Anabolic steroids weight gain: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Anabolic steroid misuse – NHS
Anabolic steroids are prescription-only medicines that are sometimes taken without medical advice to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance.
If used in this way, they can cause serious side effects and addiction.
Anabolic steroids are manufactured drugs that mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone. They have limited medical uses and aren’t to be confused with corticosteroids, a different type of steroid drug that’s commonly prescribed for a variety of conditions.
This page explains the dangers of misusing anabolic steroids, and aims to advise and support those who are addicted to the drugs.
Are anabolic steroids illegal?
Anabolic steroids are class C drugs, which can only be sold by pharmacists with a prescription.
It’s legal to have anabolic steroids for personal use. They can also be imported or exported, as long as this is carried out in person. This means they can’t be posted or delivered by a courier or freight service.
However, it’s illegal to possess, import or export anabolic steroids if it’s believed you’re supplying or selling them. This includes giving them to friends. The penalty is an unlimited fine, or even a prison sentence of up to 14 years.
In professional sport, most organisations ban anabolic steroid use and test competitors for banned steroids.
Why people misuse anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids can be used as performance-enhancing drugs that increase muscle mass and decrease fat, as well as causing many undesirable effects. Some athletes, weightlifters and bodybuilders take them regularly to improve their physical performance and build up their bodies.
However, people of all ages have been known to misuse these drugs, including adolescent boys who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder. This is a mental health condition where a person spends a lot of time worrying about flaws in their appearance. These flaws are often unnoticeable to others.
Boys and men who have body dysmorphic disorder may take anabolic steroids because they don’t see themselves as being physically big enough or strong enough.
Some people believe taking anabolic steroids will help them become fit and healthy. This isn’t true: taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous drug habit.
How anabolic steroids are taken
Anabolic steroids are usually injected into the muscle or taken by mouth as tablets, but they also come as creams or gels that are applied to the skin.
Many people who use anabolic steroids are aware of the dangers of taking them, and believe that by taking the drugs in certain ways they can avoid side effects.
- Take the drugs for a period of time and then stop for a rest period before starting again. This is known as “cycling”.
- Taking more than 1 type of anabolic steroid at a time, known as “stacking” – which they believe makes them work better.
- Do a combination of both stacking and cycling known as “pyramiding” – where they start off taking a low dose of 1 or more anabolic steroids, and then increase the dose over time up to a maximum dose. They then stop taking them for a rest period to give the body a break before starting the cycle again.
But there is no evidence that any of these methods actually reduce side effects from taking anabolic steroids.
Users tend to exercise more when they’re taking high doses to make the most of their improved performance during this time.
Side effects of anabolic steroids
Regularly taking anabolic steroids can lead to physical and psychological changes in both men and women, as well as potentially dangerous medical conditions.
Effects of anabolic steroids in men can include:
In women, anabolic steroids can cause:
- facial hair growth and body hair
- loss of breasts
- swelling of the clitoris
- a deepened voice
- an increased sex drive
- problems with periods
- hair loss
- severe acne
In addition, both men and women who take anabolic steroids can develop any of the following medical conditions:
Misusing anabolic steroids can also cause the following psychological or emotional effects:
- aggressive behaviour
- mood swings
- manic behaviour
- hallucinations and delusions
Stunted growth in adolescents
Anabolic steroids accelerate bone growth, so if they’re misused by adolescents who haven’t yet had the growth spurt associated with puberty, the drugs can cause premature ageing of the bones and restricted growth.
As anabolic steroids are often injected, there are risks associated with sharing needles. These are the same risks associated with recreational drug use, and include:
Like many other substances, anabolic steroids are addictive. This means you can crave the drug, require more to get the same effect, and have withdrawal symptoms if you suddenly stop taking them.
A person who is addicted to anabolic steroids will want to keep using them despite experiencing unpleasant physical side effects.
When doctors prescribe steroid medication, they always advise coming off the medication slowly by gradually reducing the dose. Coming off anabolic steroids suddenly can result in withdrawal symptoms that include:
You should see your GP if you think you’re addicted to anabolic steroids. Treatment for an addiction to anabolic steroids will be similar to that of other types of addiction.
Your GP may refer you to a specially trained drugs counsellor. They’ll discuss your addiction with you, how to safely stop taking steroids, and any obstacles you may face when trying to stop, plus strategies for dealing with those obstacles.
For more information and advice, see:
Page last reviewed: 30 August 2018
Next review due: 30 August 2021
Anabolic Steroids Use in Bodybuilding and Side Effects
The term anabolic steroid usually refers to synthetic substances related to naturally occurring male sex hormones, such as testosterone, which itself could be described as an anabolic steroid in the true sense. “Anabolic” means tissue building.
Anabolic agents are potent promoters of protein synthesis and thus are muscle building. Anabolic steroids are usually androgenic, meaning that they enhance male characteristics—body hair, muscle, male genitalia, and deep voice.
Anabolic steroids are prescription drugs with medical uses including the treatment of delayed puberty, wasting conditions, and osteoporosis. But they are often illegally used without a prescription by bodybuilders and weightlifters, as well as those competing in various sports.
List of Anabolic Steroids
In addition to these common steroids, new designer steroids are constantly being manufactured. Many on this list are sold under trade names:
Anabolic steroids can exert various effects on the body including the following:
- Acne and cysts
- Aggressive behavior
- Breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men
- Enlarged clitoris
- Erectile dysfunction
- Enlarged prostate
- Growth of facial hair, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle in women
- Heart problems, including heart attack
- Liver disease, including cancer
- Voice deepening and growth of body hair in women
Continuous use of injected or oral steroids can cause the body to shut down its natural production of testosterone in the testes, thus shrinking them. Breasts can enlarge in men (gynecomastia) because estrogen is also in the pathway of anabolic steroid metabolism, called aromatization. Breast growth may be irreversible without plastic surgery. Steroid users often try to control this with other drugs.
Human growth hormone and precursors, estrogen antagonists, and testicle maintenance substances (HCG) are in common usage. The side effects are generally worse with oral anabolic steroids and those containing 17-alky.
Use by Athletes
The use of anabolic steroids by athletes, especially athletes for whom speed and strength are important competitive characteristics, has been widespread. The effects of increasing muscle mass and decreasing body fat are desirable in a variety of sports and in competitive bodybuilding.
Steroid use in sport is illegal and athletes may be tested for them. Among many other examples, Ben Johnson, the Canadian sprinter who won the Olympic 100 meters gold medal in 1988, used stanozolol and was eventually banned.
In the modern era, professional athletes tend to avoid the common steroids and use more sophisticated methods, perhaps involving natural testosterone and human growth hormone, which are more difficult to detect in abnormal amounts in urine or blood tests. Anabolic steroids are easily detected, although masking agents have been used with some success.
New synthetic forms of anabolic steroids called designer steroids and testosterone act-alikes are constantly being created in laboratories, making detection by sports-doping authorities more difficult for these substances.
Recreational use of steroids by young men, who are often naive in the toxicology and pharmacology of such substances, has grown substantially. They may also use other anabolic agents and supplements in conjunction with steroids. These recreational users may rely on supplement sellers and other unreliable sources for safety advice.
How Steroids Are Taken
When taken orally (in pill form), there is a greater risk of liver damage and some anabolic steroids are broken down in the stomach and digestive tract so that they do not work. Because of this, the most effective method of taking many anabolic steroids is by injection, although needles have their own health risks. Creams and gels that are absorbed through the skin are also popular.
Stacking is a pattern of use of taking two or more oral or injectable types of steroids in hopes of better results. Doses are variable and may be many times the dose given therapeutically for various medical conditions.
Cycling is the most popular protocol of use. Cycling involves taking a course of steroids, stopping (to let the body recover normal processes), and then commencing again. This may be done with pyramid doses, with smaller doses that are slowly increased to a peak, then slowly decreased to stop.
A Word From Verywell
Anabolic steroids are banned in most sports. The World Anti-Doping Authority and various national drug-testing organizations regulate the illegal use of steroids. Organized and random testing is carried out on athletes. For recreational consumers of steroids, detrimental health effects for men and women are common, especially as a result of long-term use.
How Anabolic Steroids and Corticosteroids Differ
Corticosteroids refer to a class of drugs used to treat inflammatory arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Because they are commonly referred to as “steroids,” people often believe them to be the same thing as anabolic steroids, which are used to boost strength and physical performance. However, while they share some molecular properties, the two are quite different.
The word “steroid” is a broad-ranging term used to describe any compound with a specific molecular structure (comprised of four fused rings of 17 carbon atoms). The function of steroids is to either maintain the integrity of a cell’s membrane or to activate a receptor on a cell’s surface to regulate how it behaves.
There are many different types of steroids found in nature, broadly classified as:
- Sex steroids, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
- Corticosteroids, including glucocorticoids (such as cortisol), which regulates the immune function, and mineralocorticoids (such as aldosterone), which regulates electrolyte balance
- Secosteroids such as vitamin D, which helps regulate numerous biological functions
- Neurosteroids, such as DHEA, which aid in the synthesis of male and female hormones
- Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, a subgroup of steroids. The most common type of animal sterol is cholesterol, which helps maintain cell membrane integrity.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of natural male sex hormones (androgens). They are used to promote the growth of skeletal muscle (the anabolic effect) and the development of male sexual characteristics (the androgenic effect).
Anabolic steroids are available by prescription and are used to treat conditions that result in abnormally low testosterone levels (hypogonadism). The causes may include undescended testicles, testicle injury, pituitary disorders, obesity, and advanced HIV infection.
Because of their anabolic effect, the drugs are often abused by athletes or persons wanting to improve their physical appearance. The majority of people who misuse steroids are male weight-lifters in their twenties or thirties. Steroid misuse is much less common in women.
The long-term abuse of anabolic steroids can lead to serious health consequences, including:
- Severe acne
- Development of breasts in men (gynecomastia)
- Facial and body hair growth in women (hirsutism)
- Stunted growth in youth
- High blood pressure
- Dramatic mood changes (“roid rages”)
- Manic behavior
- Shrinkage of testicles
- Male pattern baldness in both sexes
- Irregular menstruation
- Increased risk of blood clots
- Yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice)
- Liver tumors or cancer
- Kidney problems or kidney failure
Corticosteroids refer to either naturally occurring compounds produced by the adrenal cortex, or synthetic versions that mirror their molecular structure. Corticosteroids act on the immune system by blocking the production of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory responses.
The drugs can be delivered orally, nasally, topically, or by injection to treat such health conditions as allergies, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus), and blood disorders (such as lymphoma and leukemia).
The corticosteroid drugs commonly prescribed in the U.S. include:
The drugs are available under various brand names and formulations.
Benefits and Risks
Corticosteroids are powerful drugs that can quickly reduce inflammation while enhancing recovery. With that being said, the overuse of the drugs can cause serious and sometimes contradictory side effects, including:
- Weight gain
- Muscle weakness
- Thinning of the skin
- Tendon rupture
- Worsening of diabetes
- Increased susceptibility to infection
- Stomach irritation
To maximize benefits, corticosteroids are prescribed in the lowest possible dose over the shortest period of time to achieve the best possible outcome.
If used for longer periods, corticosteroid drugs must be gradually tapered off to allow the adrenal gland to gradually take over its normal function. Stopping too quickly can result in withdrawal symptoms and a potentially life-threatening adrenal crisis.
A Word From Verywell
If your treatment plan involves the use of corticosteroid drugs, always weigh the benefits and risks with your doctor. Depending on your health status, there may be other options that can deliver the same relief with far less risk.
In the end, it is often best to reserve corticosteroids for later use, when the need for the drugs may be far greater.
12 Things You Should Know
What Is Prednisone?
Prednisone is a corticosteroid – often called a steroid for short. These types of steroids are different to the anabolic steroids abused by body builders or athletes wishing to gain a competitive edge.
Corticosteroids come in two types – glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Prednisone is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect and mimic cortisol (a hormone that is released by our adrenal glands in response to inflammation and stress). Prednisone controls inflammation by suppressing our immune system and is four times more potent than cortisol at decreasing inflammation.
However, prolonged use can cause immunosuppression, muscle wasting, bone changes, fluid shifts, and personality changes. For these reasons, prednisone is usually only prescribed short-term.
Prednisone Has Been Around for More Than 60 Years
The discovery of prednisone in the 1950s by Arthur Nobile revolutionized the treatment of arthritis.
Since then, it has been the used in the treatment of dozens of other conditions, such as asthma, allergies, lupus, multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, and numerous skin conditions. While experts may not know the exact cause of some of these conditions, they do know that they are all associated with inflammation. For example:
- asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways
- symptoms of an allergic reaction are the result of excessive inflammation caused by an over reaction of the immune system.
Prednisone helps in the treatment of these conditions by dampening down this inflammation.
Prednisone has helped save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. But like every drug, its good points need to be weighed up against its not-so-good points.
Prednisone is Inexpensive
Prednisone has long gone off-patent so it shouldn’t leave too much of a hole in your wallet, although some formulations (such as delayed-release preparations) may be more expensive than others.
Your drugstore may sometimes stock different generics from time to time, which may mean that sometimes the color or look of your prednisone may change.
Check with your pharmacist if you are unsure why there is a change. Alternatively, you can use our pill identification wizard
Dosing Schedules Vary: Read The Label
Prednisone dosing may be complicated and not uncommonly start with a higher dose which is gradually reduced over days to weeks. There is a fine line between too much or too little prednisone. Always read the label or talk with your pharmacist about the schedule your doctor has recommended. Never assume it will be the same as what you had last time or what a friend or family member is prescribed.
- Never take more prednisone than your doctor has recommended.
- Never stop prednisone suddenly if you have been taking it for a long period of time.
- Never start another course of prednisone without first discussing this with your doctor.
- Always follow all instructions.
Prednisone Is Not So Kind On Your Stomach
Prednisone can irritate the lining of your stomach and should always be taken with a meal. If your stomach still feels sore after taking prednisone with food, try taking an antacid. If the discomfort persists or gets worse, talk to your doctor.
You are also more likely to get stomach ulcers if you take prednisone in combination with anti-inflammatories (such as ibuprofen or diclofenac) or aspirin. If you are prescribed these medicines, ask your doctor about protective agents that can reduce this risk.
Morning Dosages Are Usually Best For Prednisone
If you take prednisone on a daily basis, for a long period of time, it can cause adrenal gland suppression. This is when your body stops producing cortisol by itself.
If you are on daily prednisone, experts recommend taking the dose in the morning, to reduce this risk. Taking prednisone too late in the evening can cause sleeplessness and insomnia, too. Make sure you also take your dose of prednisone with food, and just FYI, grapefruit juice has no effect on prednisone.
Prednisone has long-lasting effects and is usually prescribed once daily. Occasionally, people on higher dosages are instructed to take it twice a day for short periods of time before dropping down to just a single dose.
Some People May Experience Withdrawal Symptoms On Stopping Prednisone
This doesn’t mean that prednisone is addictive. Rather it means that it can just take a while to kick start your body back into producing cortisol again, if you have been on prednisone for longer than two weeks.
Withdrawal symptoms can range from severe fatigue to weakness, body aches, joint pain, and difficulty sleeping. Talk to your doctor about slowly stopping prednisone over a period of several weeks if you need to discontinue its use.
Prednisone Increases Your Risk of Infection
Infections are more common in people taking prednisone because it suppresses your immune system. This makes it harder for your body to fight off infection. In some circumstances, prednisone can help pre-existing infections, particularly those caused by yeasts or fungi, to spread.
Symptoms of an infection may also not be as obvious or typical while you are on prednisone. While you are taking prednisone, you should take common-sense precautions to reduce your risk of infection – such as washing your hands often and avoiding people who are sick, especially those with viral illnesses such as chickenpox or measles.
Tell your doctor straight away if you develop any sort of infection, including eye infections or candida infections, while you are taking prednisone.
Long Term Side Effects of Prednisone Can Be Severe
Long-term use of prednisone may lead to bone loss and osteoporosis. It can cause changes in the distribution of body fat which together with fluid retention and weight gain may give your face a moon-like appearance.
Stretch marks, skin thinning, and excessive facial hair growth are also not uncommon. Women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should let their doctor know before they take prednisone. Prednisone may be given in low doses to women who are breastfeeding a baby for the treatment of certain conditions such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or for an allergic reaction.
Children are particularly susceptible to prednisone’s side effects. Prednisone may suppress growth and development, an unfortunate effect that may be helped by alternate day treatment or growth hormone therapy. Prednisone may also cause sleeplessness and affect your moods. People with diabetes may find their blood glucose control is not as good as it usually is while they are taking prednisone.
It is a good idea to wear a medical alert tag or carry a Steroid Card if you need to take prednisone long-term.
Weight Gain is Common
Prednisone makes you hungry and weight gain is a common side effect. Fat deposits may occur around your abdomen, face or back of your neck. Fluid retention can also occur and may manifest as leg swelling and a sudden jump in your weight on the scales.
The higher the dose and the longer the treatment, the more likely you are to put on weight. You can control fluid retention by eating a diet low in sodium and eating more foods that contain potassium such as bananas, apricots, and dates. A diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates may make you feel fuller for longer, making you less likely to overeat.
What Is The Difference Between Prednisone And Prednisolone?
Both prednisone and prednisolone are man-made glucocorticoids. They are used to treat similar conditions and are generally considered equally effective. However, in people with liver disease, prednisolone is usually preferred. This is because prednisone needs to be converted by liver enzymes into prednisolone before it can work.
Price wise, prednisone is usually much cheaper than prednisolone.
Prednisone May Interact With Some Medicines
Prednisone can interact with a number of different drugs, including OTC medicines and some herbal preparations. Let your doctor know about all the medications you take.
The most common interactions are with NSAIDs, anti-infectives (such as ciprofloxacin, some HIV medicines), immune suppressants, diuretics (“water” pills), and anticoagulants (blood thinners), but there are many more. If you are worried that some of your medicines may be interacting, talk with your doctor or pharmacist. Alternatively, you can use our drug interaction checker.
Finished: Prednisone: 12 Things You Should Know
Anabolic steroids – Better Health Channel
What are anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that help with the growth and repair of muscle tissue. They imitate the male sex hormone, testosterone.
There are legitimate medical uses for anabolic steroids. Doctors prescribe them to treat hormonal problems (such as delayed puberty in males or loss of muscle caused by diseases like cancer or HIV).
Anabolic steroids are also misused. People who illegally use anabolic steroids often do so to increase lean muscle mass, reduce fat and speed up recovery from injury.
Anabolic steroids can take the form of tablets, capsules or injectable liquids, depending on the brand.
Common slang terms for steroids include ‘roids’, ‘gear’ and ‘juice’.
Anabolic steroids are classed as performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs).
Who uses anabolic steroids?
According to research, anabolic steroiduse for non-medical purposes is more common in men in their 30s. Other groups who typically use them include:
- Professional athletes and bodybuilders who are involved in competitive sport or who have a strong desire to succeed.
- People who work in industries where muscle strength is important – such as security workers, police, construction workers and defence force staff.
- Young people and adults who are concerned about their body image and want to look muscular to feel good. This may include people who work in the fashion and entertainment industries.
How anabolic steroids work
Anabolic steroids work by imitating the properties of naturally occurring hormones, Their chemical composition is similar to testosterone and can activate the body’s testosterone receptors.
Once the receptors are stimulated, a domino effect of metabolic reactions takes place as the drug instructs the body to increase muscle tissue production.
Testosterone has two effects on your body:
- anabolic – maintains bone density, supports muscle growth and speeds up recovery from injury
- androgenic (also known as masculinising) – develops and maintains male characteristics (such as the penis, testicles, muscle mass, deep voice and facial hair).
Although testosterone is called a male sex hormone, it also occurs naturally in women, but in much smaller amounts.
How anabolic steroids affect the body
People who use anabolic steroids generally experience an increase in muscle strength very quickly.
This generally means that people are able to train more often and for longer periods of time, with improved recovery.
This can often lead to rapid increases in lean muscle tissue.
Fluid retention is also common and can lead to muscles looking soft or bloated.
Side effects of anabolic steroids
The effects of anabolic steroid use can differ from person to person. Some people may experience:
Men may experience:
Women may experience:
Young people may experience:
- stunted growth
- premature balding
- acne scarring
- injury caused by excessive, intense workouts
- stretch marks on the chest and arms
- prematurely aged (or ‘leathery’) skin.
Long-term effects of anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids can produce many unpleasant and often permanent side effects, including:
Mixing anabolic steroids with other drugs
A person who is using anabolic steroids may turn to other supplementary drugs.
They may do this to either speed up their physical transformation or counter the side effects of the steroids.
The dangers of mixing these drugs aren’t fully known.
Some of these other drugs may include:
- amphetamines – to counteract feelings of deep depression and aid in fat loss
- beta blockers – to counteract trembling
- diuretics – to counteract fluid retention
- human growth hormone – such as human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) to stimulate the body’s natural production of testosterone and counteract testicle shrinkage.
Dependence on anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids do not cause physical dependence. However, if a person relies on them for their self-esteem and confidence, then giving up can be extremely difficult. The pressure to keep using steroids may result in feelings of anger or depression if their access to steroids is denied, even temporarily.
Withdrawal from anabolic steroids
It can take up to 4 months to restore natural testosterone levels after being on anabolic steroids for a long time. Withdrawal symptoms from steroids can include:
Treatment for anabolic steroid addiction
Treatment options for drug dependence or addiction may include:
- individual counselling
- group therapy.
Peer support – or talking to someone who has been in the same situation – can also be helpful.
See your doctor for information and referral, or contact an alcohol and other drug service in your area.
Anabolic steroid use and the law
In Australia, laws and penalties vary on anabolic steroid use among states and territories.
Steriods are only permitted for people with certain medical conditions on prescription by their medical practitioner.
Generally, anabolic steroids cannot be:
- manufactured, imported, used, supplied or held in someone’s possession without a prescription or medical practitioner licence
- injected by another person or self-administered without a prescription
- used in competitive sport. Positive tests can result in fines, suspensions or permanent bans.
Where to get help
A Dangerous and Illegal Way to Seek Athletic Dominance and Better Appearance – A Guide for Understanding the Dangers of Anabolic Steroids
What are anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone. Both males and females have testosterone produced in their bodies: males in the testes, and females in the ovaries and other tissues. The full name for this class of drugs is androgenic (promoting masculine characteristics) anabolic (tissue building) steroids (the class of drugs). Some of the most abused steroids include Deca-Durabolinâ, Durabolinâ, Equipoiseâ, and Winstrolâ. The common street (slang) names for anabolic steroids include arnolds, gym candy, pumpers, roids, stackers, weight trainers, and juice.
Why do people abuse steroids?
Anabolic steroids are primarily used by bodybuilders, athletes, and fitness “buffs” who claim steroids give them a competitive advantage and/or improve their physical performance. Steroids are purported to increase lean body mass, strength and aggressiveness. Steroids are also believed to reduce recovery time between workouts, which makes it possible to train harder and thereby further improve strength and endurance. Some people who are not athletes also take steroids to increase their endurance, muscle size and strength, and reduce body fat which they believe improves personal appearance.
Where do you get steroids?
Doctors may prescribe steroids to patients for legitimate medical purposes such as loss of function of testicles, breast cancer, low red blood cell count, delayed puberty and debilitated states resulting from surgery or sickness. Veterinarians administer steroids to animals (e.g. cats, cattle, dogs, and horses) for legitimate purposes such as to promote feed efficiency, and to improve weight gain, vigor, and hair coat. They are also used in veterinary practice to treat anemia and counteract tissue breakdown during illness and trauma. For purposes of illegal use there are several sources; the most common illegal source is from smuggling steroids into the United States from other countries such as Mexico and European countries. Smuggling from these areas is easier because a prescription is not required for the purchase of steroids. Less often steroids found in the illicit market are diverted from legitimate sources (e.g. thefts or inappropriate prescribing) or produced in clandestine laboratories.
How are steroids taken?
Anabolic steroids dispensed for legitimate medical purposes are administered several ways including intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, by mouth, pellet implantation under the skin and by application to the skin (e.g. gels or patches). These same routes are used for purposes of abusing steroids, with injection and oral administration being the most common. People abusing steroids may take anywhere from 1 to upwards of a 100 times normal therapeutic doses of anabolic steroids. This often includes taking two or more steroids concurrently, a practice called “stacking.” Abusers will often alternate periods (6 to 16 weeks in length) of high dose use of steroids with periods of low dose use or no drug at all. This practice is called “cycling.”
Doses of anabolic steroids used will depend on the particular objectives of the steroid user. Athletes (middle or high school, college, professional, and Olympic) usually take steroids for a limited period of time to achieve a particular goal. Others such as bodybuilders, law enforcement officers, fitness buffs, and body guards usually take steroids for extended periods of time. The length of time that steroids stay in the body varies from a couple of days to more than 12 months.
Physical & psychological dangers
There is increasing concern regarding possible serious health problems that are associated with the abuse of steroids, including both short-term and long-term side effects. The short-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse are fairly well known. Short-term side effects may include sexual and reproductive disorders, fluid retention, and severe acne. The short-term side effects in men are reversible with discontinuation of steroid use.
Masculinizing effects seen in women, such as deepening of the voice, body and facial hair growth, enlarged clitoris, and baldness are not reversible. The long-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse in men and in women, other than masculinizing effects, have not been studied, and as such, are not known. However, it is speculated that possible long-term effects may include adverse cardiovascular effects such as heart damage and stroke.
Possible physical side effects include the following:
- High blood cholesterol levels – high blood cholesterol levels may lead to cardiovascular problems
- Severe acne
- Thinning of hair and baldness
- Fluid retention
- High blood pressure
- Liver disorders (liver damage and jaundice)
- Steroids can affect fetal development during pregnancy
- Risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne diseases from sharing infected needles
- Sexual & reproductive disorders:
Possible psychological disturbances include the following:
- Mood swings (including manic-like symptoms leading to violence)
- Impaired judgment (stemming from feelings of invincibility)
- Extreme irritability
- Hostility and aggression
Laws and penalties for anabolic steroid abuse
The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) as of February 27, 1991. Under this legislation, anabolic steroids are defined as any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.
The possession or sale of anabolic steroids without a valid prescription is illegal. Simple possession of illicitly obtained anabolic steroids carries a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of anabolic steroids.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC), National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and many professional sports leagues (e.g. Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League) have banned the use of steroids by athletes, both because of their potential dangerous side effects and because they give the user an unfair advantage. The IOC, NCAA, and NFL have also banned the use of steroid precursors (e.g. androstenedione) by athletes for the same reason steroids were banned. The IOC and professional sports leagues use urine testing to detect steroid use both in and out of competition.
A variety of non-steroid drugs are commonly found within the illicit anabolic steroid market. These substances are primarily used for one or more of the following reasons: 1) to serve as an alternative to anabolic steroids; 2) to alleviate short-term adverse effects associated with anabolic steroid use; or 3) to mask anabolic steroid use. Examples of drugs serving as alternatives to anabolic steroids include clenbuterol, human growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Examples of drugs used to treat the short-term adverse effects of anabolic steroid abuse are erythropoietin, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and tamoxifen. Also, diuretics and uricosuric agents may be used to mask steroid use.
Over the last few years, a number of metabolic precursors to either testosterone or nandrolone have been marketed as dietary supplements in the U.S. These dietary supplements can be purchased in health food stores without a prescription. Some of these substances include androstenedione, androstenediol, norandrostenedione, norandrostenediol, and dehydroepiandtrosterone (DHEA), which can be converted into testosterone or a similar compound in the body. Whether they promote muscle growth is not known.
Are anabolic steroids addictive?
An undetermined percentage of steroid abusers may become addicted to the drug, as evidenced by their continuing to take steroids in spite of physical problems, negative effects on social relations, or nervousness and irritability. Steroid users can experience withdrawal symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, and depression. Untreated, some depressive symptoms associated with anabolic steroid withdrawal have been known to persist for a year or more after the abuser stops taking the drugs.
How can we curtail their use?
The most important aspect to curtailing abuse is education concerning dangerous and harmful side effects, and symptoms of abuse. Athletes and others must understand that they can excel in sports and have a great body without steroids. They should focus on getting proper diet, rest, and good overall mental and physical health. These things are all factors in how the body is shaped and conditioned. Millions of people have excelled in sports and look great without steroids. For additional information on steroids please see our website at: www.DEAdiversion.usdoj.gov
Presented as a public service by:
Drug Enforcement Administration
Office of Diversion Control
Washington, D.C. 20537
Top 5 Anabolic Steroid Alternatives For Sale 2021
(Ad) Want to gain muscle, shred fat, and increase strength without taking anabolic steroids? Several companies have stepped forward to offer safe and legal steroid alternatives that give you similar benefits to real steroids but without side effects like hair loss, acne, man boobs, and “roid rage”.
However, not all legal anabolic steroids are created equal and some don’t even work at all. We’ve reviewed the best legal steroids for sale to find out which supplements actually work to build muscle and promote fat loss.
If you’re ready to get shredded and build muscle, here are the top legal steroids on the market.
Top 5 Best Legal Steroid Alternatives of 2021
- D-Bal Max: Best alternative to Dianabol
- Testo-Max: Best alternative to Sustanon
- HGH-X2: Best alternative to Somatropin HGH injections
#1 D-Bal Max: Best Overall
A favorite among bodybuilders, D-Bal Max is the legal alternative to Methandrostenolone, which is known by the brand name Dianabol. Dianabol was one of the first steroids to hit mainstream nonmedical use for increasing muscle mass.
D-Bal Max is a more natural (and legal) alternative to Dianabol, allowing you to get maximum lean muscle gains without any of the unpleasant side effects.
But gaining lean muscle mass isn’t the only reason to use D-Bal Max. This multi-purpose supplement is packed with minerals and naturally occurring hormones that are shown to increase VO2 max, delay fatigue, and take your workouts to the next level, all while promising increased strength and a marked performance improvement.
The D-Bal Max formula is 100% legal and works to create an anabolic environment in the body. This means that instead of the body breaking down tissue for energy during a workout, you’re able to build and repair those muscles simultaneously. As a result, you’ll experience more dramatic gains at a faster rate with D-Bal Max.
By combining naturally occurring compounds, D-Bal Max builds lean muscle mass in the body and can boost natural testosterone production without synthetic anabolic steroids.
Pro BCAA Complex – Branched-chain amino acids consist of the essential amino acids that boost your performance at the gym while stimulating muscle growth. The powerhouse team includes leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The increase in energy levels that BCAAs provide doesn’t end at the gym. You’ll also experience more pep in your step after your workout.
20-Hydroxyecdysterone – Known fondly in the industry as a “plant steroid,” this plant extract helps synthesize protein in the body, and was even shown in one Russian study to be more effective at growing muscle than actual steroids. This ingredient is also prevalent in spinach, so Popeye was definitely onto something!
Whey Protein Complex – Muscles need energy and nutrients to grow, and that’s where whey protein comes into play. D-Bal Max includes this compound to keep your muscles fed throughout the day for maximum bodybuilding gains.
D-Bal Max comes in tubes containing 45 capsules each. For best results, take three capsules of D-Bal Max per day, and if you don’t see improvements within two months, the company offers a money back guarantee.
If you’re looking for a powerful legal alternative to anabolic steroids that will give you max muscle and performance gains, D-Bal Max will not disappoint. D-Bal Max is one of the best that money can buy.
- Muscle building formula for added strength and performance
- Increases protein synthesis for bigger muscles
- Boosts testosterone and IGF-1 levels
- 60-day money back guarantee
- Huge discounts when buying more than a 1-month supply
Click Here for the Lowest Price on D-Bal Max
#2 Testo-Max: Natural Steroid Pills for Building Muscle
Testo-Max is a legal steroid supplement that is marketed as an alternative to Sustanon. No one relishes getting older. As you age, your testosterone level can drop, energy levels take a dip, muscles begin to sag and fade, body fat accumulates in all the wrong places, and even your mood can suffer.
Testo-Max, made by Crazy Bulk, addresses these issues by giving the body the natural ingredients it needs to help turn back the clock and work as a real-life testosterone booster.
A legal alternative to the anabolic steroid Sustanon, Testo-Max boosts your testosterone levels naturally, without side effects that are common with the branded anabolic steroid, such as liver damage and tumors.
Testo-Max users report significant increases in energy, more muscle growth, improved strength, and enhanced endurance.
This alternative to anabolic steroids contains amino acids that work to increase testosterone levels by more than 45% within just weeks of beginning supplementation. In addition to taking an offensive approach to testosterone production Testo-Max also takes a defensive stance, adding Vitamin D to the formula to help ward off testosterone reduction.
This natural steroid formula contains powerhouse ingredients to help keep you in tip-top shape while stimulating muscle growth and testosterone production.
D-Aspartic Acid – The amino acid D-aspartic acid is the closest thing to a natural fountain of youth, thought to stimulate testosterone, muscle growth, and energy.
Magnesium – This mineral is used to boost both performance and testosterone.
Vitamin D3 – Many Americans are deficient in Vitamin D, which not only wreaks havoc on the immune system but can also adversely affect testosterone.
Nettle Leaf Extract – Testo-Max contains nettle leaf extract binds to a specific protein in the body to protect your testosterone levels.
Korean Red Ginseng – Consider this ingredient a free bonus from Testo-Max. It’s been shown to work as a natural aphrodisiac.
Fenugreek Extract – This multi-purpose ingredient helps a lot of vital functions, including testosterone production.
Vitamin K1 – Vitamins D and K work hand-in-hand for maximum absorption.
Vitamin B6 – Testosterone and B vitamins are closely linked, so a B vitamin ensures Testo-Max’s placement on the list of best legal steroids.
Zinc – The levels of zinc and testosterone in the body show a strong correlation, leading scientists to believe that having the right amount of zinc can help boost levels of testosterone in the body.
Boron – Studies show that supplementing with boron can improve testosterone levels.
Piperine – This pepper extract helps with both absorption and reducing inflammation in the body.
To get maximum results from Testo-Max, follow the company’s recommended dosage instructions. Take four capsules daily before eating. The ideal window is 20 minutes before breakfast.
If you’ve begun to feel the effects of getting older and want to reverse signs of physical aging, Testo-Max could be the ideal legal steroid for you. There’s no such thing as a fountain of youth, but Testo-Max comes close!
- Regain the endless energy of your youth
- Improve muscle growth, strength, and endurance
- Strong formula with no reported side effects
- Boost recovery time from workouts
- Free shipping and 100% money back guarantee
Click Here for the Lowest Price on Testo-Max
#3 HGH-X2: Legal Alternative to Somatropin HGH Injections
Under every beer gut or inch of flab are six-pack abs and big muscles begging to be seen. HGH-X2 is specially designed as a legal alternative to HGH injections to help you pack on the lean muscle mass while shredding every ounce of excess fat.
The secret to HGH-X2 is that it’s a natural steroid that induces your body to produce HGH (human growth hormone) naturally. HGH is classified as a controlled substance by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), and it’s illegal to use them for building muscle or as an anti-aging treatment, but HGH-X2 is the next best thing.
HGH-X2 works by naturally stimulating your body to produce its own HGH. Given that the body’s ability to produce HGH rapidly diminishes as we get older, being able to make it as we advance in age is incredibly desirable. When HGH levels drop, muscle mass also diminishes, but HGH-X2 works to reduce that trend while helping to pack on more lean mass.
In addition to naturally producing HGH, HGH-X2 can also improve workouts, lessen recovery times, and put your workout results on the fast track.
HGH-X2 contains the following ingredients:
Over the years, scientists have studied the ingredients that naturally promote HGH production in the body. HGH-X2 combines all of those ingredients in the ideal dose to lead to the best results possible.
Many natural steroid brands load up on creatine, but you won’t find generic creatine in here. HGH-X2 takes a more scientific approach to giving the body what it needs to build muscle mass and reduce body fat.
Here are the ingredients inside of HGH-X2:
- Maca Root
- Hawthorne Berry Extract
- Mucuna Pruriens Extract
HGH-X2 should be taken once daily for maximum effectiveness. The manufacturer recommends taking two capsules with water 20 minutes before breakfast.
Any man with a goal of maintaining healthy testosterone levels while building muscle and achieving a more youthful appearance should consider trying HGH-X2.
- Legal alternative to human growth hormone injections
- Effective fat burner
- Reduces recovery time from the gym
- Contains L-Arginine, a powerful amino acid
Click Here for the Lowest Price on HGH-X2
What Are Legal Steroids?
In the wake of so many scandals about performance-enhancing drugs, there’s been a lot of buzz about legal steroids. But, what exactly are they?
The term “legal steroids” is used in the industry to encompass any workout supplement that purports to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance naturally, without the synthetic ingredients in anabolic steroids.
Legal steroids typically contain natural ingredients that either stimulate testosterone production in the body naturally or high levels of protein and other substances that contribute to rapid muscle growth. Some also contain vitamins and minerals that can work in conjunction with the other ingredients for a synergistic effect.
Legal steroids are a valuable alternative to anabolic steroids, because they provide the benefit of a testosterone booster but usually don’t cause harmful side effects.
Things to Consider When Buying Legal Steroid Alternatives Online
There are many supplement options out there for people interested in bodybuilding, and not all brands are equal. It’s important to go into the buying process with your eyes open. Being informed also helps!
We’ll help you evaluate what you should be looking for in a supplement as you work toward your goal of building muscle mass with legal steroids.
In this article, we’ve given you a lot of details about what each ingredient is and how it functions, so as you browse various brands of legal steroids, you should have a good idea of what each component on the label does and whether it’s right for you.
As you read the labels, be sure to look for things you do and don’t want. For example, some supplement brands might include caffeine. For many, this ingredient can be a powerful workout enhancer, but it can disrupt sleep for others.
The presence of whey protein in a supplement can also be a pro or a con, depending on whether you have a sensitivity to dairy and are lactose intolerant.
It’s tempting to think that just because something is natural or legal it’s not as potent or effective as a synthetic anabolic steroid. However, many of the brands on our list are just as potent as the illegal stuff.
Depending on the results you’re looking for, you can confirm potency by checking ingredient concentrations and comparing it to the other brands.
Though these natural supplements may not have many documented harmful or life-threatening side effects, that doesn’t mean they are safe. Some people may experience digestive issues, bloating, or headaches. These are typically a result of adjusting to different nutrients in the body, and they tend to be temporary.
Make sure you check the label for any banned substances. The FDA periodically uncovers problems with an ingredient and issues a warning or ban. One example is dimethyl amylamine (DMAA), which used to be commonly found in performance-enhancing supplements. The side effects of this substance ranged from mild, such as shortness of breath, to severe, including heart attack, seizures, and mental health conditions.
Cutting or Bulking
Different brands of legal steroids have varying lists of benefits. Some people prefer to achieve pure bulk, while others want to shred fat to reveal underlying muscles. Look for ingredients like Garcinia Cambogia to determine if a supplement is designed for cutting and reducing body fat. Garcinia Cambogia works as an appetite suppressant, which can help decrease body weight as you build muscle.
Though legal steroids are cheaper than their injectable anabolic counterparts, there’s still a vast price range. The good news is that the brands on our list come with a money-back guarantee, so you can try the supplement risk-free. The length of the guarantee varies, but it’s typically around two months.
Looking at customer reviews can give you a strong signal about whether a steroid alternative is right for you. One tip is to pay particular attention to the before and after pictures to see how the reviewer’s body composition changes; you want to make sure that their results are similar to what you’re going for.
Also, be sure to pay attention to anything particularly positive or negative that someone says about a brand or their experience, as you may have similar results with a particular supplement.
The Benefits of Taking Legal Steroid Supplements
Adding a legal steroid supplement to your regimen can vastly improve your workout performance and gains.
When combined with a healthy diet and exercise program, anabolic supplements can have several effects:
- Provide a dramatic increase in strength during workouts
- Improve VO2 max, which is a measure of cardiovascular health
- Naturally boost testosterone production
- Increase lean muscle mass
- Decrease fat and reduce body mass
- Suppress appetite and curb food cravings
- Enhance overall health by adding key vitamins and minerals
- Improve fertility
- Increase libido and sexual performance
Further, buying over-the-counter legal supplements is cheaper and more natural than prescriptions. Illegal anabolic steroids are known to have dangerous side effects that can skew the risk-reward benefit. Legal steroid supplements, on the other hand, provide all the benefits of steroids (like building muscles), usually without the drawbacks.
The Dangers of Taking Illegal Anabolic Steroids
The harmful side effects of illegal anabolic steroids are well-documented. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, side effects include:
- Adverse mental effects such as paranoia, aggression, delusions, impaired judgment, and mania
- Kidney problems
- Liver damage
- Increased risk of blood clots
- Enlarged heart and high blood pressure
- Shrinking testicles
- Man boobs
- Decreased sperm count
- Prostate cancer risk
Women who take illegal anabolic steroids can also take on masculine traits like body and facial hair growth, a deeper voice, smaller breasts, and even male-pattern baldness.
Though steroids aren’t technically addictive, users can still experience withdrawal symptoms that include fatigue, loss of appetite, and a decrease in sex drive.
Are Legal Steroid Pills Safe?
Because legal steroids contain natural ingredients that are generally not regulated by the FDA, many believe they are safe to take.
However, as with any supplement, make sure you check the label to ensure that you’re not allergic to any of the ingredients. It’s also a good idea to consult with your doctor if you’re taking other medications or have health concerns to confirm that these supplements won’t cause any harmful interactions with your other prescriptions.
Final Verdict – Are Legal Steroids Right For You?
Ultimately, the choice is yours, but if you’re looking to accelerate your muscle gains in a safe and natural way, then legal anabolic steroids are the most efficient and cost-effective way to achieve those gains.
The five products we’ve included in our list have been thoroughly vetted and have thousands of reviews from satisfied customers. Each is distinct in terms of ingredients and overall benefits, but of the ones included on our list, at least one is sure to fit your needs!
90,000 Steroids and their effect on the human body
Anabolic steroids are very effective in increasing physical activity and muscle growth. The use of steroids for medical purposes is also very common. Most often steroids are used by bodybuilders and athletes who need large muscle mass, as well as young people who want to look spectacular and attract the attention of the opposite sex. But is their use as safe as athletes who want to accelerate muscle growth think? How do steroids affect the human body and are the consequences of their use reversible?
Steroids are biological compounds that are usually derived from the sex hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, which have a very strong effect on the human body.There are currently over 100 types of steroids available in both pill and injectable form.
Medical use of steroids
For medical reasons, steroid treatment is prescribed for cancer, AIDS, asthma, some heart diseases, hormonal dysfunction. Steroids have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, which contributes to the rapid healing of wounds, the removal of inflammatory processes, edema and the normalization of the human immune system.They also help regulate metabolism and control electrolyte levels in the blood. The use of steroids is carried out under the supervision of a physician and the risk of side effects is reduced to almost 0%
Non-medical uses of steroids
Steroids, usually in the form of testosterone, are partially responsible for the development of the body, especially among adolescents. They have an androgenic effect associated with changes in primary and secondary sexual characteristics such as voice changes, body hair growth, muscle development, and bone growth.When steroids enter cells, they activate certain genes that are responsible for the creation and use of protein. As a result, all the protein is used to develop and increase the muscle mass of a person. Since the use of steroids in athletes goes without control and in doses that are dozens of times higher than the permissible ones, the risk of side effects reaches 70%. People who regularly use steroids are seven times more susceptible to liver cancer, ten times more diseases of the cardiovascular system, five times more diseases of the reproductive nature, many times more mental illness and psychological disorders than people who do not use steroids.
Side effects from short-term steroid use:
Acne, testicular atrophy, decreased sperm production, gynecomastia, high blood pressure, increased bad cholesterol, enlarged prostate, deterioration of liver function, unreasonable aggression.
Side effects from long-term use of steroids:
Hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver, neurological problems, lethargy, with discontinuation of use – obesity, aggression.
Proponents of steroid use believe that the benefits of these drugs are greater than the harm.But take a look at the list of side effects, many of which are irreversible. Do clean sports and live a fulfilling, healthy life.
90,000 how steroids work and why they are prohibited – Moscow 24, 10.04.2015
Recently, FSKN operatives detained a resident of Moscow who was selling steroids. The young man – a master of sports in bodybuilding – now faces up to three years in prison.
Why it is illegal to trade steroids, how dangerous they are and what effect they have on the body, M24.ru figured out.
Why do you need steroids and how do they work
Steroid drugs increase muscle protein synthesis (this is called anabolism), which can significantly increase muscle mass and strength. Also, some types of steroids help to reduce fat mass.
As the radio host and member of the Association of Fitness Professionals Eduard Kanevsky noted in a conversation with M24.ru, most steroids are analogous to the male sex hormone testosterone, and the use of drugs even in “therapeutic” dosages can lead to serious health problems, including to the so-called “pharmacological castration”.
According to the expert, many drugs have a detrimental effect on liver cells, which can cause toxic hepatitis. “There are other, less dangerous, but still unpleasant problems requiring treatment: gynecomastia in men (female breasts), acne or acne, mood swings, sleep disturbances, increased blood pressure,” notes Kanevsky.
According to the specialist, those who have decided to use this or that drug need to give themselves a clear answer to the question “Why do I need this?”
“Bodybuilders who often use certain drugs from the prohibited category regularly compete and possibly earn their living this way.
” If you come to the gym to maintain your health, all you need is regular training, proper nutrition and regular sleep “, – summed up the specialist.
Sports doctors are also against such drugs. Former doctor of” Spartak “, now – hockey club” Atlant “Artem Katulin in conversation with M24.ru spoke out sharply against steroid drugs.
According to him, the positive effect of taking steroids is overshadowed by the negative aspects, namely the side effects. At the same time, Katulin noted that sometimes anabolic steroids are used for muscle wasting (a significant decrease in muscle mass), but they do not become less harmful from this.
Is it legal?
Anabolic steroids are only partially legal. As the Federal Drug Control Service explained, many drugs are banned for circulation on the territory of Russia due to their strong effect on the body and the addiction effect similar to the narcotic effect.At the same time, the consumption of some of them occurs only under the supervision of a doctor and is available with a prescription.
Moreover, steroid dealers can be attracted under the article “Distribution of potent substances”. By the way, the use of mail to receive such a parcel from abroad is also illegal and entails criminal liability under the article “Smuggling”.
According to the Federal Drug Control Service, steroids are consumed by young people who use an unprofessional approach and are poorly informed.”Moreover, anabolic steroids by themselves are not always of high quality,” the press service emphasized.
The drugs disrupt the functions of internal organs – they may be destroyed, and testosterone also ceases to be produced. In general, after the use of steroids in the Federal Drug Control Service, a complex of rehabilitation therapy is recommended.
However, there is no criminal liability for possession of anabolic steroids, which is considered by the Federal Drug Control Service as a gap in the legislation.
What do the athletes themselves think
Alexander, non-professional athlete
There is no one for steroids.They are accepted to meet the current criteria for judging performing bodybuilders. We can say that this is a necessary measure if you are a performing athlete. If not, then everyone’s business, since a negative imprint remains in any case.
How steroids are treated in other countries
In many countries, anabolic steroids exist on the principle “what is not prohibited is allowed”, but production often becomes illegal – from time to time entire factories that make drugs are closed.
Note that the United States is the largest consumer of steroids. In 2005, an operation took place in Mexico, during which eight cartels were destroyed, illegally importing steroids into the United States. After that, China became the largest producer of anabolic steroids.
Nikolay, professional athlete, crossfit coach
Steroids are not evil, but often a necessity. At the highest levels in sports, there is probably no way without it. In my opinion, professional sports do not exist without steroids.But victory is determined by training, regimen and nutrition, steroids alone will not help anyone.
By the way, according to Interpol, the turnover of anabolic steroids in the world is greater than the turnover of all drugs.
At the same time, the use of steroids is prohibited by many sports organizations and organizing committees of competitions, for example, the Olympic Committee (IOC), FIFA and some bodybuilding federations.
90,000 What do men want? Muscle craze is fraught with offspring, scientists say
Photo Credit, Getty Images
Scientists have discovered a curious evolutionary paradox: Men who make the effort to look more attractive and athletic often compromise their ability get offspring.
The use of steroids to maintain an athletic figure or anti-baldness products can negatively affect fertility. This paradox is called Mossman-Pacey after the scientists who first described it.
“I noticed the appearance of some of the men who came to us with complaints about reproductive function: they were huge, pumped up guys,” – says Dr. James Mossman, now at Brown University in the United States.
At the time, he was a graduate student at Sheffield, working on his dissertation on the abuse of anabolic steroids.
“Such men often resort to steroids in order to build muscle mass and look like a superman,” says the scientist.
Anabolic steroids mimic the action of the hormone testosterone in the male body and are therefore used to increase muscle mass in professional wrestlers.
“The irony is that men spend hours on exercise machines to gain attractiveness in the eyes of women, but in reality their ability to conceive is only diminished,” adds Professor Allan Pacey of the University of Sheffield.
Anabolic steroids act on the pituitary gland, giving the impression that the seminal glands are working too hard.
Therefore, the pituitary gland reduces the production of two hormones – follitropin FSH and luteinizing hormone LH, which are most actively involved in sperm production.
Researchers note that a similar mechanism is observed in men who use drugs to combat hair loss.
Dr. Mossman and Professor Pacey discovered a paradox that describes the behavior of many men
The drug finasteride changes the behavior of testosterone in the body and can reduce the rate of hair loss, but the side effects of its use include impotence and reduced fertility.
“It will surprise you, but I would say that up to 90% of men who take steroids become infertile,” says Professor Pacey. escalates. ”
Dr. Mossman believes that these drugs, which exploit male vanity, actually lead to an evolutionary dead end, as they prevent genes from being passed on to the next generation.
In his opinion, such behavior, when the desire to attract the opposite sex jeopardizes the ability to reproduce, is unique in the animal kingdom and is inherent only in humans.
“Ironically, ironically, men who have fertility problems need to seriously think about it,” says Professor Pacey.
“In clinics, this is usually silent, and young people do not realize that this can become a problem. So a little useful information can save them from a heap of mental suffering later,” the scientist concludes.
St Petersburg University pharmacologist about John Jones’ doping test: most likely the fighter won unfairly
Earlier, before the fight between Jones and Gustafsson, the Nevada State Athletic Commission refused to issue a license to John Jones: an anabolic steroid was found in the athlete’s doping test.However, experts from the California State Athletic Commission did not agree with their colleagues and admitted Jones to the competition, saying that there was a trace in his body from the previous intake of turinabol, for which the fighter had previously served a 15-month suspension.
What effect does turinabol have on the body, and most importantly, can this substance remain in the body for more than a year, said Boris Andreev, Professor, Head of the Department of Pharmacology of St. Petersburg State University.
What processes does turinabol cause in the body?
Turinabol (chemical name 4-chloro-1-dihydro-17-alpha-methyltestosterone) belongs to a group of anabolic steroids synthesized on the basis of the male sex hormone testosterone.Testosterone has anabolic activity. This activity stimulates protein synthesis, increases muscle mass, retains calcium in bone tissue, and stimulates healing processes. Initially, anabolic steroids were created as drugs that retain or even surpass testosterone in anabolic activity, but lack androgenic properties (responsible for male characteristics).
Anabolic steroids are actively used in medical practice, because these substances increase appetite, increase muscle mass, improve calcium fixation in teeth and bone tissue, and accelerate reparative (restorative) processes in the body.At the same time, all anabolic steroids can be used as doping and therefore are included in the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) list of prohibited drugs.
How much turinabol should an athlete take in order for him to significantly improve his physical performance?
Turinabol is not registered in Russia, therefore the recommended doses of the drug for oral administration (for example, oral turinabol – up to 100 mg / day) are focused not on patients, but on athletes and, accordingly, are recommended not for treatment, but for increasing muscle mass and increasing physical performance.
Turinabol in the form of an oil solution for intramuscular injections is positioned as a drug for the treatment of protein metabolism disorders in cachexia of various origins, osteoporosis, chronic liver and kidney diseases; the recovery period after severe injuries, operations, burns, severe infectious diseases, accompanied by protein loss; correction of catabolic side effects of glucocorticoid therapy. I do not know the doses for athletes, but a number of experts believe that they can exceed the therapeutic dose by ten or more times.
How long does it take for Turinabol to be completely eliminated from the body? Could a doping test actually show a trace of turinabol in Jones’s body, which he used more than 15 months ago? Or – most likely – the athlete has taken this steroid again?
For example, T1 / 2 (half-life – the time required to reduce the concentration of a drug in the blood by 50% as a result of excretion from the body) for oral turinabol is approximately 16 hours.According to the canons of classical pharmacology, the drug is completely excreted from the body within five T1 / 2, and, accordingly, it should not be in the blood after about 3.3 days. However, after the course of administration of the drug, the time to detect traces of its metabolites in the blood can reach six weeks, which is due to the improvement of methods for the detection of prohibited substances.
T1 / 2 for an injectable dosage form of turinabol and its analogs, the manufacturers of this drug do not indicate, but if we proceed from the recommended frequency of its administration (from once a week to one injection every 3-4 weeks), the half-life of the parent molecule can be approximately three weeks.Thus, after the last injection of turinabol, after 3.5 months, the original drug molecule and its metabolites in the athlete’s blood should not be determined.
At the same time, since 4-chloro-1-dihydro-17-alpha-methyltestosterone is a methandrostenolone derivative (also an anabolic), into the molecule of which a chlorine atom is introduced, a number of experts warn athletes: during doping control, traces of methandrostenolone can be recorded in blood even after six to nine months after completing the course of taking turinabol.However, the 15-month suspension period is, in my opinion, excessive to argue that Jones did not reuse Turinabol. I think the athlete took this substance again. The media, citing Jones’ words, write that a number of experts claim that turinabol can remain in the body for up to seven years. I strongly disagree with this opinion. I believe that this point of view of some experts is due to the obvious presence of a conflict of interest.
Can anabolic steroids be taken without a doctor’s prescription? Can they harm the body?
Anabolic steroids should not be taken without the recommendation of the attending physician, appropriate medical supervision and control.Drugs in this group can cause a number of serious dose-dependent side effects, including hepatotoxicity, the development of impotence in men as a result of suppression of the production of their own testosterone.
Already, after John Jones won the fight, WADA announced that it will conduct doping tests on this athlete 12 times a year. In your opinion, does this make sense? And, if turinabol is not found in doping tests, could this be a serious argument in favor of the fact that Jones did not take the steroid again?
Yes, this is an absolutely adequate solution, since with such a frequency of doping tests, the course use of anabolic steroids is almost impossible.Therefore, the presence of negative results in this case will serve in favor of the fact that Jones did not take drugs of this group during the year.
90,000 Police detained suspects in the illegal production and sale of anabolic steroids
Operatives of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, in cooperation with colleagues from the Drug Control Directorate of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region and officers of the North-Western Operational Customs, suppressed the activities of a group engaged in the illegal circulation of potent substances.
The police received information that in one of the rented apartments on Kolomyazhsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg, tenants are making anabolic steroids.
“In the course of operational-search measures, a resident of the Murmansk region was identified, who, presumably, purchased raw materials for the production of potent substances in one of the Asian countries, and then, with two accomplices in a rented apartment, manufactured and packaged anabolic steroids.Then the defendants sent the goods to customers in the regions of Russia and the CIS countries using courier delivery services and post offices. The search for customers was carried out through social networks.
The suspects were detained. They turned out to be a former chef, sports coach-consultant and unemployed. All of them were previously prosecuted, ”said Irina Volk, an official spokesman for the Russian Interior Ministry.
It is noteworthy that the artisanal anabolic steroids were exclusively for sale.The detainees themselves, in order to increase their own muscle mass, consumed potent substances of factory production.
“During a search in a rented apartment and at the place of residence of one of the suspects, anabolic steroids of various brands were found, as well as items that have evidentiary value for the investigation: laboratory equipment, electronic scales, a system unit with a monitor, mobile phones, cash receipts, packaging material, bank cards.Also, ten parcels with potent substances prepared for dispatch were seized, and another 112 were found in various post offices of the city on the Neva, ”added Irina Volk.
Investigative subdivisions of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region initiated 122 criminal cases on the grounds of a crime provided for by part 3 of article 30, part 3 of article 234 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.
Also, against one of the suspects, the investigative department at the Pulkovo Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in the Northwestern Federal District initiated a criminal case on the grounds of a crime provided for in Part 3 of Article 30, Part 1 of Article 226.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.
“All detainees have been taken into custody as a preventive measure,”
– said the official representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
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90,000 why ordering steroids from Belarus is a crime – RT in Russian
Bodybuilder Dmitry Urlaev from the Moscow region purchased drugs for muscle growth in a Belarusian online store and became accused of smuggling potent substances.Every year in Russia, dozens of criminal cases are initiated against amateur athletes. What exactly are they violating, why they are committing a crime and how exactly prohibited substances enter the territory of Russia, RT found out.
Dmitry Urlaev is 39 years old. Lives in Korolev. Works as a train driver. He is married with two children. Not an alcoholic, not a drug addict. On the contrary: for more than 20 years he has been fond of bodybuilding. Like many others, he decided to swing on the “farm” – drugs that stimulate the accelerated growth of muscle mass.I ordered them on the website with delivery by mail. Rocked. Everything is fine, but I did not like that the order went on for a whole month. Chatted with the seller. “For a long time, because you chose delivery from Russia,” they explained to him. “If you choose the option” sending from Belarus “, then it will take no more than two weeks.” Dmitry did just that. And he transferred the money, like last time, to the Sberbank card.
Sellers, as the man notes, did not deceive: two weeks later the package sent from Brest arrived at the post office of Korolev.When Dmitry came to pick up the parcel, according to him, the employees of the Russian Post were looking for it for an inexplicably long time, and when issuing it, they even forgot to ask the recipient for a passport. As soon as Dmitry took the package in hand, two strong guys immediately approached him and introduced themselves as drug control officers. “They didn’t say that I was arrested or detained. How they would just like to talk to me, – says RT Dmitry. – All these stories about planting drugs immediately started spinning in my head. Therefore, I did not want to communicate with them.And I just walked out of the post office. ”
Apparently, it was not for nothing that Dmitry was swinging for 20 years – a man came out of the door, according to him, right with the operas hanging on him. And then, without shaking them off, he went to the car, where his wife was waiting for him. Already opened the door, I suddenly felt a severe pain in my leg. I had to stay. Then we returned to the post office, where other police officers arrived. The parcel was opened, the contents were described and sent for examination. Dmitry himself was escorted to the Korolev OMVD to testify, and later to the emergency room – it turned out that his leg was broken.
“Everything is forbidden here. Except Viagra “
” Sports nutrition, sports pharmacology … Many athletes simply do not imagine how you can achieve high results without using “magic” pills, powders, cocktails, – explains sports doctor Mikhail Lagutin in a conversation with RT. – No one denies that individually selected dietary supplements can optimize the training process. This is a rather long and painstaking work, the result of taking is not immediately visible, and then disappointment arises and with it the temptation to use drugs that are widely advertised on the Internet, promising a quick effect.Any doctor will confirm that taking anabolic steroids contributes to the growth of muscle mass and strength, but we must not forget that drugs in this direction are included in the prohibited WADA list. For ordinary jocks who train for themselves, anti-doping control is not terrible, however, use without a doctor’s prescription, especially for a long time and uncontrollably, threatens a number of serious health disorders. In particular, impotence. At some point, your own testosterone ceases to be produced, and already forever.And there is such a mountain of muscles, and below the belt – silence ”.
In many countries, including Russia, testosterone is classified as a potent substance – preparations containing it can only be purchased with a prescription. In our country, illegal trade in them is criminally punishable (Art. 234 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation “Illegal circulation of potent or poisonous substances for the purpose of marketing”). Acquisition for personal use also entails criminal liability.
“Twenty-five years ago there was no strict control over the use of steroids,” recalls Mikhail Lagutin.- And the halls were crowded with pitching with characteristic external changes: huge biceps, swollen faces. And when you see in the gym how a man with a biceps over 45 cm and a chest 120-130 cm does a barbell press of 150 kg for ten repetitions, then you understand that either the guy has crazy genetics, or a good seller of steroids. In 99% of cases, the second. But then, including in the framework of the anti-doping struggle, the dealers supplying the rocking chairs began to be identified and attracted under Art. 234 of the Criminal Code “.
Access to one of the most popular websites with doping from Belarus (it appears in many criminal cases) is closed at the request of Roskomnadzor.The RT correspondent entered it through a VPN, disguised as a potential buyer, entered into a conversation with the store administrator. Here is the correspondence:
– Will it be okay by mail?
– Everybody orders and gets their “sweets”, as the pitching says.
– I don’t want to become like this guy (link to the news about another criminal case against a bodybuilder. – RT) …
– Everyone is at risk here. And who does not want to, swing “vnaturashku”! We are not forcing anyone! All people are adults, they decide for themselves!
– Okay, do you have something effective, but without a ban in Russia? No testosterone, etc.n. in the composition?
– Everything is forbidden here. Except for Viagra.
The steroid trade, like drugs, has largely gone online. And delivery has become contactless – regular mail. At the same time, shipping from Russia itself is now rather exotic. Almost all sites offer delivery from Belarus. And this already means that pressing the checkout button, transferring money to the seller, if desired, can be qualified as organizing the illegal movement of a potent substance across the border of the Russian Federation: this is already contraband, Art.226.1. Of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, up to seven years in prison. The absence of a customs border between our countries does not matter – it is enough to have a state border. The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation also states: “across the customs border of the Customs Union within the EurAsEC or the state border of the Russian Federation with the member states of the Customs Union within the EurAsEC”.
“For personal use by ingestion”
Dozens of bodybuilders across the country fall into a similar trap every year.The database of judicial and regulatory acts sudact.ru on the request “testosterone, Belarus” has issued more than 20 verdicts over the past 12 months.
Excerpt from a typical verdict: “At the beginning of March 2018, (full name), who is a citizen of the Russian Federation, engaged in health-improving physical education, which consists in performing physical exercises with weights at a non-professional level, who has no medical indications for taking medicinal drugs containing potent substances, in order to increase muscle mass and maintain general body functions in good shape, and does not have a license issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation to import potent substances into the Russian Federation, a criminal intent arose to commit a serious crime – smuggling, then there is illegal movement across the state border of the Russian Federation with the Republic of Belarus – a member of the Customs Union within the framework of the EurAsEC – tablets, liquids containing potent substances for personal use by ingestion. “
In most cases, if the defendant admitted guilt and repented, he received a suspended sentence as a punishment. But there were also real terms. Last year, 29-year-old Volgograd resident Alexander Darensky was sentenced to three years in a general regime colony (after Darensky’s appeal, he was released from prison, now the sentence is being appealed to the cassation instance).
“The last years of the case under Art. 234 gradually gave way to cases under Art. 226.1, – doctor Mikhail Lagutin shares his observations.- As part of anti-doping prophylaxis, I periodically speak to novice athletes. And in addition to medical problems, I describe purely legal ones – in particular, the risks when buying various drugs. But such enlightenment is a drop in the ocean. Most amateur jocks have no idea what could be involved in smuggling. ”
How did the police learn about the package
Fedor Bogatyryov, Dmitry Urlaev’s lawyer, suspects that the police received information about Dmitry’s order directly from the drug sellers.
“It is possible that corrupt officials of the authorities themselves keep these sites,” Bogatyrev suggested in a conversation with RT.
Lawyer Olga Zavgorodneva, who is defending Volgograd resident Alexander Darensky, expressed similar suspicions.
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Bogatyryov wrote a statement to the Internal Security Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
“The investigation has been going on for several months, but that very site continued to work,” emphasizes Bogatyryov. – CSS replies that it does not see the crime. And only after an application to the CSS, in which I ask for a check, this online store suddenly closes. Moreover, it is not Roskomnadzor that closes access to the site, but the site simply disappears. Usually on specialized forums of jocks in such cases they write about the transfer of the store to another resource with a similar name, about a “mirror” site.And here on the forum they say that this store, which has existed for about seven years, is closed forever. The situation is unprecedented. ”
According to Bogatyryov, at a confrontation with Dmitry, the operatives reported: information about a parcel with prohibited substances was transferred to them from the Drug Control Directorate of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Moscow Region. RT sent an official request to the department with a request to clarify where exactly the information came from: from Belarusian / Russian border or customs authorities or from operational sources? They didn’t give us an answer – we were redirected to the same operatives.
In the materials of all cases related to steroids from Belarus reviewed by the RT correspondent, one of the international sorting centers of the Russian Post, which is located at the Kazansky railway station in Moscow, appears. As a former employee of the Russian Post told RT, despite a single customs space, the Federal Customs Service looks at parcels from Belarus – simply because in the sorting center, where correspondence from all over the world arrives, there is one tape and one technical control point where it sits FCS employee.
In response to a request from RT, the Federal Customs Service stated that the department does not inspect parcels from Belarus.
We also sent a request to the Russian Post with a request to clarify whether Dmitry Urlaev’s parcel was subjected to any types of control, whether any information was transferred to law enforcement agencies. We were not given an official written answer. Verbally and unofficially at the Russian Post, we were told that the security service did not have any information on the parcel identifier for Urlaev.
The examination showed that the parcel received by Dmitry contained preparations containing testosterone. However, initially the charges under Art. 226.1 (contraband) Urlaev was not shown. “My client does not deny that he made an order, but he did not know that the specified substances were included in the injections and tablets – this did not follow either from the name or from the description. And since he did not know, then there is no criminal intent, without which it is impossible to bring charges under this article, ”explains lawyer Fyodor Bogatyryov.
Dmitry Urlaev was charged under Art. 318 (“Use of violence against a government official”).
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“The situation is understandable,” says Bogatyryov. – The drug control operas have a plan. It’s easier to catch a pitching than a drug dealer. Have arrived. Detained. But no luck – there was no criminal intent. Usually, in such cases, a case is not opened at all. But they broke his leg during the arrest. And they were afraid that now they themselves would be attracted for it. Therefore, they opened a case under Art. 318 – as an excuse for their own violence. And they “investigated” for a whole year. And then suddenly they thought: “And why, in fact, did we come to the pitching, began to detain him?” So they opened a case under Art.226.1 – one year after receiving the parcel. ”
In all the bodybuilding smuggling court rulings we studied, sellers from Belarus appear as “unidentified persons”. It would be possible to find them through those who sent the parcels – these people live in Belarus and, most likely, the Belarusian post office has their data.
“The investigator is obliged to look for sellers,” says lawyer Bogatyryov. “But, for example, within the framework of our case, they did not even establish the address of the post office from which the parcel was sent.”
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.
Trade names: USA
- While taking such drugs, violations of the liver and spleen were noted.Sometimes they were very severe or life-threatening. Symptoms may not appear until the disorder is very severe. If you have signs of liver or spleen problems, such as dark urine, feeling tired, lack of appetite, nausea or abdominal pain, vomiting, yellow skin or eyes, see your doctor right away.
- Cholesterol levels can be altered with these drugs. This can increase the likelihood of heart disease.Consult your doctor.
What is this drug used for?
- This drug is used to help some people gain weight.
- This drug is used to treat bone pain in patients with softening and thinning of bone tissue (osteoporosis).
- This medicinal product may be used for other indications. Consult your doctor.
What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?
- If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances.Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
- If you have any of the following health problems: breast cancer, high calcium levels, kidney disease, or prostate cancer.
- If you are or may become pregnant. Do not take this drug if you are pregnant.
This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any medication or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.
What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?
- Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
- If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), your blood sugar should be checked regularly.
- Perform blood tests as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Please consult your doctor.
- This drug may interfere with some lab tests.Tell all healthcare providers and lab staff that you are taking this drug.
- This medication is an anabolic steroid. Anabolic steroid drugs have been abused and misused in the past. Anabolic steroid abuse can lead to addiction and very serious health problems. These health problems include heart and blood vessel disorders, stroke, liver disease, and mental or emotional disturbances.Consult your doctor.
- This medicinal product does not contribute to athletic performance.
- An increase in calcium has been observed in some patients with malignant neoplasms with drugs like this. Call your doctor right away if you experience symptoms of high calcium levels, such as weakness, confusion, feeling tired, headache, nausea or vomiting, constipation, or bone pain.
- In some cases, the drug may affect the growth rate in children and adolescents.They may need to check their growth rate regularly. Consult your doctor.
- If you are 65 years of age or older, use this drug with caution. You may have more side effects.
- Potential adverse effects of this drug on the fetus. If you can become pregnant, you must use contraception during treatment. If you become pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.
- Tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding.It is necessary to consult if the drug poses any risk to the child.
What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?
WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can cause serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or doctor right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:
- Signs of an allergic reaction, such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Signs of electrolyte imbalance, such as sudden changes in mood, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, a feeling of disturbed heartbeat, seizures, lack of appetite, severe stomach upset or vomiting.
- Any unexplained bruising or bleeding.
- Shortness of breath, sudden weight gain, or swelling of the arms or legs.
- Bladder irritation.
- Enlarged breasts.
- Frequent or prolonged erections (hardening of the penis).
- Change in the size or shape of the testicles.
- Low voice, increased facial hair, acne, or menstrual irregularities in women.
- Enlargement of the clitoris.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects.Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Skin discoloration.
- Nervous tension and agitation.
- Sleep disorders.
- Inability to achieve or maintain an erection.
- Change in sex drive.
This list of potential side effects is not comprehensive.If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.
You can report side effects to the National Health Office.
You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.
What is the best way to take this drug?
Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.
- Continue taking this drug as directed by your doctor or other healthcare professional, even if you feel well.
What to do if a dose of a drug is missed?
- Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
- If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose.
- Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.
How do I store and / or discard this drug?
- Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
- Store this medication in a protected place, out of the reach of children, and out of the reach of others. A box or room, which is locked with a key, can act as a protected storage location for the drug. Keep all medicines out of the reach of pets.
- Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.
General information on medicinal products
- If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
- Do not give your medicine to anyone or take other people’s medicines.
- Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
- Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
- If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.
Use of information by consumer and limitation of liability
This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient.This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional.