100 57 blood pressure: Heart Attack Causes and Risk Factors
Heart Attack Causes and Risk Factors
Heart Attacks and Heart Disease
Heart attacks happen when blood flow to your heart becomes blocked, and the heart muscle can’t get enough oxygen.
Most heart attacks happen in people with coronary artery disease (CAD). (1)
This condition involves a buildup of a waxy substance called plaque in the arteries that supply blood to your heart.
Plaque is a combination of fat, cholesterol, and other substances that can build up inside your arteries.
As plaque accumulates over time, the inside of your arteries can become narrowed.
This condition is known as atherosclerosis, or “hardening of the arteries.”
Eventually, an area of plaque may rupture, resulting in a blood clot forming to stop the ruptured plaque from releasing its contents into your bloodstream.
When a blood clot forms in an already narrowed artery, the artery may become blocked and limit or cut off the blood supply to your heart. This is a heart attack.
Because blood carries oxygen to your heart, if blood flow to your heart isn’t restored quickly, a portion of the heart muscle may become permanently damaged. (1,2)
Other Heart Attack Causes
Less commonly, a heart attack may be caused by a severe spasm, or tightening, of a coronary artery.
A coronary artery spasm may cut off blood flow to your heart. This can happen in people who do not have coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis and is more common in females than males.
While it isn’t always clear what causes a coronary artery spasm, risk factors include smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels.
Other potential triggers of a coronary artery spasm may include:
- Certain stimulant drugs (such as amphetamines and cocaine)
- Tobacco use
- Severe emotional distress
- Exposure to extreme cold (1,2)
Nonmodifiable Risk Factors for Heart Attack
Risk factors for having a heart attack fall into two categories: modifiable (behaviors you can change) and nonmodifiable (characteristics you cannot change).
Heart disease risk factors that you cannot control include:
Your risk of having a heart attack increases as you get older, no matter how healthy you are. About 82 percent of people who die of heart disease are 65 or older, according to the American Heart Association. (3)
Heart attack risk begins to rise substantially for men after age 45, and for women after age 55, according to the Mayo Clinic. (1)
Men are at greater risk for a heart attack earlier in life than women. For women, heart disease risk begins to increase after menopause.
Family History of Heart Disease
Having a close family member (parent or sibling) with heart disease means that you may be more likely to develop the disease.
Your risk of heart attack may be substantially higher if a close relative has had an early heart attack, before age 55 for men or age 65 for women. (1,2)
Certain Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds
Heart disease risk is higher in African-Americans than in white Americans. This may be due to both genetic factors as well as disparities in resources and access to healthcare.
Mexican-Americans, American Indians, and Alaska Natives also experience a higher rate of diabetes, which is associated with an increased heart disease risk.
And rates of obesity are higher in African-American and Mexican-American women, which is also associated with an increased heart disease risk. (3)
This condition may develop during pregnancy, and involves elevated blood pressure and protein in your urine.
Preeclampsia doesn’t just affect your risk during pregnancy, but is associated with an increased lifetime risk of heart disease — including heart failure, coronary artery disease, and heart attack. (2)
Modifiable Risk Factors for Heart Attack
There are certain risk factors that you may be able to change. These include:
People who smoke are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases than nonsmokers and 2 to 3 times as likely to die from it, according to the American Heart Association.
Smoking may raise women’s heart attack risk more than men’s. One study found that women who smoked had a heart attack 14.4 years earlier, on average, than those who didn’t smoke, while for men it was 8.3 years earlier. (4)
As blood cholesterol rises, so does your risk of heart disease.
It’s important to focus not just on total cholesterol, but on your levels of HDL (“good”) and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, as well as triglycerides.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure makes your heart work harder and may cause the heart muscle to not work properly over time, increasing your heart attack risk.
Lack of Physical Activity
Inactivity is a major risk factor for heart disease, and regular exercise can greatly lower your risk.
Physical activity can improve your cholesterol and trigyceride levels, and it may help with weight control and blood pressure.
Overweight or Obesity
People with excess body fat are more likely to develop heart disease.
The good news is that if you’re overweight or obese, shedding just 3 to 5 percent of your current body weight can significantly reduce certain heart disease risk factors. Greater weight loss can lead to even more improvement.
At least 68 percent of people with diabetes over age 65 die of heart disease, according to the American Heart Association.
If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it’s extremely important to work with your doctors to manage your blood glucose levels and reduce other heart attack risk factors.
Excess Alcohol Intake
Drinking heavily can raise your blood pressure and contribute to high triglyceride levels.
To limit your heart disease risk and other risks, it’s best to consume no more than two drinks a day for men and one drink a day for women.
A heart-healthy diet includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods with an emphasis on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as legumes, poultry, fish, nuts and seeds, and low-fat dairy products. (5)
Additional reporting by Quinn Phillips.
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Every time you go to the doctor’s office, your M.D. straps an inflatable sleeve around your upper arm to test your blood pressure. You’ve likely gone through this routine so many times you don’t give it a second thought. We’re here to tell you should. High blood pressure (HBP) puts your heart health at risk—and, astoundingly, nearly one in two American adults has it. Now that we have your attention, we’d also like to point out that HBP is often highly treatable. Keep reading and we’ll tell you how to help curb the threat it poses to your body’s most important muscle.
More Top Articles on Heart Disease
Frequently Asked Questions
Can my high blood pressure be cured?
Primary hypertension can’t be cured, per se, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and, if you need them, medications. Because the disease is chronic, management will be a lifelong effort. The upside? Your life will be longer! If you have HBP due to an underlying (secondary) cause, treating that problem first might be enough to help your BP return to normal.
How will I know if HBP treatment is working?
If your doctor recommends lifestyle changes alone, it will likely take between three to six months to determine whether they will do the job. If he or she determines medications are in order, you’ll be monitored and likely know sooner than that if the drug (or drugs) of choice has successfully lowered your numbers.
How long do I have before HBP does real damage?
It usually takes years before organ damage occurs, but don’t give yourself a pass just because you don’t think it poses an immediate threat. HBP usually occurs alongside other concerns, like obesity and diabetes, so addressing it early and as aggressively as needed will improve your overall health.
Can healthy blood pressure ever give a high reading?
Yes! If you are in pain, feeling anxious or afraid, or just finished a workout or a cup of coffee, your blood pressure has likely risen, but only temporarily. It will return to normal. While severe spikes are medical emergencies, such as those caused by eclampsia, most often, high blood pressure generally raises concerns when it becomes chronic.
What Is High Blood Pressure, Anyway?
Let’s first begin with how the heart functions. With each beat, the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body in an ongoing, life-sustaining cycle. The force—or pressure—of that contraction is what keeps your blood flowing through your arteries and veins.
There are two types of pressure that get generated:
Systolic, which is the pressure when your heart beats
Diastolic, which is your blood pressure between beats
A healthy blood-pressure reading is written out like this: 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury), with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number below. Spoken out loud, you’ll hear: “120 over 80.” It’s only when your numbers spike higher than 129 (systolic) and tick upward of 80 (diastolic), that you’re venturing into hypertension—a. k.a. high blood pressure (HBP)—territory. (More on how those numbers break down in just a bit.)
Your blood pressure goes up when you’re active. It goes down when you chill out. It’s highest in the morning when you wake up and lowest when you sleep. These types of fluctuations occur normally. However, when it’s continually above normal, you have a problem.
Why? Because HBP can do A LOT of damage. It strains and stiffens your blood vessels, which can make your heart work harder than it should—and that can lead to a range of heart disorders, some of them quite serious.
How Does Hypertension Put Me at Risk for Heart Disease?
If you have HBP, you may not feel any different than you ever did, or even suffer the consequences for years. But over time you’re at increasing risk for developing four major heart problems. They are:
The hard work that HBP requires of your heart can cause part of it to thicken, a condition called left ventricular hypertrophy. When that happens your heart can no longer function as efficiently as it once did, leaving it unable to pump an adequate amount of blood to the rest of your body. Hypertension over many years can also cause the left ventricle to dilate and fail (known as dilated cardiomyopathy), another form of heart failure.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
CAD develops most often as a result of atherosclerosis, a process in which a fatty substance called plaque builds up on the walls of your arteries. This can lead them to thicken and stiffen, which then restricts blood flow. The causes of atherosclerosis are unknown, but HBP is a prime suspect, because over time hypertension damages the arteries, making them more prone to plaque buildup—which can lead to CAD. So, it’s a bit of a vicious circle. (Other risk factors like smoking and high cholesterol are big concerns, too.) Unchecked, CAD can lead to a heart attack.
HBP is the leading cause of stroke, mostly because of the damage it does to the blood vessels. It not only raises the risk that plaque will rupture, it also increases the odds that blood clots will form in the heart. Both circumstances can block blood flow to the brain causing an ischemic stroke. The strain from HBP also can weaken blood vessels and make them prone to bursting. If this happens in the brain, it’s called a hemorrhagic stroke.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
HBP harms the arteries that supply your kidneys with blood, leaving them unable to filter your blood sufficiently. It also makes them less able to produce aldosterone, the very hormone that helps control blood pressure. According to the American Heart Association, HBP is the second-leading cause of kidney failure.
What Causes High Blood Pressure in the First Place?
If you have HBP, you’re hardly alone. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly half of all adults in the U.S. have hypertension or take a medication (sometimes more than one) to manage it. Only one-quarter of them have it under control.
Your doctor most likely won’t be able to pinpoint the reason why you have HBP. That’s because as many as 95% of HBP cases have no known cause. If you fall into this vast category, you have what’s known as primary hypertension. Among the much, much smaller number of people who do have a known cause, their HBP is known as secondary high blood pressure because it’s caused by an underlying, or already present, health condition.
These underlying secondary causes include:
Diabetes, which damages arteries and can lead to atherosclerosis, which in turn ups risk for HBP
Chronic kidney disease and other illnesses that affect the kidneys, which causes the vessels around the kidneys to narrow or harden, forcing the heart to pump harder and raising BP
Primary aldosteronism, which is when your adrenal glands (located near your kidneys) produce too much of the hormone aldosterone, forcing your heart to work harder, leading to HBP
Obstructive sleep apnea, which is a disorder that causes repeated, brief episodes of interrupted breathing while you sleep, putting long-term strain on your heart to raise BP
Thyroid problems, which is when the thyroid gland produces too much or too little of the thyroid hormone, straining the heart and leading to HBP
Birth defects, such as coarctation of the aorta, where the main vessel leading away from the heart is dangerously narrowed, causing HBP—which may be the first indication of congenital heart disease being present
Preeclampsia, which causes sudden spikes in blood pressure in pregnant women, resulting in eclampsia, a severe complication that leads to seizures, and puts those who have it at higher risk of HBP throughout their lives
What Are the Risk Factors for Hypertension?
While the exact causes of HBP remain a mystery in most cases, risk factors are much easier to identify. Fortunately, most of them are within your power to control—which means your heart’s destiny may lie largely in your own hands. They include:
If you’re overweight or obese, your body requires your heart to pump more blood to supply it with oxygen and other essential nutrients. This extra work adds to the pressure on the walls of your blood vessels.
Lack of Exercise
Regularly breaking a sweat allows your heart to work more efficiently, requiring fewer beats per minute to pump an adequate amount of blood. However, if you’re a couch potato, your heart may have to beat faster to keep up with demand. That means your heart’s working harder and putting more pressure on your blood vessels.
With every drag you take, the chemicals you inhale move through your lungs and into your bloodstream, where they damage your blood vessels along the way. Over time, this tough-to-kick habit significantly ups your risk of heart disease. Research suggests that vaping also raises blood pressure in a similar way—a good reason to avoid e-cigarettes, too.
High Salt Diet
Excess sodium causes fluid retention. The extra fluid in your blood vessels means your heart has to work that much harder to move it around your body, which boosts blood pressure.
Low Potassium Diet
When you don’t get enough potassium—found in foods like spinach, bananas, yogurt, and beans—the level of sodium circulating in your bloodstream rises.
Overindulging in Alcohol
We know, a little wine with dinner is nice. But exceeding the recommended daily limit of alcohol can bump up your BP. Current guidelines advise no more than one drink per day for women and two for men. A drink is a 5-ounce glass of wine, a 12-ounce regular beer, or 1.5 ounces of liquor.
Too Much Stress
Your body releases blood pressure-boosting hormones during times of stress. Too much stress, or not managing it well, also makes it harder to keep other HBP risk factors in check, like eating a poor diet, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and losing sleep.
What Risk Factors for Hypertension Are Beyond My Control?
It’s important to focus on all you can do to prevent or better manage HBP. But some risk factors can’t be quit or improved. They include:
Your likelihood of HBP goes up as you get older. Why? The arteries begin to stiffen starting around age 55 in both women and men. This results in rising systolic (the top number) blood pressure, while diastolic BP tends to go down (likely because as we age the arteries stiffen and don’t spring back as well between heartbeats).
HBP also may be passed down to you from your parents. In fact, at least a third—and potentially up to half—of all cases of HBP have a genetic component.
African Americans have a higher risk of HBP than whites, which may be due to higher rates of diabetes and obesity, or to a gene that makes African Americans more sensitive to salt, according to the American Heart Association.
What Are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?
This is an easy one: For most people, there are no symptoms. The only way to tell if it’s present is to get tested. Still, if you leave HBP untreated long enough, it can cause noticeable damage to your heart, eyes, and kidneys. When that happens, you may experience symptoms like:
Shortness of breath due to heart problems
Vision problems ranging from blurriness to blindness from eye damage
Swelling, usually in your legs or around your eyes, due to kidney damage
How long does that take? Often years, but the process gets accelerated if you have other health problems, such as diabetes and high cholesterol. Extremely high blood pressure may also cause:
How Do Doctors Diagnose High Blood Pressure?
Because symptoms are so uncommon, the only way to know you have HBP is to have your blood pressure tested at your doctor’s office. Your doctor will use a device called a sphygmomanometer, which features an inflatable cuff that wraps around your upper arm. The cuff is attached to a scale, and when it inflates, it measures your systolic BP. It measures your diastolic BP as the cuff slowly deflates. Your doctor will also likely press a stethoscope to listen for any abnormal sounds as your blood flows.
You officially have HBP—your doctor may call it hypertension—when your readings are above normal during at least two visits to the doctor. However, many doctors will ask you to measure your own blood pressure using either a home monitor or with a 24-hour monitoring device your doctor lends you. Doing this will help confirm that your blood pressure remains high during the normal course of your day.
Why is this important? Many people have what’s called white-coat hypertension, which means that your blood pressure spikes in your doctor’s office but returns to normal elsewhere. For example, your reading may be high when you have a physical and normal when you use the device at your pharmacist or grocery store (though keep in mind these out-of-office devices don’t always give accurate readings).
Then there’s the reverse phenomenon: masked hypertension, in which your numbers fall into the normal range at the doctor’s office but not when measured elsewhere, such as with an at-home BP monitor. About 10% of people with HBP have masked hypertension. An estimated 15% to 30% have white-coat hypertension.
Let’s look at the numbers. The American Heart Association provides the measurements that you should aim for, as well as the ranges that put you in the danger zone. All measurements are mm Hg.
Normal: Systolic (the top number) below 120 and diastolic (the lower number) below 80
Elevated (prehypertension): Systolic 120 to 129 and diastolic below 80
High blood pressure (hypertension) stage 1: Systolic 130 to 139 or diastolic 80 to 89
High blood pressure (hypertension) stage 2: Systolic 140 or higher or diastolic 90 or higher
Hypertensive crisis (call your doctor immediately): Systolic higher than 180 or higher and/or diastolic higher than 120
In addition to identifying HBP, your doctor also will examine you to see if your HBP has already taken a toll on your health. That means checking your eyes for signs of retinopathy (damage to the blood vessels in your retina which can lead to blindness) as well as testing your kidney and heart function.
What Is the Best Treatment for High Blood Pressure?
Treatment frequently begins with lifestyle adjustments alone if your BP puts you in the elevated or stage 1 category, with an otherwise very low risk of developing heart disease over the following 10 years. Just like the risk factors above put you in the crosshairs of HBP, reducing those risk factors can help bring your BP back down.
Here’s where to start:
Focus on foods that are good for you and avoid those that are not. Sounds obvious, right? But it’s helpful to have a plan. One that’s proven to benefit HBP is the DASH diet, or Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. This is a low-sodium diet that features lots of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and other good for you foods while lowering the amount of saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium you consume.
Get a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week. That breaks down to about 30 minutes a day. Pick a workout you like because you’ll be more likely to stick with it. Better still, pick a few types of exercise. Variety keeps things interesting. Your exercise can be as simple as lacing up your sneakers and taking a walk, and it may be just as effective as taking a blood pressure medication, according to a 2019 British Journal of Sports Medicine review of scientific studies on the subject. Bottom line: Just get moving.
The above two will help you with this one. For every two pounds you drop, your blood pressure will go down by about one point. That’s significant. If you need help losing weight, which we know is not easy, try apps like Weight Watchers or Noom.
It’s so tough to do because nicotine is addictive. And, we know, many of you have tried to snuff out a smoking habit—more than once. Don’t give up! There are many smoking cessation methods out there, so if nicotine gum didn’t work for you, maybe hypnosis will. Or the patch. The important thing is to keep fighting for your heart—and your life. If you slip up try a fresh approach. You can do this. Your heart will thank you. For help, visit the American Heart Association to stop smoking forever.
None of us can completely avoid stress in our 24-7, go-go world. But we can learn to better manage it. Try deep breathing exercises, daily meditation, yoga classes, or even talk therapy to benefit your blood pressure levels. Just remember: Taking time for self-care is as important as taking care of your kids, your job, and everything else! No guilt here, ok?
Get Quality Sleep
Aim to get seven to nine hours each night. And if your partner tells you that you snore a lot, or you find yourself waking up breathless, ask your doctor about doing a sleep study. You might have sleep apnea, which can up your blood pressure and harm your heart.
Many of us unwind after a long work week with a drink or two—which, according to most research, is just fine. So enjoy your glass of wine or beer! It’s when you veer into heavy drinking, or too often exceed daily allowances, that your BP can spike.
What Are the Medications for Hypertension?
If you are in stage 2, or in stage 1 with an elevated risk of heart disease, you’ll need to make the above lifestyle modifications and probably get started on at least one blood pressure-lowering medication.
If your blood pressure is very high, you will need what’s called combination therapy, or medications from two different classes of drugs. Your doctor has many options to choose from. The choice will depend on the severity of your HBP as well as underlying health conditions you may have, like diabetes and heart disease. In all likelihood, your doctor will try you on more than one medication or dosage before determining what works best for you.
Short for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, this class of drug prevents your body from producing the blood vessel-narrowing and blood pressure-boosting hormone angiotensin II. These meds are often prescribed to people with diabetes because it also has kidney benefits.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
ARBs for short, they also prevent angiotensin II from narrowing your blood vessels, easing the strain on your heart.
These drugs slow your heart rate so that it does not have to work as hard. This lowers your blood pressure.
Calcium Channel Blockers
These help your blood vessels to relax, allowing blood to flow more easily. They also lower BP by slowing your heart rate, give your heart a chance to rest.
Also known as water pills, these drugs help your kidneys flush sodium and excess fluids out of your body via your urine. Less fluid means less pressure on your blood vessels.
Treatments for Stage 2 HBP may involve combinations of the above classes, often in a single pill, such as a diuretic combined with a beta blocker or an ARB.
Up to one in six people with HBP have a treatment-resistant form of the disease, in which your blood pressure remains stubbornly high, even with lifestyle changes and medications. You may require several different drugs to get it under control. But truly resistant HBP is not common. It may be due to an underlying health condition that can be better managed, thus bringing your BP down. It also may be caused by a medication you’re taking for another health problem. Another possible explanation? You’re not taking your medication as directed, or you’ve had difficulty meeting your lifestyle goals, like weight loss and exercise. Your doctor can help you with that.
If your BP is considered a hypertensive crisis, that’s a medical emergency requiring admission to the intensive care unit of the hospital, where you will receive intravenous (I.V.) medications in an attempt to lower your BP quickly.
What’s Life Like With High Blood Pressure?
It can mean some big changes. Medication may not be enough to keep your BP under control if you don’t make and maintain appropriate lifestyle changes, like eating a more nutritious diet and getting plenty of exercise. This becomes even more critical as you get older, as BP frequently becomes more difficult to manage as you age. You also must maintain your daily medication regimen.
A critical component of your treatment likely will be a home blood-pressure monitor. Because HBP has no symptoms, the only way you’ll know your efforts are having the desired effect is to measure your BP on a regular basis. Your doctor will give you an appropriate schedule. Use these at-home readings as encouragement to stick to your self-care plan. If it won’t budge, discuss this with your doctor, who may recommend a different medication or dosage.
And, remember: It might seem like a lot of work to deal with a problem that doesn’t give you any obvious symptoms—for now, anyway. But trust us, lowering your blood pressure is the biggest gift you can give to you heart to keep it beating like a champ for years to come.
Meet Our Writer
Matt McMillen has been a freelance health reporter since 2002. In that time he’s written about everything from acupuncture to the Zika virus. He covers breaking medical news and the latest medical studies, profiles celebrities, and crafts easy to digest overviews of medical conditions. His work has appeared, both online and in print, in The Washington Post, WebMD Magazine, Diabetes Forecast, AARP, and elsewhere.
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When should you start worrying about your blood pressure
Hypertension aka high blood pressure is a serious concern. The situation is so alarming that Mumbai-based Dr Ramakanta Panda shared hypertension will most likely end up being an epidemic in the near future as approximately one third population will suffer from it in the next two years.
Normal blood pressure
When the reading is less than 120 (systolic) and 80 (diastolic) your blood pressure is completely normal. But when it goes over 140/90, it’s a clear indication that the force of your blood is pressing too aggressively against your artery walls.
(With data from the Harvard Medical School)
What is systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
Blood pressure is measured in two numbers – 120/80 is considered normal blood pressure. The first number i.e., 120 is the systolic blood pressure and the second number i.e., 80 is the diastolic blood pressure.
The first number, systolic blood pressure measures the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats. The second number, diastolic blood pressure measures the pressure in the blood vessels when your heart rests (between two heart beats).
What does high blood pressure do?
High blood pressure can damage your body quiet for years even before any symptoms appear. High blood pressure causes your heart to work harder thus making you prone to heart disease, stroke, vision issues and kidney failure.
People suffering from hypertension if not treated right and on time can die due to heart diseases caused by the poor blood flow. Below are the details of problems caused by high blood
Damage arteries: The increased flow of blood due to hypertension can damage and narrow your arteries. Healthy arteries are strong, elastic and flexible through which the blood flows freely.
Damage your brain: Just like your heart your brain depends on the good blood supply to survive and work efficiently. But high blood pressure can cause stroke, dementia and cognitive impairment.
Damage your kidneys: The function of kidneys depends on healthy blood vessels. Kidney filter the waste and excess fluid from your blood, which cannot be done if your blood vessels aren’t in a good condition. High BP can also lead to kidney scarring and kidney artery aneurysm (bulge in the wall of a blood vessel).
Damage your eyes: High BP can damage the eye blood vessels leading to the damage of optic nerve and retina.
Other problems caused by high blood pressure are sexual dysfunction, bone loss and trouble sleeping.
Blood pressure rises so quickly that sometimes it can become a medical emergency and may require immediate treatment with hospitalization.
In these situation, high blood pressure can cause:
– Damage to arteries
– Memory loss and personality changes
– Cheat pain and heart attack
– Kidney failure
– Sudden impaired pumping of the heart
What is the correct age to start getting your blood pressure checked?
According to doctors, high blood pressure can happen anytime. If you haven’t got your BP checked in a while, you should get it checked now. The assumption that you are young and clear can be dangerous. Dr Priyanka Rohatgi from Apollo Hospital says, “People as young as 22 years are suffering from high blood pressure, which compels us to be cautious by getting our BP checked whenever we visit the doctor.” Dr Romil Tikku, Internal medicine, Max Hospital adds with the increasing number of cases of hypertension, one should definitely get their blood pressure checked at least once a year from the age of 18.
Dr Romil Tikku, Internal medicine, Max Hospital says, “with the increasing number of cases of hypertension, one should definitely get their blood pressure checked at least once a year from the age of 18.”
High BP is common among men below 35
More young men than ever have hypertension today with the biggest problem being that it doesn’t exhibit any symptoms.
Studies claim that younger men are more likely to have high diastolic pressure. Older men, on the other hand, have typically higher systolic pressure, which stiffens the arteries.
Why are more young men suffering from high BP
The rising rates of obesity in younger people and increased BMI are partially to be blamed for younger people suffering from hypertension. Rising obesity is directly correlated with rising cases of hypertension.
Blood pressure changes with age
You are most likely to have high blood pressure as you age. Studies show 80 per cent people over the age of 65 have high blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure rises as you age and the diastolic number reduces.
If you have high blood pressure in your youth, this can be more of a problem as you age. Even if you control this in the younger age, there are still chances that the numbers (reading) will increase as you age.
Relation between age and BP
We are more likely to see a rise in BP as we age. But why so? This happens because your heart does not work as efficiently as it did when you were young. Also, other changes like hormones and arteries can also lead to the problem. People over the age of 65 also tend to have more salt in their food because their taste buds become less sensitive.
When should you start worrying?
There is no specific age from when one should start getting their blood pressure checked. Whenever you visit your doctor for a regular checkup or for flu, get your BP checked and if your BP turns out to be 120/80 always, you can get it checked in every two years.
If your BP is even slightly above 120/80 (prehypertension), you need to get it checked at least once a year or often if your doctor suggests.
If your blood pressure is above 140/90, you need to monitor even more. No matter what your age is, you should always know your BP. As your blood pressure rises with age, it’s never too early or never too late to be knowledgeable about it.
90,000 The doctor named the most frequent consequence of the coronavirus :: Society :: RBK
Photo: Michele Lapini / Getty Images
Among the consequences of the postponed coronavirus infection, the most common case is a change in blood pressure.This was announced by the doctor immunologist-allergist Vladimir Bolibok, reports “Lenta.ru”.
“The most massive thing, from my point of view, that I see in all patients, is a tendency to an increase in blood pressure,” the specialist pointed out.
The doctor reported an unusual symptom in patients with COVID-19
Bolibok explained that this is due to damage to the vascular system and a decrease in the elasticity of the vascular walls throughout the body.It is difficult to say exactly how long-term such consequences are.
In June, endocrinologist, candidate of medical sciences Zukhra Pavlova noted that those who had recovered from COVID-19, after recovery, may experience chills even in the heat. As a reason, the expert indicated a violation of thermoregulation due to damage to the central nervous system. The doctor noted that patients with chills often mistake it for COVID-19 recurrence.
what does this mean and what is the danger of such an indicator
In the general sense of this word, blood pressure is the force with which the hematological fluid presses on the walls of the blood vessels.
In everyday life, only arterial pressure is understood as pressure (there are other varieties of it, based on the names of the vessels: venous, capillary).
However, it is the first indicator that is key for determining the quality of human health.
Pressure is a purely individual value. The standard 120 to 80 is a very outdated standard, a kind of average temperature in the hospital.
Normal can be considered 100 to 80, 140 to 90 (the upper indicator after which they talk about pathology) and other values.
It is necessary to look at the patient’s well-being and the state of blood vessels. Blood pressure 60/40 mm. rt. Art., however, is never normal.
It should be noted, depending on the numbers, they speak of two conditions: when the arterial index is above 140 to 90, this is hypertension. Below 100 to 80 – hypotension (that is, lack of pressure).
Varieties of arterial pressure
Arterial pressure is conventionally divided into lower or diastolic and upper, which is also called systolic.
The first shows with what force the blood is thrown out at the limit of heart contraction, the second indicates the strength of blood pressure at the moment of pause between successive contractions.
These numbers, as well as the difference between them, provide a lot of information about the state of health and possible causes of hypotension.
Causes of short-term pressure drop
Blood pressure is not a static indicator. It changes every second. At a certain moment, a sharp decrease in the indicator may occur, up to critical levels.
No one is immune from a one-time decrease in blood pressure, but in most cases this situation does not indicate pathological processes and, strictly speaking, is not hypotension.
Why is there a drop in the level of pressure:
- Excessive fatigue of the body. As a result of intense experiences, long work, a large amount of stress hormones are released: cortisol, adrenaline, norepinephrine, catecholamines and other substances. They provoke a narrowing of the lumen of large and small vessels, and then their sharp expansion.That is, the pressure in the arteries first increases rapidly, and then drops just as rapidly. Not only is this unpleasant, but also dangerous: sudden changes affect the quality and elasticity of blood supply structures, and also increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
- Physical activity. This is a classic situation when the pressure rises sharply, and after intense physical activity it drops (at the moment of relaxation of the body). A large number of the same known substances are produced.
- Bradycardia of various origins.It is a reduction in the number of heart beats to less than 60 beats in a given period of time (usually per minute). A similar phenomenon is observed with an excess of drugs for the treatment of hypertension, also due to various diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Other factors are also possible. The fact is that with bradycardia, there is a violation of the ejection of blood, both systolic and diastolic pressure changes.
- Abrupt change in body position. Typically, the pressure drops as a result of getting up from a lying or sitting position.The circulation of hematological fluid is impaired. Therefore, if the pressure dropped to 60 to 40, the reason may be this.
Much more dangerous is persistent hypotension, which develops as a primary or secondary pathology.
Symptoms and clinical manifestations
Low diastolic pressure provokes a decrease in blood flow in tissues, which, as a result, do not receive nutrients and oxygen, their functional activity is impaired, which slows down the removal of toxins from the body, leads to the accumulation of carbon dioxide.The cells of the internal organs begin to die. With the temporary nature of such violations, no symptoms arise. In other cases, the person notes:
- constant nausea;
- blurring outlines of objects;
- cold limbs;
- pallor of the skin; 90 048 90 047 shortness of breath;
- Light fainting or loss of consciousness, fraught with injury.
Causes of persistent lowering of blood pressure
Blood pressure may decrease on a periodic basis.It is much more difficult to cope with such a problem; specialized medical assistance is required.
Factors of the formation of hypotension are as follows:
- A history of diabetes mellitus of the first or second type. Diabetes is a very insidious disease that undermines health at a generalized level. The circulatory and cardiovascular system also suffers. As a result of a violation of blood circulation in the stream, a decrease in pressure occurs. Moderate or severe hypotension is possible.
- The causes of pressure 60 to 40 may lie in the disruption of the functioning of the musculoskeletal system. First of all, when the spine in the collar region (cervical region) suffers. Osteochondrosis – a frequent companion of a modern person provokes a decrease in pressure in the arteries.
- Traumatic brain injury. In the practice of neurologists, the following phenomenon is often observed: with a concussion, a patient develops persistent hypotension. Therefore, the reason for the lowered blood pressure may lie precisely here.
- Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism. In a word, thyroid disorders. Excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones affects.
- Cirrhosis of the liver. By itself, does not cause hypotension. It is formed as a result of disruption of the brain and central nervous system.
- Anemia. In other words, a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood and, as a result, a violation of the properties of the liquid. It becomes thinner. This is a direct route to low blood pressure.
- Congestive heart failure. It is a complex disease of mixed genesis, the input of which the heart cannot cope with its function. The result is a malnutrition of tissues. This process is accompanied by a significant decrease in blood pressure.
- Overdose with drugs intended to lower blood pressure (calcium channel blockers, diuretics and some other drugs).
- Infectious pathological processes. Affected by toxic poisoning of the body with waste products of harmful flora and bacteria.
- Allergic reaction in the form of anaphylactic shock.
- Lack of catecholamines, as a result of removal or dysfunction of the adrenal glands
Thus, in most cases, persistent hypotension does not develop on its own, but is secondary to the underlying disease.
Classification of reduced pressure
The differentiation is made as follows:
|100-120 / 60-80||It is considered a normal indicator.A kind of reference value.|
|90/70||Indicates a slight drop in pressure. The so-called mild hypotension.|
|70/60||Moderate decrease in blood pressure.|
|50-60 at 40||Severe hypotension. Indicates a serious health problem.|
Anything lower is already a critical indicator.
A pressure of 60 to 40 means urgent medical attention.Such values of the tonometer cannot be normal, even during pregnancy, when the tonometer readings with baracardia are low.
At a BP of 120 by 50, the heart rate decreases. In middle-aged people, the norm at this pressure will be 65-70 beats per minute. People of retirement age have a pulse rate of 65-50 beats. If it drops to 50 regularly, you need to undergo a comprehensive examination.
Pressure 120/50 and pulse 50 can be noted if a person stays in low temperatures for a long time.A cold environment leads to a decrease in body temperature and a slower heart rate. Thus, the body saves strength, this is a kind of defensive reaction. As soon as the patient warms up, blood pressure and heart rate are normalized.
A drop in heart rate up to 50 beats can be noted when stimulating reflex zones. These areas are the eyeballs and the lower lateral part of the neck. Sometimes a person stimulates them unconsciously. If you measure the pulse of a man who has tightly tied his tie or constantly rubs his eyes, then the number of his heartbeats will be underestimated.
First aid to the patient
Pressure 60 to 40 is the case when first aid is required, and immediately, since there is a risk of a further fall in blood pressure, and this is fraught with death. What activities can you do on your own?
If the pressure drops to such marks, you need to call an ambulance. The patient must be examined in a hospital setting and the root cause of the phenomenon must be eliminated.
- Before the arrival of the ambulance, it is recommended to give the patient a horizontal position to ensure adequate and uniform blood flow.The limbs should be bent so that the brain receives adequate oxygen and nutrients.
- It is important to open a window to allow fresh air to enter the room.
- The neck must be released. There should be no pressure on the arteries and veins. This is fraught with aggravation of the patient’s condition. It is necessary to loosen the tie, remove body jewelry and chains, unbutton the collar of the shirt, etc.
- If heat or sunstroke occurs (this also happens), you need to moisten your head and forehead with water.A regular piece of cloth or handkerchief moistened with water will do.
- It is advisable to consume something that can increase blood pressure: strong tea, coffee, or a salty product of your choice.
- The banal aspirin or Citramon helps to raise the blood pressure 60 to 40. However, it is impossible to take them uncontrollably, a sharp jump in blood pressure is possible. Why it is dangerous is clear without explanation.
- If the condition allows, you need to take a contrast shower. This will increase vascular tone and contribute to a gradual increase in blood pressure.But to abuse the temperature of the water is also not worth it.
- Massage your feet. From feet to ankles.
- In the event of a fainting state (and it happens quite often with hypotension), you need to turn your head on the side, let the ammonia smell.
As already mentioned, blood pressure values vary from person to person. For some, 60 to 40 may be a relatively mild condition, while for others, especially hypertensive patients, it may be critical.
The approach must be appropriate.However, you cannot help a person on your own. It is necessary to look for and eliminate the root cause. This is done in a hospital setting. It is especially important to carry out comprehensive diagnostics for the elderly.
In the elderly
In elderly patients, a different picture may appear: the lower pressure is high, and the upper one is slightly increased. This is due to the fact that blood vessels lose elasticity with age, less blood enters them when the heart contracts. If the indicators are 50 to 50, treatment and sleep are necessary, at least 10 hours.Hypotensive patients should not get out of bed abruptly in the morning, so as not to provoke a pressure surge.
Continuous drinking of coffee can cause a large expansion of blood vessels, and the pressure will decrease even more.
What needs to be examined?
Diagnostic measures in a person with low blood pressure are very complex. Consultations of a neurologist, endocrinologist and cardiologist (specialized specialist) are required, depending on the probable cause.
Events are also varied.Establishing the presence of reduced pressure is nothing. It is required to identify the root cause of the condition.
For these purposes, resort to the following methods:
- Measurement of blood pressure on two hands with an interval of 5-15 minutes.
- Daily monitoring. Allows you to set blood pressure indicators during the day. This is a necessary activity that makes it possible to assess the pressure in dynamics.
- Electrocardiography. Required to assess the condition of the heart. In the right hands – a very informative diagnostic tool for cardiac patients.
- Load tests. Diverse. The state of the cardiovascular system is assessed over time, after physical activity.
- Biochemical blood test. The levels of glucose, cholesterol and some other indicators are investigated.
Based on the results, they speak of a particular pathology. You may have to pass hormonal profile tests. Diagnosis is by exclusion.
Hypotension is often diagnosed in adolescents, this is due to hormonal changes in the body.Indicators depend on gender, age, emotional state. An examination is necessary to exclude such serious disorders as electrolyte imbalance, heart and kidney disease.
Features of low blood pressure in teenagers:
- The lower indicators at the number 50 – violation of the tone of the walls of blood vessels.
- The upper indicators at the number 50 are severe stress, stress.
In children under 7 years of age, readings of 80 to 50 are the norm, if there is no deterioration in general well-being.
Consequences of the course of hypotension
Low blood pressure is just as dangerous as an increased tonometer reading.
The following consequences are possible:
- Loss of sensitivity of the hands and feet as a result of circulatory disorders at the generalized and peripheral levels.
- Injuries during syncope, which occur frequently with hypotension. An attack of low blood pressure can be found in the middle of the street.
- Secondary encephalopathy. Degeneration of neurons in the brain due to a violation of their metabolism as a result of regular serious fluctuations in the readings of a pressure measuring device.
- Strokes and heart attacks, as a result of all the same changes in blood pressure.
A pressure of 60 to 40 poses a danger to health and even human life. An urgent diagnosis and comprehensive treatment is required. Otherwise, the consequences can be very dire. You shouldn’t hesitate.
which means the indicator, the reasons for the elderly and adolescents
Experts distinguish between two types of pressure – systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower). The difference between them is, as a rule, 30-40 units.According to the blood pressure indicators, the doctor can immediately determine the state of human health.
Systolic pressure shows the work of the heart, and diastolic – blood vessels. According to these data, the specialist can suggest what is the reason for the increase or decrease in blood pressure. Next, let’s consider what the pressure of 120 to 50 means, and what are the features of these indicators.
Pressure 120 to 50 – what does this mean?
Experts believe that the most favorable pressure for a person is 120 to 80. A deviation from the norm does not always indicate any pathologies, but it all depends on how strong this deviation is.If we talk about the numbers 120 by 50-55 units, then it can be argued that you should not postpone your visit to the doctor.
For a more accurate pressure measurement, it is better to use a mechanical tonometer
A lower indicator of 50 may indicate arrhythmias, blockage of the pulmonary artery, the development of a heart attack, an allergic reaction and other dangerous diseases. The numbers can vary, for example, 127 to 57 or 129 to 59, such a difference between the upper and lower pressure in most cases indicates the development of any pathologies.
If the units of blood pressure drop below the 50 mark, then you should immediately call an ambulance and not tempt fate. Too much “run-up” between the lower and upper pressure can occur due to severe stress, kidney disease and other ailments.
The reason for the lowered diastolic pressure is a weak tone of the heart muscle. As a result, blood circulation slows down, and the cells of the body are depleted due to lack of nutrients.
At a blood pressure of 120 to 50, a person’s well-being can significantly deteriorate.
In most cases, with such indicators, the following symptoms appear:
- Headaches in the forehead, temples, often in the back of the head;
- Nausea and vomiting occur;
- Decreases in efficiency, constant fatigue appears;
- Depressive state, absent-mindedness;
- Often there is such a phenomenon as “flies” in front of the eyes;
- Disturbed breathing;
- In most cases, limbs become numb;
- Many patients have pain in the region of the heart and chest.
At a pressure of 120 to 50, fatigue and apathy to work appear
What to do at 120 to 50 pressure
The first thing that needs to be done is to see a doctor and conduct a full examination in order to identify the cause of the pathology and start timely treatment. Of the main recommendations, the following can be noted:
- It is important that the rest is complete. To do this, you need to monitor your sleep pattern, preferably so that it does not go astray. For the body to have time to rest, you need to sleep at least 8-10 hours.Avoid naps (half sleep), in this state the body gets a lot of stress. It is better to get a good night’s sleep 1 time than to fall asleep for 15-20 minutes.
- If there are no contraindications, then you can resort to hardening. This procedure strengthens the walls of blood vessels very well and improves the functioning of the heart.
- Try to move more. This may be light morning exercises or slow walking in the fresh air. During physical exercise, the metabolism improves, the work of almost all organs is stimulated, and the cells of the body are saturated with oxygen.
- After sleep, do not get out of bed abruptly, do it slowly so that blood circulation has time to return to normal after rest.
- Adhere to the diet and exclude from the diet food that is harmful to the body (spicy, fried, smoked, salty, etc.). It is better to eat more vegetables, fruits and fresh herbs.
- And, most importantly, give up bad habits and avoid stressful situations.
A visit to the doctor should not be delayed, because your health depends on it
After the diagnosis, the doctor makes an appointment depending on the test results.This is mainly drug therapy with the use of drugs that improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system, diuretics (diuretics), sedatives and others. Often in such cases, traditional medicine also helps, numbering hundreds of recipes for low blood pressure.
Specifics of specific values
Let’s consider the features of some values of low diastolic pressure and their consequences:
- HELL 120/40 mm Hg. Art – if the upper indicator is considered the norm, then the lower one can already be attributed to pathology.This, of course, can be a one-time “action”, but it is better not to risk it, waiting for the blood pressure to fall again to such figures and consult a doctor. Such an indicator of diastolic pressure in most cases indicates the presence of serious diseases, for example, the development of a heart attack, acute heart failure and other ailments. If pathology is indeed present, then the timely intervention of a specialist will help to avoid health-threatening consequences and complications. Therefore, do not postpone a visit to the doctor and do not neglect your health;
- HELL 120/30 mm Hg.Art – in this case, emergency intervention by a specialist is already necessary. The indicators are considered critical and cannot be delayed, urgent measures must be taken to eliminate this ailment. Just as with a diastolic pressure of 40 units, the indicator is 30 mm Hg. Art. speaks of the development of serious pathologies and a heart attack may occur at any time. With this pressure, as a rule, severe headaches of a pulsating character appear in the occipital region and the temples, general weakness occurs, often vomiting, dizziness, pale skin.Blue lips were sometimes noted.
Sometimes minor deviations from the norm, both upward and downward, are temporary. But it is impossible to determine exactly whether such a phenomenon will repeat itself or not. Therefore, it is better not to risk it and consult a doctor at the first manifestation of the disease. Timely examination in most cases helps to prevent a number of serious complications and irreversible consequences.
In addition, in case of low blood pressure, it is necessary to adhere to some preventive measures – proper nutrition, an active lifestyle, rejection of bad habits, and, of course, the complete elimination of stressful situations.All these measures help to improve the condition of the whole organism, including the normalization of blood pressure.
What does the pressure of 120 to 50 mean and what is the danger of such a state
Pressure is a vital indicator indicating the condition of the entire cardiovascular system in general and arteries in particular.
In most cases, when talking about the value of pressure, we mean only blood pressure, other types of it are not taken into account.It shows how healthy a person is. Venous and capillary – to a lesser extent.
Based on specific indicators of blood pressure, three conditions are distinguished: hypotension or hypotension, when the blood pressure level drops to less than 100 to 70, hypertension or hypertension, when the tonometer shows more than 140 to 90, as well as normal pressure, about 120 to 80 or 130 90 for an adult.
It should be understood that the indicators of the so-called “working” pressure are purely individual values.One person has 120 to 80 – the norm, the other – hypertension. In the opposite direction, what has been said is rarely true: indicators over 140 to 90 are already hypertension.
Pressure 120 to 50 is the so-called isolated diastolic hypotension, when only the diastolic (lower) indicator falls significantly, while the systolic (upper) is at the normal level.
This is a dangerous condition fraught with complications. Normally, the difference between the lower and upper values of the tonometer is no more than 60 units.
Classification of blood pressure levels
Normal, generally accepted values of blood pressure are as follows:
- The normal rate is 120-130 to 80-90. Most common.
- 140 by 90. The upper limit.
- 150 per 100, first degree hypertension.
- 160 at 100-110. Hypertension of the second degree.
- Over 170 to 110 – third degree hypertension.
- Pressure below 110 to 90 is a reduced indicator (but not yet hypotension).
- 100 to 70, slight hypotension.
90,047 90 to 70-60, moderate hypotension.
90,047 70-50, severe hypotension.
Everything below is already critical numbers that can cause death.
Reasons for the development of isolated diastolic hypotension
The development of diastolic hypotension is possible for various reasons and in different variations.
The norm, blood pressure 120/50 is not even during pregnancy, due to the large difference between the upper and lower indicators, although expectant mothers are characterized by low blood pressure with baracardia.
With a pulse of 50-60 beats. in min.
A condition in which the heart rate drops below 60 beats per minute is called bradycardia. This is very significant, especially against the background of isolated hypotension.
Most often we have to talk about the following pathologies:
- A pressure of 120 to 50 may indicate hypothyroidism. A disease in which an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones is released into the bloodstream: T3, T4, TSH (pituitary hormone).This condition occurs with insufficient iodine consumption and various accompanying pathological processes. In each case, you need to understand separately.
- Recent myocardial infarction. Dangerous, life-threatening disease. It is characterized by ischemia of the tissues of the heart muscle with increasing symptoms of cardiac insufficiency.
As a rule, after the transfer of such a state, isolated diastolic hypotension occurs against the background of bradycardia (often) or a normal heart rhythm.
Patients of this profile must be closely monitored, it is better in a hospital setting, since repeated heart attacks, already lethal, are possible.
- Heart failure. The condition most typical for elderly patients. Congestive heart failure is determined by a violation of the contractile function of the heart muscle, the inability of an adequate blood supply. Hence, the low indicators of blood pressure at the time of relaxation of the heart.
- Condition after a stroke. For about 3-6 months after suffering a stroke, diastolic hypotension is observed.
This is an abnormal but characteristic condition that needs to be corrected with medication. And with great care: the onset of a second stroke is possible.
Most often, the pressure is 120 to 50 mm Hg. Art. manifests itself in the morning and evening. In any case, this is dangerous, since the diastolic value is extremely low.
Such a sharp gap between systolic and diastolic pressure in itself is capable of provoking a heart attack or stroke.
Pulse 90 or more beats per minute
Pulse over 90 beats per minute is tachycardia (the reverse process of the already named bradycardia). This does not bode well for either the heart or the vessels.
At the same time, if the heart beats quickly, ejects a large volume of blood, but the diastolic pressure is at a level close to critical, this is a clear indication of a pathological process.
What exactly can provoke isolated hypotension of this kind:
- Atherosclerotic changes in the aorta or other arteries. The aorta is the main and largest artery of the human body.
Atherosclerosis of this anatomical structure is common and is observed mostly in people of old age. There may be exceptions to the rule.
The essence of the process is as follows. Formed plaques (areas of occlusion) or areas of stenosis (narrowing) of blood vessels obstruct blood flow, causing the upper pressure to rise, but may remain at a normal level.
At the same time, under the influence of excessive load, the heart cannot adequately perform its functions, therefore, at the moment of relaxation, the pressure drops to minimum levels.
Read more about aortic atherosclerosis and methods of its treatment here.
- Diabetes mellitus of the first and second types. Causes a slowdown in blood flow and, as a result, disrupts normal blood pressure. In general, diabetes is an extremely pernicious disease. It destroys all body systems, including the cardiovascular.
- Violation of blood circulation in the brain. If the cerebral structures responsible for the regulation of vascular tone do not receive enough nutrients and oxygen, they begin to work chaotically, giving false signals. Normalization of blood supply and elimination of ischemia is required.
Osteochondrosis, or a hernia of the cervical spine, is a common culprit in the circulation of hematological fluid.
- Violation of reception in the cardiological system.In the heart and blood vessels, there are special receptors that respond to changes in pressure and normalize indicators at the reflex level.
- Renal disease. The kidneys can be the culprit for blood pressure disorders, and in both directions. Usually this is observed in old age. But options are possible. Dangerous conditions such as pyelonephritis, nephritis, glomerulonephritis.
- Changes in the elasticity index of the arteries. In such a situation, the regulation of vascular tone is disrupted.
As a rule, blood pressure at 120/50 is an indication of a disease of one kind or another. Diagnostics required.
Why is this condition dangerous?
In most cases, a pressure of 120 to 50 poses a danger to the life and health of the patient, and more than in classical hypotension with low systolic and diastolic pressure.
The following pathological conditions are possible and even probable:
- Stroke. Simply put, an acute cerebrovascular accident.It exists in two forms: ischemic, in which the nutrition of certain areas of the brain is disturbed (as a result, cerebral structures die) and hemorrhagic (hemorrhage into the brain structures). Perhaps both the first and the second.
- Myocardial infarction. Acute circulatory disorders in the heart muscle. It is accompanied by severe changes throughout the body.
- Hemorrhage in the eye. The so-called hemophthalmos. It carries a colossal danger to visual function.
Other, unnamed phenomena, such as fainting and subsequent injuries, are also possible.
In order to prevent dangerous consequences, it is recommended that you contact your doctor in a timely manner.
What to do at home?
There are not many options. With isolated hypotension, competent and comprehensive treatment is needed under the supervision of a cardiologist, and possibly other specialists. The best that a patient can do is make an appointment with a specialized doctor.
Feeling unwell with isolated hypotension can be removed by resorting to some measures.
In case of an acute attack of arterial pressure disorder it is recommended:
- Assume a prone position. Bend your legs to provide the brain with enough blood to prevent syncope (fainting).
- Remove the tight fitting clothing from the neck, also jewelry. They compress the arteries, preventing blood from circulating normally.
- Monitor your breathing. It should be uniform.
- It is important to moisten your face with water, apply a cold compress to your head.Especially in the warm season.
- Any salty food must be consumed (e.g. pickled cucumber, etc.)
- It is recommended to drink coffee and tea.
- You can take an aspirin or Citramon tablet. They act well and safely on lower pressure, but an increase in systolic rate is likely. You need to be careful.
A lower pressure of 50 means medication is possible. Nevertheless, it is impossible to use them for a long time, it is dangerous and impractical.
In a situation where the tonometer readings continue to fall, you need to call an ambulance. Such conditions in the home are not eliminated, in addition, you need to find out what caused them. In the hospital it will be possible to talk about something specific.
We are not talking about any folk remedies. You can only make it worse. In any case, medical assistance is indispensable.
It is necessary to be examined at once along several lines: cardiological, neurological and endocrine.They do it almost simultaneously.
The diagnosis is made by exclusion, after careful examination of various statuses.
At the initial appointment with any specialist, an oral questioning begins, this is necessary in order to establish the symptoms of the process and in the future to compare the data of objective diagnostics with the subjective feelings of the patient.
Next, an anamnesis of a person’s life is collected. It is necessary to establish the following factors: the presence of bad habits, heredity, brain trauma in the past, etc.d.
The studies themselves are very variable and include the following activities:
- Measurement of blood pressure level. Allows you to establish the fact of its decline. It is performed several times, on different hands with an interval of 5-15 minutes.
- Daily monitoring. The monitor (automatic tonometer) studies the pressure in dynamics for a full day. Required in all cases. This is the gold standard for cardiac screening today.
- Electrocardiography.It is necessary to assess the state of the cardiovascular system. If the specialist has sufficient experience, the results of the ECG will tell him a lot.
- Encephalography. Allows you to assess the state of the nervous system.
Exercise tests (study of the dynamics of blood pressure under the influence of physical exertion).
- Blood test for thyroid and pituitary hormones (T3, E T4, TSH, cortisol).
In the system, these measures are enough for accurate diagnostics. It is possible to expand the list of studies at the discretion of a specialist.
Since hypotension of the isolated plan itself is secondary in most cases, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease that caused the pressure 120/50. Then the tonometer readings will return to normal.
Symptomatic treatment consists in taking certain medications (Citramon, aspirin) in doses determined by the doctor.
Pressure 120 to 50 means that a pathological process is taking place in the body, and as a special case of diastolic hypotension requires mandatory treatment.All activities are coordinated with a specialist.
The forecast is favorable in most cases. It is important to show attention and perseverance.
Blood pressure 120 to 50 – what does it mean
In healthy people, normal blood pressure (BP) values are in the range from 100 / 60-70 to 130-139 / 80-89 mm Hg. At the same time, small fluctuations in both directions can be regarded as a variant of the norm.More significant fluctuations of both indicators up or down are traditionally interpreted as hypo- or hypertension.
The situation is more complicated with an isolated change in one indicator, as in the case of a pressure of 120 to 50. It will not be possible to interpret such a result unambiguously, because the option is not quite typical. Therefore, only a specialist can find the exact reason. Several general points will be discussed in this article.
What does the pressure 120 to 50 mean
HELL includes two digital values.The first indicator characterizes systolic pressure, which is a reflection of the work of the heart at the time of heart contraction – systole. In the given value, the figure 120 is the norm.
The second digit is responsible for the diastolic pressure. It shows the work of peripheral vessels at the time of relaxation of the heart or diastole – the period between heartbeats. Their normal function helps to maintain adequate blood flow to the heart and to ensure good cardiac output in the next contraction.
The norm of diastolic blood pressure is considered to be 60-89 mm Hg.
If the result obtained is less than normal (as for example, at values of 120/50), then this condition is interpreted as an isolated decrease in diastolic pressure . Its reasons are discussed later in the article.
Why diastolic is below normal
As it was said, diastolic blood pressure is a reflection of the functional state of peripheral vessels. If the vascular wall loses its tone under the influence of certain reasons, then the pressure it creates is insufficient (low).This is the meaning of the lowered diastolic pressure.
May be based on the following:
- Endocrine pathology: both excess and lack of hormones significantly affect blood pressure. The lower pressure can drop with thyrotoxicosis, extensive vascular lesions due to diabetes mellitus, as well as with other endocrine diseases.
- separate massive vascular atherosclerosis. This is the most common cause, especially in the elderly. This frightens older patients, most of all with a large difference in numbers, for example, 150 to 40 mm Hg.Art.
- neurocirculatory dystonia: violation of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system, which is one of the components of blood pressure regulation.
- dehydration or large blood loss;
- shock conditions;
- kidney dysfunction;
- malignant neoplasms;
- severe infections;
- incorrect use of medicines, in which one of the side effects is a decrease in diastolic pressure.
An isolated decrease in diastolic pressure can be detected by chance, which is quite common. At the same time, the patient may feel quite well, because fluctuations in only the lower pressure (against the background of the normal upper pressure) are independently compensated by the body.
Symptoms usually appear when diastolic pressure drops suddenly. Especially if this happened for the first time in a person, and the body did not have time to adapt.Symptoms are not entirely specific and may resemble normal hypotension:
- general weakness and increased fatigue;
- drowsiness, bad mood, and sometimes irritability;
- dizziness and fainting;
- heaviness in the head;
- sensation of interruptions, discomfort in the region of the heart. The pulse can be either slow or fast;
- blurred vision (darkening in the eyes), tinnitus at the time of low blood pressure;
- external pallor.
The clinical picture varies depending on the degree of decrease in diastolic pressure, changes in systolic parameters, as well as the severity of the symptoms of the disease that caused such indicators.
What to do with this pressure
It is useful to understand and know how to behave and what to do in such a situation. Raising the bottom pressure without raising the top is a very difficult task.
See a doctor
He will analyze the complaints presented, objectively assess the condition of each individual patient and prescribe the necessary diagnostic measures.As a rule, they are standard and include:
- blood and urine tests, ECG;
- X-ray studies;
- endoscopy and much more (depending on which pathology is excluded).
After that, the doctor will be able to select treatment measures, if they are required.
Do not self-medicate with medicines or herbal tonic preparations!
A decrease in only one indicator is most often not so critical as to take emergency measures.In addition, most drugs used to increase blood pressure affect both indicators , and this can lead to an undesirable effect: for example, an excessive and sharp increase in systolic pressure (if it was initially normal) with symptoms resembling classic hypertensive crisis.
Such drugs have many contraindications and side effects, are prohibited during pregnancy.
Lifestyle changes are the best way to help yourself
This method has no contraindications, but requires a competent approach.There is no need to drastically and thoroughly change everything, this will create even more stress on the body. It is enough to introduce changes gradually. For example, gradually accustom yourself to a balanced and fractional diet, walk more often, try to go to bed at the same time, etc. This will help not only in the fight against pressure fluctuations, but also improve the emotional mood, will successfully deal with stress. In addition, lifestyle modification is justifiably considered the initial stage in the treatment of many diseases underlying low diastolic blood pressure.
With timely diagnostic and therapeutic measures, the prognosis is generally favorable.
An isolated decrease in diastolic pressure without symptoms or severe concomitant pathology, as a rule, does not pose a serious threat to the patient’s life.
Pressure 120 x 50 mm. rt. Art. – a sign of pathology in the body
Almost everyone knows that the ideal pressure indicators are 120/80 mm.rt. Art. The first indicator differs from the second by forty units.
Of course, small deviations from these figures are possible, but if there is a large difference between the figures, for example, when the blood pressure is 120 to 50 mm. rt. Art., we can talk about the presence of violations in the human body.
Blood pressure has two indicators: upper (systolic) and lower (diastolic), the difference between them should not normally exceed forty units.
Lower pressure indicates the minimum pressure in the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes. Its performance is influenced by the resistance of peripheral arteries, their patency, pulsation frequency. The more resistance and the more often the heart contracts, the higher the lower blood pressure. They also depend on the activity of the kidneys. This pressure is often called renal pressure.
In some cases, such blood pressure can occur due to severe stress or emotional distress.But there are also cases of the development of severe kidney pathologies, which are accompanied by such a symptom.
Why is the lower pressure decreasing?
Low diastolic blood pressure indicates a decrease in the tone of the heart muscle. Because of this, the blood begins to move more slowly, the brain and internal organs receive oxygen and nutrients in insufficient quantities. The reasons for this can be different:
- Heart disease. Often, the unworthiness of this organ, pathology of the heart valves, bradycardia can cause a pressure of 120/50 mm to appear.rt. Art.
- Violation of the functionality of the endocrine system. In this case, blood pressure is influenced by diabetes mellitus, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, etc. there is a relaxation of the walls of blood vessels due to a lack of hormones.
- Kidney dysfunction. In this case, toxins begin to accumulate, which leads to an increased synthesis of renin, which is associated with diastolic pressure.
- Anorexia leads to consistently low blood pressure.
- Large blood loss during trauma or menstruation, anemia.
- Dehydration of the body as a result of prolonged exercise, diarrhea, use of diuretic drugs.
- A sharp change in climatic conditions. This is especially true for people with meteosensitivity. Usually after 3-4 days the pressure will return to normal.
- Prolonged stress, nervous tension.
- Heart disease.
- Complication of a previous heart attack.
- Cancer diseases.
- Tuberculosis of the lungs, which leads to the destruction of the circulatory system.
- Pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Long-term use of antidepressants.
- Lack of B vitamins, as well as C and E.
- VSD hypotonic type.
- Astheno-neurotic syndrome.
There are actually many reasons for lowering the lower blood pressure, but most often it signals a violation in the activity of the kidneys. Therefore, when diagnosing, first, an examination of this particular organ is carried out.
Reduced diastolic pressure leads to a deterioration in human well-being. Most often people experience the following signs:
- Pain in the head area;
- Nausea, which may be accompanied by vomiting;
- Weakness and distraction;
- The appearance of flies before the eyes;
- Breathing disorder;
- Numbness of the limbs;
- Chest pain;
- Heaviness in the temples;
- Decreased performance;
- Dizziness, loss of consciousness;
- Impaired memory and attention;
- Rapid heartbeat;
- Frequent yawning.
When diastolic pressure begins to decrease actively, a hypotonic crisis may develop, which is accompanied by weakness, fainting, shortness of breath, tachycardia. This state continues for several minutes.
What is dangerous, what complications can there be?
Especially dangerous pressure 120/50 mm. rt. Art. for the elderly. It significantly increases the likelihood of complications in the functionality of the heart and blood vessels. Low indicators of diastolic blood pressure in this case indicate a decrease in the elasticity of the walls of the aorta and large vessels due to atherosclerosis.A large volume of blood enters the blood vessels of a person, and from the wall they are deformed or inelastic, this leads to the development of ischemia and a high probability of death.
Such pressure is dangerous for a pregnant woman, as there is a disorder of the blood circulation and the fetus, which leads to the formation of placental insufficiency. This phenomenon can cause spontaneous abortion, fetal growth retardation, as well as delay in the physical and mental development of the child after birth.
If suddenly a person’s blood pressure drops to 120/50 mm. rt. Art., he needs to lie down so that the head is below the level of the lower extremities. This will make it possible to improve blood flow to the brain. It is recommended to apply cold to the forehead, massage the neck area. Usually, after such events, the pressure returns to normal. If blood pressure does not rise, you need to call an ambulance team, since a drop in lower pressure can signal the development of serious problems in the body.
In order for a doctor to develop an effective therapy regimen, a person must undergo an examination to determine the causes of low lower pressure. For this, the doctor interviews the patient, examines the anamnesis. Then he assigns the following diagnostic methods:
- Laboratory analyzes of blood and urine;
- Thyroid hormone test;
- Examination of blood vessels, kidneys, lungs and spine.
After the diagnosis and identification of the causes of fluctuations in blood pressure, treatment is prescribed.Timely examination helps to reduce the risks of developing many complications and consequences of an irreversible nature.
Depending on the diagnosis and examination results, the doctor will prescribe an effective treatment. Usually, medications are prescribed that help improve the activity of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, as well as diuretics, sedatives.
In acute hypotension, the doctor prescribes the following medications:
- Drugs that improve blood circulation in the brain, increase the lower blood pressure;
- Medicines to increase vascular tone, normalize blood circulation throughout the body, for example, “Angiotensinamide”;
- Medicines with tonic, immunostimulating and neurostimulating effects;
- Vitamins of group B, as well as C and E.
When blood pressure falls, drugs such as Citramon, Pantokrin, and pain relievers are often prescribed. In some cases, oxygen therapy becomes effective. It helps to improve blood circulation, dilate blood vessels, and normalize the activity of the heart.
With VSD and astheno-neurotic syndrome, treatment is carried out with the use of tonics, they help to increase the upper pressure, eliminate weakness and lethargy, apathy. These medicines include lemongrass and ginseng.Also, the doctor can prescribe nootropic drugs. They will help normalize blood circulation in the brain, stabilize the emotional state. These drugs include “” Pantogam “and” Phenibut “.
To strengthen blood vessels and improve blood circulation, you can take “Ascorutin” and “Quercetin”.
90,000 Scientists explain the inclusion of wine in healthy eating guidelines
Scientists from the UK and Germany have found that foods rich in flavonoids – berries, apples, pears and wine – have a positive effect on blood pressure.The authors explain this by the fact that they have a beneficial effect on the intestines. The results of the study were published in the journal Hypertension of the American Heart Association, which included wine in a healthy diet, RIA Novosti reports.
Flavonoids – compounds found in plant foods such as berries, apples, tea, wine and dark chocolate – are known to have health benefits by strengthening the cardiovascular system. At the same time, scientists have proven that there is a connection between the composition of microorganisms in the human digestive tract and cardiovascular diseases.
Researchers from Queens University in Belfast, along with German colleagues from Keele University and Schleswig-Holstein University Hospital, suggested that these three factors are interrelated. To test their hypothesis, they estimated the amount and frequency of eating foods rich in flavonoids and measured the number of Parabacteroides – intestinal bacteria that break down flavonoids – in more than 900 German adults from the German biobank PopGen.
Calculations were based on a self-completed questionnaire indicating 112 products for which the USDA has published flavonoid content.The participants’ gut microbiome was assessed using bacterial DNA isolated from stool samples.
To adjust the results, the researchers also collected information about the participants’ lifestyles, including body mass index, gender, age, smoking status, medication use, physical activity, daily calories and fiber intake, and family history of coronary heart disease.
Results showed that those who ate more berries, apples, pears, and wine had lower systolic blood pressure and more gut microbiome diversity than those who consumed fewer flavonoid foods.
The authors note that the focus of the study was not all foods and beverages with flavonoids, but only specific types of berries and fruits, as well as red wine. Drinking alcohol, primarily red wine, can be part of a healthy diet, according to the American Heart Association.