B2 400 mg side effects: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews
Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews
Riboflavin is vitamin B2. It is widely found in both plant- and animal-based foods, including milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables.
Riboflavin is involved in many body processes. It’s required for the proper development of the skin, lining of the digestive tract, blood cells, and brain function.
People most commonly use riboflavin to prevent riboflavin deficiency, for migraine, and for high levels of homocysteine in the blood. It’s also used for acne, muscle cramps, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
- Riboflavin deficiency (ariboflavinosis). Taking riboflavin by mouth can increase levels of riboflavin in the body, helping to treat and prevent riboflavin deficiency.
Possibly Effective for
- High levels of homocysteine in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking riboflavin by mouth for 12 weeks decreases levels of homocysteine by up to 40% in some people with a specific gene type.
- Migraine. Taking high-dose riboflavin by mouth seems to modestly reduce the number and severity of migraine headaches in adults. It’s unclear if it helps children.
There is interest in using riboflavin for a number of other purposes, but there isn’t enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.
When taken by mouth: Riboflavin is likely safe for most people in doses of up to 400 mg daily. In some people, riboflavin can cause the urine to turn a bright yellow color. It may also cause nausea.
Special Precautions and Warnings
When taken by mouth: Riboflavin is likely safe for most people in doses of up to 400 mg daily. In some people, riboflavin can cause the urine to turn a bright yellow color. It may also cause nausea. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Riboflavin is likely safe when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods. The recommended intake is 1.4 mg daily during pregnancy and 1.6 mg daily during lactation.
Children: Riboflavin is likely safe for most children when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods. Higher doses of 100-200 mg daily have also been safely used.
Liver disease: Riboflavin absorption is decreased in people with liver disease.
Riboflavin might decrease the amount of tetracyclines that the body can absorb. Taking riboflavin along with tetracyclines might decrease the effects of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take riboflavin 2 hours before or 4 hours after taking tetracyclines.
Be cautious with this combination
Riboflavin is an important nutrient that is found in many foods. The amount that should be consumed on a daily basis is called the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). For adult males, the RDA is 1.3 mg daily. For adult females, the RDA is 1.1 mg daily. During pregnancy, the RDA is 1.4 mg, and during breastfeeding, the RDA is 1.6 mg. Recommended amounts for children depend on age.
Riboflavin is also available in supplements. Taking riboflavin supplements with food will increase how much the body absorbs. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.
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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is used to prevent or treat low levels of vitamin B2 in people who do not get enough of the vitamin from their diet. Most people who eat a normal diet do not need extra vitamin B2. However, some conditions (such as stomach/intestinal problems, prolonged infection, liver disease, alcoholism, cancer) can cause low levels of vitamin B2. Vitamin B2 plays an important role in the body. It is needed to keep your skin, eyes, nerves, and red blood cells healthy.
How to use Riboflavin
Take this vitamin by mouth. Read and follow all directions on the product package before taking this vitamin. If you have any questions, ask your pharmacist. If your doctor has prescribed this vitamin, take it as directed.
The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Take this vitamin regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day.
If your condition lasts or gets worse, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, get medical help right away.
This vitamin may cause your urine to turn bright yellow. This effect is harmless and will disappear when the vitamin is stopped.
If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, remember that your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
A very serious allergic reaction to this vitamin is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In the US –
In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
Before taking riboflavin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this vitamin, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history.
Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this vitamin. Riboflavin is safe to take during pregnancy when used as directed at recommended doses.
Riboflavin passes into breast milk and is considered to be safe during breast-feeding when used as directed at recommended doses. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor’s approval.
This vitamin may interfere with certain lab tests, possibly causing false test results. Make sure lab personnel and all your doctors know you use this vitamin.
Does Riboflavin interact with other drugs you are taking?
Enter your medication into the WebMD interaction checker
If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.
Keep all regular medical and lab appointments.
This product is not a substitute for a proper diet. It is best to get your vitamins from healthy foods. Riboflavin can be found in milk, bread, fortified cereals, meat, green vegetables, and other foods. Consult your doctor, pharmacist, or nutritionist for more details.
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.
Check the product package for instructions on how to store this vitamin, or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medications away from children and pets.
Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.
riboflavin (vitamin B2) 100 mg tablet
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This medicine is a yellow, round, tablet
riboflavin (vitamin B2) 400 mg tablet
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This medicine is a yellow, round, tablet
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CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.
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💊 The composition of the drug Riboflavin-Mononucleotide
✅ Use of Riboflavin-Mononucleotide
Search for analogues
Description of the active ingredients of the preparation
The scientific information provided is general and cannot be used to make decisions.
Update date: 2020.09.21
Marketing authorization holder:
PHARMSTANDART-UFA VITAMIN PLANT, OJSC
(Riboflavin (vitamin B2))
Release form, packaging and composition
|B15||Acute hepatitis A|
|B16||Acute hepatitis B|
|B17.1||Acute hepatitis C|
|B18.0||Chronic viral hepatitis B with delta agent|
|B18.1||Chronic viral hepatitis B without delta agent|
|B18.2||Chronic viral hepatitis C|
|h20.2||Other acute conjunctivitis|
|h20. 4||Chronic conjunctivitis|
|h30.0||Acute and subacute iridocyclitis (anterior uveitis)|
|H53.1||Subjective visual disorders|
|K59.9||Functional bowel disorder, unspecified|
|K73||Chronic hepatitis, not elsewhere classified|
|L20. 8||Other atopic dermatitis (neurodermatitis, eczema)|
|L23||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|L24||Simple irritant contact dermatitis|
|L28.0||Lichen simplex chronicus (limited neurodermatitis)|
|L56.2||Photocontact dermatitis [berloque dermatitis]|
|L98.4||Chronic skin ulcer, not elsewhere classified|
|T66||Unspecified effects of radiation (radiation sickness)|
|T79. 3||Post-traumatic wound infection, not elsewhere classified|
The route of administration and dosing regimen of a particular drug depends on its form of release and other factors. The optimal dosage regimen is determined by the doctor. Compliance of the dosage form of a particular drug with indications for use and dosing regimen should be strictly observed.
Apply intramuscularly, internally, externally and topically. The dose, method and schedule of application are determined individually, depending on the indications, the age of the patient and the dosage form used.
Possible: allergic reactions, impaired renal function, impaired vision.
Contraindications for use
Hypersensitivity to riboflavin, nephrolithiasis.
Pregnancy and lactation
Riboflavin may be used during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding) if indicated.
Use in children
May be used in children according to indications, in recommended doses and dosage forms.
Colors urine light yellow.
When used simultaneously with m-anticholinergics, the absorption and bioavailability of riboflavin increases (due to a decrease in intestinal motility).
When used simultaneously with thyroid hormones, the metabolism of riboflavin is accelerated.
With simultaneous use, the activity of doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin and lincomycin decreases.
Riboflavin is incompatible with streptomycin.
With simultaneous use, the side effects of chloramphenicol (impaired hematopoiesis, optic neuritis) are reduced and prevented.
With the simultaneous use of chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, due to the blockade of flavinokinase, disrupt the incorporation of riboflavin into flavin adenine mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide and increase its excretion in the urine.
If you want to place a link to the description of this drug – use this code
Riboflavin Mononucleotide . Description of the drug in the reference book Vidal.
functions, deficiency symptoms, replenishment pathways
Riboflavin (also known as vitamin B2 or lactoflavin) – very important for human health and life, one of the group B, which, like many others, is water soluble. It occurs naturally in some foods and is also available as a dietary supplement.
In 1933, this nutrient was withdrawn from the B group of vitamins as a high temperature resistant yellow element. It is a component of two main coenzymes: flavin mononucleotide (also known as riboflavin-5-phosphate) and flanulin-adenine nucleotide, which play a major role in energy generation as well as in the synthesis of other B vitamins. People need to consume vitamin B2 every day, since the body can only store it in small quantities, and stocks are rapidly depleted.
Functions of vitamin B2 in the human body
It is called the “beauty vitamin” due to its ability to influence the condition of hair and skin. Riboflavin mononucleotide plays an important role in metabolism, helps the body process proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and provides oxygen for energy production. Thanks to him, carbohydrates from food are converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which produces energy for accumulation in the muscles.
Vitamin B2 is involved in the synthesis of glutathione, an antioxidant essential for eye health and normal functioning of the immune system. A diet rich in this substance may help reduce the risk of developing cataracts later in life. It regulates other vitamins and minerals: affects the production and absorption of vitamins B3, B6 and B9, as well as iron. B2 is known to be effective in the treatment of migraine, so people suffering from persistent headaches can feel the great effects of riboflavin. Some studies have shown that in children with autism, supplements containing vitamins b1, b2, b6, b12, and magnesium can reduce the levels of abnormal organic acids in the urine.
In general, b2 vitamin is essential for:
- the health of the mucous membranes in the digestive system
- the support of liver function
- conversion of tryptophan to the amino acid niacin
- maintenance of healthy eyes, nerves, muscles and skin
- absorption and activation of iron, folic acid and vitamins B1, B3 and B6
- production of hormones by glands
- prevention of cataracts
903 23 normal fetal development, especially in areas where vitamin deficiencies are common.
Daily requirement of vitamin b2
Oregon State University Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of lactoflavin for men aged 19years and older is 1.3 mg, and for women – 1.1 mg per day. During pregnancy, women should have 1.4 mg of this nutrient per day, and while breastfeeding – 1.6 mg. An amount less than 40 mcg per day indicates its deficiency. The level of excretion of riboflavin in the urine may decrease with age and increase due to the influence of stress and certain drugs.
Recommended Dietary Allowances for Riboflavin
Births before 6 months
7-12 months *
9-13 years old
0. 9 mg
14-18 years old
19-50 years old
Bacteria in the colon produce free riboflavin, which can be absorbed by the colon in amounts dependent on diet. The body stores only small amounts in the liver, heart, and kidneys. When consumed in excess, the substance is either not absorbed, or it enters in small quantities and is excreted in the urine.
More is produced from plant-based foods than from meat-based foods. Ultraviolet light can quickly inactivate vitamin b 2 and its derivatives. Through this sensitivity, prolonged light therapy to treat neonatal jaundice or skin disorders can lead to riboflavin deficiency. The risk of loss from exposure to light is why milk is usually best stored in glass containers.
Vitamin B2 deficiency and its consequences
Usually vitamin deficiency B2 is quite rare. In 2003-2006, studies were conducted in the United States that showed that only 6% of the population of the country had a level of consumption of riboflavin from food and nutritional supplements below the norm. An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey found that vitamin B2 intake was greater in lacto-egg vegetarians (2.3 mg/day) than in non-vegetarians (2.1 mg/day).
There are two types of riboflavin deficiency: primary, when there is not enough of it in the diet, and secondary, when the intestines cannot absorb the vitamin properly, and therefore it is excreted very quickly. Vitamin B2 deficiency is also known as the disease ariboflavinosis.
In addition to inadequate intake, lactoflavin deficiency can be caused by endocrine disorders (eg thyroid hormone deficiency) and some other diseases.
One of the signs of a lack of a substance is problems with digestion and a decrease in energy levels. Since riboflavin helps turn food into energy, its deficiency affects overall well-being, causing lethargy and weakness. Vitmain b2 is involved in the production of red blood cells, which help provide oxygen to the body. If it is not enough, there may be dizziness.
Needed for hair and skin. Nutrient deficiency is displayed by external hair loss and skin deterioration, as well as vision problems. In order for the hair, skin and vision to be in good condition, a sufficient amount of vitamin B2 is required.
Mental problems can be a symptom of much more serious health problems, but can also be caused by a lack of riboflavin. Deficiency of the substance manifests itself in the form of insomnia and nightmares, as well as mood swings.
Main symptoms of deficiency:
- skin disorders (flaking, etc.)
- hyperemia (excess of blood) and swelling of the mouth and throat
- angular stomatitis (lesion in the corners of the mouth) cracked lips)
- hair loss
- reproductive problems
- sore throat
- liver and nervous system degeneration
- scrotal dermatitis
- mucous membrane fluid
- iron deficiency anemia
- eye sensitivity to bright light, itching, watery or red eyes.
People with riboflavin deficiency usually suffer from other nutrient deficiencies as well, such as impaired metabolism of B vitamins due to reduced levels of the coenzyme flavin. If the deficiency of this nutrient is pronounced and prolonged, anemia and cataracts can develop, while taking vitamin supplements with vitamin B2 rarely neutralizes late anatomical changes (for example, cataract formation).
Risk groups for riboflavin deficiency
Vitamin B2 deficiency can occur with poor nutrition, because the human body constantly releases it, but does not store it. A person with a lack of lactoflavin usually also lacks other vitamins. A greater risk for its deficiency is observed in people who consume excess amounts of alcohol.
Those most likely to have low riboflavin include:
Vegetarian athletes. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine state that vegetarian athletes are at risk of vitamin B2 deficiency due to the fact that some of them exclude all animal products from the diet, including milk, yogurt, cheese and eggs, which are good sources of this nutrient. To avoid this potential problem, they are advised to consult a sports nutritionist about changing their diet.
Pregnant and lactating women. Pregnant or lactating women who rarely consume meat or dairy products are at risk of riboflavin deficiency, which may adversely affect maternal and infant health. For example, its deficiency during pregnancy can increase the risk of preeclampsia.
Taking riboflavin during pregnancy has a positive effect on the weight and height of the newborn. Infants of mothers with vitamin B2 deficiency or low vitamin B2 intake (less than 1.2 mg per day) during pregnancy are at greater risk of certain birth defects (such as heart defects).
Nutrient deficiency in pregnant women can compromise the growth of the baby and increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, which is associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy. This is a serious condition that can be life-threatening.
People who consume little milk. Vegans and those who consume little milk and meat are at risk of riboflavin deficiency and the health problems associated with it.
People with infantile Brown-Vialetto-Van Lare syndrome. This is a very rare neurological disease that can begin at any age and is associated with deafness, bulbar palsy (motor neurone disease), and breathing difficulties. The disease is caused by mutations in the SLC52A3 gene, which codes for the intestinal riboflavin transporter. As a result, these patients are deficient in vitamin B2. Vitamin complexes can be a life-saving method for the treatment of this disease.
Vitamin B2 in food
Foods that are particularly rich in riboflavin are: eggs, organ meats, lean meats and milk, green vegetables, fortified cereals. The largest dietary contributor to total riboflavin intake in men and women is milk and dairy drinks, bread and bread products, mixed foods whose main ingredient is meat, ready-to-eat cereals, and mixed foods whose main ingredient is grain.
Since riboflavin dissolves in water, approximately half of it is lost when food is boiled. Whereas when cooked in other ways, such as steamed or microwaved, all of the riboflavin is retained.
Cereal products may not contain much natural riboflavin by the time they reach your table. This is why it is sometimes added to cereals to improve their nutritional properties.
Riboflavin is often added to cereals and breads, and is used as a food coloring in candies. Dark yellow urine may be evidence of vitamin B2 intake in large quantities.
Food sources of riboflavin
Foods that provide 20% or more B2 are considered rich sources of nutrients, but foods that provide less vitamins also contribute to a healthy diet.
Forms of riboflavin
Riboflavin is available in vitamin complexes, as well as many dietary supplements. Multivitamin and multimineral preparations with vitamin B2 usually provide 1.3 mg of riboflavin (100% B2) per day. Most supplements contain it in free form, but some contain riboflavin FSD, sodium riboflavin-5-phosphate. On sale there are preparations containing a complex of vitamins of group B, as well as other important vitamins for men.
Usually, riboflavin is taken orally in the form of tablets, but some diseases require it to be taken in ampoules and injections, for faster delivery to the nervous system and blood.
For industrial and medical purposes, riboflavin is produced in several ways:
Extraction from natural raw materials. The method is expensive, as it requires the processing of a large amount of environmentally friendly products. It is used for the production of elite biocomplexes with “kosher”, “vegetarian” markers.
Chemical synthesis from ribose and 3,4-dimethylaniline. This option is most often used in the food industry.
Microbiological. The ability of some microorganisms to produce B2 in large quantities is used. The most commonly cultivated strains are Eremothecium ashbyii, Candida, Ashbya gossypii, Bacillus subtilis. The substance obtained in this way is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in the production of functional nutrition.
Forms are available in the following categories:
Solution for injection. It is used only on prescription in a hospital setting. The introduction is carried out intramuscularly.
Vitamin B2 liquid. Oral dietary supplement. Differs in easy reception and pleasant taste.
Tablets. The most convenient form for application. They have a neutral taste and are easy to dose. Vitamin B2 tablets are produced by many companies, so it is difficult to find an option at the best price.
Capsules. Contain natural sources of riboflavin, mainly plant origin, in a strictly defined concentration. The capsule itself can be gelatinous or made from vegetables processed using a special technology.
Vitamin B2 capsules or tablets are available in various strengths. The most popular are 50, 100, 250, 400 mg.
Contraindications and overdose
Vitamin B2 is generally considered safe. Overdose is unlikely as the body can absorb up to 27 milligrams of riboflavin and will expel any additional amount in the urine.
The main risk of excess B2 is liver damage. However, excess riboflavin or its toxicity is rare. To get an overdose of it naturally, you need to eat an almost impossible huge amount of food. Of course, it is possible to get an excess of riboflavin in pill or injectable form, although this is also unlikely since the body does not store this vitamin inside the body. However, it is very important to talk to your doctor before taking any B2 supplements, as they may reduce the effectiveness of some medications.
Drugs that can affect the level of riboflavin in the body:
- tricyclic antidepressants;
- ethotrexate, which is used for cancer and autoimmune diseases;
- drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout
Some drugs used in cancer therapy can also reduce the level of riboflavin in the body, and it can affect the way doxorubicin works.
The University of Maryland Medical Center notes that very high amounts of vitamin B2 can lead to itching, numbness, burning or tingling, yellow or orange urine, and sensitivity to light. To prevent an imbalance of B vitamins, they recommend the use of vitamin complexes.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a valuable nutrient that is partly produced in the small intestine but cannot be stored and therefore must be supplied to the body from external sources. The best option is to optimize the diet in favor of vitamin-containing foods. But taking it in the form of biocomplexes is much more reliable. This makes it easier to choose the dosage and track the intake into the body.
Riboflavin is essential for the normal functioning of the body as a whole. It is involved in all metabolic processes, as well as in hematopoiesis, and ensures the bioavailability of other vitamins. Good vision, good immunity, resistance to stress and other aspects of health are simply impossible without it. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate the deficiency of this vitamin in your body. The first signs that should alert you will be: peeling of the skin, inflammation and cracks on the lips, redness of the oral mucosa and tongue, decreased visual acuity.
The daily allowance depends on the sex, age and lifestyle of the person. For example, athletes spend more of the vitamin than those who suffer from physical inactivity. A doctor or an experienced nutritionist will help you choose the optimal dosage.