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Ast reference range: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test Information | Mount Sinai

Aspartate aminotransferase; Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase; SGOT

The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in the blood.

Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

How the Test is Performed

A blood sample is needed.

How to Prepare for the Test

No special preparation is needed.

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

Why the Test is Performed

AST is an enzyme found in high levels in the liver, heart, and muscles. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues. An enzyme is a protein that causes a specific chemical change in the body.

Injury to the liver results in release of AST into the blood.

This test is mainly done along with other tests (such as ALT, ALP, and bilirubin) to diagnose and monitor liver disease.

Normal Results

The normal range is 8 to 33 U/L.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean

An increased AST level is often a sign of liver disease. Liver disease is even more likely when the levels of substances checked by other liver blood tests have also increased.

An increased AST level may be due to any of the following:

  • Scarring of the liver (cirrhosis)
  • Death of liver tissue
  • Heart attack
  • Too much iron in the body (hemochromatosis)
  • Swollen and inflamed liver (hepatitis)
  • Lack of blood flow to the liver (liver ischemia)
  • Liver cancer or tumor
  • Use of drugs that are toxic to the liver, especially alcohol use
  • Mononucleosis (“mono”)
  • Muscle disease or trauma
  • Swollen and inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis)

AST level may also increase after:

  • Burns (deep)
  • Heart procedures
  • Seizure
  • Surgery

Pregnancy and exercise may also cause an increased AST level.


There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Multiple punctures to locate veins
  • Hematoma (blood collecting under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, aspartate transaminase, SGOT) – serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:172-173.

Daniels L, Khalili M, Goldstein E, Bluth MH, Bowne WB, Pincus MR. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 22.

Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 73.

Last reviewed on: 1/24/2021

Reviewed by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A. D.A.M. Editorial team.

Common reference intervals for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in serum: results from an IFCC multicenter study

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Multicenter Study

. 2010 Nov;48(11):1593-601.

doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.315.

Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Ferruccio Ceriotti 
, Joseph Henny, Josep Queraltó, Shen Ziyu, Yeşim Özarda, Baorong Chen, James C Boyd, Mauro Panteghini; IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL); Committee on Reference Systems for Enzymes (C-RSE)



  • 1 Diagnostica e Ricerca S. Raffaele, Istituto Scientifico Universitario S. Raffaele, Milano, Italy. [email protected]
  • PMID:


  • DOI:


Multicenter Study

Ferruccio Ceriotti et al.

Clin Chem Lab Med.

2010 Nov.

. 2010 Nov;48(11):1593-601.

doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.315.

Epub 2010 Oct 29.


Ferruccio Ceriotti 
, Joseph Henny, Josep Queraltó, Shen Ziyu, Yeşim Özarda, Baorong Chen, James C Boyd, Mauro Panteghini; IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL); Committee on Reference Systems for Enzymes (C-RSE)


  • 1 Diagnostica e Ricerca S. Raffaele, Istituto Scientifico Universitario S. Raffaele, Milano, Italy. [email protected]
  • PMID:


  • DOI:

    10. 1515/CCLM.2010.315



Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) measurements are important for the assessment of liver damage. The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) for these enzymes in adults, paying attention to standardization of the methods used and careful selection of the reference population.


AST, ALT and GGT were measured with commercial analytical systems standardized to the IFCC-recommended reference measurement systems. Three centers (two in Italy and one in China) measured their own freshly collected samples; one of these centers also measured frozen samples from the Nordic Countries RI Project and from a Turkish center. RIs were generated using non-parametric techniques from the results of 765 individuals (411 females and 354 males, 18-85 years old) selected on the basis of the results of other laboratory tests and a specific questionnaire.


AST results from the four regions (Milan, Beijing, Bursa and Nordic Countries) were statistically different, but these differences were too small to be clinically relevant. Likewise, differences between the upper reference limits for genders was only 1.7 U/L (0.03 μkat/L), allowing a single RI of 11-34 U/L (0.18-0.57 μkat/L) to be defined. Interregional differences were not statistically significant for ALT, but partitioning was required due to significant gender differences. RIs for ALT were 8-41 U/L (0.13-0.68 μkat/L) for females and 9-59 U/L (0.15-0.99 μkat/L) for males, respectively. The upper reference limits for GGT from the Nordic Country population were higher than those from the other three regions and results from this group were excluded from final calculations. The GGT RIs were 6-40 U/L (0.11-0.66 μkat/L) for females and 12-68 U/L (0.20- 1.13 μkat/L) for males, respectively.


For AST and ALT, the implementation of common RIs appears to be possible, because no differences between regions were observed. However, a common RI for GGT that is applicable worldwide appears unlikely due to differences among populations.

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Astral Dimension

dimension is the next closest to
the physical universe of invisible dimensions.
The astral originates in the zone of the real
time, but it is better to consider it in full
separate from her. It is divided into seven
main levels or planes, each of
which contains many subplans and
inner kingdoms. astral dimension
spans the universe, but in every sense
and purposes is completely

dimension does not cover the entire physical
the universe as the zone of the real
time, especially at higher
levels, however it takes the same
space. My opinion is this:
dimensionally the astral is more remote than
real time zone, and thus
does not have such direct geographic
relationship with the physical universe.
Of course, the movements of the astral projector
regarding the physical measurement is not
can be detected through the astral
sight or clairvoyance in the same way
how can I do this with a projector in
real time.


– the ability to see in the astral
measurement. It spontaneously appears
more often in those who have some
clairvoyant abilities (active or
hidden) than those who do not have them.
Astral vision allows the observer
see other projectors, thought forms,
astral beings, wildlife, and
even spirits. This ability is often
works together with Real Vision
Time, giving the observer a mixed
real-time vision plus astral,
which can sometimes cause
quite a lot of confusion.

the dimension is uniquely connected to the inhabitants
physical dimension, penetrating
The universe is like a vast network of mind,
catching and conducting all energy
reflections and radiations of consciousnesses. It
affects all subtle dimensions
levels above it. The structure of the astral
plans filters and holds all
energy reflections produced
thoughts, feelings and perceptions of all
living beings, including inanimate
matter and life forms that are normally
considered to be unconscious. Even
faceless stone has atomic energy
and subatomic levels. This process,
seems to have continued since
time. Another way to describe the astral
like this: the astral dimension contains
strong energy shadow generated by
and discarded by the content and residents
physical dimension.

2. Projected twin

many different types of WTO and accordingly
many different types of projected
twins. To understand the meaning of the WTO and
projections and better understand the parts
confusing energy labyrinth,
it is necessary to study the main aspects
projected double. Allow for
began, as a summary, to describe it
structure starting from its lowest
energy aspect – ethereal

Etheric Body

etheric body (also called
energy body) – subtle body,
most closely related and intertwined
with the physical body. I don’t think this one
aspect can separate from the physical
body while the physical body is still alive. It
has three main aspects: bioenergy,
purely energetic, and
expanded energy. These three
aspects are closely related.

aspect of the human etheric body
basic, it supports the mechanism
bioenergy and active life
pattern of bodily perceptions and all
vital biological processes. He
works according to biological
functioning of the physical body, and
exists as an exact bioenergetic
a copy that is rigidly woven with the living
physical body.

Clean energy
aspect includes at least
seven primary energy centers (often
called chakras or mental
centers), hundreds of secondary energy centers
(minor chakras) and thousands of tiny
ports for energy exchange. He constantly
manages a complex network of internal and
external energy channels,
connection diagram and energy
structures. This aspect of the etheric body
does not strictly follow the internal and
external contours of the physical body.

Expanded Energy
aspect appears when the physical
the body is asleep or enters a state
trance. Substance of pure energy
aspect of the etheric body becomes
energetically excited and begins
expand outward. This
allows pure-energetic aspects
etheric body to function independently
from the physical body, without interfering with it, while
while it (the physical body) sleeps.

mind in an active state for
trance state creates wide
range of energy conflicts.
These conflicts may cause some
very specific sensations
feelings of expansion (often perceived
like a feeling of shrinking or falling
inside). It is possible that the degree of expansion
etheric body depends very much on
reached sleep or trance phase.

body, in its energetically excited
and expanded state, by right
is a truly subtle body. Main
distinction between it and any other subtle
body – for example, real time and
astral bodies – is that
that the expanded etheric body is usually not
capable of transcending its borders
physical body.

the presence of all three aspects of the etheric
body is essential to life
important biological processes. I
I believe that the etheric body is too dense
and too tightly connected with the physical
body (compared to other bodies),
to allow complete
projections of its energy substance.
The closest subtle body to the etheric
body — Real Time Body, generation
which begins in an expanding
etheric body before any type of OBE,
conscious or unconscious. So
Thus, the etheric body plays very
small role in the process of generation and
projection of the double of the real

The frequency range of a person is like a piano keyboard – Studiopedia

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If we turn to the metaphor of “piano keyboard”, we can see that there is an analogy between octaves and frequency groups of the electromagnetic field: keys on the left side (lower octave) are easily identified with the physical spectrum, the next octave forms the ethereal spectrum, even more to the right (higher in frequency) is the astral world. We can go on and on, up to the last, seventh octave of higher energies, but for now let’s stop at the third and analyze in more detail the phenomenon of the astral body and astral matter.

The astral body (body of emotions) is often mentioned in esoteric literature. This sphere of the human body has been known to mystics since the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. The astral body is a full-fledged component of the human body and, like the etheric body, is based on the physical body. These “octaves of the body” are very closely related to each other, but they are not merged. The frequency of radiation of the energy field, which forms the matter of the astral body, is so high that it is inaccessible to ordinary perception – only psychics are able to feel it (later we will see that they “feel” with the help of ajna – chakras of the third eye, tuned to this frequency). We have already spoken about the role of the chakras as organs of perception of frequencies of a higher order. Possessing a higher frequency than the physical and etheric bodies, the astral body can freely occupy the same region of space without interfering with them. Such coexistence is the essence of the “principle of non-destructive coexistence”, according to which substances of different frequencies can occupy the same space without destroying each other.

As already noted, the astral body is “usually” superimposed on the physical structure. And what happens if it “deviates” from it? This exciting question has a rather complicated, but quite definite answer; for the time being, we shall deal with the problems of the physiological aspects of the functioning of the astral body.

In accordance with the principles of esotericism, the astral body, like the etheric body, has seven main chakras, which are called astral analogues of the etheric ones. They also “work” as a kind of transformers, transmitters of subtle energy and enter into the overall energy system of the body. Thus, the astral centers are conductors of higher energy, which is transmitted to the etheric chakras and through them to the system nadis, nervous and hormonal systems of the body. Since the astral body is connected with the emotional sphere of the personality, through its chakras, the emotional states of a person are able to influence the physical well-being of the body, causing diseases, or vice versa – curing them.

In esotericism, it is believed that the work of the internal secretion organs and hormonal balance have a serious impact on the emotional state of the individual. Western medicine is approaching the recognition of the existence of the astral body and its influence on the state of human health: doctors have long studied, for example, the effect of activating the activity of the thyroid gland on increasing the motor activity of an individual. On the other hand, lowering the level of adrenaline leads to asthenic syndrome. Endocrinologists are also well aware that some emotions have a tangible effect on the state of certain organs of internal secretion, but they do not yet take into account that The hormonal activity of these organs is very closely related to the work of their respective astral chakras.

The astral body – sometimes called the body of emotions – is considered the seat of human feelings. Our emotions have a much more complex and subtle source than modern science believes – after all, only in the last two decades, doctors began to explore the links between emotional stress and bodily pathologies. Since the astral body is directly related to the emotional sphere*, there is also a close relationship between consciousness, emotions, physical and astral bodies. Emotional disorders can arise from both neurophysiological disturbances in the brain and from disturbances in the energy flows of the astral body through the chakras.

“These energy centers (chakras) and endocrine glands… actually determine the state of our health, as well as the psychological state of a person. , emotionally and mentally, a person is what his endocrine glands produce – since psychological well-being often determines the physical state (italics ours)” 18 .

As mentioned above, the astral body is often called the body of emotions or the body of desires. Esoteric literature emphasizes that it is there that our desires, addictions, moods, feelings and fears arise. strangely enough, fear is one of the most important manifestations of astral energy. systems 20 (“visceral brain”), but do not understand that it is only secondary to higher frequency energy distribution systems that are associated with the visceral brain. Mechanists see the brain as something like a complex neurological computer. In fact, it is a system that organizes the interaction between the soul and the physical manifestations of life, something like a servomechanism. If the nervous system is affected by a disease, then the personality is trapped in physical inexpressiveness (the “locked-in personality” syndrome). This happens, for example, with stroke victims who lose the ability to be physically active, while maintaining full consciousness: they understand everything that is happening around, but are not able to communicate with the outside world.

If the brain is a kind of biological computer, then programs can be introduced into it from different levels. However, modern scientists recognize the possibility of only physical “input” through the nervous system, forgetting about the “input” through the astral body, which also affects the brain. Unlike the etheric, the astral body, although connected with the physical, can function independently, being the carrier component of consciousness. The consciousness of the individual is able to interact with the environment through the astral body even when the physical body is inactive (for example, during sleep). Oddly enough, it is only with the help of the hypothesis of the existence of an astral body that it is possible to explain the important and only recently recognized by science phenomenon of “life after death” (phenomena associated with clinical death 21 ).

The experiences of people who find themselves on the verge of real death are described in the literature, in particular in the books of Dr. Raymond Moody 22 and Kenneth Ring 23 . Scientists interviewed hundreds of people who found themselves in a state of clinical death and experienced quite similar sensations. The most common is the description of the exodus of the soul from the body and subsequent observation of it from the outside. Survivors of clinical death often spoke in great detail about the actions of resuscitators: what the doctors were wearing, what methods and medicines they used, what they said at the same time. Many doctors, being unable to explain this from a scientific point of view, resort to argumentation of the type of conditions of oxygen starvation of the brain (cerebral anoxia), which generates hallucinations. After observing the abandoned body, the soul, as the interviewees almost unanimously assert, rushes into a dark tunnel, at the end of which there is a source of light. This experience has been called the “out-of-body state”. It is probably the most accurate description of the state of consciousness after clinical death – after all, in this case it really turns out to be “out of the body. ” But if consciousness leaves the limits of the body, then what is its carrier, through what sense organs does it perceive the picture of the operating room? Obviously, due to the presence of an astral body!

Another, perhaps more accurate description of the “out-of-body state” is the term “astral projection” (or astral projection). It is a phenomenon of “leaving” the body by consciousness, the carrier of which is precisely the astral body. It is believed that the astral and physical bodies are connected by a certain thread, the umbilical cord, often called the “silver ribbon”. In the event of death, it breaks off, and the astral body leaves the dying physical and ethereal shells.

Esoteric literature says a lot about the fact that during sleep the souls leave their bodies and wander in the astral world, but upon awakening people almost immediately forget these adventures and it is difficult for them to imagine the existence of the astral reality. They simply attribute everything experienced to dreams (the nature of which is also not particularly clear to them). People are fully able to feel the consequences of entering the astral plane only in critical conditions, such as, for example, clinical death or severe bodily injuries. Then the separation of the astral from the body is a kind of protective mechanism, the simplest energy reflex that protects our consciousness from a difficult experience. However, recently it has been possible to find such patients gifted in the parapsychological respect, who, at their own request, could force the astral body to leave the physical shell and move in space. Upon returning back and awakening their consciousness, they told about their impressions and experiences received in these wanderings 9yurnium) by Dr. Robert Morris, who collected data on the transfer of the astral to remote areas of space 26 . The subject was Keith Harari, a graduate psychologist who claimed to have the ability to transfer his consciousness from his physical body to the astral body at will and move around in it.

To determine the location of Harari’s astral body, or “second body” as Morris called it, a “living detector” was first used – a kitten belonging to the subject. When the astral Harari appeared in the room, the kitten immediately stopped playing and calmly sat down in the middle of the room. To measure the dynamics of his movements, the room was marked out in 24 ten-inch squares. The kitten’s activity was measured by the number of squares it visited in a certain period of time. The behavior of the animal was recorded on a movie camera both during the control periods and during the exit of Harari into the astral plane and the transfer of his consciousness into the room. All the time while the astral Harari was in a physical shell (outside the room), the kitten continuously meowed and rushed about, constantly crossing the borders of the squares and trying to get out of the room. When, according to Harari, his astral appeared in the experimental room, the “living detector” suddenly calmed down. Four such experiments were carried out, and all of them ended successfully.

No matter how surprising this experience may seem, it nevertheless confirms that the kitten reacted precisely to the presence of Harari’s astral. A similar experiment was carried out with a snake and also gave positive results. The only disadvantage of such experiments is that the animals quickly adapt to the situation and soon cease to serve as reliable indicators of the presence of the astral.

Another interesting experiment was conducted by Dr. Carlis Osis of the American Society of Parapsychology (New York), in which a talented psychic, psychologist Alex Thanous took part. Since it is theoretically possible to obtain information about a spatially distant point not only by traveling in the astral plane, but also by other parapsychological means, for example, using clairvoyance or far-sightedness, a special box was made for the experiment. Special figures were placed in it, the observation of which made it possible to fix a certain optical illusion, but only from one point – a special hole in the wall. When viewed from above or from inside the box, the figurines folded into a completely different geometric pattern than the one seen through the opening. In addition, electromagnetic radiation sensors were placed in the box – in case, when the astral body appeared, disturbances of the electromagnetic field were observed. During the experiment, Tanose was able to determine the desired geometric pattern, which could only be seen through a hole in the wall of the box. At the moments when the Astral Thanousa was supposed to be inside the box, the sensors showed significant changes in the electromagnetic field – therefore, the astral body causes its disturbances during movement.

A more complex – and no less successful – experiment was carried out by the physicists Targ and Putov 27 at the Stanford Research Institute with the participation of the talented psychic Ingo Swann. During this experiment, a magnetron protected by a layer of superconducting liquid was used (this device, also known as a “quark detector”, was created at Stanford). Physicists offered the psychic to tune in and penetrate his consciousness – in the form of an astral plane – into the chamber of the magnetron. The device, located deep underground, under the building of the institute, and protected by several layers of aluminum, copper, mu-metal and, in addition, a layer of superconductor, was practically inaccessible to physical penetration. Before the start of the experiment, a source of an alternating (damped) magnetic field was placed in the magnetron, which was measured using a special sensor, from which the data were output to an oscilloscope. The field fluctuations were presented on his screen as an even sinusoid. At the moments when, according to Swann, his astral left his body and rushed into the magnetron, the frequency of oscillations of the sinusoid on the oscilloscope screen doubled for about thirty seconds and other perturbations of the electromagnetic field were observed. In addition, the psychic described in sufficient detail the inner surface of the magnetron (which he had never seen before). Many Stanford researchers recognized the significance of these experiments, although they did not consider them to be carried out with sufficient purity.