the fabrics changes to bright scarlet. Specific discharges of white or yellowish color with grains resembling cottage cheese are found.
With a complicated fungal infection, vesicles appear on the skin of the external genital organs. These are small blisters filled with a cloudy or clear liquid. They are able to open, exposing the epidermis and provoking the development of erosion.
To confirm the diagnosis, medical laboratory tests are carried out:
smear microscopy – examination of the microflora of the vagina under a microscope;
bakposev secretions – allows you to accurately detect the fungus-causative agent;
PCR and ELISA of genital secretions for the detection of Candida albicans antigens;
complete blood count – helps to see the inflammatory process.
Diagnosis is complicated if thrush occurs against the background of sexually transmitted diseases – chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis and development of a treatment plan for candidiasis in women is the prerogative of a doctor.
Methods of treatment
It is recommended to contact the clinic at the first signs of thrush – itching and specific discharge. Self-medication can lead to the fact that the symptoms will be masked, and the fungal disease will become recurrent. Dealing with it will be much more difficult, and the likelihood of complications will only increase.
Treatment methods for thrush will include both medications and medications aimed at normalizing the microflora. Doctors mainly focus on antifungal medications containing nystatitis, fluconazole, clotrimazole, nitrofungin, ketoconazole. They disrupt the synthesis of substances contained in the membrane of the fungus, which inhibits the growth of colonies or leads to the complete destruction of the pathogen. Preparations for candidal lesions of the mucous membranes are available in the form of tablets, capsules, suppositories, ointments and creams. The drug is selected individually, taking into account the clinical picture.
The program of complex treatment of candidiasis also includes:
It is important to eliminate the cause of the pathology in order to prevent the occurrence of relapses. Funds may be required to improve hormonal levels, fight dysbacteriosis and sexually transmitted diseases.
It is recommended to adjust the diet – reduce the consumption of sweets and carbohydrates. They serve as a breeding ground for the active development of the fungus and slow down recovery.
Of the physiotherapeutic methods for the treatment of thrush, darsonvalization, laser therapy, electrophoresis, and magnetotherapy contribute. During therapy and after it, it is necessary to adhere to the basic principles for the prevention of microflora disorders:
abandon tight synthetic underwear in favor of comfortable cotton;
timely treat common diseases – hormonal, inflammatory, infectious;
change tampons and pads more often during menstruation;
do not take antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription;
use special means for intimate hygiene;
when carrying out antibacterial therapy, in parallel, use means to restore normal microflora.
Do not treat candidiasis as a harmless disease. The inflammatory process caused by the fungus can spread to surrounding organs and tissues. Against the background of weakened immunity, a bacterial infection easily joins a fungal infection, which is fraught with the development of salpingitis, adnexitis, urethritis, cystitis. Only competent treatment of thrush in the clinic “MEDIONA PARNAS” is the key to a successful recovery and preservation of women’s health.
Itching of the skin all over the body, ointment for itching
THERE ARE CONTRAINDICATIONS. POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS. A SPECIALIST’S CONSULTATION IS REQUIRED. 49 When to prescribe antipruritic ointments for the skin
Itching is an unpleasant symptom that has a variety of causes. Antipruritic ointments for the skin help to fight it. But you can use drugs only after examination and establishing the exact cause of the itching. Otherwise, the use of these funds will not only not be beneficial, but will also cause a deterioration in the condition.
When antipruritic ointments are prescribed for the skin
Itching of the skin is caused by:
- skin pathologies (most common cause) – eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis;
- infectious and fungal diseases – chickenpox, ringworm, candidiasis;
- general pathologies – diabetes, liver disease, varicose veins;
- prolonged sun exposure, dry skin;
- psychological state – depression, anxiety;
- hormonal changes during pregnancy and menopause;
- insect bites, contact with parasites (scabies, pediculosis).
Antipruritic ointment is selected based on the symptoms and the cause of its occurrence. There are several categories of drugs:
- Antihistamines – reduce itching, swelling and redness. Relief occurs within a few minutes after application.
- Corticosteroids – for the treatment of skin diseases. Applies for a limited period of time.
- Local anesthetics – contain novocaine and lidocaine, which desensitize the skin. Relieve minor itching.
- Calcineurin inhibitors – relieve the inflammatory process.
Menthol and camphor oil are used in folk medicine. They cool the skin and soothe itching.
You might be interested in: Today’s Best Allergy Remedy
Itchy Foot Ointments
Itchy feet are caused by fungus, food allergies, dust, clothes, skin conditions, and infections. One of the reasons for its appearance is inadequate hygiene.
The list of the best ointments includes:
- Advantan – suppresses allergies and inflammation. It is used to treat neurodermatitis, eczema, atopic dermatitis.
- Sinaflan – has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. Indicated for dry skin, allergic manifestations, insect bites.
- Elokom – relieves inflammation and itching, has a vasoconstrictive effect. It is prescribed for dermatitis, allergic skin lesions, for the treatment of lichen.
Be sure to consult your doctor if, despite all the measures taken, the symptom continues to bother you for more than 2 weeks, prevents you from sleeping at night, itching begins to spread throughout the body.
Eruptions and itching on the face can appear as a result of allergies caused by cosmetics, changes in the state of the body, past illnesses, under the influence of stress. The skin of the face is especially sensitive and delicate, therefore, for its treatment, the means are selected with extreme care.
It is preferable to choose non-hormonal ointments for therapy. They have a mild effect. But, unfortunately, non-hormonal remedies do not cope with severe forms of allergic dermatoses. In these cases, hormonal preparations (ointment, cream, balm) are prescribed, which can quickly alleviate the condition. However, these drugs have many contraindications, so you can not choose the drug yourself and use it uncontrollably.
An unpleasant symptom in the genital area occurs in both men and women. It can be caused by external influences, infections, violations of hygiene rules. Often occurs with diseases of the internal genital organs.
For the intimate area are used:
- Oxycort – eliminates itching caused by allergies, dermatitis, insect bites, infected diaper rash.
- Hydrocortisone ointment – used to treat psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema.
- Prednisalone ointment – reduces symptoms caused by eczema, dermatitis.
- Mirtoplex, Biopin, Acyclovir are used to treat genital herpes. The drugs effectively relieve itching, as they fight its cause.
Thrush often develops as a reaction to antibiotics, stress, malnutrition.