Anti social effects: Antisocial personality disorder – Symptoms and causes
Complications and Life Consequences of Antisocial Personality Disorder
Editorial Sources and Fact-Checking
- Goldstein RB, Chou SP, Saha TD, et al. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. January 2017.
- Dunlop BW, DeFife JA, Jared A, et al. The Effects of Sertraline on Psychopathic Traits. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. November, 2011.
- Goldstein RB, Dawson DA, Smith SM, Grant BF. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. August 2012.
- Goldstein RB, Dawson DA, Chou SP, et al. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. March 2008.
- Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management, and Prevention. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. 2010.
- Bailey RC, Grenyer BF. Supporting a Person With Personality Disorder: A Study of Carer Burden and Well-Being. Journal of Personality Disorders. December 2014.
- Fazel S, Danesh J. Serious Mental Disorder in 23,000 Prisoners: A Systematic Review of 62 Surveys. The Lancet. February 2002.
- Black DW, Gunter T, Loveless P, et al. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Incarcerated Offenders: Psychiatric Comorbidity and Quality of Life. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. May 2010.
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Antisocial personality disorder – NHS
Personality disorders are mental health conditions that affect how someone thinks, perceives, feels or relates to others.
Antisocial personality disorder is a particularly challenging type of personality disorder characterised by impulsive, irresponsible and often criminal behaviour.
Someone with antisocial personality disorder will typically be manipulative, deceitful and reckless, and will not care for other people’s feelings.
Like other types of personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder is on a spectrum, which means it can range in severity from occasional bad behaviour to repeatedly breaking the law and committing serious crimes.
Psychopaths are considered to have a severe form of antisocial personality disorder.
The Mind website has more information about signs of antisocial personality disorder
Find out more about personality disorders
Signs of antisocial personality disorder
A person with antisocial personality disorder may:
- exploit, manipulate or violate the rights of others
- lack concern, regret or remorse about other people’s distress
- behave irresponsibly and show disregard for normal social behaviour
- have difficulty sustaining long-term relationships
- be unable to control their anger
- lack guilt, or not learn from their mistakes
- blame others for problems in their lives
- repeatedly break the law
A person with antisocial personality disorder will have a history of conduct disorder during childhood, such as truancy (not going to school), delinquency (for example, committing crimes or substance misuse), and other disruptive and aggressive behaviours.
Who develops antisocial personality disorder?
Antisocial personality disorder affects more men than women.
It’s not known why some people develop antisocial personality disorder, but both genetics and traumatic childhood experiences, such as child abuse or neglect, are thought to play a role.
A person with antisocial personality disorder will have often grown up in difficult family circumstances.
One or both parents may misuse alcohol, and parental conflict and harsh, inconsistent parenting are common.
As a result of these problems, social services may become involved with the child’s care.
These types of difficulties in childhood will often lead to behavioural problems during adolescence and adulthood.
Effects of antisocial personality disorder
Criminal behaviour is a key feature of antisocial personality disorder, and there’s a high risk that someone with the disorder will commit crimes and be imprisoned at some point in their life.
Men with antisocial personality disorder have been found to be 3 to 5 times more likely than women to misuse alcohol and drugs than those without the disorder. They also have an increased risk of dying prematurely as a result of reckless behaviour or attempting suicide.
People with antisocial personality disorder are also more likely to have relationship problems during adulthood and be unemployed and homeless.
Diagnosing antisocial personality disorder
To be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, a person will usually have a history of conduct personality disorder before the age of 15.
Antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed after rigorous detailed psychological assessment.
A diagnosis can only be made if the person is aged 18 years or older and at least 3 of the following criteria behaviours apply:
- repeatedly breaking the law
- repeatedly being deceitful
- being impulsive or incapable of planning ahead
- being irritable and aggressive
- having a reckless disregard for their safety or the safety of others
- being consistently irresponsible
- lack of remorse
These signs are not part of a schizophrenic or manic episode – they’re part of a person’s everyday personality and behaviour.
This behaviour usually becomes most extreme and challenging during the late teens and early 20s. It may improve by the time the person reaches their 40s.
Treating antisocial personality disorder
In the past, antisocial personality disorder was thought to be a lifelong disorder, but that’s not always the case and it can sometimes be managed and treated.
Evidence suggests behaviour can improve over time with therapy, even if core characteristics such as lack of empathy remain.
But antisocial personality disorder is one of the most difficult types of personality disorders to treat.
A person with antisocial personality disorder may also be reluctant to seek treatment and may only start therapy when ordered to do so by a court.
The recommended treatment for someone with antisocial personality disorder will depend on their circumstances, taking into account factors such as age, offending history and whether there are any associated problems, such as alcohol or drug misuse.
The person’s family and friends will often play an active role in making decisions about their treatment and care.
Sometimes, substance misuse services and social care may also need to be involved.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE): management and prevention of antisocial personality disorder
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is sometimes used to treat antisocial personality disorder.
It’s a talking therapy that aims to help a person manage their problems by changing the way they think and behave.
Mentalisation-based therapy (MBT) is another type of talking therapy that’s becoming more popular in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder.
The therapist will encourage the person to consider the way they think and how their mental state affects their behaviour.
Democratic therapeutic communities (DTC)
Evidence suggests community-based programmes can be an effective long-term treatment method for people with antisocial personality disorder, and is becoming increasingly popular in prisons.
DTC is a type of social therapy that aims to address the person’s risk of offending, as well as their emotional and psychological needs.
It’s based around large and small therapy groups and focuses on community issues, creating an environment where both staff and prisoners contribute to the decisions of the community.
There may also be opportunities for educational and vocational work.
The recommended length of treatment is 18 months, as there needs to be enough time for a person to make changes and put new skills into practice.
Self-motivation is another important factor for acceptance on to this type of scheme. For example, the person must be willing to work as part of a community, participate in groups, and be subject to the democratic process.
Read more about DTC and working with offenders with personality disorder on GOV.UK
There’s little evidence to support the use of medicine for treating antisocial personality disorder, but certain antipsychotic and antidepressant medicines may be helpful in some instances.
Carbamazepine and lithium may help control symptoms such as aggression and impulsive behaviour, and a class of antidepressant called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve anger and general personality disorder symptoms.
- Personality disorders
Anti-social elements | Forbes.ru
Facebook’s capitalization has reached $70 billion, 700 million people have already registered in this network, and there is no doubt that this social community will overtake India and China in terms of population. Through India and China.
Facebook can already be considered a direct and victorious competitor to the United Nations: there is both an association and a nation. And soon they will become even in quantitative terms, and at the micro level, which is important, since most of the world’s population does not know who the head of the globe, UN Secretary Ban Ki-moon, is and what his organization does. Unlike Facebook. It remains only to fasten the “feature” in the form of a world government to the network, and then it will be possible to finally live in a single human hostel, as the authors of all utopias of the last two thousand years dreamed of. But this, as usual, does not work.
Over the past few months in the United States, the churn of active Facebook users amounted to 5 million. This is a young audience that, in theory, spends more time on social networks than in normal offline life, and the churn is due to the fact that the quality of publicity that proclaims Facebook, too high. Many cite the problem of parents and children as one of the reasons – how to live with accounts within the same family? Friend each other or ignore?
The Internet, which began as a symbiosis of openness and caste at the same time, in the case of Facebook has literally become a mirror of society, and a global one at that. And this achievement gradually becomes his problem.
The idea of traditional media about society and social life was formulated either by Murdoch or by one of his colleagues: People Like That Read About People. People are interested in people. Especially about the famous, to know that someone is “small like us, disgusting like us”, etc. Social networks supply material of such convincing power on this topic that this like is rapidly changing to a dislike. The heroes of Byron or Pushkin had to live and think for a long time in order to begin to despise people – for this, a user of a social network needs to stay online for a maximum of a day. Even the most charming people are sure to show themselves from some of the most unpleasant side.
And this is destructive knowledge, destructive precisely because of its everydayness, optionality, chance. It is not given to us to predict how our word will resonate. At least you can live and die for ideals, but here you have to pay for likes and random comments. It is clear that one must be consistent in any area – raising children, speaking publicly, one must say the same thing.
My friend is horrified to report that his 12 year old son has friended him on Facebook. The friend did not write about his extramarital affairs there, did not post photos from corporate drinking, did not express himself on the topic of homosexuality, and in general did not express himself much. But he perceives this social connection as a violation of his freedom. What is freedom in this context? This is its own territory, which a modern person has less and less – a bathroom, a toilet, a few cubic centimeters inside the skull. Life in general consists of the gradual deprivation of territories of freedom – work, marriage, family eat away their pieces from private space.
Analysts ask where the audience is going. It flows away to that place which is called the secret freedom. And this is quite in the Western tradition. Although, of course, from a geopolitical point of view, it is short-sighted to leak from Facebook at such a pace. In five years it will be half Chinese. And they will figure out how to make a world government on this basis.
Loss of connection with the world contributes to antisocial disorder – News – IQ Research and Education Portal – National Research University Higher School of Economics
Everyone can behave antisocial from time to time. Examples of such antisocial behavior are parking in the wrong place, violating traffic rules, ignoring the queue, and generally selfishness towards others. However, the clinical picture of antisocial disorder looks more serious. A person suffering from it can commit a serious crime and not experience the slightest feeling of guilt, said Alfried Lenglet at a public lecture at the Higher School of Economics on the topic of antisocial personality disorder.
Criminality as an attempt at self-help
Usually a person automatically adapts to society and its laws. In antisocial disorder, this ability to adapt is absent. The individual puts himself in antiposition and acts against society. In Europe, as Alfried Lenglet said, a less depreciating term is now used – antisocial personality disorder, which, among other things, implies a lack of connection with society. A person with antisocial personality disorder is unable to relate to the outside world.
“It’s a lot more than just being antisocial. This is deep suffering,” Lenglet said. Isolation is hard to bear, so a person begins to act in such a way that it is bearable. Criminality thus becomes an attempt at self-help.
“These people don’t take anyone into account and can go over their heads. They can act against others, nature, animals, and even against themselves. They are easily irritable, and even a small impact can trigger a strong reaction, ”said the psychotherapist.
Being close to a person suffering from an antisocial disorder is a great test for his environment, family. It is impossible to have a dialogue with him, because he does not have internal structures in order to understand what the other has in mind. It makes the people around you helpless. The family, the group, is powerless to change the behavior of such a person, Lenglet confirmed.
The picture of the disorder
The overall picture of antisocial disorder has seven specific features that are described in the International Classification of Diseases. Most people with antisocial personality disorder, the therapist explained, have an incomplete, partial set of these traits. For a confident diagnosis, at least five of these features must be observed.
The main central symptom is emotional indifference and indifference. Such people are not emotionally included, they cannot perceive the feelings of another and share them. They suffer from a lack of empathy. Nothing touches them, even criticism of their own address, the professor said.
The next two traits are logically related to the first. It is a constant lack of responsibility and disregard for social norms and responsibilities.
The fourth sign of antisocial disorder is that the person cannot be kept in a permanent relationship because there is nothing of value to him.
The fifth symptom is an inability to process information and an intolerance of frustration. “Aggressive and even violent behavior starts very quickly. If something happens that such a person does not like, he reacts inappropriately strongly – because he has a feeling that he has a right to it, ”said the psychotherapist.
The sixth symptom is the absence of feelings of guilt. At the same time, punishment has no effect; a person with antisocial disorder has no fear of punishment, even if it is threatened with repetition.
And the seventh symptom of a disorder is that those suffering from it do not feel light and relaxed. They are subject to constant irritability.
“One might think that this picture is more correlated with low social strata – with the marginal strata of society, with criminal circles. But since this is precisely a personality disorder, we find it at all social levels, even among top managers,” said Alfried Lenglet. “There are many such people in politics.” The psychotherapist cited as an example a major German top manager who, with his eccentric and thoughtless actions, provoked a 50% drop in the value of the company’s shares.
One of the reasons people with antisocial disorder may act selfishly or illegally is simple boredom and a desire for fun. At the same time, “entertainment” can be the most terrible – up to the murder of people who accidentally fall under the arm.
Children must not be deceived and betrayed
What are the causes of antisocial disorder?
The main one, according to Lenglet, is the traumatic experience. Such people grow up in fake, insincere relationships. “Parents act like they love and care for their children, but they don’t really feel it. Children trust their parents, but again and again they feel deceived, ”said the psychotherapist. As a result, they learn to behave similarly.
When such children grow up, there are no rules for them, nothing that is important and valuable, absolutely any behavior is normal for them.
During the lecture, Lenglet also mentioned para-existential disorder, when a person does not feel himself and tries to find himself through the goals that he sets for himself. “I’m nobody if I don’t make a good career,” “I’m nobody if I’m not successful,” this is how a person suffering from paraexistential disorder feels. Friends in this case turn into a means to an end, and marriage is viewed from the point of view of usefulness, for example, for a career. The environment is functional.
“It looks like a person lives meaningfully. But in fact, he does not follow the existential meaning, he leaves it in pursuit of the goal, the need, ”said the psychotherapist.