98 70 blood pressure: Leg Pain: Is It Spinal Stenosis or PAD?
Low blood pressure (hypotension) – Illnesses & conditions
Throughout the day, your blood pressure can vary by between 30-40 mmHg (both systolic and diastolic) depending on what you are doing. Having a stressful week at work, the temperature outside, and even what you had for lunch could affect your blood pressure reading.
Each time that you have your blood pressure measured, it is important that the test is carried out under similar conditions to ensure that the results are consistent. If you have a low blood pressure reading, your GP will first consider the everyday causes that might have affected it, before considering the possible underlying causes.
Many factors have a daily, or sometimes even hourly, effect on your heart and circulation. Below are things that could affect your blood pressure and, in some cases, may cause low blood pressure.
- The time of day – your blood pressure falls overnight so it will be low in the morning.
- Your age – typically, blood pressure rises as you get older, although postural, or orthostatic, and postprandial hypotension are also more likely in the elderly.
- How stressed or relaxed you are – if you are stressed, your heart will beat faster and your blood pressure will increase, and the opposite if you are relaxed.
- How much exercise you do – initially, exercise will raise your blood pressure, but if you are healthy and exercise regularly, your blood pressure will be low when you are resting.
- Your temperature – if you are cold, your heartbeat will slow down, and your blood pressure will fall.
- If you have recently eaten – blood will be used for digesting food in your stomach, so the blood pressure elsewhere in your body will fall.
If your blood pressure is still considered low after taking into account everyday factors such as those listed above, there may be another cause. Some possibilities are explained below.
Some medication may cause hypotension as a side effect. This tends to be orthostatic, or postural hypotension (low blood pressure when you stand up or change position). Examples of medication that can cause hypotension include:
Your GP will discuss any possible side effects with you when prescribing medication. While you are taking medication, your blood pressure will be carefully monitored if you are considered to be at risk of hypotension.
Serious illnesses or conditions
If you have an acute (short-term) illness, your blood pressure will be measured regularly because it is a good indicator of the severity of your illness. A heart condition, such as heart failure or a heart attack, can also cause low blood pressure, as your heart may not be able to pump blood around your body.
Autonomic disorders affect your autonomic nervous system and they can cause hypotension. Your autonomic nervous system is part of your nervous system (the network of cells that carry information around your body). It controls the bodily functions that you do not actively think about, such as sweating, digestion and the beating of your heart.
The autonomic nervous system also controls the widening and narrowing of your blood vessels. If there is a problem with it, your blood vessels could remain too wide, causing low blood pressure. In particular, autonomic disorders tend to cause orthostatic hypotension.
Some examples of autonomic disorders are:
- diabetes mellitus – a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood,
- Parkinson’s disease – a chronic condition that affects the way the brain coordinates body movements
- multiple system atrophy – a disorder that causes the brain signals to the muscles and limbs responsible for movement to deteriorate.
The adrenal glands are two small glands that are located just above your kidneys. They produce hormones that control your blood pressure and maintain the balance of salt and water in your body. One of the hormones they produce is called aldosterone, which is responsible for controlling the amount of salt in your body.
If your adrenal glands become damaged – for example through an infection or a tumour – the production of aldosterone may be reduced, resulting in a loss of salt from your body. This can cause dehydration which, in turn, leads to low blood pressure.
If a problem with your adrenal glands is diagnosed, it can be treated by increasing the amount of aldosterone in your body. This could also be a symptom of Addison’s disease (a condition in which the adrenal glands cannot produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone). Addison’s disease can also be treated with medication.
Serious injuries and shock
Low blood pressure can also be caused by serious injuries or burns, particularly if you have lost a lot of blood. This can mean that there is less blood being pumped around your body. Low blood pressure can also occur if you go into shock after having a serious injury.
Other kinds of shock are described below.
Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome
Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome are caused by bacterial infections. The bacteria attack the walls of the small blood vessels, causing them to leak fluid from the blood into the surrounding tissues. This causes a significant drop in blood pressure (severe hypotension).
Anaphylactic shock, or anaphylaxis, is caused by an allergic reaction to something – for example, a wasp sting or a peanut. During an allergic reaction, your body produces a large amount of a chemical called histamine, which causes your blood vessels to widen and leads to a sudden, severe drop in blood pressure.
Cardiogenic shock occurs when your heart cannot supply enough blood to your body, so your blood pressure drops. This can happen during a heart attack.
Other possible causes of low blood pressure are:
- Rare nerve conditions – if the nerves in your legs are affected, you may experience a severe drop in blood pressure when you stand up (postural or orthostatic hypotension).
- Increasing age – as you get older, your arteries can become stiffer. If they do not constrict (get smaller), your blood pressure may drop, particularly when you stand up.
- Pregnancy – during the early to mid stages of pregnancy, low blood pressure is fairly common.
- Prolonged bed rest – low blood pressure may possibly occur as a result of moving less and having overall less nervous system activity.
- Dehydration – low blood pressure may occur following particularly severe dehydration from vomiting and diarrhoea because the lack of water and salt in your body will reduce the volume of your blood.
- Your genes – some research has suggested that low blood pressure is genetic. If your parents have low blood pressure, it is possible that you could inherit it from them.
High blood pressure (hypertension) – NHS
High blood pressure, or hypertension, rarely has noticeable symptoms. But if untreated, it increases your risk of serious problems such as heart attacks and strokes.
Around a third of adults in the UK have high blood pressure, although many will not realise it.
The only way to find out if your blood pressure is high is to have your blood pressure checked.
What is high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is recorded with 2 numbers. The systolic pressure (higher number) is the force at which your heart pumps blood around your body.
The diastolic pressure (lower number) is the resistance to the blood flow in the blood vessels.
They’re both measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
As a general guide:
- high blood pressure is considered to be 140/90mmHg or higher (or 150/90mmHg or higher if you’re over the age of 80)
- ideal blood pressure is usually considered to be between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg
Blood pressure readings between 120/80mmHg and 140/90mmHg could mean you’re at risk of developing high blood pressure if you do not take steps to keep your blood pressure under control.
Everyone’s blood pressure will be slightly different. What’s considered low or high for you may be normal for someone else.
Risks of high blood pressure
If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your blood vessels, heart and other organs, such as the brain, kidneys and eyes.
Persistent high blood pressure can increase your risk of a number of serious and potentially life-threatening health conditions, such as:
If you have high blood pressure, reducing it even a small amount can help lower your risk of these health conditions.
Check your blood pressure
The only way of knowing whether you have high blood pressure is to have a blood pressure test.
All adults over 40 are advised to have their blood pressure checked at least every 5 years.
Getting this done is easy and could save your life.
You can get your blood pressure tested at a number of places, including:
- at your GP surgery
- at some pharmacies
- as part of your NHS Health Check
- in some workplaces
You can also check your blood pressure yourself with a home blood pressure monitor.
Find out more about getting a blood pressure test
Things that can increase your risk of getting high blood pressure
It’s not always clear what causes high blood pressure, but there are things that can increase your risk.
You might be more at risk if you:
- are overweight
- eat too much salt and do not eat enough fruit and vegetables
- do not do enough exercise
- drink too much alcohol or coffee (or other caffeine-based drinks)
- do not get much sleep or have disturbed sleep
- are over 65
- have a relative with high blood pressure
- are of black African or black Caribbean descent
- live in a deprived area
Making healthy lifestyle changes can sometimes help reduce your chances of getting high blood pressure and help lower your blood pressure if it’s already high.
Treatment for high blood pressure
Doctors can help you keep your blood pressure to a safe level using:
- lifestyle changes
What works best is different for each person.
Talk to your doctor to help you decide about treatment.
This patient decision aid (PDF, 132kb) can also help you to understand your treatment options.
Lifestyle changes to reduce blood pressure
These lifestyle changes can help prevent and lower high blood pressure:
Some people with high blood pressure may also need to take 1 or more medicines to stop their blood pressure getting too high.
Medicines for high blood pressure
If you’re diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend taking 1 or more medicines to keep it under control.
These come as tablets and usually need to be taken once a day.
Common blood pressure medicines include:
The medicine recommended for you will depend on things like how high your blood pressure is, your age and your ethnicity.
Watch a video on 6 things you need to know about your blood pressure on the Health and Care Video Library.
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Page last reviewed: 23 October 2019
Next review due: 23 October 2022
Low blood pressure (hypotension) – NHS
Low blood pressure is a reading of less than 90/60mmHg. It does not always cause symptoms, but you may need treatment if it does.
Get your blood pressure checked if you keep getting symptoms like:
- lightheadedness or dizziness
- feeling sick
- blurred vision
- generally feeling weak
This might mean your blood pressure is too low.
If you get symptoms when you stand up or suddenly change position, you may have postural hypotension.
How to check your blood pressure
You can check your blood pressure:
- by asking if a pharmacist can do it
- by asking a practice nurse or GP to do it
- at home yourself using a home blood pressure monitor – Blood Pressure UK has information about choosing a blood pressure monitor
Low blood pressure is a measurement of less than 90/60mmHg.
Regular blood pressure check
If you’re 40 to 74 years old, you should have your blood pressure checked at least once every 5 years as part of the NHS Health Check.
Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:
- you keep getting symptoms such as dizziness and fainting
Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: how to contact a GP
It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:
- visit their website
- use the NHS App
- call them
Find out about using the NHS during COVID-19
Treatment for low blood pressure depends on the cause
If a cause can be found, a GP will be able to recommend treatment to ease your symptoms.
For example, they may suggest:
- changing medicines or altering your dose, if this is the cause
- wearing support stockings – this can improve circulation and increase blood pressure
Medicine to increase blood pressure is rarely needed because simple lifestyle measures or treating the underlying cause is usually effective.
How to ease low blood pressure symptoms yourself
get up slowly from sitting to standing
take care when getting out of bed – move slowly from lying to sitting to standing
raise the head of your bed by about 15cm (6 inches) with bricks or heavy books
eat small, frequent meals – lying down or sitting still for a while after eating may also help
increase the amount of water you drink
do not sit or stand for long periods
do not bend down or change posture suddenly
do not drink caffeinated drinks at night
do not drink too much alcohol
Causes of low blood pressure
Your blood pressure can vary depending on the time of day. It gradually increases throughout the day.
What you’re doing and how you’re feeling can also affect it.
There are many possible causes of low blood pressure. It may be low because you’re fit and healthy, or you may have inherited it from your parents.
Some people develop low blood pressure as they get older.
It can also be caused by:
- being pregnant
- some medical conditions, such as diabetes
- some medicines
Page last reviewed: 09 September 2020
Next review due: 09 September 2023
What Is High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) is a potentially serious condition that can lead to heart problems, kidney disease, and stroke, among others. One in three adults in the UK has high blood pressure. However, it usually has no symptoms, meaning high blood pressure often goes undiagnosed.
Blood pressure tests are very quick and simple, and it is recommended that you have one on a yearly basis – especially if you fall into a demographic that is at risk from high blood pressure.
What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the arteries. It is recorded as two numbers, presented as a fraction. The two numbers concern:
- Systolic pressure: the pressure of the blood in the arteries when the heart beats to pump blood out.
- Diastolic pressure: the pressure of the blood in the arteries between each heartbeat as the heart refills with blood.
Systolic is placed above diastolic and is always the higher number. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury: mmHg. So a reading of 120mmHg / 70mmHg means your systolic (active) pressure is 120 millimetres of mercury and your diastolic (resting) pressure is 70 millimetres of mercury. Generally, a doctor will just say ‘120 over 70’. A reading of 130 over 85 is slightly high, whereas a reading of 98 over 71 is ideal.
What is high blood pressure?
High blood pressure occurs when the pressure of blood against the artery walls exceeds a healthy reading.
Symptoms of high blood pressure
High blood pressure has no obvious symptoms. Therefore you must get your blood pressure checked regularly regardless of how you might be feeling. Visit your GP to arrange a blood pressure test, or you can take your blood pressure at home, using a home monitor.
Causes of high blood pressure
Plenty of factors can cause high blood pressure. Some are controllable, some not:
- Age: as you get older, the risk of developing high blood pressure increases
- Family history: high blood pressure often runs in families
- Ethnicity: people of African-Caribbean and South Asian origin are particularly at risk.
- Salt: too much salt is linked to high blood pressure
- Lack of exercise: regular exercise is important for healthy blood pressure
- Being overweight: overweight people tend to have higher blood pressure
- Smoking: smoking raises your blood pressure.
- Excessive alcohol: drinking too much can raise blood pressure.
Considering weight loss treatment?
Potential effects of high blood pressure
High blood pressure (HBP) puts extra strain on your heart and arteries. Over time this can lead to a number of possible conditions including:
- Heart Attack: HBP forces your heart to work harder to pump blood. The increased strain can cause a heart attack.
- Heart Disease: HBP can damage the lining of your arteries, causing arteriosclerosis, where the artery walls thicken and lose their elasticity. This can lead to various forms of heart disease and circulatory problems, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction.
- Stroke: HBP can cause blood clots and weaken blood vessels, limiting blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
- Kidney Disease: HBP is a common cause of kidney failure; it damages arteries leading to the kidneys and blood vessels within the kidneys.
- Dementia: Narrow and blocked arteries leading to the brain can result in vascular dementia. HBP is often the cause.
How to reduce blood pressure: 5 simple tips
1. Regular exercise
You don’t need to run a marathon every week; just make sure you do enough exercise to get your heart beating faster. Breaking into a sweat is a good indicator that you’re doing it right.
It’s recommended adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate activity, such as cycling or fast walking, each week.
2. Lose weight
Obesity can seriously increase your risk of high blood pressure. Taking regular exercise and eating a balanced diet is the best way to lose excess weight.
A good way to determine if you are overweight is to calculate your body mass index (BMI). This looks at your weight, depending on what height you are. The healthy range for an adult is 18.5 to 24.9. A person with a score of more than 25 is considered to be overweight.
3. Cut down on alcohol
Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol on a regular basis can raise blood pressure. It’s not recommended that men or women drink more than 14 units of alcohol a week. And it’s advised you to spread drinking over 3 or more if you exceed the 14 units.
Alcohol also contains many hidden calories that can contribute to weight gain.
4. Eat less salt
Adults are advised to eat no more than 6g of salt a day.
Too much salt prompts the body to retain fluid. Too much fluid can increase blood pressure.
Many foods contain added salt, so it can be difficult to measure how much you are consuming each day.
Foods high in salt include processed meat (e.g. bacon or ham), cheese, pickles, gravy and stock, soy sauce, olives, pasta sauces, cereals and crisps. Find out more about alternatives to salt.
5. Reduce stress levels
Stressful situations can temporarily raise your blood pressure.
The link between stress and long-term hypertension is still not clear. Stress can contribute to a number of bad lifestyle choices such as eating poorly, drinking too much and smoking.
Try to reduce your stress levels by recognising the situations that cause stress and anxiety. Once this is done, it will be easier to employ stress-busting techniques, such as breathing exercises, meditation and yoga.
Trying to change your outlook when faced with stressful situations also helps. A positive frame of mind can work wonders. See your GP or an experienced counsellor for help and advice.
And lastly, get plenty of sleep. Sleep deprivation can alter your mood and make a difficult situation seem much worse.
If you have any questions regarding high blood pressure, you’re advised to speak to your GP first.
What is Normal Blood Pressure?
High blood pressure can damage your blood vessels, heart, lungs and kidneys. Keeping your blood pressure within the normal range is important. But what’s normal? That depends on your age and other factors.
Blood Pressure Readings
Blood pressure is expressed in terms of two numbers. The top number is systolic blood pressure. This is the highest pressure and occurs when your heart actually beats. The second number is the diastolic. This reading shows blood pressure when your heart relaxes. Your blood pressure varies throughout the day. It is lower at night and rises shortly before you wake up. It peaks in the middle of the afternoon and then drops in the evening.
High and Low Blood Pressure
The generally accepted standard for “normal” blood pressure is 90/60 to less than120/80. If your blood pressure is consistently lower than 90/60, you have low blood pressure. Blood pressure between 120/80 and 140/90 is still considered normal. However, most doctors will recommend lifestyle changes if you are in that range. Above 140/90 is considered high blood pressure, or hypertension. Medications may be recommended for blood pressures in this range or above.
Aging, Sex and Blood Pressure
Blood pressure normally increases with age. This may be a protective effect to ensure the body gets adequate nutrients and oxygen. A healthy child of three might have a reading of 80/34. A healthy adult of 60 might have a reading closer to 134 over 87. Women normally have readings about 10 points lower than men.
Factors That Affect Blood Pressure
Many things affect your blood pressure. These tend to cause increased readings:
The three “S” rule – stress, smoking and sleep apnea increase blood pressure.
Genetics and family history – high blood pressure and heart disease often run in families.
Chronic kidney disease- damaged kidneys can’t filter blood properly.
Obesity and lack of exercise increase the risk of high blood pressure.
Salt – about one-quarter of the population is sensitive to salt.
What’s Normal for Me?
To determine what your normal blood pressure is, you must track it over time. A home blood pressure cuff is an inexpensive way to do this. Take readings at different times of day. Three or four readings a day will give you a good picture. Always follow directions and sit quietly for at least 5 minutes before taking a reading. After a month, average your readings. This is your normal blood pressure. Remember, people are different – your athletic brother and young child will have different readings than yours. If your readings are consistently high, visit your health care provider.
The staff at Shingletown Medical Center is proud to provide first-class care for you and your family.
Low blood pressure (hypotension): symptoms and causes
I suffer from low blood pressure, which means I often feel dizzy. What causes this and what are the treatments?
Dr Paolo Tammaro says:
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major medical concern. If untreated, it can lead to heart attacks, strokes, kidney damage and even premature death. Low blood pressure might therefore seem desirable. However, excessively low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause various problems.
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What is low blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in your arteries – the vessels that carry your blood from your heart to your brain and the rest of your body. You need a certain amount of pressure to get the blood round your body.
A normal blood pressure is less than 140/90mmHg (a desirable blood pressure is around 120/80mmHg). Low blood pressure is a measurement of 90/60mmHg or lower.
When your blood pressure drops, your heart rate increases and the blood vessels in other parts of the body constrict (narrow) to help maintain blood pressure. If your heart rate does not increase enough, or if your blood vessels do not constrict enough to maintain blood pressure, your blood pressure will fall.
The kidneys control blood volume, so are also involved in regulating blood pressure.
Symptoms of low blood pressure (hypotension):
- Light-headedness or dizziness
- Blurred vision
- Difficulties in concentration or confusion
- Nausea (feeling sick)
Causes of low blood pressure
- Standing up: it may occur when you stand up (postural hypotension)
- After eating, when blood flow to your digestive system increases (this is most likely to occur if you have a disease of the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s).
- Some medical conditions (mainly endocrine and neurological disorders and some cardiac conditions such as heart failure and arrhythmias. )
- Medical emergencies: some emergencies such as septic shock and anaphylactic shock will also cause dangerously low blood pressure.
- Side effects from certain medications (for high blood pressure, heart disease or depression) and from some over-the-counter and herbal medicines
- Blood loss and dehydration
Treatments for low blood pressure
Medication for low blood pressure is rarely needed. This is because making simply lifestyle changes or treating the underlying cause is usually effective. Drinking more fluids, raising your legs and changing or altering the dose of medication you are taking are all effective ways of easily treating low blood pressure.
However, if it causes issues, low blood pressure can be treated with different medicines, depending on the underlying cause.
- Beta-agonists or alpha-agonists: Beta-agonists make the heart beat faster, while alpha-agonists narrow the blood vessels.
- Fludrocortisone: Drugs such as fludrocortisone, (a steroid that makes your kidneys retain water and salt, increasing your blood volume), can also be used.
Research into low blood pressure
Not all patients respond well to these treatments or tolerate the side effects – pharmacologists and other scientists are looking for new drugs.
With the help of BHF funding, my lab is studying how to use drugs to control the width of arteries and therefore blood pressure.
In particular, we are looking at the tiny channels in the artery wall that allow charged ions to go in and out of the artery cells, causing small electrical impulses. Drugs acting on these channels have the potential to control the width of arteries and could offer new ways to control low and high blood pressure.
Learn more about your blood pressure
Meet the expert
Dr Paolo Tammaro is Associate Professor in Pharmacology at the University of Oxford. His BHF-funded research is looking for potential new drugs to control blood pressure function that could help with both high and low blood pressure.
High Blood Pressure–Understanding the Silent Killer
Who is affected by high blood pressure?
Approximately 1 in 3, more than 100 million, American adults have high blood pressure. But only half of those people have their condition under control. Many people develop high blood pressure when they are in their late 30’s or early 40’s, and it occurs more frequently as people age. However, because of the obesity epidemic, more and more children are also developing high blood pressure.
What is high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is defined as the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. High blood pressure – also known as hypertension – is a disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at a higher than normal pressure.
Blood pressure is measured with two numbers. The first, or top number, is the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats, called the systolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the higher of the two numbers. The second, or bottom number, measures the force of blood in your arteries while your heart is relaxed between beats. The bottom number is the lower of the two and is called the diastolic pressure.
Normal pressure is 120/80 or lower. Your blood pressure is considered high (stage 1) if it reads 130/80. Stage 2 high blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. If you get a blood pressure reading of 180/110 or higher more than once, seek medical treatment right away. A reading this high is considered “hypertensive crisis.”
Readings between 120/80 and 129/89 are considered pre-hypertension. People with pre-hypertension do not have blood pressure as low as it should be but are not yet considered to have high blood pressure.
Why is it important to know if you have high blood pressure?
Early detection of high blood pressure is very important. Often referred to as the “silent killer” because it may show no symptoms, high blood pressure puts you at an increased risk for heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, among other things. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2013, more than 360,000 deaths in the United States included high blood pressure as a primary or contributing cause.
How can you manage your high blood pressure?
Treatment of high blood pressure often starts with lifestyle changes, including decreasing salt in your diet, losing weight if necessary, stopping smoking, cutting down on alcohol use, and regular exercise.
In addition to lifestyle changes, medications are often used to lower blood pressure. There are several types of medications that treat high blood pressure with each type of medication having benefits and risks that should be carefully weighed by you and your health care provider. Most people take more than one medication in order to bring their blood pressure down to their treatment goal.
Your blood pressure medication should begin to work within days. However, because high blood pressure is a long-lasting medical condition that often has little or no symptoms, remembering to take your medications can be a challenge. Combination medicines, long-acting or once-a-day medications, may be used to decrease the burden of taking numerous medications and help ensure medications regularly. Once started, the medication should be used until your doctor tells you to stop.
|Types of High Blood pressure medicine||Mechanism of Action|
|Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors||
decrease certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly and the heart can pump blood more efficiently.
|Beta Blockers||relax blood vessels and slow the heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.|
|Calcium Channel Blockers||relax the blood vessels so that the heart does not have to pump as hard.|
|Peripherally Acting Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers||relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Angiotension II Receptor Blockers||block the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels, allowing the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently.|
|Vasodilators||relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Centrally Acting Alpha Adrenergics||decrease the heart rate and relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Renin Inhibitors||decrease certain natural chemicals that tighten the blood vessels so that blood vessels relax and the heart can pump blood more efficiently.|
|Diuretics (sometimes called “water pills”)||works in the kidneys to rid the body of unneeded water and salt into the urine.|
|Combination Medicines||combine two (or more) different kinds of approved blood pressure medicines into a single dose.|
Controlling your blood pressure should be part of a healthy living plan and lifelong task. The damage that high blood pressure causes your internal organs does not cause any symptoms until serious damage has been done.
By taking charge of your health, you can help control the silent killer. It’s all about knowing who, what, why, and how!
Resources for You
90,000 “What to do with a pressure of 90 to 60, and is it dangerous?” – Yandex.Qu
Every second person experienced a decrease in blood pressure. More often, a similar phenomenon occurs in adolescents and during pregnancy, but there are exceptions. Do I need to panic if the pressure is 100 to 60 – what does this mean and in what cases is it worth seeing a doctor?
Qualified doctors will help you answer these questions.
Blood pressure: concept, norm
One of the most important indicators is blood pressure.But in modern medicine, only one type of it is most often measured – blood pressure, or blood pressure. According to its indicators, one can judge the state of the vessels and the general health of the patient.
To determine blood pressure, doctors record 2 types of it:
- systolic – the upper value showing the pressure level during the contraction of the heart muscle;
- diastolic – the lower indicator, indicating the state of the vessels during relaxation of the heart.
There are no strict guidelines for blood pressure.However, 120/80 indicators are recognized as the benchmark for people over 17 years old. But this is just a convention. So, many doctors consider a pressure of 100 to 60 acceptable, provided that the subject feels normal, vigorous and active. Such indicators can also be a symptom of serious pathologies that require immediate medical attention.
Read about the variety of blood pressure and pulse monitors here.
What does it mean if blood pressure dropped to 100 by 60 mm Hg.Art.?
A decrease in indicators to such a level in most cases is considered a variant of the norm. After all, the pulse pressure is within acceptable limits. But for some patients, these numbers are abnormal. Therefore, if suddenly there was a decrease in values and a pressure of 100 to 60, what should be done to ask the doctor. In this case, it is worth considering the presence of dangerous factors that can provoke hypotension:
- inflammation of internal organs;
- various ailments of the cardiovascular profile;
- previous head injury;
- serious allergic reaction;
- blood diseases;
- violations of vascular elasticity;
Be careful: lowering blood pressure during pregnancy is especially dangerous! Therefore, if the expectant mother has a pressure of 100 to 60, what does this mean – the doctor should find out! Indeed, such indicators indicate a deterioration in blood circulation, which can lead to hypoxia and miscarriage.
In some situations, a decrease in indicators was provoked by relatively safe reasons:
- lack of a balanced work and rest regime;
- alcohol consumption;
- active sports.
90,013 stressful situations;
90 013 taking certain medications (antidepressants, diuretics, drugs for hypertension, etc.)etc.)
If the pressure is 100 to 60, it is better to focus on the accompanying symptoms. Hypotension is often accompanied by weakness, nausea (up to vomiting), headache, fainting. Such signs require the attention of doctors, especially if you have previously been injured.
Note: if the pressure is 100 to 60 – what is it – will help to understand the pulse. After all, heart rate (HR) is considered an important diagnostic sign for hypotension.
If the pulse is normal
Lack of compensation for low blood pressure by increased work of the heart usually occurs during a period of active growth in adolescents, during acclimatization, or in persons for whom hypotension is a natural state. But there are also exceptions.
The normal pulse in an adult fluctuates between 60–90 beats per minute. A decrease or increase in performance can both indicate the presence of problems, and be the result of stress, overwork, etc.Therefore, if the pressure is 100 to 60 at a pulse of 60, what this means is a moot point. In most cases, such indicators are the norm. But if you do not feel well, you should see a doctor.
Many people mistakenly believe that tachycardia with a decrease in blood pressure is a pathology. But this is not always the case. In most cases, an increase in heart rate is normal. For example, during pregnancy, an accelerated heartbeat is a consequence of an increase in blood volume, etc.But if the pressure is 100 to 60, the pulse is 100, what does this mean – the accompanying symptoms will help to understand:
- nausea and vomiting – typical for heat strokes, overheating;
- fever is a sign of an inflammatory process;
- severe headache – may indicate hemorrhage;
- weakness, fainting – profuse blood loss, shock.
If during pregnancy the pressure is 100 to 60, the pulse is 100, only a qualified doctor can determine what to do.It is possible to determine the severity of the condition of the expectant mother by the intensity of signs of toxicosis. If his symptoms worsen (severe vomiting, the appearance of edema in the upper parts of the body, photopsia, etc.), you should undergo additional examination!
Do not focus only on blood pressure and heart rate indicators: it is important to take into account additional symptoms. If your health has noticeably deteriorated, and low blood pressure is not the norm, it is better to consult a doctor.
Is this condition dangerous?
If the blood pressure is 100 to 60, what this means should be found out, taking into account the person’s well-being.Modern doctors recognize that such indicators are not critical and in most cases are considered the norm.
But to assess the patient’s status, it is important to take into account not only the current values, but also such moments:
- Results of previous surveys. If earlier blood pressure was 120 to 80, and then suddenly dropped, it is worth conducting additional research.
- The presence of concomitant symptoms. If the patient complains of nausea, fever, frequent fainting, dizziness, migraine or feeling unwell, you should make sure that there are no serious health problems.
- A detailed analysis of the circumstances of the drop in indicators: the presence of injuries, taking medications, stressful situations, travel – everything is important for the diagnosis.
If you feel unwell and your blood pressure suddenly drops to 100 to 60, the doctor will determine what to do. After all, abrupt deviations from the norm are a dangerous sign that requires the attention of professionals.
What to do, how to raise?
If the decrease in blood pressure has occurred abruptly, is provoked by an injury or is accompanied by such severe symptoms as severe migraine, loss of consciousness, impaired coordination of movements, pain in the heart – you should immediately consult a doctor. When the signs of malaise are insignificant or absent altogether, it is worth taking the following measures:
- drink a cup of green tea or coffee;
- eat bread with honey, lightly sprinkled with cinnamon;
- take a contrast shower;
- perform breathing exercises;
- in the cold season, it is permissible to dissolve a pinch of salt;
- in the heat it is worth drinking clean water, since a decrease in indicators may be caused by dehydration;
- take specialized medications (Strofantin, Norepinephrine, etc.)but only if approved by your doctor.
Be careful: do not take pharmacy drugs without permission.
Interesting information about self-massage with hypotension can be found in the following video:
- When the pressure is 100 to 60, how to raise – the doctor will determine!
- If a decrease in blood pressure is not accompanied by dangerous symptoms and causes only mild discomfort, then you can use the means at hand.
- If an attack was preceded by an injury or your health has deteriorated sharply – contact your doctor. After all, such symptoms may indicate dangerous pathologies that require urgent medical attention.
What causes low blood pressure and how to bring it back to normal | Healthy life | Health
Increased excitability, anxiety, sensitivity to cold, a tendency to motion sickness in transport and fainting turn their lives into continuous torment.Can you help them? Turning to specialists, we decided to compile a memo about what provokes the development of arterial hypotension and what helps to cope with this condition.
How to identify
Reduced pressure is considered to be below 100/60 mm Hg. Art. in men and 95/60 mm Hg. Art. among women. If you constantly have such pressure, then you have arterial hypotension.
What provokes? Low physical activity
Physical inactivity can be associated with a sedentary (sedentary) lifestyle or be forced (for example, due to an illness). Both only exacerbate the manifestations of arterial hypotension: a decrease in the volume of muscle activity leads to a deterioration in the functional state of the heart, the contractile apparatus of muscles and their tone, a decrease in lung ventilation, a violation of mineral and protein metabolism, affecting the state of the central nervous system.
► Adequate physical activity. Swimming, jogging, skiing, and aerobics have a good effect on hypotensive patients.
► Normalization of the regime and full sleep. 8-10 hours of sleep is a vital necessity for all hypotonic patients, the basis for maintaining their normal life. It is no secret that sleep is the main synchronizer of biorhythms in the body, stimulants of the functional activity of the cardiovascular system, parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. And, of course, a full-fledged daily regimen with alternating mental and physical exertion is “prescribed” for the hypotonic.
Work in hazardous production
The development of arterial hypotension is facilitated by: work underground, in an atmosphere of high humidity and high temperature, with prolonged exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation, microwave electromagnetic field, chemical intoxication.
► If arterial hypotension is caused by occupational hazards, it is better to transfer to another job.
► Hardening.Daily douches, rubdowns, contrast showers have proven themselves well in hypotensive patients. These procedures are based on a tonic effect not only on the prescription apparatus of the skin, vascular tone, but also on the immune system.
Hypotension provocateurs include some diseases of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands, cardiovascular and central nervous systems, some respiratory diseases, as well as duodenal ulcer, cholecystitis, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, anemia. Acute arterial hypotension can also develop with a large loss of blood, with massive injuries, poisoning, heat stroke, shocks of various origins.
► Treatment of the disease that caused a decrease in blood pressure leads to the normalization of the latter.
► Herbal stimulants. We are talking about the so-called adaptogens of natural origin that increase vascular tone and blood pressure: tinctures of Eleutherococcus, ginseng, lemongrass, aralia.But here it is important not to overdo it: some hypotensive patients are very sensitive to these drugs. From medications, people suffering from low blood pressure are prescribed: nootropic drugs, cerebroprotectors, antioxidants, antidepressants.
Hypotension can develop with improper use of medicines that lower blood pressure (antipsychotics, ganglion and adrenergic blockers, nitrites and nitrates.)
► Do not self-medicate hypertension. During a heart attack, take nitrates only while sitting: a sharp drop in blood pressure in a standing position can lead to static collapse (loss of consciousness due to insufficient blood flow to the head).
► Diet. A special diet with a high content of potassium (potatoes, eggplant, cabbage, apricots, prunes) and calcium with vitamin D3 will help to improve the well-being of hypotension. At the same time, people suffering from low blood pressure need to eat at least 4 times a day.In addition to traditional coffee and tea, blood pressure increases everything salty: herring, cucumbers, sauerkraut. But be careful with alcohol. In any case, brandy that dilates blood vessels (and, consequently, lowers pressure) is not for you.
There are many athletes among hypotonic patients. The tendency to lower blood pressure and a rare pulse they have is nothing more than a protective reaction of the body to constant physical activity, when it begins to work in a more economical mode. Experts call this hypotonia high fitness hypotension.
► Before registering a child in the sports section, visit a pediatric cardiologist. Ice hockey, figure skating and football are especially hard on the heart.
► Massage, acupuncture. The most effective for arterial hypotension is therapeutic massage of the cervical-collar zone, calf muscles, and hands. Another proven remedy for “low blood pressure disease” is acupuncture.
Guidelines for adults with essential hypertension
This patient guide is based on an updated version of the guideline approved in 2015. The patient guide is based on the updated Estonian treatment guide
2019 “Treatment of hypertension in adults at the primary level.” Patient guideline recommendations have been compiled based on a review of the scientific literature based on
based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. In the patient manual, the recommendations are made from the patient’s point of view, i.e. it contains information about what a patient needs to know about hypertension, about the organization of his daily activities and treatment. Patient manuals are prepared and evaluated by experts in their field who treat and monitor hypertensive patients on a daily basis.
The purpose of this patient guide is to help you cope more successfully with your illness, to answer frequently asked questions about treatment and how to organize your daily life, and to support you in your treatment.The patient guide covers all important topics related to hypertension: the nature of the disease, its diagnosis, treatment, risk factors and basic recommendations for lifestyle changes. The included sample forms will allow you to self-monitor your blood pressure, health and treatment. You can learn more about the topics covered in this patient guide by following the links at the end of the guide.
- After age 40, see your family doctor or nurse at least every five years to measure your blood pressure and assess your risk of heart disease.
- If you have hypertension, be sure to check with your family doctor or nurse at least once a year.
- Know your blood pressure readings and the purpose of your treatment. Follow the instructions and recommendations for correct blood pressure measurement.
- Give up all tobacco products (including hookah and e-cigarettes). Medication for high blood pressure may have a weaker effect on smokers.
- Avoid excessive alcohol consumption. Men should not drink more than four and women should not drink more than two units of alcohol per day. During the week, there must be at least three alcohol-free days.
- Maintaining a normal body weight and waist circumference helps to keep cholesterol and blood pressure within the normal range.
- Daily physical activity and exercise will help you better cope with illness and improve your well-being.
- During treatment, strictly adhere to the treatment regimen prescribed by your doctor. Take your medications regularly, in the amount prescribed by your doctor and at the appointed time. Know the name of the active ingredient of your medicines and renew your prescriptions in a timely manner.
- Do not change the dose of the medication you are taking and the frequency of taking it yourself. Always consult your family doctor or nurse.
- Inform your family doctor or nurse immediately if you have any concerns about side effects.
1. The nature of the disease of hypertension, the frequency of its occurrence and symptoms
Blood pressure is the pressure that the flowing blood puts on the walls of the blood vessels. The unit of measure for blood pressure is millimeter mercury (mmHg). The blood pressure is noted as two numbers (for example 130/90 mmHg):
▪ the upper value is systolic blood pressure or that pressure when the heart is pumping blood out of the chamber, i.e.that is, at the moment when the heart contracts;
▪ the lower value represents diastolic blood pressure or that pressure when the heart is in the relaxation phase.
Optimal blood pressure for an adult is ≥ 120/80 mmHg. Art.
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure occurs when vital oxygen is supplied to tissue
the heart must push the blood more forcefully through the constricted blood vessels.For a diagnosis of hypertension, the readings must be above 140/90 mm Hg. with repeated measurements. Consistently high blood pressure damages the walls of blood vessels and significantly increases the risk of various diseases.
It is important to remember that your blood pressure should not rise with age – high blood pressure is abnormal at any age.
Hypertension is often not felt by the person himself, but sometimes it can manifest itself as headache, dizziness, imbalance, nervousness, fatigue, ringing in the ears or
Most people develop symptoms of hypertension after long-term effects of high blood pressure damage the heart, kidneys, brain and eyes. Serious and life-threatening consequences occur several years later and mainly for those who do not receive regular and appropriate treatment on time.
From age 40, see your family doctor or nurse at least every five years. During your follow-up visit, your blood pressure will be measured and your risk of cardiovascular disease will be assessed.Make sure to monitor your blood pressure more often:
1) if your close relatives have had hypertension;
2) if you have a history of high blood pressure;
3) if your previously measured blood pressure values were close to the normal range (130-139 / 85-89 mm Hg).
When measuring blood pressure, keep in mind that high blood pressure found during a visit to a doctor or nurse does not mean that you really have hypertension and you are
should start taking medication.A temporary increase in blood pressure can also be caused by the so-called white coat syndrome . This means that the blood pressure values measured during the visit to the doctor or nurse are higher than those measured at home. At the same time, it is known that people with white coat syndrome are more likely to develop hypertension requiring treatment.
Blood pressure values are also influenced by emotions (anxiety, stress), pain, consumption of energy drinks, certain medications (for example, contraceptives, antidepressants, pain relief)
cold medications and combination drugs for ear, nose and throat diseases), addictive substances (for example, nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamine), unhealthy lifestyles (for example, being overweight, smoking, drinking alcohol).
2. Risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular diseases are diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels – such as atherosclerosis, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease,
pain in the peripheral arteries. If you suspect you have hypertension, your doctor or nurse will assess your cardiovascular risk. The influence of several risk factors for cardiovascular disease can be reduced by lifestyle changes.
Risk factors that cannot be changed:
▪ Age. The risk of hypertension increases with age. Hypertension occurs in more than 60% of the elderly in Estonia (Saks et al. 2003).
▪ Presence of cardiovascular diseases in close relatives at a young age. Hypertension is a disease with a strong familial predisposition. It is believed that about 30% of cases of hypertension are due to important genetic factors.Particularly at risk are people whose relatives have had cardiovascular disease at an early age: 90,246
▪ women under 65,
▪ men under 55.
Risk factors that can be changed:
▪ High blood pressure.
▪ Smoking and consumption of other tobacco products.
Tobacco use (especially smoking) is a dangerous risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Development risk
cardiovascular disease in a smoker is 2-4 times higher than in a non-smoker. Nicotine increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis, hypertension and blood clotting disorders. Quitting smoking reduces the risk of developing a heart attack to the level of nonsmokers within two years.
▪ Increase in waist circumference. To assess the health risks associated with abdominal obesity (a type of obesity characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits in the abdominal region)
the measurement of the waist circumference is taken.
Excess adipose tissue around the abdominal organs affects glucose metabolism and causes a decrease in the level of “good” HDL cholesterol and an increase in triglyceride levels.
For women, the normal waist circumference is up to 80 cm, a waist circumference of more than 88 cm is considered hazardous to health.
For men, a normal waist circumference is up to 94 cm, a waist circumference of more than 102 cm is considered dangerous.
▪ An unbalanced diet and excess weight are an additional burden on the heart , especially if the heart has to cope with high blood pressure.Weight loss is an effective way to lower blood pressure – for example, losing 10 kg of weight in overweight patients will lower blood pressure to 10 mmHg. A healthy diet helps maintain a healthy weight and also keeps blood cholesterol levels low.
▪ Alcohol abuse. According to the World Health Organization, alcohol is the third most common cause of health damage in the world after high blood pressure and smoking.The risk of cardiovascular disease increases with the consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day.
1 unit of alcohol is equivalent to 10 grams of absolute alcohol, depending on this, the amount of alcohol consumed per day is calculated. For example, one glass of spirits (4 cl), a glass of wine (12 cl) or 250 ml of beer with a strength of 4%. Adult women are advised not to consume more than two units of alcohol per day, and men – more than four units of alcohol per day. There must be at least three alcohol-free days in one week.Both alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal symptoms can increase blood pressure (see www.alkoinfo.ee).
▪ Low physical activity (see Tips for Increasing Physical Activity to Lower Blood Pressure).
▪ An imbalance in blood fats is called dyslipidemia. Cholesterol is a lipid (fat) produced in the liver. Cholesterol is a vital substance found in the body’s cell walls and in the bloodstream.There are two sources of cholesterol: the human body itself and food. The liver and other cells in the body produce about 70% of the cholesterol in the body, with the remaining 30% coming from the daily diet. There are two types of cholesterol: the so-called “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Pathological changes in cholesterol levels are considered:
1. The level of total cholesterol in the body of an adult exceeds 5 mmol / l.
2. The LDL cholesterol value exceeds 3 mmol / l. LDL cholesterol is produced in the human body and transported from the liver to cells. If more cholesterol circulates in the blood than the cells need for life, from
Normal pressure of a person by age: table – Rambler / news
The first action of a doctor when examining a person at an appointment is to check the pressure. It is checked regardless of the patient’s complaints, since different diseases cause pressure surges up and down.The initial examination of a person allows the doctor to learn important information about his condition.
Based on these data, the doctor draws up an anamnesis, in which it is simply necessary to indicate the blood pressure figures necessary for further diagnosis. The normal pressure of a person by years is indicated in the standard age tables that each doctor has. According to them, he verifies the data obtained and draws appropriate conclusions.
The value of the upper and lower digits of blood pressure
Blood pressure indicates how much blood presses on the vascular walls.The unit of measurement for blood pressure is mm Hg. Art.
In therapeutic practice, different types of blood pressure are diagnosed:
cardiac, which occurs inside the cavities of the heart from the rhythm of its contractions. Each cardiac department has its own standards that vary from cardiac functions, from human physiology;
Central venous pressure shows the state of the right atrium, which is responsible for the return of blood from the veins to the heart;
capillary shows the pressure of the blood on the walls of the capillaries, associated with the tortuosity and tension of the capillaries;
arterial – an indicator of the normal function of the circulatory system, or violations of its work; BP readings show the volume of blood pumped by the heart in a given time.
Blood pressure is measured by tonometers of various designs, the rest of the data is shown either by daily monitoring of blood pressure, or by an ECG check. The heart moves the blood in the body because it acts like a pump.
The upper BP reading records the volume of blood leaving the left ventricle, the lower figures show the pressure level and the volume of blood entering the right atrium.
Therapists consider the main pressure data:
The upper and lower indices indicate the rate of contractions of both ventricles, the rhythm of the heart, which ensures the ingress of blood in the systolic phase into the aortic lumen. These numbers are recorded first and are considered top pressure.
The value of the pressure indicators on the systole depends on the vascular resistance and heart rate. The diastole phase is a pause between contractions, the heart at this time is relaxed, filled with blood. In this phase, the numbers of diastolic lower blood pressure are checked. Its value depends on the resistance of the vessels.
The norm of human pressure by years is shown in the age table approved by the Ministry of Health of the country, which is the standard for determining blood pressure data for various pathologies.
Table of pressure norms
Pressure (minimum indicator), mm Hg
Pressure (average), mm Hg
Pressure (maximum indicator), mm Hg
The norm of blood pressure in different people
These blood pressure changes in accordance with many factors of an individual nature:
daily load fluctuations;
constant intake of certain medications;
time immediately after a hearty meal;
use of tonic drinks.
Factors can be different, there are many of them, and doctors should take into account all possible means that affect changes in the patient’s well-being. Today, doctors are wary of the tables compiled in previous years, which give the average blood pressure standards for the age of people. New studies require taking into account the individuality of the patient in each situation.
According to generally established standards, blood pressure data in adults of any age and sex should be within 140/90 mm Hg. Art.
Tables of normal pressure for humans, compiled by year, by age, have been developed for a long time.Since then, the ecology has changed, the rhythm of society has become more active. Everything involuntarily affects the well-being of people. The blood pressure standards in all tables are given as a reference.
Blood pressure indicators are unstable, they fluctuate during working hours, during rest, in response to various external factors.
Patients such as pregnant women, whose body changes significantly, do not compare their blood pressure with standard tables. For them, there are standards that take into account changes in the circulatory system, an increase in the load on the body due to the growth and nutrition of a new person.
Symptoms of hypertension or hypotension
According to the tables, when a person has a blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg. Art., he has no deviations in the activity of the heart. If the upper systolic data is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. Art., experts diagnose the first degree of hypertension.
Active drug intervention is required when the upper data reaches 160/90 mm Hg. Art.
High blood pressure is manifested by symptoms:
swelling in the legs;
inability to concentrate attention;
The reasons for the increase in blood pressure can be:
frequent stressful situations;
fluctuations in weather conditions.
High blood pressure is a sign of:
arterial hypertension, dangerous onset of hypertensive crises;
symptomatic hypertension, which is typical for vascular and kidney pathology;
an increase in the upper numbers of blood pressure indicates heart defects, vascular pathology, the formation of anemia.
Both upper and lower indicators can rise. The upper numbers of blood pressure often rise in women, the lower numbers can rise in men and in the elderly. The drop in lower diastolic blood pressure is less than 110/65 mm Hg. Art. leads to irreversible changes in the structure of tissues of internal organs due to a sharp disruption of blood supply.
If blood pressure control shows a frequent decrease to 80/50 mm Hg. Art., it is important for a person to consult a local therapist. A frequent decrease in low indicators leads to a lack of oxygen supply to the brain, this negatively affects the state of the whole organism.
This condition is no less critical than an increase in blood pressure. It is believed that it is much more difficult to raise low blood pressure than to bring down high blood pressure. Low blood pressure leads to persistent hypotension, VSD.
Low blood pressure is manifested in the following symptoms:
darkening in the field of view;
with increased sensitivity to bright light, loud music;
constantly cold hands and feet.
Reasons for persistent low blood pressure:
tendency to intolerance to stress;
change in weather conditions;
fatigue at high loads;
chronic lack of sleep;
various kinds of allergies.
Many medications cause a decrease in blood pressure:
However, in the practice of therapists, situations are recorded that a person always lives and works with a blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg. Art. He does not feel a drop in pressure, his health and performance are good.
Because of this, for each person his own blood pressure standards are calculated, which do not cause poor health.
From low blood pressure develop:
Checks the normal blood pressure of a person, referring to the table by years, taking into account his age and somatic diseases. A frequent increase in blood pressure should serve as a signal for seeking medical help.
Why do you feel dizzy with pressure?
“The pressure must have dropped / increased!” – this is, perhaps, the most common “diagnosis” that patients themselves like to make.Pressure is blamed, as they say, for all sins: weakness, lightheadedness, tinnitus, headache, darkening of the eyes, dizziness and other unpleasant symptoms are often attributed to it. In fairness, it should be noted that these sensations can indeed be caused by pressure drops, however, in order to find out whether this is so, it is imperative to consult a doctor.
High blood pressure is called arterial hypertension or hypertension. In Russia alone, more than 40% of people suffer because of it!  Arterial hypertension (AH) can be an independent disease (the so-called essential or primary hypertension) or a symptom (secondary hypertension).Secondary hypertension can cause kidney and lung disease, endocrine system disorders, brain damage, etc. Primary hypertension is much more common: it is diagnosed in 8-9 cases out of 10. 
Why is the head spinning with hypertension?
In hypertension, the walls of the vessels are compacted, tortuosities and stenoses (local narrowings) are formed. This leads to circulatory disorders, from which the brain also suffers. It is to a lack of blood, and, therefore, oxygen, that he reacts with dizziness and other unpleasant symptoms. 
AG must be treated. Not doing this means putting your life in unnecessary danger, because hypertension significantly increases the risk of developing myocardial infarction and stroke! In addition, due to increased pressure, the kidneys and vision suffer, which significantly reduces the quality of life – up to disability. 
Low blood pressure is called arterial hypotension or hypotension. There are usually two types of arterial hypotension: chronic and acute. Acute arterial hypotension can occur with severe poisoning, circulatory failure, serious infection, dehydration, etc.e. Chronic hypotension, in contrast to hypertension, is not considered to be a separate disease, although it reduces the quality of life of patients at times. Hypotension usually occurs as a result of stress, physical exertion, fatigue or, for example, changes in the weather and manifests itself as weakness, rapid fatigue, decreased performance, a tendency to fainting, headache, etc. In addition, hypotonic patients do not tolerate cold, heat and stuffiness. 
Pressure can drop when changing position abruptly from horizontal to vertical.You yourself may have experienced this state when, for example, you got out of bed after a long illness or rose sharply from the alarm clock. This hypotonia is called orthostatic (postural). Symptoms include darkening of the eyes, tinnitus, fainting, and dizziness that can last for several minutes. Orthostatic hypotension can occur with certain medications. 
Why does the head spin during hypotension?
The cause of dizziness during hypotension is also a violation of blood circulation and nutrition of the brain.
What is normal pressure?
Normal pressure is 110/70 mm Hg. Art. up to 130/85 mm Hg. Art. (millimeters of mercury). Pressure above 140/90 mm Hg. Art. is considered elevated, and the pressure is 100/60 mm Hg. Art. (for men) and 95/60 mm Hg. Art. (for women) – reduced. 
Treatment of dizziness with high and low blood pressure
To overcome a symptom, you need to get rid of its cause. Therefore, it is not the dizziness itself that needs to be treated, but what caused it.Only a doctor can correctly diagnose and treat dizziness. It is also important that as the disease develops, one form of the disease can replace another or be combined with it, therefore, the selection of drugs must be entrusted to a specialist. 
However, you shouldn’t sit idly by! Check your blood pressure regularly, have general blood and urine tests, as well as blood sugar and lipid tests, walk more, quit smoking and alcohol, and eat a dizzy diet.It is also important to avoid stressful situations and try to be less anxious. 
List of used literature:
1. Manvelov L. Measure blood pressure correctly // Science and Life. – 2007. – No. 10. – https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/11810/ (Access date: 25.06.2016).
2. Kalikinskaya EI Hypertension – a symptom or a disease? // Science and life. – 1998. – No. 2. – https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/10301/ (Access date: 25.06.2016).
3.Manvelov L., Kadykov A. Vascular diseases of the brain. Everything can start with a headache // Science and Life. – 2007. – No. 2. – https://elementy.ru/nauchno-populyarnaya_biblioteka/430450/Sosudistye_zabolevaniya_mozga_Vsyo_mozhet_nachatsya_s_golovnoy_boli (Access date: 25.06.2016).
4. Zamergrad M.V. “Vascular” dizziness // BC. – 2007. – No. 9. – https://www.rmj.ru/articles/kardiologiya/Sosudistoe_golovokrughenie/ (Access date: 25.06.2016).
Co-author, editor and medical expert:
Volobueva Irina Vladimirovna
Born on 17.09.1992.
2015 – Sumy State University, specialization “General Medicine”.
2017 – Graduated from an internship in the specialty “Family Medicine” and also defended her master’s work on the topic “Features of the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children of different age groups.”
90,000 Hypotension in children: Childhood hypertension
The problem of arterial hypotension (low blood pressure) in children has become more common than before.Evidence suggests that hypotonic states are even more common in children than in adults. Unfortunately, this problem also applies to newborns.
For a child, low blood pressure is considered, the upper limit of which is no more than 100, and the lower limit is no more than 60. The risk group is schoolchildren, among whom girls are more susceptible to this condition.
But the pressure in children can be not only low, but also high. In this case, it is customary to talk about hypertension. Arterial hypertension, hypertension in children – a persistent increase in blood pressure above the 95th centile of the scale of distribution of blood pressure values for a specific age, gender, weight and length of the child’s body. Normal blood pressure is considered to be the values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which do not go beyond the 10th and 90th centiles.
It is not always possible to find pathological reasons for a persistent decrease in pressure. This usually happens with primary hypotension, which, nevertheless, has its own reasons:
- asthenic physique;
- hereditary predisposition;
- problems during pregnancy and childbirth;
- features in the character of the child, for example, a tendency to depression;
Secondary hypertension has causes that are associated with diseases of internal organs and systems: kidney disease, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, adrenal disease, etc. Also, this form of hypotension can develop due to the intake of certain drugs, especially when you consider that the child’s body is most sensitive to drugs.
But the child’s blood pressure can increase for various reasons. It may depend on hereditary, external factors, specific age.If a pregnant woman smokes during pregnancy, there is an increased risk that the nursing baby will have health problems.
Diseases of the endocrine system also cause hypertension. Children with VSD are considered potential hypertensive patients.
An overdose of certain nasal drops leads to narrowing of the vessels not only of the nose, but even of the arteries. Because of this, the pressure rises.
It has been noted that high blood pressure is often inherent in those children who are obese or overweight.
Improper diet, low physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, stress, stress at school. All of these can cause health problems.
If hypotension manifests itself in a newborn, then the parents do not have any special problems, because it is difficult to determine by his condition that there are health problems. This is explained by the fact that the child sleeps a lot, rarely cries, is in constant calm.
Children with reduced muscle tone, legs and arms can be extended more than 180 degrees in the joints.In addition, the following symptoms are observed: a delay in the pace of motor development and impaired swallowing and sucking.
Dizziness, fainting, nosebleeds, emotional lability, decreased performance, joint and muscle pain, sudden deterioration of health, and headache may also occur.
With a slight increase in pressure, the child’s well-being may be good. Although the child can quickly get tired, irritated. But if the pressure rises strongly, the child will always feel bad.Among his complaints are the following: headache, dizziness, pain in the heart, palpitations, memory impairment.
If a hypertensive crisis occurs. Symptoms such as a sharp headache, nausea, blurred vision, seizures, impaired consciousness and others may occur.
To make a diagnosis, first of all, blood pressure measurements are required. This is usually done while sitting in the first half.The measurement takes place three times, the interval between which is three minutes. Also, it is not done immediately after the loads of the mental or physical plan, but after an hour has passed.
In addition, the following diagnostic methods are used: ECG, ECHO-kg, ABPM, study of autonomic homeostasis, EEG registration, psychological testing, clinical and biochemical blood tests, consultation of the necessary specialists in order to exclude secondary arterial hypotension.
To confirm the diagnosis of arterial hypertension, daily monitoring and tests with different types of loads are used.
During the study, it is important to identify the cause of the increase in pressure if hypertension is secondary. This is what helps the doctor to prescribe effective treatment. If the cause of hypertension is not eliminated, therapeutic measures will not give the desired effect, the result will be temporary.
Treatment can be medication and non-medication. If arterial hypotension occurs in a labile form, then preference is given to the second type of treatment, which includes several methods.
It is necessary to normalize the daily routine, which includes the correct combination of study and rest by the child. Timely breaks are important. This also includes quality sleep at night, as well as daytime rest.
Don’t forget your daily walks. A child should be in the open air for about two hours a day.
Meals should be taken four to six times a day.At the same time, the food should have a sufficient amount of salt. It is important that the products contain a sufficient amount of nutrients and trace elements, which are very important for the child’s body. It is important to observe the optimal water regime.
Massage has a good effect. Recommended area: hands, collar and calf muscles.
If such methods are insufficient, or if the child’s hypotension has shifted to a more serious method, the doctor will prescribe the necessary medications.
Treatment of hypertension depends on many factors. If arterial hypertension in children and adolescents is accompanied by a slight increase in blood pressure, non-drug therapy is used.
If the child is overweight, it is necessary to reduce the body weight. This is achieved by increasing physical activity and normalizing nutrition.
If the school has a lot of homework, you need to make sure that this does not affect the health and well-being of the student.
If the change in lifestyle does not lead to a decrease in blood pressure or the indicators are high, drug treatment is prescribed.Antihypertensive therapy is also prescribed for those children who suffer from diabetes mellitus, chronic renal diseases. Most of the drugs prescribed for adults are also used for younger patients. But doses and drugs are always selected individually.
90,000 Pulse and pressure. What do these numbers mean?
During any visit to the doctor or calling an ambulance at home, as a mandatory initial procedure, the specialist measures the pulse and blood pressure. What do these numbers actually mean? For what reasons is the pressure high or low? What is the threat of an accelerated or, on the contrary, a slowed heartbeat?
“data-title =” Pulse and pressure.What do these numbers mean? “>
At any visit to the doctor or calling an ambulance at home, as a mandatory initial procedure, the specialist measures the pulse and blood pressure. What do these numbers actually mean? For what reasons is the pressure high or low? What is the threat of an accelerated or, on the contrary, a slowed heartbeat?
Pulse. He, like pressure, has an extremely fickle value. You’ve probably noticed how hard and fast your heart beats after exercise, and how steady your heartbeat is at rest.There is no ideal value for which everyone should strive. In children, the heart beats at a much faster rate than in adults.
On average, a reading of 65 – 75 beats per minute is considered normal. Therefore, when this value drops or rises by more than 20, it is already considered a deviation required for prevention or treatment. For a healthy person, the rhythm of the heartbeat is also important. If the heart beats unevenly, then it is called arrhythmia and this is an extremely dangerous heart disease.
A trained person involved in sports has a lower heart rate. This is due to the fact that for each beat, the heart pumps more blood.
Pressure. As with the pulse, everything is just as ambiguous here. The values depend on age, gender, physical activity and psycho-emotional environment. And everyone’s body is different, so the indicators may differ. We will talk about averages.
When measuring blood pressure, we always hear two numbers, which are called the upper (systolic) and lower (diastolic) values.The first shows with what force the blood presses on the walls of blood vessels during the maximum contraction of the heart, and the second, on the contrary, in a situation of rest. The difference between them is called pressure. On average, this difference should exceed 20 mm Hg. Art. Low blood pressure leads to tachycardia, and high blood pressure is an indicator of atherosclerosis, heart failure, anemia, etc.
It often happens for athletes that the average for them is an underestimated value, about 100/60, and at the same time they feel great.
The value increases with age. A newly born child has a normal 80/50 mm. rt. Art., and by the year of life it reaches 96/66 mm. rt. Art. In this regard, up to five years there is no distinction between the sexes. At the age of 18 – 20 years in men, 120/80 mm becomes satisfactory. rt. Art., and for girls 115/70 mm. rt. Art. By the age of seventy, the indicators increase to 145 / 80-85 for the stronger sex and 155/85 mm. rt. Art. from representatives of the beautiful half of humanity.
There is a concept as “working pressure”, at which the values may differ from the average, but the body feels good.Therefore, try to always keep track of your constant indicators. Moreover, with current technologies, it is available to everyone, just buy a tonometer.
If you see that the indicators of your cardiovascular system are close to critical, immediately get down to your health. See your doctor, start eating healthy, and exercise. Remember that prevention is always easier and better than cure.
We remind you that the School of Arterial Hypertension (pr.Marine, 49, office. No. 206) – free of charge, without an appointment. If you are worried about the numbers on the tonometer, urgently consult a doctor!