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11 year old normal blood pressure: Pediatric Vital Signs by Age: Charts and Ranges


Vital Signs in Children | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Topic Overview

What are vital signs?

Vital signs include heart rate, respiration (breathing rate), blood pressure, and temperature. Knowing the ranges for vital signs for your child can help you notice problems early or relieve concerns you may have about how your child is doing. The table below includes information that can help.

Normal ranges for vital signs

Vital Sign




0 to 12 months

1 to 11 years

12 and up

Heart Rate

100 to 160 beats per minute (bpm)

70 to 120 bpm

60 to 100 bpm

Respiration (breaths)

0 to 6 months

30 to 60 breaths per minute (bpm)

6 to 12 months

24 to 30 bpm

1 to 5 years

20 to 30 (bpm)

6 to 11 years

12 to 20 bpm

12 to 18 bpm footnote 1

Blood Pressure ( systolic/ diastolic) footnote 1

0 to 6 months

65 to 90/45 to 65 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)

6 to 12 months

80 to 100/55 to 65 mm Hg

90 to 110/55 to 75 mm Hg

110 to 135/65 to 85 mm Hg


All ages

98. 6 F

(normal range is 97.4 F to 99.6 F)

All ages

98.6 F

(normal range is 97.4 F to 99.6 F)

All ages

98.6 F

(normal range is 97.4 F to 99.6 F)

Learn more

Learn more about how to take your child’s temperature, take a pulse, measure blood pressure, and count breaths with these topics:



  1. Harman M, et al. (2011). Pediatric emergency and resuscitation. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., p. 280. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.


Current as of: February 26, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: Susan C. Kim MD – Pediatrics
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
John Pope MD – Pediatrics
David Messenger MD

Current as of: February 26, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:Susan C. Kim MD – Pediatrics & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & John Pope MD – Pediatrics & David Messenger MD

Harman M, et al. (2011). Pediatric emergency and resuscitation. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., p. 280. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

What Your Child’s Heart Rate and Other Vital Signs Tell You

How to Read Your Child’s Vital Signs

Your child’s vital signs can give you important health clues. Many things can affect the numbers. But if they’re outside the normal range, it could be a sign of possible health issues.

Note that normal vital sign values for children are different than they are for adults. They also vary depending on age, sex, and weight.

The four vital signs are:


A fever means your child’s temperature is higher than usual. It’s the main way their body fights an infection.

How to check

Use a digital thermometer to take your child’s temperature in the mouth, or rectally in the bottom. A rectal temperature gives the more accurate reading. That’s the way you should do it if your baby is younger than 3 months. With older infants and children, an oral reading is fine unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Always clean the thermometer in soapy water and rinse with cool water before you use it. Never use the same thermometer to take an oral and rectal temperature.

To take a rectal temperature:

  • Place your child on their belly across your lap.
  • Put a small amount of petroleum jelly on the end of a thermometer.
  • Insert it half an inch into the anal opening.
  • Remove the thermometer when it beeps and read the temperature. (It’s normal for the baby to poop after the thermometer is removed.)

To take an oral temperature:

  • Slip the end of the thermometer under your child’s tongue.
  • Have your child close their lips around the thermometer.
  • Remove it when it beeps and check the temperature.

Normal temperature

A normal temperature is 98. 6 F if taken in the mouth, and 99.6 F if taken in the bottom. If the oral temperature is above 99.5 F or the rectal reading is 100.4 F or higher, your child has a fever.

Call your doctor ASAP if your baby is younger than 3 months and has a rectal temperature of 100.4 F or higher. Even if your baby doesn’t have any other symptoms, a fever in infants can be serious.

Heart Rate

Also called a pulse, this is how many times the heart beats each minute. It’s faster when your child is active and slower when they’re seated or asleep. Your doctor will check the heart rate during well-child visits. If you need to monitor your child’s heart rate because of a medical condition, your doctor will tell you how and how often to check it.

You should also check your child’s pulse if they:

How to check

Make sure your child has been seated for at least 5 minutes before you start. Place your first two fingers on the front of their neck or the inside of the wrist, armpit, or elbow crease. You should feel thumps against your fingers. Set a timer for 30 seconds and count the beats. Double that number, and that’s your child’s heart rate.

Normal heart rate:

  • Infant (to 12 months): 100-160 beats per minute (bpm)
  • Toddler (1-3 years): 90-150 bpm
  • Preschooler (3-5 years): 80-140 bpm
  • School-aged child (5-12 years): 70-120 bpm
  • Adolescent (12-18 years): 60-100 bpm

A heart rate that’s slower than usual can signal a problem. For infants, it can mean:

A slower than usual heart rate in kids can also mean there’s an issue in the structure of their heart.

Respiratory Rate

This is how many breaths your child takes per minute. This number may go up when they’re excited, nervous, in pain, or have a high fever. A fast or slow respiratory rate means your child may have trouble breathing. Call your pediatrician if you have any concerns.

How to check

Set a timer for 30 seconds and count the number of times your child’s chest rises. Double that number to get their respiratory rate.

Normal rate (breaths per minute):

  • Infant (0-12 months): 30-60
  • Toddler (1-3 years): 24-40
  • Preschooler (3-5 years): 22-34
  • School-aged child (5-12 years): 18-30
  • Adolescent (12-18 years): 12-16

If your baby or child’s pulse is fast or they have any of the following symptoms, it could mean they’re having trouble breathing:

  • Bluish color around the mouth
  • Pale or gray skin
  • A grunting sound with each breath out
  • Nose flares
  • Wheezing
  • Sweating
  • Tiredness
  • Upper chest sinks in with each breath
  • Not eating or drinking well
  • Vocalizing less

Respiratory distress is serious. It means your child isn’t getting enough oxygen. This might be because of:

  • An infection
  • Chronic illness
  • A blocked airway

Call your doctor or 911, or get to the emergency room right away. Stay calm and try to keep your child calm while keeping them in a comfortable position.

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood as it flows through the vessels that move blood from the heart to the body. Children can get high blood pressure just as adults do. If your child grows up with high blood pressure, or hypertension, it could make them more likely to have a stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and kidney disease.

Blood pressure is measured using two numbers:

  • Systolic is the first number. It measures how much pressure is on your artery walls each time your heart beats.
  • Diastolic is the second number. It measures how much pressure is on your artery walls between heartbeats, when your heart is at rest.

Your child might have high blood pressure because of:

  • A heart defect
  • Kidney disease
  • A genetic condition
  • A hormone disorder
  • Being overweight

Hypotension is blood pressure that’s too low. It can make your child feel nauseated, dizzy, or faint.

Your child may have low blood pressure because of:

How to check

Your child’s doctor will start to check blood pressure at age 3. Your child may need to have it checked sooner if they:

If your doctor tells you to check your child’s blood pressure at home, use an automatic monitor with a cuff that fits on the upper arm. Take the monitor with you to your next appointment so your doctor can check that you use it correctly.

Normal levels

These numbers differ for children, depending on their age, height, and sex. The top number is systolic pressure, and the bottom one is diastolic pressure. Both numbers should be below the limit.

For boys:

1 year old: less than 98/52

2 years old: less than 100/55

3 years old: less than 101/58

4 years old: less than 102/60

5 years old: less than 103/63

6 years old: less than 105/66

7 years old: less than 106/68

8 years old: less than 107/69

9 years old: less than 107/70

10 years old: less than 108/72

11 years old: less than 110/74

12 years old: less than 113/75

For girls:

1 year old: less than 98/54

2 years old: less than 101/58

3 years old: less than 102/60

4 years old: less than 103/62

5 years old: less than 104/64

6 years old: less than 105/67

7 years old: less than 106/68

8 years old: less than 107/69

9 years old: less than 108/71

10 years old: less than 109/72

11 years old: less than 111/74

12 years old: less than 114/75

For boys and girls 13 and older: less than 120/80.

Abnormal Vital Signs

If your child’s vital signs are off, you may need to see a doctor. Vital signs can vary based on time of day and the emotional state of your child. If your child has a drastic change, that could be a sign of a problem.

Your doctor will have a better idea of what’s outside of normal and can monitor your child over time if needed.

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Normal Blood Pressure Range for Children

Image Credit: monkeybusinessimages/iStock/GettyImages

When the topic of blood pressure comes up, the focus is usually centered on the health effects and treatment strategies of high blood pressure, or hypertension, in adults. But children can also have abnormal blood pressure readings which can negatively impact long-term health. What’s normal, and what’s not, is summarized in clinical practice guidelines published in the August 2017 issue of “Pediatrics.”

When the heart beats, it pushes blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen, energy and other nutrients. As this blood flows, it exerts pressure against the walls of the blood vessels. This blood pressure is categorized as systolic, which is the pressure when the heart beats, and diastolic, the pressure when the heart relaxes. Blood pressure is reported as two numbers — the systolic over the diastolic pressure. A blood pressure reading of 120/80 means the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80. It’s important to strive for normal or near-normal blood pressure readings, as high blood pressure, the most common blood pressure abnormality, increases the risk of heart disease, kidney damage, stroke and other health problems.

Pediatric blood pressure tables categorize this vital sign according to normal and abnormal levels. These charts, based on data summarizing the normal distribution of blood pressure readings in healthy, normal weight children, group blood pressure levels according to age, height and gender. An important distinction in the most recent tables is that blood pressure levels of overweight children were not included in their creation, since extra body fat can increase blood pressure. As a result, the normal blood pressure readings in the 2017 blood pressure tables are a bit lower compared to previous guidelines, which included data from both normal and overweight children.

Interpreting Blood Pressure Readings

For children aged 1 to 13, the 50th percentile range on the blood pressure tables is considered normal, while elevated blood pressure is anything above the 90th percentile. What’s normal can vary considerably, as these charts group blood pressure in 7 different height categories for each age. Thus, comparing blood pressure readings to these tables is essential when interpreting the results.

Normal Blood Pressure in Boys

Using the blood pressure tables, below is a sampling of normal blood pressure ranges for boys:

  • Normal blood pressure in 1-year-old boys ranges from 85 to 88 for systolic pressure, and 40 to 42 for diastolic pressure.
  • For 6-year-old boys, normal systolic pressure ranges from 93 to 97, while the 50th percentile for diastolic blood pressure falls in the range of 54 to 57.
  • Normal blood pressure in 12-year-old boys ranges from 101 to 108 systolic pressure over 61 to 63 diastolic pressure.

Normal Blood Pressure in Girls

Below is a sampling of normal blood pressure ranges for girls:

  • Normal blood pressure in 1-year-old girls ranges from 84 to 88 for systolic pressure, and 41 to 45 for diastolic pressure.
  • For 6-year-old girls, normal systolic pressure ranges from 92 to 97, while the 50th percentile for diastolic blood pressure falls in the 54 to 58 range.
  • Normal blood pressure in 12-year-old girls ranges from 102 to 108 systolic pressure over 61 to 65 diastolic pressure.

To provide early detection and treatment of blood pressure problems, the American Heart Association recommends all children aged 3 and older have their blood pressure measured annually. Blood pressure should be checked at every clinic visit in children who are living with obesity, and in children who have medical conditions or take medications that may be associated with hypertension. Achieving normal blood pressure levels is important for health, so if your child has elevated blood pressure, follow the treatment plan recommended by his pediatrician.

Reviewed by Kay Peck, MPH RD

What’s Up With Kids’ Blood Pressure?

We don’t usually think of blood pressure as a matter of concern during childhood — and for most kids, it’s not. But blood pressure is an important vital sign and one that your child’s physician should be taking at every check-up.

Babies’ blood pressure measurements are taken at birth as part of routine newborn screenings. After that, expert guidelines, including those of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), call for measurements to be taken at well-child visits and sick visits in the pediatrician’s office, starting at age 3.

What’s Considered “Normal” Blood Pressure for Kids?

Determining normal or optimal blood pressure for children is a bit complex because it depends on a number of factors including age, height and gender. A simplified approach is to use these thresholds:

  • A child from 3 to 11 years should have blood pressure at or below 110/70.

  • From age 12 upward, a measurement of 120/80 or lower is ideal.

Your doctor can use detailed tables to determine more precisely if your child’s blood pressure is normal, borderline or high.

The majority of children and teens we see with elevated blood pressure (hypertension or pre-hypertension) are overweight. For these patients, treatment consists of lifestyle changes that include a doctor-approved diet and physical activity plan. Increased cardiovascular exercise, and a diet low in salt and rich in fruits, vegetables, grains and low-fat dairy has been shown to lower blood pressure. For pre-pubescent children, we’re not so much trying to achieve weight loss as to help kids grow into their weight. For about 1-2 percent of our patients who have sustained high blood pressure at multiple doctor visits, we prescribe medication along with lifestyle modifications.

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

The most common cause of high blood pressure in non-overweight children is kidney disease. Though rare, some children can have isolated hypertension without an associated medical condition or obesity. Elevated blood pressure means the heart may be working harder than it should be. And sustained high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and blood vessels.

Hypertension tends to run in families, but age is a much more powerful risk factor than family history. In fact, high blood pressure affects about half of U.S. residents over age 50, most of whom are taking some type of medication to treat it.

A growing body of evidence indicates that elevated blood pressure in childhood and adolescence may be valuable in predicting adult heart disease. If your child’s primary care providers aren’t routinely taking blood pressure measurements, ask them to do so.

Learn More

Know your numbers: Blood pressure

Speaking of Health

By Mayo Clinic staff

Knowing and understanding key heart numbers — blood pressure, cholesterol and heart rate, along with your family history — allow you and your health care team to determine your risk for developing heart and cardiovascular disease. Knowing your risk is critical to preventing heart disease and for taking steps to improve your overall heart health.

Here is information about one of the most dangerous and sneakiest health conditions: blood pressure.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is a measure of how hard your blood pushes against your arteries as it moves through your body. High blood pressure occurs when your blood pressure, the force of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels, is consistently too high. High blood pressure is harmful because it makes the heart work harder and less efficiently.

Why blood pressure matters

High blood pressure can cause significant damage to your eyes, kidneys, brain and blood vessels. Left untreated, it can lead to kidney failure or vision loss. High blood pressure also can affect your ability to think, remember and learn. There’s even a type of dementia — vascular dementia — caused by high blood pressure.

High blood pressure is one of the most dangerous health conditions because of how sneaky it can be. You can have high blood pressure for years without experiencing any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to your heart can still occur. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your health care provider to control it.

How is blood pressure measured?

Blood pressure is traditionally measured using an inflatable cuff around your arm. The cuff is inflated, and the cuff gently tightens on your arm. The air in the cuff is slowly released and a small gauge measures your blood pressure.

Your blood pressure is recorded as two numbers:
  • Systolic blood pressure (the first number) — This number indicates how much pressure your blood is pushing against your artery walls when the heart beats.
  • Diastolic blood pressure (the second number) — This number indicates how much pressure your blood is pushing against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats.

Blood pressure is measured using millimeters of mercury, or mm Hg. Mercury was used in the first accurate pressure gauges, and it is still used today as the standard unit for measuring pressure.

What is considered normal?
Your blood pressure reading will fall into one of these four categories:
  • Normal — Blood pressure readings of less than 120/80 mm Hg are considered in the normal range.
  • Elevated — Readings consistently ranging from 120–129 systolic and less than 80 mm Hg diastolic are considered elevated.
  • Hypertension stage 1 — This stage is characterized by readings ranging from 130–139 systolic or 80–89 mm Hg diastolic.
  • Hypertension stage 2 — This stage is characterized by readings consistently ranging at 140/90 mm Hg or higher.
What you can do
  • Quit smoking. Tobacco temporarily raises blood pressure and can damage artery walls over time. Quitting smoking is one of the best things you can do for your health.
  • Follow the DASH diet. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, or DASH, diet includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. The diet encourages limiting saturated fat and foods containing high cholesterol. Following the DASH diet can lower your blood pressure by up to 11 mm Hg if you have high blood pressure.
  • Get active. Regular physical fitness ― about 30 minutes per day or 150 minutes per week ― can lower your blood pressure by about 5 to 8 mm Hg.
  • Limit alcohol. By drinking alcohol in moderation ― generally one drink a day for women or two a day for men ― you can potentially lower your blood pressure by about 4 mm Hg. One drink equals 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80 proof liquor.
  • Skimp on the salt. In general, limit sodium to 2,300 milligrams per day or less. However, a lower sodium intake ― 1,500 mg a day or less ― is ideal for most adults. Download an infographic about salt.
Know your numbers

It’s time to know your blood pressure numbers. Adults 40 and older or anyone with risk factors should have their blood pressure checked by a health care provider once a year. Younger people without risk factors should be checked at least every two years. Download an infographic about high blood pressure.

Visit Classes & Events to find a blood pressure screening near you.

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Blood Pressure Measurement


Blood pressure is the force of the blood against the wall of any blood vessel. The blood pressure measurement is written in numbers with the systolic (sis TAU lick) blood pressure on top and the diastolic (DY a sta lick) blood pressure on the bottom (for example, 110/ 60.)

  • The systolic blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the artery walls when the heart contracts (beats).
  • The diastolic blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the artery walls between heartbeats, when the heart relaxes.

When to Call the Doctor

Call your child’s doctor (phone) _________________________ or _____________________.

If the systolic blood pressure (top number) is:  above ______ or below ______for ______ blood pressure readings or for ______ hours.

If the diastolic blood pressure (bottom number) is:  above ______ or below ______for ______ blood pressure readings or for _______ hours.
Other instructions: _________________________________________________________________________________________

How to Take a Blood Pressure Reading

Your child should be calm and still when you take his or her blood pressure (Picture 1).  Try to keep your child from crying; crying makes the blood pressure higher.

  • An infant can be encouraged to drink a bottle, breast-feed or suck on a pacifier.  (It helps if someone holds the baby to increase the feeling of security.)
  • A toddler can hold the blood pressure cuff and pretend to take the BP of someone else, or practice on a teddy bear or doll.

Your child will be less likely to cry if he is distracted this way.

  1. Remove all clothing from your child’s arm.  Use the same arm each time as instructed by your doctor.
  2. Turn the valve on the bulb counter-clockwise (to the left).  Press all of the air out of the cuff.
  3. Place the bottom edge of the cuff about 1 inch above your child’s elbow. Wrap the cuff snugly with the tubing over the inner bend of the elbow (Picture 2).
  4. Have your child turn his palm up, stretch his arm out, and rest his arm on a bed or table (Pictures 1 and 2).
  5. Place the gauge so it is at your eye level.
  6. Put the earpieces of the stethoscope into your ears.
  7. Have your child relax his arm and hand. Press your fingertips on the skin at the inner bend of your child’s elbow to find your child’s pulse.
  8. Place the flat part (diaphragm) of the stethoscope at the spot where you feel the pulse (Picture 2).
  9. Turn the valve on the bulb clockwise (to the right) until it will turn no further.
  10. Inflate the cuff rapidly (pump it up with air) by repeatedly squeezing the bulb. Inflate the cuff to _____ mm. of mercury reading on the pressure gauge.
  11. Deflate the cuff slowly. To do this, slowly turn the valve counter-clockwise to release the air. Let the needle on the gauge move at an even rate of about 2 mm. (one marking) per second.
  12. As you deflate the cuff, these are the 2 sounds you will listen for: (1) clear, faint tapping (first beat heard) and (2) last beat heard
  13. The first sound heard will be the clear, tapping sound. When you hear it, look at the number on the gauge and remember this number. Continue to deflate the cuff slowly and listen for the last beat or sound. Look at the gauge and remember this number. After you hear the last beat, turn the valve counter-clockwise all the way to empty all the air from the cuff. Write down the 2 numbers you have remembered.   For example: 120  First beat heard (systolic) 60  Last beat heard (diastolic)
  14. On the Daily Record or calendar, record the 2 numbers of the blood pressure reading and the time the blood pressure was taken. Record a question mark (?) if you are not sure of the reading on the gauge.
  15. If you take the blood pressure a second time to double-check your reading, let your child’s arm rest 2 minutes before inflating the cuff again.

Keeping a Record

It is important to keep a record of your child’s blood pressure. Use the Daily Blood Pressure Record on this page, a regular calendar or the Helping Hand:  Daily Record ,HH-3.

To record the blood pressure:

  1. Write your child’s blood pressure in the box for that day.  For example, if your child’s blood pressure is120/60 and 122/62 on the first day, you would record it as shown in the example below.
  2. Please bring the record with you whenever you bring your child to see the doctor.


Practice Taking the Blood Pressure

You have learned how to take the blood pressure and how to read the gauge.  Now you can use this page to practice reading and recording the blood pressure.

If you have any questions, be sure to ask your doctor or nurse.

Blood Pressure Measurement (PDF)

HH-II-110/78 Reviewed 6/13 Copyright 1978, Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Norm of blood pressure and heart rate in children

Question to the pediatrician: Hello! Please tell me what blood pressure and heart rate numbers are considered the norm for a 6.5-year-old child? (Catherine)

ANSWER: Dear Ekaterina, the norm of blood pressure in children and heart rate in the attached tables.







Blood pressure (mmHg)





up to 2 weeks





9000 -4 weeks





2-12 months





2-3 years




3-5 years





6-9 years





10-12 years





13-15 years





heart rate (pulse) in children.

born (up to 1 month)


Heart rate normal

Normal limits






1 – 12 months



– 2 years



2 – 4 years



90 004 4-6 years



6-8 years



8-10 years



10-12 years



12- 16 years old



Be healthy!
Best regards, pediatrician
Ragozina Christina

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Expert: about 40% of the adult population of Russia have hypertension –

National projects MOSCOW, May 17./ TASS /. About 40% of the adult population of Russia has hypertension, which is why everyone over 35-40 years old should regularly measure blood pressure and, in case of a deviation from the norm, consult a doctor. Sergey Boytsov, General Director of the National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, chief freelance specialist of the cardiologist of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Sergey Boytsov, announced this in an interview with the stopcoronavirus.rf portal on World Hypertension Day.

According to the World Health Organization, hypertension is the most important preventable cause of heart disease and stroke worldwide.Complications of hypertension are responsible for 9.4 million annual deaths worldwide. The higher a person’s blood pressure, the higher the risk of damage to the heart or blood vessels, which in turn increases the risk of vascular catastrophes such as heart attacks and strokes.

“The danger of hypertension is that it is an independent risk factor for the development of stroke, heart attack and heart failure. In our country, the prevalence of arterial hypertension among the adult population is about 40%.It is very easy to determine the presence of arterial hypertension, for this you just need to measure the level of blood pressure, which should be done regularly by every adult over 35-40 years old. If the blood pressure is normal, then these measurements should be repeated once every six months, and if there are episodes of increased pressure, then the recommendation of a doctor – a local therapist or a cardiologist, should be followed, “- said in an interview published on the website on Saturday.

Arterial hypertension can also cause a severe course of a new coronavirus infection.To prevent complications of hypertension, Boytsov recommends taking regular medications prescribed by a doctor and exercising. “Physical aerobic exercise is of great importance. If this is translated into everyday language, then it is 10,000 steps per day, preferably at an accelerated pace,” Boitsov concluded.

The main goal of activities within the framework of the national project “Health” and the federal project “Strengthening public health” included in the national project “Demography” is to save the lives of Russians and increase their duration.It is planned to significantly reduce the mortality rate of the working-age population, including from cardiovascular and oncological diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that 41% of deaths are preventable. Proceeding from this, a new architecture for the maintenance of human health is being built within the framework of the “Healthcare” national project.

90,000 Control your blood pressure at home! »KGBUZ” Taimyr MRB “

World Hypertension Day Arterial hypertension (AH) is a widespread epidemic worldwide and one of the most common risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and other diseases of the heart and circulatory system (CSD).AH makes a large contribution to high mortality from cardiovascular diseases and causes sudden cardinal death.

In Russia at present, about 40% of the population suffer from arterial hypertension. The incidence of high cardiovascular risk is 53.3% in men and 37.7% in women.

The conditions for the spread of coronavirus infection and self-isolation are not a reason to forget about blood pressure control. In 2020, World Hypertension Day is held under the motto “Control your blood pressure at home!” .

Blood pressure control can be carried out by the patient at home independently. It is not recommended to drink tea, coffee or smoke 30 minutes before the blood pressure measurement; physical activity must be excluded. To measure the pressure, you need to take a comfortable sitting position, put your left hand on the table and place the cuff of the apparatus on the arm three fingers above the elbow bend. You need to measure the pressure 3 times and write down the average. The pressure should not exceed 140/90.

If the value deviates more or less from the patient’s normal pressure, he should contact the attending physician and adjust the therapy.If there is chest pain, feeling short of breath, severe weakness, speech impairment or other acute symptoms, the patient needs to call an ambulance. For a planned consultation, you can contact your local doctor at the clinic.

Recall that hypertension is a “silent killer” that affects vital target organs such as the heart, brain, blood vessels, retina, and kidneys. This disease has no obvious symptoms other than high blood pressure. The reasons for the development of arterial hypertension, among other things, are unhealthy diet, low physical activity, leading to the development of obesity, as well as the use of a large amount of carbohydrates and fats in the diet, and, as a consequence, the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

Prolonged course of uncontrolled arterial hypertension along with obesity, smoking and physical inactivity leads to a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, stroke) and renal failure.

A blood pressure : health figures:

  1. A stable increase in blood pressure can be detected in both young and elderly people:
  • at 20-30 years old – in every tenth person ;
  • at 45-50 years old – for every fifth;
  • at 60 and older – two out of three have high blood pressure.
  1. BP more often rises in people who abuse salty, fatty foods, alcohol, in stressful situations, high cholesterol levels in the blood, smoking, low physical activity, burdened with heredity:
  • persons with high blood pressure consume with food in 3 times more table salt than people with normal blood pressure;
  • A smoked cigarette can cause an increase in blood pressure by 10-30 mm. rt. Art .;
  • BP increases with increasing body weight, each extra kilogram increases the pressure by 1-3 mm.rt. Art .;
  • stressful influences contribute to an increase in blood pressure and the transition of the disease to a severe form;
  • high blood cholesterol level (more than 5.0 mmol / l) leads to an increase in blood pressure;
  • with a sedentary lifestyle, the risk of developing hypertension is 20-25% higher than with an active one (at least 30 minutes a day of exercise).
  1. BP should be under control, detecting hypertension by organizing regular blood pressure measurements is the first step towards combating this disease.
  2. Following a healthy lifestyle helps to reduce the likelihood of developing hypertension.

Take some time! Measure your blood pressure!

Blood pressure and eligibility

The publication develops a problem that was raised earlier on the pages of Advokatskaya Gazeta in the article by Pyotr Barenboim “Neurological Torture” (see: “AG”. 2019. No. 3). After analyzing the content of a number of concepts outlined in the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, showing the specifics of economic affairs, identifying the connection between high blood pressure and the ability of a person to understand what is happening, and therefore to defend their rights, the authors come to the conclusion that this problem should not be ignored by both bar associations and business associations.

Translation error

To begin with, we present Art. 1 of the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: “For the purposes of this Convention, the definition of“ torture ”means any act by which severe pain or suffering, physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person information or confessions from him or from a third party, to punish him for an act that he or a third party has committed or of which he is suspected, as well as to intimidate or coerce him or a third party, or for any reason based on discrimination of any nature, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by a government official or other person in an official capacity, or at their instigation, or with their knowledge or tacit consent.This definition does not include pain or suffering that arises only as a result of legal sanctions, is inseparable from these sanctions or is caused by them accidentally ”.

Attention should be paid to the phrase “severe pain or suffering, physical or mental” is inflicted. Here the English word “mental” is translated as “moral”. This blurs the understanding of the meaning of the term “torture” and makes it too vague for clear enforcement. The situation is further complicated by the fact that Russian is the official language of the UN, which means that the mistake of Russian translators in 1984.when the Convention was adopted, it seems to “harden in legal concrete” and is not easy to interpret. There are other inaccuracies in the text of the translation of the Convention that are beyond the scope of this publication.

Another proposed translation of the word “mental” is “mental”, although it would correspond to the everyday use of “mentally ill,” that is, a person with a sick mentality is even further from the scientific and practical understanding of the content of this kind of torture.

Note that the reverse translation of the now official term “moral” into English means “moral” and confuses the situation even more, since it does not correspond to the meaning of the English word “mental”, is not its synonym.The term “moral” could be somehow, with a stretch, correlated with the phrase “inhuman, degrading” actions used in Art. 16 of the Convention, but it is both legally and linguistically separated from the concept of “torture”, since this article simply refers to another article of the Convention: “Each State Party undertakes to prevent, in any territory under its jurisdiction, other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, which do not fall within the definition of torture in Article 1 (emphasis added.- PD, SN) , when such acts are committed by a government official or other person acting in an official capacity, or at their instigation, or with their knowledge or tacit consent. ”

Most of the comments, interpretations and clarifications of the meaning of the Convention are given mainly in English. But there the meaning of “mental” is equated with “psychological”, while the word “mental” implies a wider range of effects on the brain and on the entire nervous system as a physical substance.Thus, the impact on human neurology in this UN understanding is tantamount to psychological impact. We can say that psychology and neurology overlap in the content of the word “mental”, which should be clearly understood. For example, a rather popular torture by electromagnetic radiation through walls on a sleeping person deprives him of full sleep, and gradually disrupts the normal functioning of the brain 1 . In our opinion, it should be established that this kind of torture may include purely psychological torture, psychological torture with a certain neurological component and a phenomenon that can be called neurological torture.The same applies to the cruel, inhuman acts that appear in the title of the UN Convention and its Art. 16.

On the specifics of economic affairs

Lawyers are used to operating with the concepts of sanity, insanity, legal capacity, including temporary insanity and incapacity. But reality is much more complicated if you approach it from the point of view of psychology and neurology. Psychological pressure on the investigation and partly in court should be rebuffed by lawyers, since it often approaches the line of legal behavior of an official: an investigator, a prosecutor and even … a judge or goes over it.Yes exactly. Once again, we draw attention to the formula of Art. 1 of the Convention, according to which the definition of torture “does not include pain or suffering that occurs only as a result of legal sanctions, is inseparable from these sanctions or is caused by them accidentally”.

Especially here it is necessary to highlight the words “inseparable” and “accidentally”. Of course, being in custody brings suffering to itself, and this, it must be said frankly, is partly the application of this preventive measure, which is often not caused by the need specifically in the cases of entrepreneurs and officials.In many cases, this is due to the desire of the investigation to break the will of the accused and always have him “at hand”.

It is extremely important for a lawyer to understand the capabilities of his client in terms of an adequate perception of the trial, especially when he needs to respond to questions, the answers to which are immediately recorded in the investigation protocol or the protocol of the court session and can sometimes be of key importance for making a decision and passing a sentence. This is especially important when considering economic cases, usually of a lengthy nature and associated with a large number of accounting and other documents, sometimes occupying many volumes.Hence, the specificity of these cases, which follows from the monotony and longer duration of the process compared to the process of considering other criminal cases, and quickly forms a “blurred” perception, leading in certain neurological situations to errors or inaccuracies in the answers of the client, sometimes unexpected even for his lawyer , who had previously discussed in detail with him his position on the case.

A person can say one thing and mean another

The American legal philosopher Joseph Weinig specifically emphasized the fact that a person can say one thing and mean something else as a separate legal problem 2 .To understand it, lawyers need to know at least the basics of neuroscience related to blood pressure. It should be borne in mind that persons with blood pressure deviating from the norm may not quite adequately perceive what is happening for some time and give the wrong answer or make a judgment that does not correspond to the one that was actually meant.

The right of any sane defendant to defense is based on the ability to correctly perceive what is happening during the entire time of the trial.In people with blood pressure problems, this ability is weakened or almost completely lost.

If the negative effect on the brain is of a temporary, even short-term nature, then, without having time to lead to pathological changes, it can during this period of time affect a person’s condition, for example, his ability to perceive events and the ability to respond to them adequately. This is especially unfavorable for him when he is under interrogation by an investigator or in the dock.

Let’s take the most obvious neurological situation associated with pressure deviations from the norm. Let’s try to cite elementary, but apparently not very well known to lawyers, data on the influence of pressure on a person’s condition.

What Lawyers Should Know About?

The typical arterial blood pressure of a healthy person (systolic / diastolic) is 120 and 80 mm Hg. Art.

The top number – systolic blood pressure – shows the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pushes blood into the arteries, it depends on the strength of the heart contraction, the resistance of the walls of the blood vessels, and the number of contractions per unit time.

The lower number – diastolic blood pressure – shows the pressure in the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes. This is the minimum pressure in the arteries and reflects the resistance of the peripheral vessels.

Persistent increase in blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg. Art. (arterial hypertension) or a persistent drop in blood pressure below 90/60 (arterial hypotension) can be symptoms of various diseases.

A hypertensive crisis is the result of a sharp violation of the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, which, in turn, leads to a strong increase in blood pressure, and a disorder of blood circulation in the internal organs.During a hypertensive crisis, there are symptoms of impaired blood supply to the brain and heart, loss of performance, fatigue, headaches, especially in the back of the head, deafness, dizziness, dizziness.

According to Russian statistics, only a little more than a third of sick men knew that they had a disease, and only 20% of patients who knew about a violation of their blood pressure received drug treatment. In this regard, the absolute number of hypertensive crises naturally increases.

In addition, a significant role in increasing the frequency of their occurrence is played by the lack of proper continuity of treatment between emergency medical care, a therapeutic hospital and a polyclinic. In Russia, there is currently no single generally accepted classification of hypertensive crises.

Interrogation as a situation associated with increased psychoemotional stress, of course, can be a provoking factor in the occurrence of hypertensive cerebral crises, in other words, it can cause an exacerbation of arterial hypertension.As a result, the ability to navigate in the environment may be briefly lost, and memory may be impaired.

Violation of the human right to understand what is happening as neurological torture

When a person with abnormal blood pressure is obliged to participate in a court hearing, he is not able to exercise his right to understand what is happening, which is the basis of the right to defense, since the level of blood pressure and the work of the brain, which ensures an adequate perception of the surrounding reality, are directly related.In addition, prolonged abnormal blood pressure conditions can directly lead to stroke or heart attack. It turns out that here the lawyer has a double concern: both to exercise the right to defense, and even to protect the health of his client.

Here is a quote from an online report on the court hearing in the case of the former head of Nizhny Novgorod and others. After an emergency medical aid was summoned to one of the defendants in the courtroom, the judge resumed the hearing, stating:

“The judge reports that M.examined by an ambulance doctor, read out the doctor’s conclusion: complaints of headache, pressure 160 per 100. No pathological conditions were found. M. has insulin-dependent diabetes, high blood sugar, he must follow a diet and take medications. According to the doctor’s conclusion, he can take part in the meeting further. ”

It turns out that the pressure, which is out of the norm, was not considered an obstacle to the continuation of the trial, either by the doctor or, of course, based on his opinion, by the judge.As it became known from subsequent publications on the Internet, the prison doctors hospitalized the defendant, and only after that his lawyers became more active and began to raise questions related to the validity of the previous decision on the possibility of participating in the trial. Phrases about “psychological torture” began to be pronounced. Later, in the same case, the defense reacted more timely, when the court continued the process with a pressure of 180 to 110: immediately after the refusal to postpone the hearing, she challenged the judge with the use of the term “torture” 3 .

The question arises: how prepared are lawyers and lawyers in general for such a situation? What knowledge of neurology do they have in order to respond correctly and, most importantly, quickly?

In our opinion, in addition to the concepts of physical torture and psychological torture, the concept of neurological torture should be introduced, since neurology is a separate branch of medicine that does not coincide with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology.”Neurology is potentially a bridge that will connect the concepts of physical and psychological negative influences, separated by law and legal culture” 4 .

Let’s try to give specific examples showing the relationship between psychological torture and the emergence of a neurological situation, which also has the character of a torture effect on a person. The literature has already cited an example of psychological torture that a businessman, a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was subjected to in the case of an economic crime.He was given two pairs of handcuffs and offered to exercise his rights under Art. 217 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, i.e. “Without limitation” to get acquainted with hundreds of volumes of the criminal case, make extracts, etc. Characteristically, out of the five (!) Lawyers present, no one spoke about the situation of psychological torture, and this issue was raised only when a new lawyer entered the case. Subsequently, the case was returned from the court to the prosecutor and “stalled” during further investigation.

And another example with the former head of Nizhny Novgorod, when he was forced to familiarize himself with a hundred volumes of a criminal case, sitting in a cage on a wooden bench, where there was no table, and construction debris was lying around.His lawyer promptly made a statement about the use of psychological torture, and the conditions for acquaintance were changed. It seems that in the UK there is a practice to try to prevent the accused from carefully familiarizing himself with the materials of the investigation, and at the same time to put pressure on him and humiliate him. In other words, at the moment when the accused wanted to see what evidence was collected against him, he was put in a humiliating position of a deliberate physical impossibility to exercise his rights, which, of course, was immersed in a deep stressful situation.

Defendants and defendants in economic cases due to age and lifestyle are often at risk of blood pressure diseases. This problem should be known to both chambers of lawyers and entrepreneurial public business organizations, which together as institutions of civil society should pay due attention to it.

In our opinion, it is advisable, within the framework of lawyers’ associations and business associations, to create a working group of neurologists, neuropsychologists, psychologists, lawyers and representatives of business associations, which would present its proposals, for example, on mandatory verification of the blood pressure level at the request of the defense and the defendants during court session and on the development by physicians of a methodology for the actions of an ambulance when summoning to courts in the event of, for example, a drug-induced sharp decrease or increase in pressure, if this may be associated with a health risk.In the course of its activities, this working group could involve psychologists from various scientific structures to conduct research, the results of which would clearly show the importance of the problem posed in this publication.

1 See O. Pochechueva. Electromagnetic radiation intentionally directed at you. M .: “LUM”, 2015.

2 See: Vining J. From Newton’s Sleep. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1996.P. 57–58.

3 See: P. Barenboim. Neurological torture // AG. 2019. No. 3 (284).

4 See: Lobel J. and Akil H. Law and Neuroscience: The Case of Solitary Confinement // Daedalus, Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Science, Fall, 2018. P. 6

Measurement of blood pressure in dogs and cats

At the Constellation Veterinary Center, you can measure the pressure of a cat, dog and even a rodent.The pressure is measured with a special veterinary tonometer. You can take measurements at any time, the veterinary clinic works around the clock.

It is believed that cats and dogs are not exposed to the stress that their owners experience, usually their food does not contain much salt and is not as fatty as ours. Why can dogs and cats have high blood pressure?

Blood pressure in dogs and cats

Everyone knows that blood pressure indicators are extremely important for our health.Medical doctors recommend regularly measuring it and taking action in case of a deviation from the norm.

How important is blood pressure measurement in cats and dogs?

It is believed that cats and dogs are not exposed to the stress that their owners experience, usually their food does not contain much salt and is not as fatty as ours. Why can dogs and cats have high blood pressure?

In fact, high blood pressure (hypertension) occurs in dogs and cats more often than we are used to thinking.

Primary hypertension is most common in humans, for example, due to changes in the weather, i.e. not caused by any disease. In cats and dogs, hypertension often develops secondary hypertension, which appears against the background of another disease.

What blood pressure is considered normal in dogs and cats?

A person has a normal blood pressure of 120 to 80, which means a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg (mm Hg) and a diastolic pressure of 80 mm. rt st.Systolic pressure shows the highest blood pressure in the body, while diastolic pressure is the lowest during heartbeat.

Blood pressure in dogs varies according to their size. The larger the animal, the higher the indicators will be. It should also be borne in mind that the table contains indications for the animal at rest. If the dog was under stress before measuring the pressure, the pressure will be higher. Also, the stress caused by the visit to the veterinary clinic may affect the indications.

Normal blood pressure in dogs
Breed of dogs Systolic pressure, mm. rt. Art. Diastolic pressure, mm. rt. Art.
Labrador Retriever 118 ± 17 66 ± 13
Golden Retriever 122 ± 14 70 ± 11
Pyrenean Mountain Dog 120 ± 16 66 ± 6
Yorkshire Terrier 121 ± 12 69 ± 13
West Highland Terrier 126 ± 6 83 ± 7
Border Collie 131 ± 14 75 ± 12
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 131 ± 16 72 ± 14
German Shepherd 132 ± 13 75 ± 10
Terrier 136 ± 16 76 ± 12
Bull Terrier 134 ± 12 77 ± 17
Chihuahua 134 ± 9 84 ± 12
Miniature dog breeds 136 ± 13 74 ± 17
Pomeranian 136 ± 12 76 ± 13
Beagle 140 ± 15 79 ± 13
Tax 142 ± 10 85 ± 15
Saluki 143 ± 16 88 ± 10
Greyhound 149 ± 20 87 ± 16
Pointer 145 ± 17 83 ± 15
Normal blood pressure in cats
Cat breed Systolic pressure, mm.rt. Art. Diastolic pressure, mm. rt. Art.
All cats 124 ± 16 80 ± 14

Why do you need to measure blood pressure in dogs and cats?

When a dog or cat develops hypertension (high blood pressure), the vessels become very narrow and cannot pump the required volume of blood. As an example, if you connect a regular watering hose to a fire hydrant, it will twist under pressure and may even burst.The same thing happens with the vessels.

As a rule, the affected vessels in pets are small, so that bleeding and a lack of blood in the feeding area may not be noticed for a long time until the problem becomes too large. The same thing happens in people – it is not for nothing that hypertension is called the “silent killer.”

What can happen to a cat or dog with high blood pressure?

Hypertensive dogs and cats have an increased risk of damage to internal organs.It is quite common that the eyes are affected, which can lead to sudden or gradual blindness in a dog or cat. The owner can detect damage by dilated pupils that do not respond to light, or when the pet stops noticing obstacles, “bumping” into them.

The kidneys, liver and brain are also affected with high blood pressure: kidney problems intensify, heart failure occurs, and the risk of heart attack increases.

There are a number of diseases associated with high blood pressure in dogs and cats:

  • Chronic renal failure
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
  • Heart disease
  • Hyperthyroidism (cats)
When Should I Measure Blood Pressure in Dogs and Cats?

If the dog has any of the above problems, if there are visual or nervous system problems, regular blood pressure measurements are recommended.

Elderly animals are recommended to measure blood pressure when clarifying any diagnosis.

How to measure blood pressure in a dog or cat?

Conventional blood pressure monitors (blood pressure monitors) are not suitable for dogs and cats. The fact is that often the size of animals and the coat does not allow the use of tonometers used in human medicine. Even blood pressure monitors specially designed for measuring blood pressure in babies are not suitable for cats and dogs.

We use a special veterinary tonometer PetMap Graphic II to measure blood pressure in dogs and cats.This tonometer is specially designed for animals. A set of cuffs allows you to measure blood pressure and heart rate (pulse) both in the smallest kittens and puppies, as well as in large dogs with long hair.

The blood pressure monitor for dogs and cats measures blood pressure with high accuracy (± 2 mm Hg) in the following ranges:

  • systolic 40-265 mm. rt. Art.
  • diastolic 25-195 mm. rt. Art.

The tonometer also measures heart rate in the range of 40 to 220 beats per minute.

What if my cat or dog has high blood pressure?

Depending on the severity of the condition, the type of animal and concomitant diseases, the veterinarian will prescribe a drug for the treatment of hypertension in animals.

It is important to remember that in pets, high blood pressure is often the cause of other diseases, a simple decrease in it usually does not lead to a solution to the problem as a whole. That is why a full-fledged diagnosis of the animal’s condition is necessary, where pressure measurement is only one of the procedures.

Science: Science and technology: Lenta.ru

British scientists have identified more than a hundred genes responsible for high blood pressure. This will help develop recommendations for reducing the risk of stroke and heart disease. However, hypertension reduces the likelihood of senile dementia. “Lenta.ru” talks about scientific papers devoted to the study of the harm and benefits of high blood pressure.

High blood pressure (hypertension) does not kill by itself, but it causes stroke and damages the coronary arteries, causing cardiac arrest.Hypertension can be inherited, meaning there is a gene or genes that contribute to high blood pressure. However, scientists still did not know what kind of DNA carries a time bomb.

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Any regularly functioning gene can mutate, as a result of which the sequence of its constituent nucleotides changes.Sometimes the function of a gene also changes, and it starts to do its job better or worse. A new allele arises – a variant of a gene that creates health problems. It is mutant genes that are responsible for many hereditary diseases, which, however, may not make themselves felt if a person has a normal copy of the pathogenic allele. The set of manifestations of genes (traits) is called a phenotype.

Researchers performed a genome-wide association search (GWAS) to find the relationship between different alleles and a phenotypic trait such as high blood pressure.Since any two people have a huge number of DNA differences, it is very difficult to understand what makes one healthy and the other hypertensive. However, if we consider many patients and identify which alleles are more common in them than in healthy people, this question can be answered.

Arterial vessel

Image: BruceBlaus / Wikipedia

Genetic and phenotypic data of a large group of people stored in biological databases (biobanks) are often used for GWAS. Such repositories are usually created as part of long-term research, lasting decades.For example, the British repository Biobank contains information on half a million men and women aged 40-69 years. All of them are participants in a large-scale study, which began in 2007, and devoted to the influence of genetic predisposition and the environment on the development of various diseases. Scientists take into account parameters such as height, weight, body mass index, blood pressure, lung capacity, blood density and intraocular pressure. The database is periodically updated with new data, since the phenotypes of the participants are constantly changing.

Since 2012, Biobank has been available to a diverse group of scientists to discover associations between genes and diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s or cardiovascular disorders. To investigate the relationship between DNA and high blood pressure, scientists took data from a repository on 140 thousand people. For the GWAS analysis, the values ​​of systolic pressure (arising from the compression of the heart and expulsion of blood in the artery), diastolic pressure (arising from the relaxation of the heart muscle), as well as the difference between them were used.In total, about 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed, occurring in the population with a probability of more than one percent.

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is essentially a point mutation in a gene. Since DNA is a chain of four types of nucleotides, SNP is the replacement of one nucleotide with another. Two alleles can differ by only one nucleotide, and this difference is enough to create a predisposition to any disease. However, different gene variants often have many single nucleotide polymorphisms, although not all of them affect the function of DNA.A new allele appears only if the SNP somehow affects the work of the gene.

Formation of systolic pressure (left) and diastolic (right)

Image: BruceBlaus / Wikimedia

In the GWAS for each SNP, the difference in the frequency of its occurrence between the experimental and the studied groups is determined. If the difference is greater than a certain statistical threshold, this means that the allele with this mutation contributes to the development of the phenotypic trait of interest to us.

The results of a genome-wide search for associations showed an association of high blood pressure with 107 loci (the location of the gene on the chromosome). Here are genes that are active in the tissues that form the arteries and other components of the cardiovascular system. Scientists have also developed a genetic risk score that predicts the likelihood of high blood pressure at a particular age based on the presence of certain alleles.

The higher the risk score, the more likely a person, after reaching the age of 50, will suffer from hypertension.For every additional 10 millimeters of mercury, the risk of stroke increases by 50 percent.

Scientists believe that this will develop a personalized approach to each patient. For example, you can make lifestyle recommendations to help the person cut back on alcohol, exercise more, and change their potassium and sodium intake.

Blood pressure monitor

Photo: Maxim Bogodvid / RIA Novosti

However, high blood pressure does not always harm a person, or, better to say, does not always accompany diseases.Thus, American scientists from the University of California have shown that hypertension in old age reduces the risk of developing senile dementia. An article about this was published in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association.

Physicians have found a link between high blood pressure, especially if it develops at the age of 80 years or older, and a decrease in the risk of developing dementia after 90 years. Scientists came to such conclusions as a result of a study with the participation of 559 people over 90 years old.During the examination, 224 people were diagnosed with dementia.

However, there were 42 percent fewer such diagnoses in those who acquired hypertension at the age of 80-89. Those who develop high blood pressure after age 90 have an even lower incidence of dementia – by 63 percent.

“New evidence suggests that some risk factors for dementia may change over the course of a lifetime,” notes co-author Maria Carrillo. “We’ve already seen similar results in past studies comparing body weight and the risk of developing dementia in older people.”

The most likely reason for this is that high blood pressure, usually found in overweight people, is able to maintain high blood flow in the brain in old age.