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Anger during period: The relationship between premenstrual syndrome and anger

Содержание

The relationship between premenstrual syndrome and anger

Pak J Med Sci. 2019 Mar-Apr; 35(2): 515–520.

Havva Yesildere Saglam

1Havva Yesildere Saglam, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Fatma Basar

2Fatma Basar, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kutahya University of Health Sciences, Kutahya, Turkey

1Havva Yesildere Saglam, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey

2Fatma Basar, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kutahya University of Health Sciences, Kutahya, Turkey

Correspondence: Fatma Basar, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Kutahya, Turkey. Email: [email protected]

Received 2018 Dec 14; Revised 2019 Jan 13; Accepted 2019 Jan 28.

Copyright : © Pakistan Journal of Medical SciencesThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective:

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a significant disorder affecting the daily life of women of reproductive age. The aims of this study was to determine the PMS prevalence and the examination of the relationship between PMS and anger.

Methods:

This was a cross sectional study. The study was carried out with 720 women between the ages of 15-49 living in the province of Kutahya, Turkey. A Personal Information Form, the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS) were used to collect data.

Results:

The PMS prevalence was 48. 75%. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of constant anger, anger-in, anger-out and anger control subscales (p <.001). The average scores of women with PMS for constant anger anger-in and anger-out was significantly higher. The anger control scores were at a significantly lower level.

Conclusion:

Women with PMS had higher anger and lower anger control levels. It should be advisable to recommend anger control management and provide social support so these women can cope with the symptoms. The result of our study emphasizes the importance of careful assessment of anger in women with premenstrual symptoms.

Keywords: Anger, Premenstrual syndrome, Prevalence, Women

INTRODUCTION

PMS is a disorder characterized by physical, behavioral and emotional symptoms, which increases in severity during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.1 While the prevalence of PMS varies, 47.8% (32.6%-62.9%) was reported in a meta-analysis study. 2 In women, physical symptoms such as breast tenderness, fluid retention leading to weight gain, fatigue, nausea, and constipation can occur in the premenstrual period. Also psychological symptoms such as the tendency to become angry, irritable, tense, anxious, and restless as well as behavioral symptoms like depression, nervousness, and crying are seen.3 Over 40 million women worldwide experience these symptoms.4 While approximately 90% of women have only mild premenstrual symptoms, approximately 20% have to cope with symptoms that severely disrupt their daily lives.5 Anger and irritability are one of the most severe and persistent symptoms of PMS that adversely affect women.1 It is reported that women frequently complain of anger and irritability in the premenstrual period.6 However, the relationship between anger and PMS has not been fully elucidated. There is not enough work on this subject. It is thought that hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle (fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels) affect the mood of women and trigger negative emotions such as anger and irritability. But no definitive evidence has yet been obtained on the relationship between PMS symptomatology and anger. There are few studies analyzing the relationship between PMS and anger. But, it is known that women who are able to control anger in daily life lose their anger management ability in the premenstrual period.

The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of PMS, a common disorder affecting women throughout their reproductive years, and the relationship between PMS and anger. This study can contribute to the literature regarding the relationship between PMS and anger because there are limited studies available.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study population consisted of 8230 women aged 15-49, who are registered in a family health center. The sample size of the study was calculated as 311 women with a 95% confidence interval and a 5% error margin, assuming a 30% incidence of PMS in the community. However, due to reliability of the study and the possibility of data loss, 720 women were initially contacted. The women included in the study were identified by the use of randomization tables. Study inclusion criteria were:

  1. Age between 15-49 years old

  2. Literate

  3. Experiencing menstruation

  4. Able to communicate openly

  5. Agreeing to be in the study

Pregnant, lactating or menopausal women were not included in the study, as well as those who had undergone urogenital surgery or had a chronic disease. Furthermore, woman with psychiatric disturbances, difficulty establishing open and honest communication or who were outside the age parameters of 15-49 were not included in the study.

Data Collection

Data were collected between October and December 2016 in a family health center in the central district of Kutahya, which has the largest female population in the area. A personal Information Form, the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the State–Trait Anger Scale (STAS) were used to collect data.

Personal Information Form

The form includes questions about the women’s socio-demographic, fertility and menstruation characteristics.

Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS)

PMSS was developed by Gencdogan to determine the severity of premenstrual symptoms.7 The scale is a 5-point Likert-type measure consisting of 44 items. The options are as follows: None (1 point), Very little (2 points), Sometimes (3 points), Often (4 points), Continuous (5 points). The lowest PMSS score is 44 and the highest score is 220. More than 50% of the total PMSS scores were classified as PMS positive. Higher PMSS scores indicate greater symptom severity during PMS. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale is 0.75.7 In this study, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.95.

The State–Trait Anger Scale (STAS)

The scale was developed by Spielberger to determine the manner of anger expression. It was translated and adapted into Turkish by Ozer. 8 The scale is a Likert-type measure consisting of 34 items. The options are evaluated as follows: Never (1 point), A little (2 points), Quite (3 points) and Very (4 points). The scale consists of Constant Anger, Anger-in, Anger-out and Anger Control subscales. High scores from constant anger show a high level of anger. High scores from the anger-in subscale indicate suppressed anger and high scores from the anger-out subscale indicate anger control issues. A high score from the anger control subscale indicates that the anger can be controlled.

The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the scale were 0.79 for the “constant anger” subscale, 0.78 for the “anger-out subscale”, 0.62 for the “anger-in subscale” and 0.84 for the “anger control subscale”.8 The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the scale of this study were 0.84 for the “constant anger” subscale, 0.79 for the “anger-out subscale”, 0.66 for the “anger-in subscale” and 0.82 for the “anger control subscale”

Statistical Analysis

The data were analyzed using SPSS Statistic Version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi square (X2) analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PMS status and categorical variables (socio-demographic characteristics). To understand the difference between the two groups, t-test (t) was used in independent groups. Pearson-Correlation test was applied in the analysis of the relationship between PMS scores and constant anger and anger expression style scores. The results were evaluated at a significance level of p<0.05 and p<0.001.

Ethical Considerations

The purpose of the study was explained to each woman and their consent obtained. The ethical approval was obtained from the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Ethics Committee for Non-Interventional Clinical Investigations (80558721/G-252) dated 15.08.2016. The research permit (66581584/730.08.03) dated 05.09.2016 was issued by the Public Health Directorate of Kutahya. The authors have no ethical conflicts to disclose.

RESULTS

The prevalence of PMS was 48.75%. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (except marital status) (p>0.05). 34.2% of the women with PMS were in the 15-24 age groups, 38. 5% were university graduates, 60.7% were married and 73.2% were not working. Of the non-PMS women, 37.4% were in the 25-34 age group, 38.2% were university graduates, 68.3% were married, and 73.7% were not working ().

Table-I

Socio-demographic characteristics of the women.

Without PMS (51.25%) With PMS (48.75%)

Variable n=369 % n =351 % X2 p
Age
 Age 15-24 100 27. 1 120 34.2 4.373 0.112
 Age 25-34 138 37.4 115 32.8
 Age 35-49 131 35.5 116 33.0
Educational Status
 Primary school 111 30. 1 103 29.3 0.049 0.976
 High school 117 31.7 113 32.2
 University and above 141 38.2 135 38.5
Working status
 Yes 97 26. 3 94 26.8 0.022 0.881
 No 272 73.7 257 73.2
Income Status
 Income more than expenses 54 14.6 38 10.8 4,060 0. 131
 Income matches expenses 255 69.1 240 68.4
 Income less than expenses 60 16.3 73 20.8
Marital Status
 Single 117 31. 7 138 39.3 4.553 0.033*
 Married 252 68.3 213 60.7

The mean age of first menarche of women with PMS is 13.30 ± 1.49, the menstrual cycle interval was 26.75 ± 4.38 days and the duration in days of menstrual bleeding is 6.10 ± 1.50. Women without PMS have a mean age at first menarche of 13.40 ± 1.47, a menstrual cycle interval of 26.32 ± 3.99 days and duration in days of menstrual bleeding of 6.15 ± 1.62. 71.5% of women with PMS have a regular menstrual cycle, while 86% have dysmenorrhea and 81. 3% of Non-PMS Women has regular menstrual cycle with 67.2% dysmenorrhea. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of menarche age, menstrual cycle interval and menstrual bleeding durations (p>0.05). There is a statistically significant difference between the groups with and without PMS in terms of regular menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhea and the number of pregnancies (p<0.05). An irregular menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhea and no pregnancies were associated with PMS ().

Table-II

Menstruation and fertility characteristics of the women.

Variable Without PMS With PMS t p

Error! Reference source not found. ±SD Error! Reference source not found.±SD
Age of menarche 13.40±1.47 13.30±1.49 0.896 0.370
Menstrual cycle interval 26.32±3.99 26.75±4.38 -1.367 0.172
Menstrual bleeding duration in days 6.15±1.62 6.10±1.50 0.396 0. 692

Variable Without PMS With PMS X2 p

n=369 % n =351 %

Menstrual cycle regularity
 Regular 300 813 251 715 9. 600 0.002*
 Irregular 69 18.7 100 28.5
Dysmenorrhea
 Yes 248 67.2 302 86.0 35.368 <0.001**
 No 121 32. 8 49 14.0
Number of pregnancies
 N/A 126 34.1 161 45.8 11.797 0.008*
 1 77 20.9 54 15.4
 2 97 26. 3 87 24.8
 3 or more 69 18.7 49 14.0

The mean scores of women with PMS were 21.87 ± 5.81 for constant anger, 16.93 ± 3.97 for anger-in, 16.03 ± 4.53 for anger-out and 20.22 ± 4.39 for anger control. The mean score of Non-PMS Women were 17.98 ± 5.14 for constant anger, 14.75 ± 3.76 for anger-in, 13.98 ± 3.74 for anger-out and 21.40 ± 4.79 for anger control. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of constant anger, anger-in, anger-out and anger control subscales (p<0. 001). The average scores of women with PMS for constant anger anger-in and anger-out was significantly higher. In addition, the anger control scores were at a significantly lower level ().

Table-III

The relationship between PMS and the STAS subscales score averages.

Trait Anger Anger-in Anger-out Anger Control

Error! Reference source not found.±SD Error! Reference source not found.±SD Error! Reference source not found.±SD Error! Reference source not found.±SD
Without PMS 17. 98±5.14 14.75±3.76 13.98±3.74 21.40±4.79
With PMS 21.87±5.81 16.93±3.97 16.03±4.53 20.22±4.39
p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 p= 0.001
t=-9.495 t=-7.565 t=-6.573 t=3. 451

There was a statistically significant positive moderate correlation between the total score from PMSS and the scores obtained from the subscales for constant anger, anger-in and anger-out (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant negative weak correlation between the total score from PMS and the scores from the subscales for anger control (p=0.001). There was a significant relationship between the PMS scores of the women and the scores for constant anger, anger-in, anger-out, and anger control ().

Table-IV

The relationship between women’s PMSS scores and STAS subscale scores.

State–Trait Anger Scale Score

Trait Anger Anger-in Anger-out Anger Control
PMSS Score r 0. 479 0.356 0.348 -0.181
p p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001

DISCUSSION

The study results demonstrated that approximately half of the women suffered PMS (48.75%). Rezaa H et al. found the prevalence of PMS was 52.9%.9 In a meta-analysis study, the prevalence of PMS was reported to be 47.8%.4 In 2 different research studies carried out on women in the reproductive age group between 15-49 years in Turkey, the prevalence of PMS was seen to be 40% and 90% respectively.10,11

In this study, there was a statistically significant difference between the presence of PMS and anger (p<0. 05). Women with PMS had higher anger and lower anger control levels. In literature it was reported that anger and irritability are one of the most severe and persistent symptoms of PMS.6,12,13 But there are few studies analyzing the relationship between PMS and anger.12-14 Ducasse D et al.5 found an impulsive-aggressive pattern of personality in women with PMS independently from the time of the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, trait anger remained associated with PMS independently of every other personality traits. In a study of Bostanci, analyzing the anger and anxiety levels of healthy and PMS-women, PMS-women were found to have consistently higher scores in anger, anger-in, anger-out and lower scores in terms of anger control.14 Ozturk Can H et al. found in a study with teachers that the anger levels of women with PMS are high but there was no significant relationship between PMS and anger control scores.15 Reihane et al. found the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity) in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle.16

The correlation between women’s PMS scores and anger scores were significant in this study. Similarly, the study of Soyda Akyol E et al. showed that PMS scores and anger scores were associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.17 Bowen R et al. found that women with PMS had more nervousness and depression. These differences were present regardless of the late luteal phase.18 Van der Ploeg investigated premenstrual affect changes with 844 women and found that women with PMS had higher anxiety, anger and depression scores.19 In the Hartlage and Arduino study, premenstrual disorders are also associated with anger.12 Similar to the literature, our results support a relationship between PMS and anger. Except these studies, there is no study examining the relationship between PMS and anger in the literature.

CONCLUSION

PMS are common disorders among women. As anger is among the most common symptoms in the premenstrual period, the alleviation of anger levels could increase the quality of life for women. In this context, it may be advisable to recommend anger control management and provide social support so these women can cope with the symptoms. The result of our study emphasizes the importance of careful assessment of anger in women with premenstrual symptoms. More advanced studies are needed to provide definitive evidence about the relationship between PMS and anger and to eliminate the gaps in the literature.

Author`s Contribution

HYS conceived, designed, did data collection, manuscript writing and final approval of manuscript.

FB conceived, designed, did review, editing of manuscript and final approval of manuscript.

Footnotes

Declaration of Interests: The authors have declared that no conflicts interests exist

Grant support: None.

REFERENCES

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Anger During PMS Is Common, But Experts Say It Could Also Be A Sign Of This Disorder

Pre-menstrual syndrome, more commonly known as PMS, can really throw a wrench into a lot of people’s lives, but this often happens in very different ways. One thing people think is universally true is that people tend to get very sad or weepy right before their periods. But experts tell Bustle that, on the contrary, feeling less weepy and more angry during PMS actually pretty common — but experiencing debilitating irritability or anger might indicate a separate, more serios form of PMS.

Mood changes are an inherent part of PMS for many people, Dr. Leena Nathan, MD, an OB/GYN at UCLA Health, tells Bustle. “Although scientists are not entirely sure why women experience these mood changes, we do know that there is a withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone in the blood stream” in the week before a period, she says. “This seems to lead to lower serotonin levels during that time.” This is what can cause increases in mood swings, general feelings of intense emotions — and, yes, anger.

There are many cultural taboos against female anger, so it might feel a bit uncomfortable to experience a lot of rage in the week before your period, but Dr. Nathan says it’s not unusual. Jackie Howe, CEO of the National Association for Premenstrual Syndrome, agrees, telling Bustle, “There are about 200-odd symptoms of PMS. Anger is one of them.” Feeling angry at the world right before your period isn’t anything to be concerned about on its own.

Josep Suria/Shutterstock

However, experts tell Bustle that if you experience intense anger that interferes with your daily life in the week before your period, you may actually have a different kind of PMS. “If the mood is extreme, it is called premenstrual dysmorphic disorder,” Dr. Nathan tells Bustle. Premenstrual dysmorphic disorder, or PMDD, is a more severe form of PMS that has very intense symptoms, including psychological experiences. “Anger is quite a strong symptom of both PMS and PMDD,” Howe tells Bustle. “However, more psychological symptoms than physical symptoms would epitomize severe PMS. Anger is fairly common.”

PMDD is far less common than PMS, and is distinguished by its severity and how much it affects work, relationships and your social life. One of the most common features of PMDD, according to the Office on Women’s Health, is “lasting irritability or anger that may affect other people,” rather than the transient anger or mood swings that occur with PMS. A study of women with PMDD in 2016 found that severe anger was one of the most common symptoms.

Chinnapong/Shutterstock

There’s still a lot scientists don’t know about PMDD. The mental health organization Mind explains that genetics may play a role in its emergence, and that people with PMDD might also be far more sensitive to the hormone changes that occur pre-period. However, spikes of anger on their own aren’t enough to produce a PMDD diagnosis; according to current diagnostic guidelines, they have to be paired with many other psychological symptoms, and doctors also need to make sure the symptoms aren’t being caused by other underling conditions like depression.

Both severe PMS and PMDD are treatable. “I often treat these mood issues with either the birth control pill, which maintains a steady state of hormone in the blood, or SSRI anti-depressant class of medications,” Dr. Nathan tells Bustle. “The SSRIs are shown to work even if taken just during that week.” Studies reviewed by the National Association for PMS have found that cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, is also helpful for people with PMDD, along with medication.

Feeling angry before your period isn’t anything to worry about if it’s of short duration and doesn’t mess with your life. If you’re concerned about it, though, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor or OB/GYN about your PMS symptoms and how to manage them in the future.

Why Do You Get Cranky During Your Period?: The Women’s Center: OB-GYNs

Few women look forward to their monthly period. But if you regularly experience mood swings, irritability, and crankiness as your period approaches, it can make you dread that time of the month even more.

If you find yourself struggling with anger, moodiness, or other symptoms that interfere with your life every time you get your period, don’t wait to seek help. Our gynecology team at The Women’s Center specializes in treating premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and other menstrual problems. 

Many women notice changes in the way they feel in the days before and during their periods, but we’re here to help you recognize when your symptoms could be a sign of a treatable medical condition like PMS.

Hormones and your menstrual cycle

Hormones are specialized chemicals in your body that control a variety of functions, including your menstrual cycle. Estrogen and progesterone are the primary hormones that control female sexual characteristics, reproduction, and your menstrual cycle.

During certain times of the month, these hormone levels increase. This fluctuation, combined with ovarian steroids, can change the way you feel mentally, emotionally, and physically.

Along with elevated estrogen and progesterone levels, serotonin levels in your brain may change as your menstrual period approaches. Serotonin is a brain chemical that’s responsible for mood, and it could be linked to some of the mood-related changes that are common in the days before and during your period.

Fluctuating hormone and serotonin levels play a role in PMS symptoms, but it’s not clear exactly what causes these bothersome side effects. Some women may be more likely to have severe symptoms if they have a history of depression, anxiety, or other menstrual conditions.

The symptoms of PMS

PMS is a very common medical condition. In fact, more than 90% of women who get periods experience symptoms of PMS.

Symptoms vary from woman to woman, and even from month to month. Some of the most common signs of PMS include:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal pain (cramps)
  • Anxiety
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Irritability
  • Sadness or depression

You might notice symptoms begin to appear a week before your period starts, and they can last for the first few days of your period too. Not every symptom is severe enough to disrupt your daily life, but anywhere from 20-32% of women suffer more severe PMS symptoms.

Recognizing premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD)

Up to 8% of women may have a more severe type of PMS that’s called premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD). The symptoms between PMS and PMDD often overlap, but PMDD is characterized by extreme moodiness, anger, depression, or anxiety.

PMS causes bothersome symptoms, but if you have PMDD, the symptoms may be so severe that they interfere with your relationships and ability to perform your daily responsibilities at home, work, or school.

Managing menstrual symptoms

PMS and PMDD can interfere with your life, but treatment can make a big difference in helping you keep your symptoms under control. Our team at The Women’s Center offers comprehensive care to help you feel your best.

There’s not one single test to diagnose PMS. Our team reaches a diagnosis after doing a physical exam and reviewing your health history and symptoms. Depending on the severity of your condition, we may recommend lifestyle changes like regular exercise.

Some women may benefit from nutritional supplements. Hormonal birth control can regulate hormone levels and your menstrual cycle to reduce bothersome symptoms. If you have an underlying mental health condition like depression, antidepressant medication could also improve PMS or PMDD symptoms.

Irritability is a common side effect of periods, but you don’t have to suffer through those mood swings alone. Find expert care for PMS and other menstrual conditions at The Women’s Center.

Contact our team online or call for an appointment at one of our offices in Orlando, St. Cloud, Altamonte Springs, Oviedo, Ocoee, Winter Park and Celebration, Florida. .

The overlooked condition that can trigger extreme behaviour

As a 30-year-old, Caroline Henaghan was busy. She was working for the UK’s Home Office while training to be a barrister, and wondered if the frequent stress and anxiety she was experiencing were just products of overwork and getting older. “It felt like getting on a hamster wheel and not being able to get off,” she recalls.

Eventually work got to be too much and she took an uncharacteristic short leave of absence. But Henaghan’s mood didn’t improve. She woke up each morning with enormous anxiety, leading to social withdrawal. “I would essentially do a disappearing act so I wouldn’t have to be around people,” she says. She was never suicidal, she stresses. But she did fantasise about leaving things behind. “It would be a case of if I could go to sleep and never wake up. That’s how dramatic it was for me.”

Though the psychiatric symptoms were the strongest, there were odd physical patterns as well. Henaghan would get bloated and fatigued, sleep excessively, and – as a keen gardener – shop erratically, for instance buying plants that were out of season. Her family noticed her increasingly strange behaviour as well. She thought it might be bipolar disorder, given the cyclical nature of her ups and downs. For instance, she might spend two weeks each month putting right the damage from the previous week: the fights with loved ones, the untidy home, the slippages at work. Eventually, after what she calls a “mini-breakdown”, she realised that the recurrence of all these symptoms was linked to her menstrual cycle.

Her doctors dismissed her concerns. She visited five GPs, all male, after the first one commented: “Oh, it’s just PMS. My wife gets that.”

But it wasn’t “just” premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Henaghan had to do what many women overlooked by the medical establishment do: her own research. Through her online study, she learned about a condition called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

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• The effect of childbirth no-one talks about
• The sexist myths that won’t die

PMDD is much more intense than its better-known relative, PMS, with physical symptoms including fatigue and migraines, while the psychological symptoms can include the severe mood swings and anxiety that plagued Henaghan. The disorder can be so debilitating that 15% of those with PMDD have attempted suicide, and some young women affected are opting for hysterectomies.

PMS (premenstrual syndrome) – NHS

PMS (premenstrual syndrome) is the name for the symptoms women can experience in the weeks before their period. Most women have PMS at some point. You can get help if it affects your daily life.

Symptoms of PMS

Each woman’s symptoms are different and can vary from month to month.

The most common symptoms of PMS include:

  • mood swings
  • feeling upset, anxious or irritable
  • tiredness or trouble sleeping
  • bloating or tummy pain
  • breast tenderness
  • headaches
  • spotty skin
  • greasy hair
  • changes in appetite and sex drive

Things you can do to help

Do

  • exercise regularly

  • eat a healthy, balanced diet – you may find that eating frequent smaller meals (every 2-3 hours) suits you better than eating 3 larger meals a day

  • get plenty of sleep – 7 to 8 hours is recommended

  • try reducing your stress by doing yoga or meditation

  • take painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol to ease the pain

  • keep a diary of your symptoms for at least 2 to 3 menstrual cycles – you can take this to a GP appointment

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:

  • things you can do to help are not working
  • your symptoms are affecting your daily life

A GP can advise you on treatments that can help.

Information:

Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: how to contact a GP

It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:

  • visit their website
  • use the NHS App
  • call them

Find out about using the NHS during COVID-19

Treating PMS

As well as changes to your lifestyle, a GP can recommend treatments including:

If you still get symptoms after trying these treatments, you may be referred to a specialist.

This could be a gynaecologist, psychiatrist or counsellor.

Complimentary therapies and dietary supplements

Complimentary therapies and dietary supplements may help with PMS, but the evidence of their effectiveness is limited.

They can include:

  • acupuncture
  • reflexology
  • supplements such as vitamin B6, calcium and vitamin D and magnesium (check with a GP or pharmacist if you are also taking medicines before starting to take regular supplements)

Causes of PMS

It’s not fully understood why women get PMS.

But it may be because of changes in their hormone levels during the menstrual cycle.

Some women may be more affected by these changes than others.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

A small number of women may experience more severe symptoms of PMS known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Symptoms of PMDD are similar to PMS but are much more intense and can have a much greater negative impact on your daily activities and quality of life.

Symptoms can include:

  • physical symptoms such as cramps, headaches and joint and muscle pain
  • behavioural symptoms such as binge eating and problems sleeping
  • mental and emotional symptoms, such as feeling very anxious, angry, depressed or, in some cases, even suicidal

If you need urgent advice you can:

  • call a GP and ask for an emergency appointment
  • call 111 out of hours (they will help you find the support and help you need)
  • call a helpline, such as the Samaritans (call free on 116 123)

If you feel that you may be about to harm yourself, call 999 for an ambulance or go straight to A&E. Or you can ask someone else to call 999 or take you to A&E.

Read more about getting urgent help for mental health problems.

The exact causes of PMDD are unknown but it has been linked to sensitivity to changes in hormones or certain genetic variations (differences in genes) you can inherit from your parents.

The Mind website has information about PMDD.

Page last reviewed: 09 June 2021
Next review due: 09 June 2024

Mood Swings: Reasons and Causes

You know that feeling when you just want to
hit the person who’s asking you about something relatively innocuous? How those
fruits lying in their bowl living their best life are SIMPLY the worst? How you
can’t remember whether you turned the oven off even though you’ve NEVER used
it? How that puppy was so cute that you just HAD to cry? And how all these
instances happened in less than an hour?

PMS can cause wild, uncontrollable mood swings
in women, who can go from bouts of unnecessary crying to angry outbursts and
anxiety attacks, then back to a stable emotional state — all in one day.

When stuff like this goes down, more often
than not, you’re in the throes of your Premenstrual Syndrome aka PMS. But you
already know that, right? But do you really know exactly what your PMS entails?
Pop culture and colloquialisms aside, what is the real story behind this rapid
to and fro from happy to sad to pissed off?

Right. So, over 90% of women have reported that PMS affects them, with many women feeling mood changes in the days before their periods. While symptoms like anger, irritability, and rapid mood swings are a monthly bother for most women, severe PMS can be emotionally draining for some.

Right. So, over 90% of women have reported that PMS affects them, with many women feeling mood changes in the days before their periods. While symptoms like anger, irritability, and rapid mood swings are a monthly bother for most women, severe PMS can be emotionally draining for some.

So Why
Does It Happen?

Well, although researchers have no ‘concrete’
ideas, their general theory is that the rapid mood changes and irritability are
a cause of the sudden influx of hormones during the menstrual cycle. By influx,
we mean the rise and fall of hormones, especially Estrogen. Why estrogen? It’s
the lady hormone, that’s why. Our estrogen levels begin to rise slowly just
after our period ends and peak just two weeks later. After which it suddenly
drops like a rock in a pool, and begins rising again slowly before dropping
again just before the period starts.

See the pattern? Researchers think that these
hormonal peaks and valleys are basically what makes us yo-yo from one emotion
to the other when PMS strikes.

Add a stressful situation to the mix and these
symptoms get MUCH worse. While emotionally taxing situations like divorce or
job loss don’t cause PMS, they can certainly make it acute. Some researchers
have suggested that female hormones mix with brain chemicals in a way that
affects women’s moods, especially during PMS. The decrease in the levels of
estrogen in the phase between ovulation and menstruation, also known as the
Luteal Phase could possibly cause a drop in serotonin – the ‘feel-good’ brain
chemical. Lower serotonin levels are associated with depression, irritability,
and carbohydrate cravings, all of which are also PMS symptoms.

A
Roller Coaster of Emotions

While PMS symptoms start consistently a week
or two before your period, they disappear once menstruation starts. Luckily
there are ways of helping us keep these symptoms at bay. But before that let’s
quickly run through the basic symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome.

  1. Irritability
  2. Anger
  3. Depression
  4. Crying
  5. Oversensitivity
  6. Feeling
    nervous and anxious
  7. Alternating
    sadness and rage

Here are a few options that can help stabilize
mood swings and improve your emotional health in the weeks before your period. Exercise. Physical activity can lift
moods and improve depression. Take Small,
Frequent Meals
. Try eating six small meals a day to keep your blood sugar
levels steady and help avoid bloating. Definitely Avoid Caffeine And Sweets,especially
if you get bad headaches, mood swings and blood sugar fluctuations. Relax. Opt for relaxation techniques
like meditation, yoga, painting, mellow music are great options. Go with
whatever helps you unwind and relax.

Basically, try and take it easy and don’t binge. Keep
a regular routine and don’t go nuts indulging yourself, after all, less is
more.

Cat’s story: Living with premenstrual dysphoric disorder

I have lived with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) since I was 13, but I was only diagnosed at 27. For over 10 years I had been diagnosed as depressed and in and out of community mental health departments.

After stopping the Pill and having a baby aged 21, my hormones went crazy and I suffered pre- and postnatal depression. In the years that followed I began noticing a pattern to my moods and depression. At times, I thought I really was severely mentally ill. I always had PMS, but I realised that my worst times happened when I was due on my period. My PMS was so severe that it had begun to take over my life, wreck relationships, ruin jobs, studying and caused me so much emotional pain that I often found myself considering suicide. I would become housebound, with no social life or friends and fearful of ever making an appointment because I could never guarantee how I would be feeling.

It was only my persistence and researching that made me realise I did in fact have a mood disorder and not straight forward depression. I Googled ‘mood disorders’ instead of depression and discovered PMDD – Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. I read the only book available at that time, and began to track my moods using a chart from the book. I found a GP willing to listen, took in printed information and my charts and got the correct diagnosis of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Coming to terms with what that meant took many years, and sometimes I still struggle.

PMS is one thing, many women suffer with moodiness, anger, irritability at pre-menstruation, but my PMDD threatened to destroy everything. As a mother, I felt I wasn’t well enough to look after my children, I have been unable to work and feel really separated from the rest of the world. Only 3-8% of women suffer with PMDD, the rest get through each month without disaster. It is very difficult to find people to talk to who understand what I’m experiencing when PMDD is so rare, and when menstrual problems are often seen as something to joke about or ridicule. I have often dealt with comments like ‘pull yourself together’ and ‘get a grip’, and even people denying that PMDD exists.

PMDD is distinguishable by the dysphoria that is experienced. Feelings of being completely overwhelmed, spiralling thoughts, outrage, anger, frustration, anxiety and suicidal ideation coupled with the physical symptoms, which can include, bloating, IBS, tender breasts, cramps, lower back pain, lethargy, and sleep and appetite changes. I am sensitive to the changes in hormones during my cycle, and I also experience a few days of unstable moods and physical symptoms during ovulation. My PMDD does not occur once a month but twice a month, leaving on average 10-14 days of feeling like me, and the rest being spent coping with symptoms. This will continue until menopause.

I am now 34 and have tried every medication offered to me. I have discovered that I am very sensitive to any type of hormone and cannot tolerate the Pill or IUD. I spent a total of 5 years on anti-depressants, which never really worked for me. They took the edge off, but didn’t stop the extreme lows and outbursts. I have seen psychiatrists and gynaecologists. At one point, I went through hormone treatment to stop all my hormones and put me into a chemical menopause. This is often a route that works for PMDD sufferers, and many go on to have hysterectomies. Unfortunately, this option did not work for me, and the treatment made me very ill.

I have found that counselling has helped, along with mind techniques such as CBT, NLP and meditation. Finding support is essential. Being able to talk through the irrational thoughts can usually avert disaster. Keeping busy is also a good way to keep the mind focused, so I draw, create, paint, write and bake lots!

I am now medication free for the first time in my life. I have had to learn my cycle and I now plan things around it. I avoid busy social situations when I know it will be too much for me. Eating healthily, regular exercise and avoiding stress has also helped improve my symptoms. Making sure I continue to communicate with loved ones and work through problems, finding strength to leave the house even when I don’t want to and being open and outspoken about my disorder all contribute to life feeling easier and less stressful and traumatic. Fitting into society and getting a regular job is a whole other problem. After all, who would employ someone who can only function and deal with stressful situations for 10-14 days out of every month? I focus on my children and being the best mother I can be, my writing, art and getting through each month without trauma. One day I hope to be self-employed.

Living with PMDD is very challenging, but I am trying to make the best of my life, for me and my children. There is always hope, the negative feelings and dysphoria will always pass. Life is a rollercoaster but as someone once said to me€“ you’re a long time dead. Women need to speak out and stop being ashamed of suffering from PMS/PMDD. Every voice helps change the way people think and I find talking and being honest is always the best option.

You can find out more by reading my PMDD blog and check out my artwork.

 

90,000 Five Stages of Grief – True or Myth?

  • Claudia Hammond
  • BBC Future

Denial, anger, compromise, depression and acceptance. Indeed Are people experiencing the pain of loss going through specific stages? Let’s look at the research data.

Photo author, Milan Popovic / Unsplash

“Tosca is a place we don’t know until we visit it ourselves.We realize that loved ones may die, but we do not know exactly what awaits us in the first days and weeks after the loss. “

These are the words of the American writer Joan Didion, who described her feelings in the first year after her husband’s death in an extremely emotional confession “The Year of Magical Thinking.”

The theory of the five stages of grief – denial, anger, compromise, depression and acceptance – has become firmly rooted in popular culture. their acronym “DABDA” (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance).

How long each stage lasts is not specified, but it is believed that they must all go through in a certain sequence.

The concept of mourning stages emerged from research conducted in the 1960s by psychologists John Bowlby (who also studied children’s affection for their parents) and Colin Murray-Parks.

Scientists interviewed 22 widows and identified four stages of grief: numbness, seeking and longing, depression and rethinking.

The modern classification was developed by psychologist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, who worked with terminally ill patients and asked about their near-death experiences.

Kübler-Ross, by the way, radically changed the attitude towards palliative medicine and raised the question of the doctor’s responsibility not only for the health of patients, but also for how they will live their last days.

Photo author, Getty Images

Signs to the photo,

How does a terminally ill person feel?

However, the concept of the five stages of grief did not pass a systemic test, and it was only in the early 2000s that researchers at Yale University first tackled this topic.

Over the course of three years, they interviewed 233 people who have lost loved ones (usually a wife or husband). The interviews were conducted approximately six, eleven and nineteen months after death.

Researchers did not consider violent death of a relative or a complex reaction to grief.

The picture they got was more complex than the five-stage hypothesis. The researchers found that acceptance was the most common emotion, while not all, or equally, experienced denial.

The second strong emotion was melancholy, and the depressed state accompanied all stages, and it was more pronounced than anger.

In addition, the emotional stages did not change each other in a clear sequence. A person in the third stage of grief might, for example, experience acceptance rather than anger.

Author of the photo, Getty Images

Signs to the photo,

A popular theory says that experiencing grief, we go through five successive stages

After about six months, almost all study participants noted a decrease in negative emotions, but this did not mean complete recovery.

Longing for the dead can last for years, but in the end, most people cope with grief.

For ethical reasons, the first interviews were conducted only one month after death, and therefore the researchers did not have an accurate picture of how the person felt in the first days and weeks after the loss.

Time heals

Later, a study was conducted on the reaction of people to violent death, but its participants were mainly students who lost more distant relatives than their spouse.

The strict sequence of stages was also not confirmed, although acute emotional pain was more inherent in the first stage, and acceptance was more inherent in the last. However, unlike in previous research, the scientists did not track the reactions of one person for a long time.

Another study found that older people experience loss differently.

George Bonanno of Columbia University observed elderly couples before and after the death of one of the spouses. He found that 45% of people did not feel severe pain either immediately after the death of their other half, or later.

10% of widowers and widows even felt some relief. People showed vitality and were able to cope with grief.

Bonanno’s latest study in 2012 also refuted the idea of ​​stages of mourning.

Whatever the research findings, the five-stage grief theory is attractive in a way, because it gives people the hope of gradual relief.

Ruth David Koenigsberg, author of The Truth About Grief, notes that the five-stage theory imposes certain feelings on people.

“It calms those who have similar emotions, but makes those who experience the death of loved ones differently feel guilty,” writes Konigsberg.

Author of the photo, Unsplash

Signs to the photo,

Everyone experiences loss in their own way

“A person may think that something is wrong with him, that he does not feel what he should feel,” adds the author.

However, research clearly shows that there is simply no “right” way to mourn a loved one.Everyone experiences grief in different ways, and this is natural.

The feeling of loss remains, but the longing goes away over time, at least for most people.

A certain “scenario” of what you will experience next can be somewhat reassuring, but, unfortunately, real experience often differs from theory.

Life is much more complicated.

The purpose of this article is to provide general information. It cannot replace specialist medical advice. The BBC is not responsible for any diagnosis made by a reader based on information from the site.The BBC is not responsible for the content of any external Internet sites to which the authors of this article link, nor does it recommend any commercial products or services mentioned on on any site. Always consult your doctor if you have any questions related to your health.

To read the original of this article in English you can visit the website BBC Future .

Why gloomy people with difficult temperaments are more successful in life

  • Zaraya Gorvett
  • BBC Future

Photo by Getty Images

Grunts and pessimists earn longer and live longer happy in marriage.The BBC Future columnist has tried to find out why smiling is not always the key to success in life.

On the screen, he is an incredibly charming man with a rebellious head of hair. However, behind the scenes, he needs too much personal space, to put it mildly.

He hates his glory. He hates his acting profession. In conversations with friends, his ex-girlfriend Elizabeth Hurley called him nothing more than “Grumpelstiltskin” (a combination of the words “grumpy” (“grumpy”) and “Rumpelstiltskin” – the name of an evil dwarf from the fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm – Approx.translator).

Everyone knows that Hugh Grant has a bad temper and is not easy to work with. But maybe it was his grim nature that made him successful?

Modern society is obsessed with maintaining a positive attitude. Cultural trends have turned our lives into an endless pursuit of happiness. People are buying up many books on the topic, taking self-help workshops, and posting many inspirational quotes online.

Today you can hire a happiness expert, learn different mental practices, or find inner satisfaction with a mobile app.

More than a million US military personnel are currently taking positive psychology courses, and optimism is being taught in schools in the UK.

Moreover, along with GDP, the well-being of citizens is now measured by the “happiness index”.

The truth is, there are clear benefits to expecting the worst. Pessimists can be more successful in negotiations and be more forward-thinking in making decisions. In addition, they are less likely to suffer from heart attacks.

Cynics tend to have a more stable marriage, a higher salary, and a longer life – although, of course, they expect the exact opposite.

Good mood, on the other hand, carries significant risks: it lowers motivation, dulls attention to detail, and makes a person both gullible and selfish at the same time.

Optimists are also known to be more prone to alcohol abuse, overeating and unsafe sex.

So why is this happening? The point is that all our senses have a specific purpose.

Photo author, Rex Features

Caption,

Hugh Grant hates films with his participation, although they brought him 80 million dollars

Anger, sadness and pessimism are not the product of divine cruelty or banal bad luck.These traits have evolved to serve useful functions and help us survive.

Take anger as an example. So, for example, Newton was extremely touchy and rancorous, and Beethoven often made scandals, sometimes with fights.

It seems that genius is often associated with a hot temper. Many examples of this can be found in Silicon Valley.

Amazon founder Jeff Bezos is known for his outbursts and offensive statements like “I’m sorry, did I take pills for stupidity today”? That didn’t stop him from building a $ 300 billion company, however.

For many years this relationship remained a mystery, until in 2009 Matthijs Baas of the University of Amsterdam decided to investigate the issue.

He recruited a group of student volunteers and made it his goal to piss them off in the name of science. He asked half of them to remember something annoying and write about this essay.

“It pissed them off a little, although it didn’t get to the point of real bouts of anger,” he says. The second group had to be sad.

The two groups then took part in a game to test the creativity of the participants. In 16 minutes, they had to come up with as many ways as possible to improve learning in the psychology department.

As Baath expected, the angry students had more ideas, and this was just the beginning.

The methods they proposed were also more original, and their coincidence with the proposals of other participants was less than 1%.

It is imperative that the angry volunteers were able to perform well in moments of “spontaneous innovation,” or so-called unstructured thinking.

Imagine being asked to come up with several ways to use bricks. Someone who thinks consistently will name ten different types of buildings, while a less structured approach will allow for completely new uses for bricks – for example, as a weapon.

Photo Credit, Getty Images

Photo Caption,

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos is known for his signature sayings like “If I hear this again, I’ll have to kill myself”

Creativity is about how easily you can change your image thinking.In a critical situation, becoming a “mad genius” can even save your life.

“Anger really prepares the body to mobilize resources – it tells you that you are in a difficult situation and gives you the strength to get out of it,” says Baas.

To understand how this works, we first need to understand what’s going on in our brains.

Like most emotions, anger occurs in the amygdala, a special area of ​​the brain responsible for detecting threats to a person’s life.

The mechanism of its work is very effective: it raises the alarm long before the person realizes the danger.

To create anger, the brain sends chemical signals to the body. The body is overwhelmed with adrenaline, and within a few minutes a person feels an incredible surge of energy.

His breathing and pulse quicken, and his blood pressure is off scale. Blood rushes to the limbs and face, causing it to turn red and swelling of the veins on the forehead. This is what an irritated person looks like.

This physiological response is believed to have developed primarily to prepare the body for physical aggression, but it has other benefits as well. For example, it increases motivation and gives determination.

Photo author, Shizhao / Wikimedia Commons

Caption to the photo,

Beethoven easily lost his temper and threw things at his servants

All these physiological changes are very useful, but only if you have the opportunity to vent your anger such as fighting a lion or yelling at colleagues.

You may ruin your relationship with someone, but your pressure will return to normal. But if you constantly keep negative emotions in yourself, everything can be much worse.

The idea that restraining feelings can be unhealthy dates back to ancient times. The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed in catharsis (he coined the term that we still use today).

He believed that watching a tragic play allows a person to experience emotions such as anger, sadness and guilt, while controlling them.Having thrown these feelings out, a person can free himself from all of them at once.

Later his ideas were adopted by Sigmund Freud, who believed that catharsis can be achieved with the help of psychotherapy sessions.

And in 2010, a group of scientists decided to study this issue deeper. For their study, they recruited a group of 644 people suffering from coronary insufficiency.

In order to determine the level of anger, as well as suppressed anger and tendency to anxiety, the scientists observed the subjects for a period of five to ten years.

During this time, 20% of them experienced a serious heart attack and 9% died. Initially, both anger and suppressed anger seemed to increase the likelihood of a heart attack.

However, considering other factors, the researchers realized that anger did not affect this, while suppressing it almost threefold increased the likelihood of acute heart failure.

The reasons for this are still unknown, but other studies have shown that suppressing anger can lead to chronic high blood pressure.

In addition, not all of the benefits of free expression are related to health. For example, they can help with negotiations.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Bill Gates, known for his irritability, donated $ 28 billion to charity

The reason for the aggression can be the fact that someone does not value your interests highly enough. In order for this person to see his mistake, it is necessary to show him that you can harm him physically, or deprive him of any advantages – favor, friendship or money.

This theory is supported by our facial expressions when we are angry. Research shows that it is not accidental at all, but specifically aimed at exaggerating our physical strength in the eyes of our opponent.

Done right, aggression can help you get your way and improve your status – a way of negotiating has been known for centuries.

What’s more, scientists are increasingly discovering that grumbling can have a beneficial effect on various social skills, making us more eloquent and persuasive, and improving our memory.

“A bad mood indicates that we are in a new and difficult situation, and requires us to be more attentive, thoughtful and observant,” says Joseph Forgas, a scientist who has been studying the influence of emotions on human behavior for about forty years.

In addition, studies have shown that a person who is slightly upset perceives social cues better.

An interesting fact is that in a similar mood people are also inclined to more (not less) fair actions in relation to others.

Tough, but fair

Happiness is often associated with beneficence, but in practice this is not the case. Scientists conducted an experiment by making several volunteers feel disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise, or neutral emotions, and then play the Ultimatum game.

According to the rules of this game, the first player is given a certain amount of money and asked how he would divide it between himself and another player. Then the second player decides whether to accept the proposed amount or not.

If they come to an agreement, the money is divided as the first player suggested. If not, none of them get anything.

This game is often used to test a sense of justice: it shows whether a person is willing to share the goods equally or only cares about his own benefit.

An interesting fact is that all negative emotions heighten the sense of justice and the need for equality.

However, if you change the rules, it turns out that it is not just a matter of envy or resentment.

There is also a game “Dictator” with the same rules, but with one exception: nothing depends on the second participant, and he just gets what the first gives him.

It turned out that the happy participants were more likely to keep a larger prize for themselves, while the sad ones were much more generous.

“A slightly upset person pays more attention to social norms and expectations, and therefore treats others more fairly,” says Forgas.

Photo Credit, Getty Images

Photo Caption,

The optimistic newspaper articles seemed to anticipate poor economic performance in the coming weeks – and thus much darker headlines

In some situations, happiness comes with much greater risks.It is linked to the hug hormone oxytocin, which has been shown to negatively impact the ability to recognize threats, according to many studies.

In prehistoric times, happiness would have made our ancestors easy prey for predators, but in modern life it makes us underestimate the dangers of alcohol abuse, overeating and unprotected sex.

“Happiness works as a signal that we’re safe and we don’t need to pay too much attention to our environment,” he says.

A person blinded by happiness may miss important facts. Instead, he relies on the knowledge he already has, which can lead him to serious errors of judgment.

In one experiment, Forgas and his colleagues at the University of New South Wales (Australia) showed volunteers in their laboratory films designed to make them feel happy or sad.

They were then asked to determine how true urban myths were, such as that power lines could cause leukemia, or that the CIA was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy.

Those in a good mood were less likely to be skeptical and much more trusting.

Forgas then used a first-person shooter computer game to test how much people in a good mood tended to trust stereotypes.

As he expected, subjects in good spirits were more likely to shoot at the characters in turbans.

Among all positive emotions, optimism about the future can have very paradoxical consequences.

Like happiness, positive future fantasies can demotivate a person.

“The person feels fulfilled, relaxes and doesn’t make enough effort to fulfill their positive fantasies and dreams,” says Gabriel Oettingen of New York University.

Through many experiments, Ottingen has proven that the more we dream, the less likely our wishes will come true.

Graduates who spend time fantasizing about good jobs tend to earn less.Patients who are only thinking about getting better recover more slowly.

“People say: Dream and your dreams will come true, but this is far from reality,” she says.

Optimistic thoughts can prevent an overweight person from losing weight, and a smoker – from giving up this bad habit.

Pessimism as a defense mechanism

One of the concerns, according to Oettingen, is that these risks can also operate at the social level.

Comparing USA Today articles to economic performance a week or a month after the story was published, she found that the more optimistic the forecasts presented in the newspaper, the worse the subsequent performance.

She then analyzed the presidents’ inaugural speeches and found that the most positive speeches ended up with a rise in unemployment and a drop in GDP during the period in which those who delivered them were in power.

Add to these disappointing conclusions the tendency of people to believe that bad things happen only to others – and we have a serious reason to think about the dangers that lie in wait for us.

Maybe you should finally take off your rose-colored glasses and stop thinking that the glass is half full.

The use of pessimism as a defense mechanism is closely related to the application of Murphy’s Law, which states that if something bad happens, it will definitely happen.

Expecting the worst, you will be ready when it happens.

It works like this. Imagine you need to give a speech. All you have to do is think about the worst things that can happen.

For example, you may stumble on your way to the stage, lose the memory card that contains your presentation, your computer may break down, you may be asked an inappropriate question (experienced pessimists can think of a thousand more options).

Just list them and then find a solution for each one.

Psychologist Julie Norem of Wellesley College, Massachusetts is an expert on pessimism.

“I’m a little clumsy, especially when I’m worried, so in that case I will definitely wear low-heeled shoes.I’ll be there early to check if there are any wires or other things on stage that might trip over.

I usually create several backups of my presentation. [I am preparing myself so that] if need be, I can give a speech without her. Moreover, I send a copy to the organizers, have a memory card with another copy and bring my own laptop. “

As they say, only the paranoid survive.

So next time someone says to you,” Get your nose up! ” why not tell him how you cultivate a sense of justice, reduce unemployment in the country and save the global economy with the help of a pessimistic outlook on things?

You will have the last laugh, even if it is the forced grin of a cynic.

Explosive emotions: how to avoid nervous breakdowns at work | Study and work in Germany | DW

Another meeting is taking place in the department where you work. The employees step forward one after the other, pouring from empty to empty with a serious look. Almost everyone wants to demonstrate their worth. Meanwhile, time goes on, the work is at a standstill, and there is no end or edge of boltology in sight. You start to get nervous, irritated and, in the end, can’t stand it – you throw out the accumulated emotions on others, and a few minutes later you already regret it: the emotional outburst turned into serious problems with colleagues and bosses.Are you familiar with this situation? But how do you learn to manage your feelings? German psychologists suggest the answer.

Looking for the roots of the problem in childhood

A person who is annoyed by boring protracted meetings or conferences, but who, due to his duty, is forced to attend such events, involuntarily begins to experience constantly growing internal tension. As psychologist and trainer-consultant Johannes Harbort from Wiesbaden notes, this often happens due to the fact that in such situations a person subconsciously has unpleasant associations and painful memories.

People who were traumatized in childhood are especially often at the mercy of negative emotions. For example, those whose parents were too strict, constantly demanded perfectionism in their studies and were forbidden to play a ball with their peers in the yard, in adulthood they are often subject to such feelings as anger, powerlessness, fear, melancholy. Neurotic people simply freeze in front of their bosses, who they associate with strict parents or school teachers who are capable of humiliating an unsuccessful student in front of the whole class – they cannot clearly express their thoughts in their presence, begin to mumble, forget about self-esteem.

Meeting in the office

The amygdala, two small amygdala-shaped bodies located inside each of the cerebral hemispheres, play an important role in the regulation of basic human emotions. Their functions affect our mood and the feelings we experience, and also contribute to the formation of an associative memory of events that happened to us before. At certain “explosive” moments, these functions are so sharply activated that the situation can get out of control. The result – emotional breakdowns, inappropriate behavior, depression, conflicts on the principle of “blowing the elephant out of a fly.”

Analyze what is happening to you

There are various strategies to prevent these outbreaks. For example, as soon as you feel that you are at the limit of your experiences and are about to lose control of yourself, try to calmly and soberly describe what is happening to you at the moment, recommends the Hamburg psychologist Annegret Lohse.

For example, say to yourself: “I seem to be getting angry. But since the successful implementation of this project is very important to me, I will not be led by emotions and get excited about little things.Instead, I’d rather draw the attention of my colleagues to two aspects that are significant from my point of view. “If you mentally identify your feelings, it will be easier for you to manage them. After you have done this, briefly state on paper what you want to say ask for the floor and calmly, without nerves, tell your colleagues your ideas about the project

Meditation Options

If you are overexcited and do not want to say anything, use one of the following techniques.

Mentally go home, because, as a rule, this is where a person feels especially safe. But first, press hard with your right thumb on the point between the index and thumb of your left hand. Acute pain will occur. After that, switch your thoughts, relax and imagine that you have come home. Open the door, take off your shoes, take off your jacket. Go to the hallway and then to the living room. Sit back in your favorite chair and listen to music. This meditation is very relaxing and calming.

Or this option: mentally depict a road stop sign – and using paint of the color that you especially like. Now make the stop sign make different sounds and move. For example, let him, whistling or humming a funny song, bounce on the sea waves or roll on a green lawn. And as soon as you start to get angry and annoyed, put it in front of you and “hit the brakes.” This technique will allow you to control your emotions and prevent the escalation of conflict.

Third possibility: Imagine that you are being filmed with a video camera. First, take a few deep breaths and exhalations, and then pull yourself together and present yourself from the best side: adopt the correct and graceful posture, give your face the most friendly expression, smile calmly – and tune in to a positive mood. Thus, you neutralize internal anger and get rid of feelings of anger and irritation, says German psychologist Annegret Lohse.

See also:

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stage 1: euphoria and motivation

    Remember how uplifted you felt after signing an employment contract, how happy you were that your job search was crowned with success and did the employer choose you out of several hundred applicants for the vacancy? Now you want one thing: to plunge headlong into work, to fully demonstrate your talent, to meet and find a common language with all colleagues.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Energy is in full swing

    At the first stage, you are interested in everything. You are in a good mood, as well as confident that you will not only meet the expectations of your superiors, but also exceed all their expectations. The energy seethes in you, you have more than enough strength. You are ready to move mountains.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stage 2: sobering up

    But sooner or later the euphoria passes.It is replaced by everyday life and routine. And there comes a time when you begin to see more than positive aspects in your new job. You are faced with the first problems – for example, you do not always agree with your colleagues, and also have to admit that some tasks cost a lot of effort and nerves. You notice that you are irritable.

  • Career Ups and Downs

    Uncertainty and Frustration

    In the second stage, you gradually begin to realize that you will not be able to meet many of the employer’s expectations.And you wonder: maybe you made a mistake? Wouldn’t it have been better to choose a different employer or even stay in the same company?

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stage 3: habituation and adaptation

    However, the period of torment is also passing. Gradually, you get used to a new place, come to an understanding of the “rules of the game” and the principles of the entire workflow. You also managed to get to know your colleagues better. And with some of them you may have already made friends and meet not only at work.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Positive attitude

    In the third stage, you are no longer tormented by doubts, but you regain confidence in your competence and more and more identify yourself with the new company. Once again, you feel a surge of strength and energy – and you strive to prove to the employer that you are ready to take on more duties and responsibilities than is provided for by the position. Ambition fuels you.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stage 4: a sense of belonging to the company

    By this time you have become an integral part of the team and feel confident, easy and natural in it.You no longer have vague, but absolutely clear ideas about your functions and job responsibilities. You achieve good results in your work, which does not go unnoticed by the boss. Increasingly, he honors you with praise.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Recognition and respect

    In the fourth stage, you gain recognition and respect – both from the clients and business partners of the firm, as well as from work colleagues and superiors. The company highly values ​​your competence and often turns to you as an expert on a variety of issues.Your status rises, and this motivates you to work even better.

  • Career: Ups and Downs

    Stage 5: Peak Uptime

    This is the climax. It is at the fifth stage that the peak of your performance falls. During this period, you are constantly accompanied by success, whether it be an increase in salary or in a position. You are now and then set up as an example to colleagues and are entrusted with more and more work that requires great responsibility.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Success and career growth

    In the fifth stage, you are on the crest of success.A fountain of creative ideas for business is gushing out of you. And the fact that your contribution to the development of the company is being judged according to merit motivates you even more. You work a lot on yourself, attend various refresher courses. Psychologically, you are only set for success.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stage 6: crisis of professional growth

    But, sadly, after a professional takeoff, there comes a time when the ability to work decreases, and creative ideas are no longer in full swing.The successes to which you have already become accustomed are gradually being left behind. It turns out that after the top is reached, there is only one way – down? Do not despair! This is just a period of stagnation. Most likely, the crisis will pass.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Stress and self-dissatisfaction

    At the sixth stage, during a professional crisis, you constantly feel moral discomfort, begin to doubt yourself and increasingly think about looking for another job.At the same time, an inner voice suggests that everything is not so bad. In the end, you manage to convince yourself that “everywhere is good, where we are not.”

  • Career: Ups and Downs

    Stage 7: Time for a Change

    You are increasingly wondering if you have chosen the right profession. As a result, almost every day turns into moral stress. You have a bad feeling about it. Sleep disturbed. And now you can’t even believe that you once went to work with pleasure.The longer this phase lasts, the worse for your health. Then there is only one way out – to find another job.

  • Career: ups and downs

    Time to make a decision

    It is clear that the presented model of the work path is relative. And how its phases proceed depends on individual characteristics. And it’s not safe to say that a few years after starting in a new company, your enthusiasm will be replaced by blues.The seventh stage is the time to think about what has been achieved and further prospects.

    Author: Natalia Koroleva

Gop with a scratch – Weekend – Kommersant

A new film by Guy Ritchie starring Jason Statham is out. “Human Wrath” is a remake of the French “Cashier”, which was a declaration of love for American genre cinema. Returning the plot to its native soil, Ritchie simultaneously glorifies toxic masculinity and sneers at it

The protagonist, a bald, gloomy man with a British accent and the face of Jason Statham, gets a job at the Los Angeles cash-in-transit firm Fortico.His name is Patrick Hill, his callsign H, shoots weak, drives so-so, but for an average company that serves floating casinos and marijuana dispensers, it will do: although millions are transported here, there are clearly not enough stars from the sky. Steroid jokes in the men’s locker room, beer and pool after the shift, coffee from a thermos in a wrecked armored car on weekdays, grilled ribs on weekends – this is the whole arsenal of technical skills that are required from workers. Recently in Fortico there was a tragedy – a van was robbed, two couriers and another witness were killed – but no one really cares, and only the stern face of Stateham’s hero portends something bad.In that attack, his son died, the only person with whom Dad could talk not about criminal showdowns, but about global warming.

The plot of “Human Wrath” is nothing new, it is borrowed, originally from France, where in 2004 the excellent film “The Collector” was released, directed by film critic and screenwriter Nicolas Boucrieff. A big lover of American genre cinema, he sought to cross social satire (rogues in wrecked cars transport millions, little people die for metal) with the classic story of retribution.Both films are about a grieving father who decided to get even for the death of a child, but Ritchie makes social implications easier. Moreover, its main character is not a little bourgeois, but the leader of an all-powerful criminal community, after which several special services are chasing to no avail. Human Wrath is a completely different movie, divided into chapters with pretentious titles, long. The general impression is that the “Inkassator” was given a lift, injected with Botox and put on a treadmill with pood weights in both hands.It is another matter that from all these procedures the general mood of doom emerged even sharper than in the original source: where there was a life-loving Gallic balabolism, now there is a stern silence and a creak.

“The hinges should be lubricated. — These loops cannot be helped anymore” – the film begins with such a dialogue, and this is a very appropriate beginning, because literally everything in it rattles: hinges, shutters, soundtrack. What can we say about the people who appear in the frame. Together with Statham, the testosterone team is on the screen: smiling Holt McCallany (agent Tench from “Mindhunter”), boozy Josh Hartnett, and every year more and more like his father Scott Eastwood, bristly Andy Garcia and many others.All these characters are like parts of a big old-fashioned action movie, from which sand has been pouring for a long time. The play was played, the genre died, but the actors were not told, they just started the gramophone again to listen to the noble crackle. I would like to hear in these sounds echoes of the great poetry of the past.

When Guy Ritchie filmed Gentlemen at the reviving studio Miramax after long resales (for 10 years, the once famous film company, which Disney got rid of, passed from hand to hand), there was some kind of special humor in this: a movie, one of the heroes of which is pitching his script about bandits to a man stunningly similar to Harvey Weinstein was made at a studio once organized by the Weinstein brothers.But Human Wrath was made in the same place, and, it seems, not only because the radiance of the Miramax logo refers to times long gone. For Ritchie, this is not a game – he himself is part of the very times when it was possible to make a movie without thinking about whether it would pass the Bechdel test (“Human Wrath” would never pass). Moreover, Ritchie will continue to work with Miramax in the future: a series based on “Gentlemen” and a spy thriller “Five Eyes” with the same Stateham have already been announced.

“Human Wrath” is more like a boy’s horror stories by S.Craig Zaler’s “Roll into the pavement” or “Fight in block 99” than on the careless “Gentlemen”, and yet, despite this, giving the viewer to enjoy the senselessly oak, but in his own way poetic male world, Ritchie allows him to giggle … Why else would Stateham be dressed in cozy cardigans? He cuts his bandits and thugs at the barbershop (in the realm of fashionable parting, the protagonist’s bald head is especially good), makes them utter selectively high-flown phrases, as if overheard in other people’s films, phrases like: “we are soldiers, but we are lying around by the TV set” and “I want to see my enemy in the face”.His heroes bring dozens of villains down, but during the break they don’t mind drinking expensive mineral water, listening to the old Johnny Cash in a fashionable remix and complaining about overwork. At some point, the most brutal and bearded of them – looking like Santa Claus or a model of some respectable Italian brand Darrell D’Silva – naturally farts with pleasure in the frame to relieve the tension of toxic masculinity. This is a conditional signal to the viewer – you can relax: this is not a noir and not a bloody action movie, although there are dozens of corpses, but rather a postmodern interpretation of the genre in the spirit of the Krovostok group.Some stern gray-haired men are planning armed robberies, eating cake at a children’s matinee, others are shooting from them with automatic weapons. And on the ringtone, both have one and the same: “Flight of the Valkyries” by Richard Wagner.

Available from April 22nd

90,000 ZINC. The Grapes of Wrath. Rating of interethnic tension in the regions of Russia. Spring

Eastern Siberia and the Far East

For objective reasons, the regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East (with the exception of the Primorsky Territory) did not fall into the risk zones (red, orange, yellow), which does not mean that there are no problems in the field of international relations.Therefore, we decided to analyze the ethno-confessional situation in this part of the country.

The Far East is a macro-region that gravitates more towards Asia than towards Europe, and due to its geographic remoteness, it reacts with restraint to events in the European part of the Russian Federation. The region is extremely vast and diverse: it includes republics, autonomous okrugs and regions, formed both according to the national principle, and regions and territories.

In many regions of the Far East, social processes are strictly subordinated to economic ones, namely, the production of a particular product (oil, gas, fish, etc.)which, accordingly, reduces the likelihood of significant conflicts. A small population and dispersed living also reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of interethnic conflicts.

In most of the national regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, relations between the Russian population and the titular ethnic group are quite prosperous (a small number of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, their compact residence, long-standing traditions of living together, inter-ethnic marriages, the absence of historical established claims to each other, the presence of common problems).The absence of painful historical themes leads to the fact that anniversaries of the regions’ joining Russia do not lead to discussions or conflicts.

At the same time, there is some tension in Buryatia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic (refers to Western Siberia, but in many respects closer to the republics of Eastern Siberia and the Far Eastern Federal District). The main factors that negatively affect the situation, experts attributed to weak socio-economic development, poverty, the absence or bankruptcy of existing enterprises (Buryatia, Tuva, etc.)). It is the poverty of the population that causes hostility towards newcomers and dissatisfaction with the provision of any preferences (even insignificant) to the latter. In Tuva, there is a rather high level of claims of a historical nature, as well as a tendency to interpret events (crimes, appointments, victories in competitions) in the context of a person’s ethnicity.

It should be borne in mind that both in Tuva and Yakutia in the 1990s. there were interethnic conflicts, the formation of regional ethnocracies and the squeezing out of the Russian population, so it is not surprising that at present many decisions are perceived through the prism of interethnic relations, the expectation of a conflict remains.For Buryatia, Tuva, Yakutia and the Altai Republic, mutual claims of representatives of different ethnic groups about the personnel policy of the regional authorities are characteristic, in the Altai Republic these claims are expressed most often. Experts not from Yakutia, but from other subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, spoke about Yakutia as a region with interethnic tensions.

Experts from the regions of the Far East more often than others noted economic ill-being as the main factor of interethnic tension, which is already leading to an outflow of not only Russian, but also qualified indigenous people.The outflow of residents is aggravated by the growing influx of migrants.

Migration to the regions of the Far East began with some delay and not with the same intensity as in the European part of the country, but now it is starting to cause similar problems. A small scale of North Caucasian migration and a significant scale of Central Asian migration is characteristic of the Far Eastern and East Siberian regions. The arrival of guest workers is associated, as a rule, with large infrastructure and construction projects that are being developed in several regions (mainly in the Primorsky Territory), the increase in interethnic tension correlates with the increase in the number of new projects.Most of the tension is associated with immigrants from Central Asia, not China. The performances of guest workers and conflicts among them are often associated with poor working conditions and a shortage of jobs. Direct competition for jobs with the local population is currently not observed due to the occupation of different niches in the labor market, however, alertness towards migrants is growing. The latter is intensified by the growth of crime and conflicts between the migrant workers themselves, provoked by interstate conflicts in Central Asia.

The increase in migration (especially from Central Asia) leads to an increase in the number of domestic conflicts, which overshadows the problem of relations between the Russian and titular ethnic groups.

The ethnocratization of power in the republics has already been practically completed, and an intra-elite struggle has begun between individual groups, formed, as a rule, according to the principle of compatriots (people from the same region). Accordingly, coming to power, one clan begins to oust others, and interethnic relations can play a secondary role here: a representative of the titular ethnic group can oust both the Russian and the representative of his own ethnic group belonging to another clan.Experts from Buryatia expressed concern about the breakdown of the old system of ethnic balance in the government, as well as the appointment of “Varangians” who are starting “personnel purges”. Often, the distribution in voting is ethnic in nature (this is typical for Tuva).

A decrease in the number and severity of conflicts is accompanied by the conservation of administrative structures and the consolidation of nepotism, which is of a pronounced clan nature. The main factor in the departure of the Russian (as well as part of the qualified representatives of the titular) population is the socio-economic disorder and problems with employment (obtaining an adequate qualification of the place).The outflow of specialists creates, among other things, a language problem, which is especially typical for Tuva: the lack of teachers who are native speakers of the Russian language leads to the fact that young Tuvans simply cannot speak Russian, which, in turn, is one of the factors of conflict.

The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug stands out somewhat against the background of even the rest of the hard-to-reach regions, on the territory of which there is an almost complete absence of crime and other social deviations (including interethnic conflicts).This is explained by the isolated position of Chukotka, low transport accessibility, border status, harsh climate and, as a result, the lack of migration in the usual sense. The only factor of tension that brings Chukotka closer to the rest of the Russian Federation is the Internet activity of groups based outside the region and provoking conflicts.

With regard to Eastern Siberia and the Far East, experts noted the lack of a coherent state policy in a number of areas, in particular, to attract migrant workers.Perplexity was expressed at the uneven distribution of quotas between migrant workers from China (who are not always allowed in due to the lack of quotas) and Central Asia (who enter freely). According to the interviewed experts, it is advisable to provide quotas to workers from the PRC, since the latter, not knowing the language and not wanting to stay, leave after the end of their work, in contrast to Central Asian migrants.

It was also noted that investments in a titular ethnic group without appropriate programs led not to the development of traditional agriculture, but to real estate purchases and the emergence of speculative capital among representatives of the titular ethnic groups; ill-considered policy towards small indigenous peoples in the field of traditional crafts (fishing) sometimes causes conflicts; clannishness (ulus) in the distribution of posts led to the ousting of qualified specialists and the outflow of the population.

90,000 public anger forces a Japanese princess to leave her homeland after a wedding with a commoner – InoTV

The Japanese imperial house has officially announced the imminent wedding of Princess Mako with her lover – a Japanese of lesser descent Kei Komuro, reports Le Figaro. According to the newspaper, the girl and her fiance have been harassed for many years in the Japanese media, which did not like the family of the future husband of the princess. There is no doubt that the couple, persecuted by journalists, will leave Japan soon after the wedding, the newspaper writes.

How many wedding reports mention psychological trauma to the bride, Le Figaro wonders when commenting on the Imperial House of Japan’s “strange announcement” of Princess Mako’s marriage to her fiancé Kei Komuro on October 26th. The statement clarified that “happy lady” suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to “frenzy” of the media against lovers. The announcement, at least temporarily, put an end to a saga that had lasted since 2017, when their relationship became known, the newspaper writes.

The protagonist of this “series with unexpected plot twists” is Princess Mako, the eldest daughter of Emperor Naruhito’s brother Prince Akishino. From early childhood, being in the lens of the Japanese paparazzi, Mako found “soul mate” in the commoner Kei Komuro, whom she met at the law university. According to the newspaper, the princess was supposed to get married in 2018, and the wedding was perceived by the public quite well, until the country got to know her lover’s family – in particular, his mother.Since the announcement of the engagement, the mysterious partner began to publicly demand that the groom’s mother pay a debt in the amount of tens of thousands of euros. This “public rinsing of dirty linen” and the constant flashing of the Komuro family in the media caused her rejection from public opinion. As the newspaper notes, the fact that Mako’s father is next in line to inherit the throne after his brother and is ahead of his own son, the last heir to the longest imperial dynasty in the world, makes the problem especially symbolic.

Contrary to public opinion, Mako, “supported by her parents as the rope supports a hanged man,” has persisted in her choice for the past three years, the newspaper emphasizes.

Away from the hype in the press, Kei, for his part, studied law all these years and embarked on a legal career at a New York law firm. On Monday, he returned to Tokyo to meet again with his beloved, whom he had not seen for three years, and to prepare for the wedding.As the newspaper reports, on the occasion of his return to his homeland, the scandalous press gave him a reception , “worthy of the greatest criminals” – 170 journalists gathered at the Tokyo airport to meet him. Finding no reason for reproaches, the country’s leading tabloids published a close-up photo of the young man with the caption: “He has a tail like a horse.”

There is no doubt that the couple, pursued by this “pack” , will leave Japan shortly after the wedding, the newspaper writes.For the imperial dynasty, this will be a kind of palace coup: for the first time one of its members leaves to live abroad, “away from the arrows of his compatriots.” By marrying a commoner, Mako renounces belonging to the imperial circle, from the titles and advantages of this belonging. The princess is also waiving the 137 million yen (€ 1 million) reward she had to receive in order for to “keep her dignity” after leaving the imperial family.

Nevertheless, the announcement of the psychological trauma of Mako did not touch the paparazzi, who ruthlessly persecute her, the newspaper notes.According to the newspaper, the local media’s persecution of the future Komuro couple is indicative of the duality of the Japanese, who fell in love with the young couple just as quickly as they were eager to “burn” her when she ceased to meet their wishes for the imperial family. “She (the imperial family. – InoTV ) must be exemplary, ideal, otherwise there will be no good from her. Scandals like Lady Di are unacceptable here, ” explains journalist Kazuo Okubo, who has served in the Imperial pool of the daily Mainichi for 28 years.

“The public complains that the Mako must submit to her will, since the imperial family is funded by taxpayers. Truth? Therefore, civil servants should only marry women approved by the public, ” university professor Yohei Mori chuckles in a column for the Asahi newspaper. “This persecution is due to the uncertainty in which Japan finds itself. The future of the imperial family is not guaranteed, and our international position is deteriorating.At such a moment, people cling to traditions, statutes, the identity of the nation, ” – he notes. “Certainly no little girl can dream of becoming a Japanese princess,” concludes the newspaper.

90,000 “How you all piss me off!” Psychologist and endocrinologist reveal the causes of irritability

We are accustomed to paying attention only to diseases of the body. Meanwhile, the WHO has officially recognized burnout syndrome as a factor affecting the health of the population.Increased irritability is considered one of the striking symptoms of this problem. The psychologist and endocrinologist described in detail what are sometimes the causes of this condition and how to overcome it even in the early stages.

Psychologist’s opinion

Tatiana Sharanda

practical psychologist

family and marriage counselor

Head of the Psychological Development Center

We are inherently aggressive

– What is irritability?

– Irritability, like anger, vengefulness, schadenfreude, and so on, is a derivative of the aggression that has been cultivated in people for many millions of years and was intended only for survival at the biological level.We are aggressive in nature, this is a hereditary factor inherited from our ancestors.

Anger – targeted aggression against a specific external threat. Irritability – accumulated discomfort, inhibitions on the physical, mental and emotional levels. It is enough just not to get enough sleep – and, please, irritation begins to pour out of you, like water from a shaking glass.

– How long can “bouts” of irritability last?

— The duration of how much a person is in a state of irritation is very individual and depends on many factors.For example, people with a strong type of nervous system, but with deformed personal qualities, can pour out their irritation on the heads of their neighbors for a long time and often. By the way, at the same time they get pleasure, as they alleviate their emotional state.

Slightly with different initial data, but some older people can be attributed to the same group. Indeed, due to age-related changes, emotional and psychological stability decreases. This manifests itself through constant discontent and grumbling.

Unfortunately, the frequency of “bouts” of irritability is growing disappointingly among young people. Social and economic cataclysms, information overload, as well as skillfully imposed accelerated pace of life – such a model of society is not designed for the mental and biological capabilities of the body. It greatly exceeds the potential of a person.

– What happens to the psyche at the moment of nervous tension?

– When something makes us angry or annoying, adrenaline begins to be released to prepare our body for a possible threat.Why is adrenaline dangerous? Too much can lead to high blood pressure, headaches, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

Irritability is a personality trait

– What factors influence the onset of irritability?

Biological factor. We are a biopsychosocial model. Whether we like it or not, the animal potential is present in us. The physical condition of the body is very important. If you haven’t slept enough, feel bad or are simply hungry – the irritability application is ready!

Psychological factor – irritability as a personality trait.This is a learned habit of being annoyed with this or that situation, trying to somehow change it. Inability to defend one’s boundaries and declare one’s needs, isolation, subordination, inadequate self-esteem, and so on – all these are “effective” qualities for the accumulation of irritability.

Socio-cultural factors – their infinite variety: social roles, position, status, family problems, material vulnerability – all this, of course, annoys us.

– When is irritability a symptom of a mental disorder?

Here are the telltale signs:

  1. unjustified irascibility.When the object of irritation is actually absent or the level of emotional intensity does not correspond to the situation;
  2. Frequent manifestations of irritability;
  3. obsessive actions and thoughts caused by a reaction to the object of irritation. For example, the desire to wash the same mug several times.

Learn to switch attention

– How to get rid of emotions “environmentally”?

– Working with the body through movement.Only after the tension is released at the physiological level, the process of establishing a balance between the body, thoughts and emotions will begin. If you are going to start work only from the psychological level or by means of willpower to forbid yourself to react negatively to this or that event, you will only nurture that negative feeling with which you are struggling. But first, you need to realize and accept.

Methods to help fight irritability:

  1. Cold water works well (rinse your face or put your hands under the stream), cold air (a walk in cool weather is perfect), holding your breath.
  2. The body will also respond gratefully to switching attention. If you are a kinesthetic (tactile sensations are important to you) – feel free to fall into the arms of a dear person, and if he is not there, get a dog that loves to be stroked and hugged. If you are an auditor (attention focuses most of all on sounds), put on headphones and plunge into your favorite tunes. If the visual (you perceive the world around you primarily through your eyes) – turn on a kind and beautiful film.
  3. In one phrase, your favorite pastime can be a salvation!

Endocrinologist’s opinion

Natalia Yanochkina

endocrinologist first

category of the medical center “Exana”

Irritation may be a symptom of a disease

– How are psychological irritation and hormones related?

– Hormones can influence our mood and vice versa – mood affects the hormonal system.If there are no reasons for irritation, and a person is often quick-tempered and dissatisfied with everything in the world, in addition to a psychologist, it is worth contacting an endocrinologist. After all, this is one of the symptoms of a wide variety of disorders.

Most often, the thyroid gland is to blame for increased emotionality. Severe unreasonable irritability may be a sign of increased function (hyperthyroidism). In such a situation, the thyroid gland can increase in size and produce excess amounts of thyroid hormones (TK – triiodothyronine and T4 – thyroxine).Their excess production often occurs against a background of stress (chronic or acute) and occurs after childbirth (postpartum thyrotoxicosis). In this case, TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) decreases as the main marker of changes in the thyroid gland. If these two points are excluded, it means that some hormonal disruption has occurred in the body, which needs to be studied more deeply.

Testosterone can also act as a stimulant of irritation, which makes men more daring. Its large amount in the stronger sex does not always cause aggression, but with women things are different.Increased testosterone can anger even a meek lady.

In stressful situations, other “characters” come into play. Let’s say a car suddenly rushed past. The adrenal cortex instantly releases a chemical “cocktail” into the bloodstream, which includes adrenaline (which helps to quickly navigate the situation and make decisions) and norepinephrine (opens access to the power resource and turns on aggression).

If a person is under chronic stress, the level of the hormone cortisol rises, which, by the way, contributes to the accumulation of fat in the abdominal cavity.There is even such a thing as a “cortisol tummy”. And you can go to the gym as much as you like, but the extra pounds in this area will not be lost until you work on your emotional state.

Irritability is also a symptom:

  1. liver diseases;
  2. Alzheimer’s disease;
  3. diabetes mellitus;
  4. complex recovery process after a stroke.

At certain periods of life heightened emotionality is the norm

– Everyone knows that adolescence is the age of protest and rebellion, why is this happening?

– During puberty, the pituitary gland (a cerebral appendage in the form of a rounded formation) begins to work actively in a teenager.He has a lot of worries. It stimulates and builds the work of a number of “soldiers”: sex hormones, thyroid hormones, FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), prolactin, insulin and others. All this leads not only to physical, but also to psychological changes.

Parents need to understand and forgive this period, because until the adolescent organism puts everything on the shelves, the hormonal “storm” is able to provoke: aggression, whims, hot temper, stubbornness, mood swings and other unpleasant moments in the child’s behavior.

– Is it true that every month many women become irritable due to premenstrual syndrome?

– Yes, PMS is a period that occurs 7-10 days before menstruation. And this is by no means an invented condition, but a diagnosis approved by doctors.

Indeed, the syndrome can have an extremely negative effect on mood, and it manifests itself in 20-50% of women. Moreover, the older the fair sex, the more often this happens.The reasons are not fully understood, but the predisposing factors are known:

  1. heredity;
  2. the body’s sensitivity to estrogen or progesterone;
  3. lack of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamins + movement + good sleep = good mood

– What elements do we need for peace of mind?

— The deficiency of any elements affects both health and mood.I would pay special attention to magnesium. Its lack can provoke tearfulness, apathy, sadness and, naturally, irritation. As a rule, doctors prescribe it in tandem with vitamin B6, which also normalizes the activity of the nervous system.

The same elements have a beneficial effect on sleep. Therefore, you should not rush to buy sleeping pills at the pharmacy (especially since some drugs have a bad effect on sleep phases). It is better to consult with specialists. They will prescribe you a course of medicines containing magnesium and vitamin B6, which can also help fight insomnia.By the way, magnesium is prescribed for pregnant women in the early stages so that the fetal nervous system is formed correctly.

– What other tips for inner harmony could you give?

– Be sure to follow the daily routine. This is really very important. You need to sleep in absolute darkness. Cover windows with blackout curtains, try not to use bedside lamps. Only in complete darkness is a sufficient amount of the hormone melatonin produced. It promotes the production of the joy hormone serotonin.Its maximum release occurs from 00:00 to 04:00, but even if a little light enters the closed eyelids, the amount of melatonin decreases. As a result, waking up, a person feels overwhelmed and irritable, even if his night’s rest lasted the prescribed 8 hours.

Move more. Physical activity also increases serotonin levels. Have you ever felt some kind of excitement after training? Everyday problems do not seem so dire anymore, and even physical fatigue seems pleasant.

Be wary of sedatives when you do not know the cause of your difficult condition. If irritability becomes too frequent your companion, consult your doctor and psychologist. The sooner you understand what the matter is, the faster you will solve this problem with minimal health risks.

How much magnesium does the human body need?

Recommended intake of magnesium per day depending on age and gender

Age and gender

Daily Value

Tolerance limit

Child 1-3 years old

90 mg / day

140 mg / day

Child 4-8 years old

140 mg / day

250 mg / day

Child 9-13 years old

250 mg / day

600 mg / day

Girl 14-18 years old

350 mg / day

700 mg / day

Youth 14-18 years old

420 mg / day

750 mg / day

Male 19-30 years old

400 mg / day

730 mg / day

Male over 30 years old

450 mg / day

800 mg / day

Female 19-30 years old

320 mg / day

660 mg / day

Woman over 30 years old

330 mg / day

670 mg / day

Pregnant woman 19-30 years old

420 mg / day

700 mg / day

Pregnant woman over 30 years old

430 mg / day

710 mg / day

Breastfeeding woman 19-30 years old

410 mg / day

650 mg / day

Breastfeeding woman over 30 years old

420 mg / day

660 mg / day

Magnesium is found in animal and plant foods (mainly leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains and their products, such as bread made from whole grain flour.

A table with foods containing the maximum amount of magnesium, as an example.

Name

Magnesium, mg

Caloric value

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

Dried pumpkin seeds

592

559

30.2

40.0

10.7

Sesame seed

540

565

19.4

48.7

12.2

Wheat bran

448

165

16.0

3.8

16.6

Poppy

442

556

17.5

47.5

14.5

Raw soy flour

429

436

34.5

20.6

35.2

Cocoa powder

425

289

24.3

15.0

10.2

Flaxseed

392

534

18.3

42.2

1.6

Dried Brazil nut

376

656

14.3

66.4

4.8

Instant coffee powder

327

241

12.2

0.5

41.1

Sunflower seeds

317

601

20.7

52.9

10.5

Sesame Kozinaki

297

510

12.1

28.9

52.4

Cashew

292

600

18.5

48.5

22.5

Soy

280

446

36.0

20.0

30.0

Almond

268

576

21.0

53.7

13.0

Pine nut

251

673

14

68

13

Buckwheat

231

296

10.8

3.2

56.0

Kozinaki from sunflower seeds

228

576

14.8

42.6

34.5

Halva

218

469

12.0

22.0

60.0

Ginger dry ground

214

335

9.0

4.2

57.5

Quinoa

197

368

14.1

6.1

57.2

Mash

189

347

23.9

1.1

62.8

Nutmeg

183

525

6

36.0

49.0

Wild rice

177

357

14.7

1.1

68.7

Peanuts

168

561

26.3

46.8

15.4

Hazelnut

165

638

15.0

61.5

16.0

Seaweed, kelp

170

25

0.9

0.2

3.0

Barley

150

300

9.5

2.3

60.4

Bitter chocolate

146

539

6.3

35.4

48.3

Brown rice

143

230

7.9

2.8

73.6

Pink salmon caviar

141

230

30.5

11.4

1.1

Oats

139

317

10.1

6.3

55.2

Chum salmon caviar

129

249

31.5

13.2

1.0

Oat flakes

127

349

12.1

6.3

61.9

Chickpea

119

324

19.5

5.8

53.7

Powdered milk

95

374

32.1

1.0

52.4

.