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First Aid Information for Skin Rashes in Children

Many childhood diseases have bacterial or viral causes and may come with a rash. As study continues and more and more vaccines become available, these diseases become less of a threat to your child’s long-term health. However, a rash of any kind should be taken seriously and may require a trip to the doctor’s office for evaluation.

Chickenpox (varicella)

A virus called varicella-zoster causes chickenpox, a very contagious disease. Although it is rarely a serious disease to otherwise healthy children, the symptoms last about 2 weeks and can make the child very uncomfortable. In addition, chickenpox can be a serious illness in people with weak immune systems, such as newborns, people on chemotherapy for cancer, people taking steroids, pregnant women, the elderly, or those with HIV. A safe and effective vaccine is now available to children aged 1 year or older to prevent chickenpox. It takes up to 21 days to develop chickenpox after being exposed to the virus by inhaling infected droplets from coughs or sneezes or by coming in direct contact with the lesions on an infected person with chickenpox or from someone with shingles.

  • Symptoms
    • The symptoms of chickenpox often begins with a very itchy rash, which first appears on the scalp, chest, back and face then spreads to the rest of the body.
    • The rash begins as an area of redness with a small, superficial blister in the center. The blister eventually ruptures with some possible drainage, and the lesion will then form a crust.
    • Other associated symptoms include fever, malaise, sore throat, and red eyes. Fever and malaise may precede the rash in some cases.
  • Treatment
    • The virus is spread primarily from the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth of the child, but the rash itself is also contagious. The child remains contagious and cannot go to school or daycare until the last lesion has appeared and is fully crusted over.
    • No therapy treats chickenpox once it has begun, but your doctor can provide prescriptions and advice to help with the discomfort and the itching.
    • Never give aspirin to a child in general but especially one with chickenpox. A deadly disease called Reye’s syndrome has been associated with children taking aspirin, especially if they have chickenpox. Be sure to check the contents of any other over-the-counter medications for aspirin or salicylates because these are often found mixed with over-the-counter cold medications.
    • Chickenpox can occasionally affect the cornea, the clear front portion of the eye. If your child develops chickenpox on the tip of the nose  it is usually a precursor to having the eyes infected. See your doctor immediately.
    • See a doctor immediately also if your child develops lesions in the genital regions internally or inside of the mouth.


A paramyxovirus causes the measles. A safe and effective vaccine is available to prevent this disease, but outbreaks in people who have not been adequately vaccinated still happen.

  • Symptoms
    • The disease usually begins with nasal congestion, eye redness, swelling and tearing, cough, lethargy, and high fever.
    • On the third or fourth day of the illness, the child will develop a red rash on the face, which spreads rapidly and lasts about 7 days.
    • Another rash consisting of white spots inside the mouth, may also develop.
  • Treatment
    • Once the disease begins, no medication treats measles. However, your doctor may offer treatments to care for cough, eye symptoms, and fever. Aspirin products cannot be used as they can cause a life-threatening condition called Reye’s syndrome.
    • Some children develop secondary bacterial infections of the middle ear, sinuses, lung and neck lymph nodes. These can be treated with antibiotics.
    • Children who have measles appear quite ill and are miserable, but the illness usually gets better without lasting ill effects within 7-10 days after symptoms started.
    • You can prevent your child from getting measles by making sure they receive the recommended vaccinations. The measles vaccine is part of the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine given at age 12-15 months and repeated at age 4-6 years.

Rubella (German measles)

Rubella is a much milder disease in children that’s also caused by a virus (rubivirus). Symptoms may begin 14-21 days after exposure to the virus. If contracted in the womb, rubella is a much more serious disease, causing deafness, heart abnormalities, eye problems, retardation, and other conditions in the newborn.

  • Symptoms in children
    • Rubella begins with a pink/red rash on the face then spreads to the rest of the body and gets better in about 4 days.
    • Your child does not appear to be very ill but may develop swollen lymph nodes in the neck, especially behind the ears.
  • Prevention
    • Rubella is also easily prevented with an effective vaccine (the MMR).
    • Rubella can be very serious to an unborn child if the mother develops rubella early in her pregnancy. All women of childbearing age should have their immune status verified.

Scarlet fever (Scarlatina)

Scarlet fever is strep throat with a rash. The throat infection is caused by streptococcal bacteria. It is most commonly seen in school-aged children in the winter and early spring, but it can occur in individuals of any age and in any season. It is very contagious, especially from saliva transmission. The risk of transmission can be decreased with good hand washing.

The rash is not serious, but serious complications can occur from the underlying strep throat infection. The most worrisome of these is rheumatic fever, a serious disease that can damage the heart valves and cause long-term heart disease.

  • Symptoms
    • The child’s symptoms begin with sore throat (which can be mild), fever, headache, abdominal pain, and swollen glands in the neck.
    • After 1-2 days of these symptoms, the child develops a rash on the body that is red like sunburn and has a sandpaper texture. The skin folds in the neck, armpits, elbows, groin and knees are usually a deeper red color compared to the overall rash. After 7-14 days, the rash sloughs off and peeling is usually present.
    • The face may look very flushed, but the skin around the mouth appears normal or pale.
    • The tongue can look like a strawberry- red with bumps.
  • Treatment
    • Streptococcal bacteria can be treated with antibiotics.
    • Have your child seen by your doctor immediately if you suspect he or she has strep throat or scarlet fever.
    • Your child will require a full course of antibiotics, which should be completed even if your child is feeling better before he or she completes the course.
    • Your child may return to school  24 hours after starting the antibiotics if the fever has resolved and he or she is feeling better.

Fifth disease

Fifth disease, also known as erythema infectiosum or “slapped cheeks” disease, is caused by a virus (parvovirus B19) spread via respiratory secretions such as coughs, sneezes, saliva, or nasal mucus. This disease tends to occur in the winter and spring but can happen year-round.

  • Symptoms
    • The child initially feels ill and tired; then a rash appears. The rash is characterized by bright red cheeks (the symptom inspiring the name slapped cheeks disease). The rash is warm, nontender, and sometimes itchy.
    • In 1-2 days a lacy rash spreads throughout the body. The rash appears to fade when the skin is cool, but with a warm bath or with activity, the rash becomes more pronounced. Once the rash appears, the child is no longer contagious.
  • Treatment
    • Fifth disease is not serious in otherwise healthy children but can pose a serious problem for children with sickle cell anemia, leukemia, or AIDS.
    • The disease can also cause problems in the unborn fetus of pregnant women.
    • Because the child is contagious only before the rash appears, children who develop the rash are free to return to day care or school.

Roseola Infantum

Roseola is also called exanthem subitum and is a common childhood illness caused by the human herpesvirus 6 or 7. The disease usually occurs in children younger than 4 years.

  • Symptoms
    • The symptoms are a high, spiking fever for typically 3-4 days followed by the onset of a rash.
    • The rash is small, pink, flat, or slightly raised lesions that appear on the trunk and spread to the neck and arms, and sometimes then to the face and legs.
    • The rash appears after the fevers begins to abate. This illness is many times referred to as “fever, fever, fever…rash”.
  • Treatment
    • Despite the worrisome fever, the disease is not harmful and gets better without specific therapy. Fever can be managed with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
    • The fever, especially if it rises rapidly, may result in a “febrile” seizure in susceptible children. Consult your health care provider if you have any concerns about a seizure.

Coxsackieviruses and other enteroviruses

The enteroviruses, including the coxsackieviruses, are a very common cause of fever and rash in children. Two typical diseases caused by coxsackieviruses are hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina. Coxsackievirus infections are more common in the summer and autumn.

  • Symptoms
    • In hand-foot-and-mouth disease, the children develop fever and rash. The rash includes blisters to the mouth and tongue and to the hands and the feet.
    • Herpangina (not caused by a “herpes” virus) causes a fever, sore throat, and painful blisters or ulcers on the back of the mouth that cause difficulty swallowing. Children may also have loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headaches, and joint pain.
  • Treatment
    • No specific treatment is available except acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) for fever. Aspirin and aspirin-like products should ALWAYS be avoided in children as it can cause a life-threatening condition called Reye’s syndrome.
    • Make sure the child is well hydrated since pain in the mouth and throat can lead to less liquid intake and dehydration.
    • The diseases are not harmful but can be prevented with good hand washing and not eating off someone else’s plate or sharing straws.


Impetigo is a superficial skin infection with streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria. It is often found around the nose and mouth but can occur anywhere. The rash is more common in the warmer months. It can also include infection of skin that has been damaged.

  • Symptoms
    • Impetigo begins as small superficial blisters that rupture leaving red, open patches of skin.
    • Often a honey-colored crust forms over this rash.
    • The rash is sometimes itchy.
    • Impetigo is also highly contagious. A child can spread the infection to other parts of their own body or to other people.
  • Treatment
    • This infection of the skin is easily treated with topical or oral antibiotics and washing the skin with antibacterial soap.
    • Your child usually is no longer contagious after 2-3 days of therapy, and the rash begins to heal in 3-5 days.
    • If the rash does not show signs of healing by the third day of treatment, or if it continues to spread while on therapy, your child needs to be seen by your doctor.
    • When the impetigo occurs in conjunction with poison ivy or scabies, your child may benefit from an anti-itch medication while the antibiotics are taking effect.

Fungal and Parasitic Rashes

Because children often share many things and are less likely to take cleanliness precautions than adults, parasites and fungal infections can spread quickly through a day care or your child’s class at school. Pay attention to any prolonged itching or hair loss your child might experience.


Scabies is an itchy rash that is often worsened with bathing or at night. It is caused by a mite, a very small insect (Sarcoptes scabiei) that burrows beneath the top layer of skin. It is spread by close bodily contact such as sleeping together or sharing of clothing. It can also be sexually transmitted. Mites can survive for several days in clothes, bedding, and dust.

  • Symptoms
    • The rash starts about 2 weeks after your child has come into contact with the mite.
    • The itchy rash of scabies tends to be found between the fingers, in the armpits, and on the inner wrists and arms. It tends to spare the head, palms, and soles except in infants and with severe infestations.
    • Sometimes you can see the wavy pattern where the mite has burrowed.
  • Treatment
    • To prevent scabies, good hygiene, frequent hand washing, and not sharing clothing with friends is important.
    • If your child has an itchy rash that lasts for more than 2-3 days, he or she should be checked by a doctor.
    • Prescription medications are available to kill the mites and to decrease the allergic skin reactions of swelling and itch.
    • Once anyone in the family is diagnosed with scabies, everyone in the home should be treated for mite infestation.
    • All clothing and bedding must be washed in hot water and the mattresses vacuumed.


Ringworm is a local infection of the skin with a fungus, usually Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii, orTrichophyton tonsurans. Doctors refer to these infections as “tinea” with several forms such as tinea corporis (ringworm on the body) and tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). Although the 2 are caused by the same organisms, they are treated differently. Ringworm can be caught from friends (exchanging combs, brushes, or hats) or from household pets. If you think your child may have ringworm, you should see your doctor.

  • Symptoms
    • With tinea corporis, the lesion starts as a red, slightly scaly, oval that gets bigger over time.
    • The rash may be slightly itchy.
    • The center of the rash may clear and appear to be normal skin.
    • Tinea capitis usually starts with a round to oval area on the scalp with hair loss
    • Sometimes, the area of the scalp will swell and may ooze. This is called a kerion and is a reaction of the body to the tinea fungus.
    • Tinea capitis may also present as normal-to-severe dandruff with hairless patches on the scalp.
  • Treatment
    • Tinea corporis can easily be treated with topical medications available from your doctor.
    • Unfortunately, it can be easily spread among family members and friends, making multiple unwanted return visits.
    • Good hygiene combined with appropriate therapy can break this cycle.
    • If complications such as a secondary bacterial skin infection occurs,or there is no improvement after four weeks, call your doctor.
    • Tinea capitis requires an oral medication from your doctor.

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is also caused by a fungal infection of the skin.

  • Symptoms
    • A very itchy rash between the toes is usually caused by athlete’s foot.
  • Treatment
    • Although athlete’s foot can be treated with over-the-counter medications, other causes of rash can appear similar. It is best to have your child checked by the doctor if you suspect athlete’s foot.

Rashes in the Newborn

When you first bring your baby home from the hospital, every little bump or red patch causes alarm. It is normal for your baby to have some skin rashes. Diaper rash and cradle cap are par for the course with newborns. If you suspect that your child has more than a simple skin irritation, it is best to see a doctor.


  • Symptoms
    • Small yellow to white dots on the nose, cheeks and chin occur in healthy newborns.
    • Small cysts or milia of the gums or roof of the mouth are called Epstein’s pearls
  • Treatment
    • Milia go away by themselves and require no therapy.
    • These dots are not contagious.

Seborrheic Dermatitis (Cradle Cap)

  • Symptoms
    • Cradle cap is a greasy, scaly, red, bumpy rash that can occur on the scalp, behind the ears, in the armpits, and the diaper area.
  • Treatment
    • This rash is not harmful and can be easily treated by your doctor. No emergency care is required.

Infantile Acne

Infantile acne is a disorder that will go away on its own and that occurs primarily in male babies in the first 6 weeks of life. Although treatment is not required, you can discuss options with your doctor.

Erythema Toxicum

This rash has a scary name but should really be called “the normal newborn rash” because it occurs in about half of all newborns.

  • Symptoms
    • The rash starts with small blisters on a red base.
    • Sometimes only the blotchy red base shows, and sometimes the blisters have a white or yellow material inside.
    • The rash starts the second or third day of life and usually gets better in 1-2 weeks.
  • Treatment
    • The rash is not serious, is not contagious, and does not require treatment.
    • The rash can look similar to other types of rash, so see your doctor with any questions or concerns.

Miliaria (Prickly Heat)

This rash includes small, clear blisters usually on the nose. It is caused by the production of sweat in a warm environment and plugged sweat glands. This rash is more common when the child is dressed too warmly. It gets better on its own.

Candidal Rash (Yeast Infection)

This diaper rash is a fungal or yeast infection of the skin by Candida albicans. This is the same organism that causes thrush, the white plaques in the mouth of infants. The combination of the moist diaper environment and the presence of C albicans in the normal gastrointestinal tract of children causes a candidal rash.

  • Symptoms
    • An intensely red, raised rash with discreet borders is found. The borders may have a ring of fine scales.
    • Surrounding the main area of rash there may be smaller lesions, called satellite lesions, which are characteristic of candidal diaper rashes.
    • The rash tends to involve the creases and folds because of the warm, moist environment.
  • Treatment
    • This rash is easily treated by medications available from your doctor, but it tends to recur. Your doctor will want to check for thrush as well.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

A greasy, scaly, red diaper rash, seborrheic dermatitis tends to occur in the creases and folds just as in candidal rashes. Unlike candidal rashes, the rash is usually not intensely red or scaly but instead is usually moist and greasy in appearance. This rash is not harmful and can be easily treated by your doctor.

Irritant Diaper Rash

The effects of urine and feces on the sensitive skin of the newborn cause this rash. The creases and folds are spared in this rash, unlike seborrhea or candidal diaper rash.

  • Treatment
    • To prevent diaper rash, change soiled or wet diapers as soon as possible.
    • Make sure that baby clothing is well rinsed, and do not use fabric softeners because this may irritate delicate skin.
    • Many doctors suggest allowing the bottom to go bare for several hours a day, especially to help heal a diaper rash.
    • Topical ointments with zinc oxide or Vaseline also provide a barrier and may help with healing of a diaper rash.

Skin rashes in children – Injuries & first aid

Childhood rashes are common and aren’t usually a cause for concern. Most rashes are harmless and disappear without the need for treatment.

However, see your GP if your child has a rash and seems unwell, or if you’re worried. They’ll be able to investigate the cause and recommend any necessary treatment.

This page may give you a better idea about what could be causing the rash, but don’t use this to self-diagnose your child’s condition – always see a GP for a proper diagnosis.

The most common causes of rashes in children are:

Although meningitis has become less common over recent years, it’s important to be aware of the rash and the other signs and symptoms of meningitis.


Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of skin and underlying tissue. The affected area will be red, painful, swollen and hot. It often affects the legs, but can occur anywhere on the body. Your child will probably also have a fever.

See your GP immediately if an area of your child’s skin suddenly turns red, hot and tender. If you can’t see your GP on the same day, go to a walk-in centre or minor injuries unit.

Cellulitis can usually be diagnosed by assessing the symptoms and examining the skin. It usually responds well to treatment with antibiotics.


Chickenpox is a viral illness that most children catch at some point. It most commonly affects children under 10 years of age.

A rash of itchy spots turns into fluid-filled blisters. They crust over to form scabs, which after a while drop off. Some children only have a few spots, whereas others have them over their entire body. The spots are most likely to appear on the face, ears and scalp, under the arms, on the chest and belly, and on the arms and legs.

There’s no specific treatment for chickenpox, but you can take steps to relieve the symptoms. For example, paracetamol can help relieve fever (don’t give aspirin to children under 16), and calamine lotion and cooling gels can be used to ease itching.

Read more about treating chickenpox.


Eczema is a long-term condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. The most common type is atopic eczema, which mainly affects children but can continue into adulthood.

Atopic eczema commonly develops behind the knees or on the elbows, neck, eyes and ears. It isn’t a serious condition, but if your child later becomes infected with the herpes simplex virus, it can cause the eczema to flare up into an outbreak of tiny blisters called eczema herpeticum, and will cause a fever.

About one in five children in the UK has eczema, and in eight out 10 cases it develops before the age of five, often before a child’s first birthday. 

Read about treating atopic eczema.

Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme is a skin rash (usually mild) that’s caused by an allergic reaction to the herpes simplex virus.

The spots look like targets, with a dark red centre and paler ring around the outside. The hands or feet tend to be affected first, followed by the limbs, upper body and face.

Your child will probably feel unwell and may have a fever, which you should be able to treat with over-the-counter medicine. It may take from two to six weeks before they feel better. See your GP if your child has a rash and seems unwell.

In rare cases, erythema multiforme can be triggered by a reaction to certain medications, such as an antibiotic or anticonvulsant. This more severe form is called Stevens-Johnson syndrome and it can be life-threatening.

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common, contagious infection that causes mouth ulcers and spots and blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

It’s most common in young children (particularly those under 10), but it can also affect older children and adults.

There’s no cure for hand, foot and mouth disease and it’s easily spread, so you should keep your child away from school or nursery until they’re better. Your child’s immune system will fight the virus and it should clear up after about seven to 10 days.

Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluid, and if eating and swallowing is uncomfortable, give them soft foods, such as mashed potatoes, yoghurt and soup.


Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection that causes sores and blisters. It isn’t usually serious and often improves within a week of treatment. There are two types of impetigo – bullous and non-bullous.

Bullous impetigo typically affects the trunk (the area of the body between the waist and neck), and causes fluid-filled blisters that burst after a few days to leave a yellow crust.

Non-bullous impetigo typically affects the skin around the nose and mouth, causing sores that quickly burst to leave a yellow-brown crust.

See your GP if you think your child has impetigo. Antibiotics, in the form of a cream or tablets, will be prescribed. This should reduce the length of the illness to around seven to 10 days.

Keratosis pilaris (“chicken skin”)

Keratosis pilaris is a common and harmless skin condition. The skin on the back of the upper arms becomes rough and bumpy, as if covered in permanent goose pimples. Sometimes, the buttocks, thighs, forearms and upper back can also be affected.

Keratosis pilaris typically begins in childhood and gets worse during puberty. Some people find it improves after this and may even disappear in adulthood.

There’s no cure for keratosis pilaris, and it often gets better on its own without treatment. However, there are some measures you can take that may improve your child’s rash, such as using non-soap cleansers rather than soap, and an emollient to moisturise their skin. Your GP or pharmacist will be able to recommend a suitable cream.


Measles is a highly infectious illness that most commonly affects young children. It’s now rare in the UK because of the effectiveness of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

The measles rash is red-brown blotches. It usually starts on the head or upper neck and then spreads outwards to the rest of the body. Your child may also have a fever and cold-like symptoms.

Call your GP surgery immediately if you think your child has measles. It’s best to phone before visiting because the surgery may need to make arrangements to reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

Measles usually passes in about seven to 10 days without causing further problems. Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to relieve fever, aches and pains (don’t give aspirin to children under 16). Also, make sure your child drinks plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

Read more about treating measles.

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes clusters of small, firm, raised spots to develop on the skin.

It commonly affects young children aged one to five years, who tend to catch it after close physical contact with another infected child.

The condition is usually painless, although some children may experience some itchiness. It usually goes away within 18 months without the need for treatment.

Molluscum contagiosum is highly infectious. However, most adults are resistant to the virus, which means they’re unlikely to catch it if they come into contact with it.

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a relatively common skin condition that causes a temporary rash of raised, red scaly patches to develop on the body. Most cases occur in older children and young adults (aged between 10 and 35).

The rash can be very itchy. In most cases, it clears up without treatment in 2 to 12 weeks, although in rare cases it can last up to five months.

Emollients, steroid creams and antihistamines can be used to help relieve the itchiness. The rash doesn’t usually leave scars, although the skin can sometimes be discoloured afterwards.

Prickly heat (heat rash)

Prickly heat (heat rash), also known as miliaria, is an itchy rash of small, raised red spots that causes a stinging or prickly sensation on the skin.

It occurs when the sweat ducts in the outer layer of skin (epidermis) are obstructed. You can get a heat rash anywhere on your body, but the face, neck, back, chest or thighs are most often affected.

Infants can sometimes get a prickly heat rash if they sweat more than usual – for example, when it’s hot and humid or if they’re overdressed. It isn’t a serious condition and rarely requires any specific treatment.


Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales.

The severity of psoriasis varies greatly from person to person. For some people, it’s just a minor irritation, but for others it can have a major impact on their quality of life. 

There’s no cure for psoriasis, but there are a number of treatments that can help improve the symptoms and appearance of skin patches. For example, topical corticosteroids are creams and ointments that can be applied to the skin.


Ringworm is a highly infectious fungal skin infection that causes a ring-like red or silvery patch on the skin that can be scaly, inflamed or itchy.

Ringworm often affects the arms and legs, but it can appear almost anywhere on the body. Other similar fungal infections can affect the scalp, feet, groin and nails.

Ringworm can usually be easily treated with antifungal medicines, which are available from a pharmacy. Ringworm of the scalp can cause scaling and patches of hair loss. It’s treated with antifungal tablets, often combined with antifungal shampoo.


Scabies is a contagious skin condition that’s intensely itchy. It’s caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin.

In children, scabies is usually spread through prolonged periods of skin-to-skin contact with an infected adult or child – for example, during play fighting or hugging.

The mites like warm places, such as skin folds, between the fingers, under fingernails, or around the buttock creases. They leave small red blotches, which are often found on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet. In infants, blisters are commonly found on the soles of the feet. 

See your GP if you think your child has scabies. It’s not usually a serious condition, but it does need to be treated. Your GP will prescribe a lotion or cream. Read more about treating scabies.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a highly contagious bacterial infection that usually affects children between two and eight years of age. It causes a distinctive pink-red rash, which feels like sandpaper to touch and may be itchy.

It often starts with a sore throat, fever and headache, with the rash developing two to five days after infection. The rash usually occurs on the chest and stomach before spreading to other areas of the body, such as the ears and neck.

Scarlet fever usually clears up after about a week, but see your GP if you think your child may have it. Antibiotics are used to treat it (liquid antibiotics, such as penicillin or amoxicillin, are often used to treat children).

Slapped cheek syndrome

Slapped cheek syndrome – also known as fifth disease or parvovirus B19 – is a viral infection that’s common in children aged six to 10.

It causes a distinctive bright red rash to develop on both cheeks. This can look alarming, but it usually clears up by itself in one to three weeks.

Unless your child is feeling unwell, they don’t need to stay away from school. Once the rash appears, the infection is no longer contagious. However, it’s a good idea to notify your child’s school about the infection.

Urticaria (hives)

Urticaria – also known as hives, weals, welts or nettle rash – is a raised, itchy rash that can affect one part of the body or be spread across large areas. It’s a common skin reaction that often affects children.

Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin. These substances cause the blood vessels in the skin to open up, resulting in redness or pinkness, and swelling and itchiness.

There are many possible triggers of urticaria, including allergens, such as food or latex, irritants, such as nettles, medicines, and physical factors, such as heat or exercise. Sometimes, a cause can’t be identified.

The rash is usually short-lived and mild, and can often be controlled with antihistamines.

Common Diaper Rashes & Treatments

By: Ingrid Polcari MD, FAAP

At least half of all babies get a diaper rash at some point. In fact, reddened, inflamed skin in the diaper area is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical care from their child’s doctor. You’re not alone!

1. Irritant diaper rash

The most common type of diaper rash is “irritant dermatitis.” The diaper area spends much of the day in contact with two very irritating substances: urine and stool. If your child has diarrhea or is
teething―meaning extra saliva is being swallowed and passes through the gut―the chance of developing a diaper rash is even greater.

Irritant diaper rash looks like pink or red patches on the skin covered by the diaper. The groin folds are more protected from urine and stool, so this skin usually looks normal.

Image caption: Examples of irritant diaper rash. The far right photo shows a more severe case with open sores.

2. Yeast infection

Another fairly common cause of diaper rash is yeast infection, caused by overgrowth of a type of fungus found naturally in the digestive tract. Clues that the rash might be due to a yeast infection include shiny, bright red or pink patches with sharp edges. This rash may also have little pink bumps or pimples. In severe cases, there may be sores or cracking skin that oozes or bleeds. Unlike with irritant diaper rash, a yeast diaper rash is usually worse in the groin folds.

A yeast diaper rash may develop after your baby has taken antibiotics. If your baby has this type of diaper rash, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly before and after diaper changes. Your pediatrician may recommend or prescribe a topical antifungal cream for the rash.

Thrush and Other Candida Infections.

Image caption: Scaling skin spreading to the thighs and abdomen is typical with a yeast (candida) diaper rash.

3. Bacteria

Rarely, diaper rash can be caused by a bacterial infection. This is also called
impetigo. Certain types of bacteria (like
staph and
strep) can cause diaper rash or make an existing one worse. Bright red skin around the anus can be a clue to a strep infection. Yellow crusting, weeping, or pimples can be a clue to a staphylococcus or “staph” infection. Any infection in the diaper area needs to be confirmed and treated by your child’s doctor.

Image caption: Left, strep infection diaper rash; Right: staph diaper infection

Do not use over-the-counter antibiotic ointment for diaper rashes; sometimes ingredients in these products can worsen skin irritation.

4. Allergy

Occasionally, babies with sensitive skin may have an
allergic reaction to a specific ingredient in diapers, wipes, and/or creams. Common allergens include dyes or elastics in the diaper, and fragrances or preservatives in diaper wipes or creams. Clues that might suggest an allergy include a rash that happens after every exposure to that product and a rash that shows up everywhere that product is applied. Switching brands or types of products for a 2-week period can sometimes help sort this out. 

Image caption: allergic reaction to diaper wipes.

5. Other rare types of diaper rashes

There are rare conditions that can start as or mimic diaper rash. Examples include seborrheic dermatitis, which may involve overproduction of oil in the skin, and pediatric
psoriasis. Genetic conditions such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, an inherited form of zinc deficiency, may also cause rashes in the diaper area. 

Bottom Line:

Talk with your pediatrician if you have any questions about diaper rashes, and how to treat and prevent them.

Additional Information:

About Dr. Polcari: 

Ingrid Polcari MD, FAAP, is an Assistant Professor in the Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics at the University of Minnesota and is the Program Director of the Dermatology Residency Program at the University of Minnesota. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, she is a member of the Section on Dermatology. She is also a member of the Education Committee within the Society for Pediatric Dermatology.  

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Staphylococcal Infections – HealthyChildren.org

Infections caused by staphylococcal organisms can lead to a variety of diseases, including pneumonia, abscesses, bone infection (osteomyelitis), joint infection (arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related illnesses, including toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, and staphylococcal-related food poisoning. In fact, staphylococcal bacteria are the leading cause of food poisoning.

Some of the childhood infections associated with Staphylococcus that you should be familiar with include the following:

  • Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that first affects the outer layers of the skin and then may spread more deeply into body tissues under the skin. Although other types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, Saureus is responsible for many childhood cases. Symptoms include redness, swelling, warmth, and tenderness of the skin. Your pediatrician may diagnose the infection by examining the area. The doctor may take a culture of the skin or wound, and blood tests may be ordered to identify the organism involved. Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually prescribed for mild cellulitis. Some severe cases require hospitalization with intravenous antibiotics.With proper treatment, most cases clear up in 7 to 10 days.
  • Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in young children, developing most often during hot, humid summers and usually appearing on the face around the nose, mouth, and ears. It can be caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. (More often, it is caused by a staphylococcal infection.) Staphylococcal organisms sometimes can cause blisters. Your pediatrician may diagnose the infection by taking a sample of the material from within the blister and having it tested in the laboratory. Antibiotics should be prescribed for this condition and are usually taken by mouth. In mild cases, an antibiotic cream or ointment can be applied to the skin. Until the rash heals or for at least the first 2 days of antibiotic treatment, your child should avoid close contact with other children.
  • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a disease that affects infants and young children. It tends to begin with a single staphylococcal skin infection, often in a baby’s diaper area, in which bacteria produce a toxin that reddens and damages the skin. Large sections of the top layer of skin (epidermis) can be peeled or slipped away just by pressing down lightly or rubbing the affected area, exposing a raw and red layer that is vulnerable to other infectious organisms. These children can also run a fever. Your pediatrician may put your child on intravenous antibiotics. Warm compresses can be placed on the skin to ease any discomfort. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome usually heals without scarring.

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Cellulitis in an Infant or a Baby: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures for Parents – Overview


Information for

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Images of Cellulitis


Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin that can appear as a red, swollen area of skin that may feel warm to the touch. The most common bacteria causing cellulitis include Haemophilus, Staphylococcus, or Streptococcus. While the skin may appear to be intact, there are often very small cracks (fissures) in the skin through which the bacteria enter. The infant may also have a fever or seem fussy.

While the infection may be just on the top skin layer (superficial), it can also affect deeper tissues, involving the muscle, bone, and possibly blood. It is important to recognize cellulitis as early as possible so it can be treated with antibiotics. If left untreated, cellulitis may turn into a life-threatening condition.

Who’s at risk?

Cellulitis can occur in infants, and the site of the original injury may not be apparent. Cellulitis can be caused by an accidental injury by the caregiver or by the infant causing self-injury (such as from scratching). Having a weakened immune system is another risk factor for developing a cellulitis infection.

Signs and Symptoms

The most common locations for cellulitis include:

  • Lower legs
  • Arms or hands
  • Face

Cellulitis initially appears as pink-to-red, slightly inflamed skin. The affected skin quickly becomes deeper red, swollen, warm, and tender, and the affected area increases in size as the infection spreads. Occasionally, red streaks may radiate outward on the skin from the site of the cellulitis. Blisters or pus-filled pockets (pustules) may be present.

Cellulitis may occur with swollen lymph glands. Fever and chills are common.

Self-Care Guidelines

There are no self-care treatments for cellulitis. See your infant’s physician immediately or take the infant to the emergency room. If an arm or leg is involved, you can raise (elevate) the affected body part to reduce or prevent swelling.

When to Seek Medical Care

If your child develops a tender, red, warm, enlarging area on the skin, see a doctor as soon as possible. If your child also has fever and chills, or if the area is on the child’s face, you should go to the emergency room.

If your child is currently being treated for a skin infection that has not improved after 2–3 days of antibiotics, return to the child’s doctor.

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a strain of “staph” bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the penicillin family, which have been the cornerstone of antibiotic therapy for staph and skin infections for decades. CA-MRSA previously infected only small segments of the population, such as health care workers and persons using injection drugs. However, CA-MRSA is now a common cause of skin infections in the general population. While CA-MRSA bacteria are resistant to penicillin and penicillin-related antibiotics, most staph infections with CA-MRSA can be easily treated by health care practitioners using local skin care and commonly available non-penicillin-family antibiotics. Rarely, CA-MRSA can cause the serious skin and soft tissue (deeper) infection cellulitis, which requires intravenous (IV) antibiotics in most people to clear the infection. If you think your child may have a cellulitis, contact his or her doctor immediately.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Although your child’s doctor may easily diagnose cellulitis, he or she may wish to order other procedures such as blood tests or a skin biopsy. In addition, the doctor may perform a bacterial culture to find out what type of bacteria may be causing the cellulitis.

In the culture procedure, the doctor will:

  1. Penetrate any blisters or pus-filled pockets with a needle, scalpel, or small blade (lancet).
  2. Rub a sterile cotton swab across the skin to collect the sample.
  3. Send the specimen away to a laboratory for evaluation.

If there are many bacteria present in the sample, the laboratory will usually have some idea of what type it is within 48–72 hours. However, the culture may take a full week or more to produce final results. In addition to identifying the type of bacteria that is causing the cellulitis, the laboratory usually performs a test (antibiotic sensitivity testing) to determine which antibiotics will be most effective in killing off the bacteria.

While waiting for the results from the bacterial culture, the doctor will probably want to start your child on an antibiotic to fight the most common bacteria that cause cellulitis. Once the final culture results have returned, the physician may change the antibiotic, especially if your child is not improving on the one initially prescribed.

Mild cases of cellulitis in otherwise healthy people can be treated on an outpatient basis with oral antibiotic pills or syrups. Common oral antibiotics that are used to treat cellulitis include:

  • Dicloxacillin
  • Cephalexin
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Clindamycin
  • Erythromycin

However, ill-appearing children who have other illnesses, or those who have cellulitis of the face, may need to be admitted to the hospital for observation and so they can receive injected (intravenous) antibiotics. Common intravenous antibiotics used in hospitals to treat cellulitis include:

  • Nafcillin
  • Oxacillin
  • Cefazolin
  • Vancomycin
  • Linezolid

If your child’s doctor prescribes antibiotics, be sure the child takes the full course of treatment. In addition to prescribing antibiotics, the doctor will likely want to make sure that your child has no other medical problems.

Trusted Links

Clinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Cellulitis


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1123-1124. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp. 1845, 1848, 1883. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Rash, Age 11 and Younger | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Does your child have a rash?

How old are you?

Less than 3 months

Less than 3 months

3 months to less than 3 years

3 months to less than 3 years

3 to 11 years

3 to 11 years

12 years or older

12 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Does your child have a tick bite?

Has your child been bitten or stung by an insect or spider?


Insect or spider bite or sting


Insect or spider bite or sting

Does your baby seem sick?

A sick baby probably will not be acting normally. For example, the baby may be much fussier than usual or not want to eat.

How sick do you think your baby is?

Extremely sick

Baby is very sick (limp and not responsive)


Baby is sick (sleepier than usual, not eating or drinking like usual)

Could your child be having a severe allergic reaction?

This is more likely if your child has had a bad reaction to something in the past.


Possible severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)


Possible severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)

Have tiny red or purple spots or bruises appeared suddenly?


Sudden appearance of red or purple spots or bruising


Sudden appearance of red or purple spots or bruising

Does your child feel lightheaded and dizzy, like he or she is going to faint?

It’s normal for some people to feel a little lightheaded when they first stand up. But anything more than that may be serious.


Feels faint or lightheaded


Feels faint or lightheaded

Is your child bleeding now?


Abnormal bleeding now present


Abnormal bleeding now present

Are there red streaks leading away from the area or pus draining from it?

Does your child have diabetes, a weakened immune system, or any surgical hardware in the area?

“Hardware” includes things like artificial joints, plates or screws, catheters, and medicine pumps.


Diabetes, immune problems, or surgical hardware in affected area


Diabetes, immune problems, or surgical hardware in affected area

Do you think that the rash may have been caused by abuse or neglect?


Rash may be caused by abuse or neglect


Rash may be caused by abuse or neglect

Do you think your baby has a fever?

Did you take a rectal temperature?

Taking a rectal temperature is the only way to be sure that a baby this age does not have a fever. If you don’t know the rectal temperature, it’s safest to assume the baby has a fever and needs to be seen by a doctor. Any problem that causes a fever at this age could be serious.


Rectal temperature taken


Rectal temperature taken

Is it 100.4°F (38°C) or higher?


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)

Do you think your child has a fever?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.

High: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

High fever: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Moderate fever: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

Mild fever: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

How high do you think the fever is?


Feels fever is moderate

Mild or low

Feels fever is mild

How long has your child had a fever?

Less than 2 days (48 hours)

Fever for less than 2 days

From 2 days to less than 1 week

Fever for more than 2 days and less than 1 week

1 week or longer

Fever for 1 week or more

Does your child have a rash that looks like a sunburn?

Does your child have a health problem or take medicine that weakens his or her immune system?


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

Does the rash have blisters?

Does the rash cover:

A rash that covers most of the body is on both sides of the body and on most of the legs, arms, back, or belly. A rash in one area may be just one small patch. Or it may be two or three small patches that cover a small area.

Most of the body?

Rash is all over the body

Or is it in one area?

Rash is in one area of the body

Is the rash a red, peeling rash that leaves very large areas raw and oozing fluid?


Red, peeling rash with large areas that are raw and ooze fluid


Red, peeling rash with large areas that are raw and ooze fluid

Does your child have a sore throat?

Certain illnesses can cause a rash and a sore throat. Your child may need to be seen sooner if he or she has both.

Are there sores or a rash inside the mouth or nose or in the eyes?


Rash or sores in mouth, nose, or eyes


Rash or sores in mouth, nose, or eyes

Has your child had a sore on the skin for more than a week?


Sore on the skin for more than 1 week


Sore on the skin for more than 1 week

Does your child have a new rash in the shape of a band or a strip on just one side of the body?


New band-shaped rash on one side


New band-shaped rash on one side

Do you think that a medicine or a vaccine could be causing the rash?

Think about whether the rash appeared after you began using a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine. Or did it start after you got a shot or vaccine?


Medicine may be causing rash


Medicine may be causing rash

Is the itching severe?

Severe means that you are scratching so hard that your skin is cut or bleeding.

Has the itching interfered with sleeping or normal activities for more than 2 days?


Itching has disrupted sleep or normal activities for more than 2 days


Itching has disrupted sleep or normal activities for more than 2 days

Does the rash produce a honey-colored drainage that dries into crusts and covers an area larger than 2 in. (5.1 cm)?


Honey-colored drainage that dries into crusts and covers more than 2 in. (5.1 cm)


Honey-colored drainage that dries into crusts and covers more than 2 in. (5.1 cm)

Has your child had a rash for more than 2 weeks?


Rash for more than 2 weeks


Rash for more than 2 weeks

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

If you’re not sure if a child’s fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • The child feels very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers the child has ever had.

With a moderate fever:

  • The child feels warm or hot.
  • You are sure the child has a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • The child may feel a little warm.
  • You think the child might have a fever, but you’re not sure.

Abnormal bleeding means any heavy or frequent bleeding or any bleeding that is not normal for you. Examples of abnormal bleeding include:

  • Nosebleeds.
  • Vaginal bleeding that is different (heavier, more frequent, at a different time of month) than what you are used to.
  • Rectal bleeding and bloody stools.
  • Bloody or pink urine.
  • Gums that bleed easily when you eat or gently brush your teeth.

When you have abnormal bleeding in one area of your body, it’s important to think about whether you have been bleeding anywhere else. This can be a symptom of a more serious health problem.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and congenital heart disease.
  • Steroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Not having a spleen.

Symptoms of infection may include:

  • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or around the area.
  • Red streaks leading from the area.
  • Pus draining from the area.
  • A fever.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth), ear, or rectal temperature

  • High: 104° F (40° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 100.4° F (38° C) to 103.9° F (39.9° C)
  • Mild: 100.3° F (37.9° C) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5° F (0.3° C) to 1° F (0.6° C) lower than an oral temperature.

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 103° F (39.5° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 99.4° F (37.4° C) to 102.9° F (39.4° C)
  • Mild: 99.3° F (37.3° C) and lower

Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.

Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:

  • The baby is limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • The baby doesn’t respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • The baby is hard to wake up.

Symptoms of serious illness may include:

  • A severe headache.
  • A stiff neck.
  • Mental changes, such as feeling confused or much less alert.
  • Extreme fatigue (to the point where it’s hard for you to function).
  • Shaking chills.

Sudden tiny red or purple spots or sudden bruising may be early symptoms of a serious illness or bleeding problem. There are two types.

Petechiae (say “puh-TEE-kee-eye”):

  • Are tiny, flat red or purple spots in the skin or the lining of the mouth.
  • Do not turn white when you press on them.
  • Range from the size of a pinpoint to the size of a small pea and do not itch or cause pain.
  • May spread over a large area of the body within a few hours.
  • Are different than tiny, flat red spots or birthmarks that are present all the time.

Purpura (say “PURR-pyuh-ruh” or “PURR-puh-ruh”):

  • Is sudden, severe bruising that occurs for no clear reason.
  • May be in one area or all over.
  • Is different than the bruising that happens after you bump into something.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) may include:

  • The sudden appearance of raised, red areas (hives) all over the body.
  • Rapid swelling of the throat, mouth, or tongue.
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Passing out (losing consciousness). Or you may feel very lightheaded or suddenly feel weak, confused, or restless.

A severe reaction can be life-threatening. If you have had a bad allergic reaction to a substance before and are exposed to it again, treat any symptoms as an emergency. Even if the symptoms are mild at first, they may quickly become very severe.

A baby that is extremely sick:

  • May be limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • May not respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • May be hard to wake up.

A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):

  • May be sleepier than usual.
  • May not eat or drink as much as usual.

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause a rash. A few common examples are:

  • Antibiotics.
  • Aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve).
  • Pain medicines, such as codeine.
  • Seizure medicines.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur quickly after a sudden illness or injury.

Babies and young children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Being very sleepy or hard to wake up.
  • Not responding when being touched or talked to.
  • Breathing much faster than usual.
  • Acting confused. The child may not know where he or she is.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Rash, Age 12 and Older

Insect Bites and Stings and Spider Bites

Tick Bites

Fever and skin rashes (contagious diseases) | From Tiny Tot to Toddler

Many children develop fever and a rash (pimples or red patches, or both) at the same time. This could be a sign of infection. Most of these infections are caused by viruses and last a few days. They go away by themselves and have no long-term effects.

The most common infections are roseola and hand, foot and mouth disease. There’s also fifth disease and scarlet fever, but they rarely occur in children under two.

Thanks to vaccination programs, measles and rubella are now very rare. Chickenpox is also becoming less common due to the recent introduction of a vaccine.


Childcare services usually have clear policies about keeping kids at home in the event of illness. Read these rules or ask the childcare provider if your child can attend daycare.

Roseola is characterized by a high fever that stops after 3 to 5 days. Small pink spots then appear on the face, neck, and trunk. By the time the spots or redness appear, the child is almost healed.

Roseola is caused by a virus. It is common in children 3 to 24 months old.

We don’t know how it spreads. There is no vaccine to prevent it, but it’s not very contagious. Once better, the child is probably protected for life.

In most cases, the child’s general condition is good during the illness.

What to do?

There is no treatment for roseola.

You can give your child acetaminophen if she’s not feeling well and is feverish. You can also use ibuprofen if she’s over 6 months old.

You don’t have to quarantine her. She can return to her usual activities as soon as she’s feeling better.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is another type of viral infection. It usually occurs in the summer and generally affects young children.

It can cause fever, discomfort, and small, painful ulcers in the mouth. Small red pimples or little blisters may appear on the hands and feet, and sometimes on the rest of the body.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is generally not serious.

What to do?

There is no treatment for this infection, which can last 7 to 10 days.

Bacterial meningitis

Children are vaccinated against the three main bacteria that cause meningitis: meningococcus, pneumococcus, and Hæmophilus influenzæ. As a result, these infections are now rare. They do occur occasionally because vaccines don’t cover all strains of the bacteria.

Children with meningitis quickly become very ill. They have fever, pain, and headache. They may become irritable and very sleepy. Red or blue spots may appear on the body.

Children with bacterial meningitis appear very ill, and parents will want to consult a doctor right away.

Viral meningitis

Various viruses cause this type of meningitis. There is no specific treatment. It is usually not dangerous and generally goes away without causing any lasting effects.

What to do if your child has a fever and a rash

Generally the presence of a rash (i.e., pimples or red patches on the skin) with fever does not indicate a serious illness. It’s usually better to consider the child’s general condition rather than the presence of a rash or how high the fever is.

Keep a close eye on your child’s general condition, behavior, and other symptoms. It’s normal for a feverish child to need more cuddling and be less hungry than usual. Contact Info-Santé or your doctor if your child has a rash and has been feverish for over 72 hours.

The Canadian Paediatric Society has a website for parents that provides more information on these contagious illnesses and on vaccination: www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/illnesses-index.

90,000 Sexual infections in men, their symptoms and treatment

Sexual infections in men develop mainly due to unprotected sexual intercourse due to the penetration of viruses and bacteria into the body. With good immunity of the body, most of these diseases tend to a latent course and they are detected during screening or when they affect other organs, leading to inflammation of various localization (for example, urethritis, prostatitis, vesiculitis, cystitis, orchitis, epididymitis, etc.) or, more sadly, premature ejaculation, decreased erectile function, up to impotence and, in some cases, infertility.

Common genital infections in men

There are several dozen genital infections in total, the most common of which are:

  • syphilis (causative agent – Treponema Palidum)
  • chlamydia (causative agent – Chlamydia trachomatis)
  • (causative agent – Chlamydia trachomatis)
  • (causative agent – gonorrhea or gonorrhea Gonorrea)
  • genital herpes (causative agent – Herpes simplex virus type 1/2)
  • Trichomoniasis (causative agent – Trichomonas vaginalis)
  • human papillomavirus (causative agent – HPV (HPV))
  • gardnerellosis (causative agent – Gardnerella vaginalis)
  • mycoplasmosis (causative agent – Mycoplasma genitalum / hominis)

  • Cytomegalovirus (causative agent – Cytomegalovirus) and others.

All these diseases pose a serious threat not only to the male body, but also to the body of his partner. Against the background of a prolonged inflammatory process, healthy organ cells are damaged from which new, but already atypical cells grow, which is the onset of cancer.

Routes of transmission

The main route of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is any type of sexual contact. The more often a man changes sexual partners, the higher the risk of infection.In this case, you can become infected with several infections at once. Sometimes diseases of the genital area can be obtained in the household way, in contact with an infected person. So, even children who, for example, sleep in the same bed with infected parents, can become infected. Infection also occurs when using common hygiene products.

Infection of the genitals is possible when visiting public pools, saunas and baths. As a rule, in this case, men with weakened immune systems and the elderly are at greatest risk.

General symptoms

As already mentioned, many of the genital infections are not characterized by any pronounced clinical manifestations until the moment when the damage to the body becomes very significant. As a rule, a man who has contracted a sexually transmitted disease may notice the following symptoms:

  • slight discomfort or occasional discomfort in the groin areas
  • discomfort in the pubic region or in the lower abdomen
  • discomfort or discomfort in the perineum
  • cramps and pains when urinating
  • false or frequent urge to urinate
  • need to urinate at night
  • itching in the genital area
  • the appearance of rashes or redness of the glans penis and foreskin
  • discharge from the urethra
  • discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse act
  • premature ejaculation
  • decrease in sexual function
  • the appearance of formation in the skin of the genitals

One of the most typical symptoms of all latent infections – pain, discomfort, redness or discharge at the beginning of mogu t and pass independently without any help thanks to immunity.But if they reappeared and last more than 5 days, this is already a call for help from the body.

If several genital infections or re-infections develops in the body at the same time (due to repeated infection with frequent sexual intercourse and a large number of sexual partners) and there is no adequate complex treatment, the disease often becomes chronic.

It is important to remember that there is no immunity to STIs and each of us can get infected. And if there has already been unprotected contact and there are any doubts or suspicions, then we recommend contacting a doctor.

Genital infections in men and problems with conception

As mentioned above, genital infections can lead to problems with conceiving a child or infertility. The thing is that pathogenic microorganisms present in the body of a man, first of all, have a negative effect on the quality of sperm, causing impaired sperm motility. In addition, the morphological properties of sperm also change negatively.

Some genital infections with a prolonged course can lead to a violation of the patency of the vas deferens, which also interferes with normal conception.Infertility can also develop as a result of complications of sexual diseases, such as orchiepidymitis, prostatitis, the presence of leukocytes in the semen, etc.

We must not forget that, being infected, a man can also infect his partner. Pelvic inflammatory disease is just as dangerous for women as it is for men, causing serious complications and infertility.

Diagnostics and treatment in our clinic

Experienced specialists of our clinic will draw up a competent examination plan for detecting sexually transmitted infections, as well as prescribe the necessary treatment.

To clarify the diagnosis, we use effective methods of laboratory diagnostics:

  • PCR diagnostics
  • DNA diagnostics
  • enzyme immunoassay
  • bacterial inoculation.

Treatment is complex and is selected individually, taking into account the patient’s condition, the results of laboratory tests and ultrasound data, as well as the patient’s lifestyle.

If a man has complications in the form of vesiculitis or prostatitis, in addition to antibacterial therapy, after eliminating the inflammatory process, the doctor may prescribe a course of massage of the prostate gland.Two months after the completion of the course of treatment, it is necessary to undergo a second examination to make sure that the disease has disappeared.

It is worth remembering that you yourself can significantly reduce the risks of contracting sexually transmitted infections by carefully observing intimate hygiene, avoiding casual sexual intercourse and practicing protected sexual intercourse. If the infection does occur, do not self-medicate or ignore the symptoms. It is better to immediately consult a urologist.

See also : Appointment of a urologist, Appointment of a gynecologist.

Child’s rash: infectious | Clinic Kind Doctor

Most often, rashes in infectious diseases are accompanied by additional symptoms characteristic of a particular disease. As a rule, an infectious condition begins acutely, with a rise in temperature, general malaise. The epidemiological history is important, for example, there is an indication that in kindergarten or school there is quarantine for a certain disease. This information must be reported to the doctor.

There are very infectious infections, for example, chickenpox , upon meeting with which a person, without immunity to this virus, will certainly get sick. With chickenpox, the rash appears on the unchanged background of the skin, first in the form of bright spots, then these spots transform into bubbles and, then, into crusts. After peeling off the crusts, traces in the form of small delicate scars remain on the skin. Some deep scars persist for life and can tell the doctor that this person has chickenpox.

Another childhood infection that occurs with a rash is scarlet fever. It is not as contagious as chickenpox, but it is also transmitted by airborne droplets.It is caused by the bacterium -b hemolytic streptococcus of group A. With this infection, the rash is small-dotted, red, on a red background of the skin, with thickening in the lower abdomen, in the area of ​​the collar zone, in natural folds.

The child’s face is characteristic: bright red cheeks, with a prominent light, rash-free nasolabial triangle. Scarlet fever is accompanied by high fever, headache, severe sore throat (the child cannot even swallow water). Purulent overlays may appear on the tonsils.If you look into your mouth, you can see a “flaming” pharynx and a special, “crimson” tongue, covered with a thick white coating, through which the red papillae of the tongue protrude. With this infection, it is very important to prescribe antibiotics on time and correctly in order to avoid complications. Therefore, you cannot delay, but immediately invite a doctor to your home.

Another infectious disease is measles. At present, it is rare, in the form of outbreaks, only when imported from countries affected by measles and only in unvaccinated people.

The disease begins with catarrhal symptoms – runny nose, cough, lacrimation and fever. Then a rash appears in the form of dark red spots and papules, prone to fusion. The rash appears in stages (from top to bottom). Then the rash disappears in the same sequence as it appeared, leaving a brownish pigmentation on the skin, which persists for 7-10 days and, then, disappears. With bark, very serious complications are possible – pneumonia, encephalitis, leading to disability or death, noma (gangrene of the soft tissues of the face).Therefore, it is so important to protect yourself and your child from this serious infection. Vaccination is available for both children and adults.

Rubella, like measles, is practically not found at the present time, since in our country compulsory vaccination of children at the age of 1 and 6 years is carried out. But if a child is not vaccinated, then, of course, he can get sick upon contact with an imported infection. This disease is usually mild. The rash, as with measles, is maculopapular, but pale pink, not so bright.It is not inclined to merge, however, due to the abundance of rashes, a solid pink background can be created. On the third day, the rash usually fades and disappears without a trace. Characterized by an increase in the cervical lymph nodes. The disease usually proceeds without complications, but it is very dangerous for the fetus. Congenital rubella is a disease that leads to severe disability or death of a child.

At present, enterovirus infections are very common, in which various rashes occur. There may be maculopapular rash, like with measles, and small-spotted, like with rubella, and with vesicles, like with chickenpox.In this case, rashes can also be on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. It happens that even an experienced doctor finds it difficult to deal with such rashes.

In general, a rash can appear with many viral diseases. For example, with flu, adenovirus, coronavirus infection, there is also a rash. She, as a rule, does not speak about the severity, or about a special form of the disease. It’s just that in a given person, the vessels react to viral toxins in this way.

And it is also worth mentioning a particularly severe infection, which can also occur with a rash.We are talking about meningococcal infection . Here, a serious condition develops suddenly. The temperature rises sharply, the child can become lethargic, adynamic. The head hurts badly, there may be vomiting. And if, in addition to all this, hemorrhagic elements of the rash appear on the skin, even if there are few of them, then you need to urgently call an ambulance, and preferably an intensive care team. Such a rash indicates the development of meningococcemia (the microbe enters the circulatory system), in which the mortality rate is very high and the outcome depends on the timeliness of the initiation of therapy.It is important to inspect a child with a fever, and first of all, the legs. If a child in socks or panties lies in bed and the mother does not see this formidable symptom in time, time may be lost.

Well, and in addition to the above, various skin infections are manifested by various rashes .

The skin is the most important defense mechanism of the body against a huge number of pathogens. But under some unfavorable conditions, this protection is not effective enough and inflammation caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses can develop in the skin.With bacterial skin infections, pyoderma occurs, and then pustules and crusts appear on the skin. Some viral skin infections manifest as nodules, papules (for example, molluscum contagiosum, warts, papillomas – these are skin diseases caused by certain viruses). Fungal infections are manifested by foci of skin redness, peeling. Most often, a dermatologist is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of skin infections.

Well, let’s summarize again how parents should behave if they notice a rash in a child.

The first step is to assess the general condition.

  1. If the child feels good, plays, has an appetite, the rash does not bother him, or itches, then it is probably an allergic rash. We make an appointment with the doctor, while analyzing in advance the possible causes of the appearance of the rash (what was new in the diet, in everyday life, etc.), so as not to miss anything when talking with the doctor.
  2. If a child, along with a rash, has a runny nose, cough, moderate fever, sore throat, i.e.e. signs of infection, call a doctor at home.
  3. If the temperature is high and there is any rash, especially hemorrhagic, we urgently call the ambulance team!

Measles – acute infectious disease

MEASLES – acute highly contagious disease, manifested by intoxication syndrome, catarrhal syndrome and specific exanthema. Despite the low incidence of measles in our country (0-2 cases per year), we must not forget that if the vaccination plan is violated, the incidence of measles can increase dramatically.

Measles is caused by a single serotype paramyxovirus. The incubation period is 9-12 (up to 17) days, and with passive immunization and in vaccinated people – up to 21 days. The patient is a source of infection from the last two days of incubation to 4 days after the onset of the rash and is most infectious in the prodromal period. In the presence of pneumonia, the infectiousness of patients can increase up to 10 days after the onset of the rash.

Prodromal (catarrhal) period with measles lasts 2-4 days.The clinical picture of measles in this period is characterized by an acute onset of the disease, severe intoxication and fever, conjunctivitis, manifestations of catarrhal syndrome. It is necessary to pay attention to a thorough examination of the mucous membrane of the cheeks for the diagnosis of measles before the appearance of a rash for the presence of enanthema and Belsky-Filaty-Koplik spots. The presence of Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots at the level of small molars is considered classic. However, in the prodromal period, they are often found in the form of abundant small (1-2 mm) elements of a white rash (usually compared to semolina) on the entire mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, and lips.They cannot be removed with a spatula. After their disappearance in the period of rashes (the dead epithelium is rejected), a non-shiny, with small superficial erosions, mucous membrane remains.

Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots.

The period of the height of the disease (the period of rashes) is characterized by the presence of a second wave of fever with intoxication, anorexia often develops, catarrhal syndrome persists (conjunctivitis may even intensify), to which specific measles exanthema will join.Catarrhal syndrome disappears by 7-9 days of illness.

Rash with measles does not itch, small- and large-spotted papular, draining, on an unchanged background of the skin. In severe cases or with concomitant violation of primary hemostasis (thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy, some variants of connective tissue dysplasia, etc.), the exanthema may be hemorrhagic. Pathognomonic for measles is the staged rash: on the 1st day, the rash appears on the face and neck, on the 2nd – on the trunk and shoulders, on the 3rd – on the forearms and legs.The fading of the rash occurs in the same sequence, and when the rash appears on the legs, they begin to fade on the face. After the rash, pigmentation remains (for 7-10 days) and pityriasis or small-lamellar peeling.

Mild atypical forms of measles include abortive, mitigated, erased and subclinical measles. These variants of infection develop in patients who have some kind of specific immunity .

Abortive measles (“abortus” – break, interruption) begins and proceeds as a typical measles up to 1-2 days of rashes.And then suddenly the disease stops: t 0 normalizes, intoxication disappears, the rash no longer appears. On the affected areas of the skin, exanthema goes through all stages of development, as with typical measles (pigmentation, fine peeling).

Mitigated measles (“mitis” – light) resembles rubella along the course: a short prodromal period, mild intoxication syndrome and catarrhal syndrome, low-grade fever, no staging of rashes and Belsky-Filaty-Koplik spots, the rash is usually not abundant, has a roseolous and small-spotted character , the sequence of rashes may be disrupted.After the rash, the pigmentation is not pronounced and disappears in 2-3 days.

The erased form of measles resembles a mild, 3-4-day ARI. There is no rash with it. The subclinical form is diagnosed only in laboratory. An atypical course of measles can only be suspected based on epidemiological data.

The atypical variants with aggravated (weighted) course include hypertoxic and hemorrhagic forms. The first is characterized by the development of neurotoxicosis against the background of severe measles with appropriate symptoms (shallow and short-term impairment of consciousness, signs of intracranial hypertension with vomiting and possible generalized seizures, the phenomenon of meningism in the study of cerebrospinal fluid, etc.).etc.). The hemorrhagic form of measles, in contrast to severe measles with elements of a hemorrhagic rash, is characterized by pronounced SIRS, the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome and multiple organ failure syndrome (MDS), which can lead to death.

Special cases of measles.

Vaccine-associated measles usually occurs as mitigated or mild typical measles. The incubation period is reduced to 6-10 days.

The administration of glucorticoids to measles patients (for example, with autoimmune or allergic diseases) leads to an improvement in the course of measles: less fever, intoxication, catarrhal symptoms, the rash is mild.However, in this case, the likelihood of developing bacterial complications increases.

Measles in AIDS patients is severe, but without rash. These patients usually die from primary measles giant cell pneumonia.

Measles in adults is typical, but usually severe, with severe catarrhal syndrome and intoxication syndrome. Bacterial complications develop less frequently than in children, and meningoencephalitis – more often.

Complications of measles can be divided into primary (associated with the action of the virus itself or with the response of the human immune system to the measles virus) and secondary (associated with superinfection).

Primary complications include giant cell measles pneumonia, false croup, encephalitis.

Secondary complications of measles are most often presented in the form of bacterial otitis media, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, enteritis and enterocolitis, stomatitis.

Measles does not require specific therapy. Nursing measles patients requires careful care, hygienic maintenance of the patient (rinsing the mouth after eating, rinsing the eyes with water or saline, etc.)and a complete diet.

In the presence of bacterial complications and measles in children under one year old, the use of antibiotics, symptomatic and pathogenetic targeted therapy is indicated. There is no reason for the use (and their effectiveness has not been proven) ascorbic acid, H1-blockers, eye drops with antimicrobial drugs.

Patients with measles are isolated within 4 days, and with the development of pneumonia – until the 10th day after the onset of the rash. The main means of preventing measles is vaccination, which is carried out at 1 year and revaccination at 6 years.The development of measles in contact (or weaken its course) can be prevented by the introduction of normal human immunoglobulin (0.15-0.2 ml / kg) during the incubation period. In addition, if the exact time of infection is known, the introduction of measles vaccine within the first 72 hours from the moment of infection can also prevent the disease in unvaccinated people or in people with a proven lack of anti-measles antibodies.

Evaluation of Rash in Children – Differential Diagnosis of Symptoms

Different types of rash in childhood are skin rashes with an acute onset.According to clinical signs, they can be divided, according to their nature, into maculopapular, pustular, vesiculobullous, diffuse / erythematous or petechial / purple. Although, being of different etiology, these forms can be observed simultaneously or pass one into another.

Primary factors to consider when diagnosing rash in children include morphology, duration of onset, and distribution throughout the body. Age, gender, family history, drug reactions, existing allergies, and exposure to substances that may cause such reactions are also of paramount importance.

Usually, in the absence of fever or systemic symptoms, the onset of a rash is not urgent. However, the presence of fever or other signs of illness requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Differential diagnosis is an extended concept, including a whole range of diseases, from pathologies that go away without treatment (for example, roseola) to life-threatening diseases such as meningococcal infection.

Some systemic pathologies with a severe clinical course of the disease may be accompanied by a rash and, if suspected, require urgent diagnosis (see Urgent circumstances).

  • Macula: flat discolored area <1 cm (eg, viral exanthema [like measles and rubella], measles-like drug rash).

  • Spot: large macula> 1 cm (eg, viral exanthema [like measles and rubella], measles-like drug rash).

  • Papule: Raised area <1 cm (eg, wart).

  • Nodule: large papule> 1 cm (eg nodular prurigo).

  • Plaque: An elevated area with a flat top (a combination of a nodule and a patch; for example, psoriasis).

  • Vesicle: Small, fluid-filled lesion (bladder) <0.5 cm (eg, chickenpox, eczema herpetiformis).

  • Bull: Larger vesicle> 0.5 cm (eg, bullous impetigo).

  • Pustule: Pus-filled lesion (eg folliculitis).

  • Blister: A transient raised papule or plaque resulting from swelling of the skin (eg, urticaria).

  • Scale: exfoliation of the stratum corneum (eg eczema, psoriasis).

  • Crust: dried serum, blood or purulent exudate on the skin surface (eg impetigo).

  • Erosion: defect in the epidermis, heals without crusting (eg Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis).

  • Ulcer: defect in the epidermis and dermis, heals with crust formation (eg, venous ulcer, pyoderma gangrenosum).

  • Excoriation: A defect in the epidermis resulting from trauma such as scratching (eg itching).

  • Fissure: cleft in the skin (eg, angular cheilitis, palmar-plantar keratoderma).

  • Lichenification: thickening of the skin with increased skin pattern (eg chronic eczema, lichen simplex chronicus).

  • Purpura: an area of ​​altered skin (red or purple) due to bleeding into the skin; does not discolor when pressed (eg, vasculitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation).

  • Petechiae: a punctate purple lesion (eg, vasculitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation).

  • Ecchymosis: large area of ​​purpura (e.g. vasculitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation)

  • Should the child be hospitalized at temperature

    Not a single child likes to get sick, and especially to be in the hospital. The first and most important signal for admitting a child to the hospital is a rise in temperature.Whether it is necessary to put the child in the hospital – the opinions of parents on this matter vary greatly. However, there are several situations in which an urgent appeal to a medical facility is necessary.

    If the baby has fever, convulsions, acute abdominal pain, edema, all sorts of rashes or difficulty in breathing – these are urgent signals to call an ambulance! When such symptoms appear, parents are obliged to act decisively, reinsurance in such situations cannot be superfluous!

    Symptoms associated with high temperature

    Symptoms associated with high temperature, at which hospitalization is necessary: ​​

    Fever accompanied by vomiting.This can be both a reaction to poisoning and a response of the nervous system, it can also be a sign of meningitis.

    Rash. Scarlet spots or blood rash, which are symptoms of meningococcemia, an extremely dangerous neuroinfection, deserve special attention. In such a situation, the child immediately needs medical attention.

    Headache, lethargy, lethargy, drowsiness at high temperatures can be symptoms of severe infections.

    Temperature is accompanied by acute abdominal pain.This could be a sign of appendicitis or volvulus. Although appendicitis is rare in babies under 3 years of age, it is still necessary to seek emergency medical attention and, if necessary, agree to be examined by a specialist in a hospital. Volvulus is most common in infants under one year old, accompanied by fever, loss of appetite (refusal to eat and drink), pallor, severe pain, vomiting with an admixture of bile, and indigestion. There is a lot of blood and mucus in the child’s stool.Hospitalization in this situation is necessary. Providing qualified assistance to a child with a similar ailment can only be in a hospital.

    Should I put my child in the hospital

    However, there are cases when a sharp rise in temperature in children causes the process of teething. Children up to 2.5 – 3 years old especially suffer from this. It is accompanied by increased salivation, redness of the throat, swelling of the gums. Calling a doctor in such a situation is highly desirable, but talking about admission to a hospital is possible only in the most difficult cases, for example, when donation is accompanied by angina.Also, the reasons for the increase in temperature in babies may be a reaction to vaccination, a viral or bacterial disease. In these cases, contacting a specialist is necessary. It is not uncommon for a fever to be caused by overheating – overly warm clothing, out of season clothing or sunstroke. Parents can help the baby in such a situation on their own.

    Should I put my child in the hospital? This is a difficult decision made by parents together with specialists, but we hope that the above tips will help you make the right decision and keep you and your children healthy.

    Rash in children. – Evidence-based medicine for all

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp – hair loss accompanied by pustular, erosive lesions and crusting

    Rash in case of infectious diseases

    Rash in children with viral diseases

    Chickenpox – A rash with red dots that quickly turn into blisters that burst and crust over.The rash is most often located on the baby’s scalp, face, or torso at first, and then can spread throughout the body. 3 photo

    Measles – red rash with tiny white dots appear a few days later on the inside of the cheeks ( Filatov-Koplik spots ). Then a rash appears on the child’s face, progresses to the back and torso, to the arms and hands, and finally to the legs and feet.2 photo

    Rubella – pink-red rash with rubella, which first appears on the face in children, then spreads throughout the body and lasts two to three days. 2 photo

    Roseola – A pink rash appears on the torso and neck of children, then can spread to the arms, legs and face.2 photo

    Fifth disease – rash in the form of bright red spots on the cheeks of a child, less often on the trunk and legs, the rash is moderately itchy. 3 photo

    Herpes – rash in the form of small blisters filled with clear liquid located on the red border of the lips or very close to the lips, usually grouped in one pile.3 photo

    Rash in children with bacterial, fungal and other infectious diseases

    Scarlet fever Scarlet fever rash begins with copious small dots in the armpits, neck, chest and groin, and quickly spreads throughout the body.The dots feel like fine sandpaper and may itch. 3 photo

    Ringworm – Rash with ringworm in the form of one or more red rings, ranging in size from a small coin to quite large. 2 photo

    Impetigo Rash as small red papules that can be itchy.They often develop around the nose and mouth, but can easily spread to other parts of the body. 3 photos.

    Meningococcal infection – Rash is a small bruise that begins with small blue stellate patches and rapidly increases in number and diameter. One of the most dangerous rashes in children .3 photos.

    Scabies – itchy rash in the form of scattered red dots, usually located between the fingers, around the wrists, in the armpits and diaper area, and around the elbows. 3 photos.

    Molluscum contagiosum – Rash with flesh-colored molluscum contagiosum, domed, pearly and shiny vesicles, with an umbilical depression in the center.3 photos.

    Skin changes in children with other diseases

    Jaundice – Yellow tint to the skin and sclera of the eyes.In dark-skinned children, yellowness can only be seen in the sclera of the eyes, on the palms and soles of the feet. 3 photos.

    Hogweed burns are bubbles, at first there are a lot of them, they are small, but very quickly (in a day) they merge and often turn into one – gigantic, over the entire area of ​​the burn.Lots of photos

    Warts are small formations protruding above the surface of the skin. They usually appear on the hands, but can occur anywhere on the body. 3 photos.

    Gargling with sore throat | HEXORAL® Throat Encyclopedia


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    Treatment of angina (tonsillitis), as an acute infectious inflammation that occurs with symptoms of intoxication and damage to the tonsils, includes general and local therapy 3 . Among the means of local therapy, gargling with various drugs occupies a special place.

    Why gargle

    Angina, or acute tonsillitis, is an infectious disease accompanied by inflammation of one of the tonsils of the pharyngeal lymphoid ring.Various microorganisms can be the culprit: bacteria, viruses and even fungi. In babies 3-7 years old, in the vast majority of cases, bacteria become the causative agent of infection, and almost a third of angina is associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, which causes a severe course of the disease 3 .

    Adults are more likely to suffer from tonsillitis accompanying acute respiratory infections 3 . Inflammation of the tonsils is usually caused by adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, influenza and parainfluenza viruses 1.3 .A bacterial infection can join at the second stage of the disease as a result of a decrease in local and general immunities 1.3 .

    Angina can occur in three forms: catarrhal, follicular and lacunar. Often, one form replaces another, that is, at the onset of the disease, redness and swelling of the tonsils prevail, and then their purulent lesion, accompanied by the release of pus on the surface of the tonsils and the formation of films 1.3 .

    Bacterial tonsillitis are often purulent and often take a severe course.The main means for fighting infection is general antibiotic therapy, selected and prescribed by a doctor. Local therapy, such as gargling, complements the antibiotic effect and promotes rapid cleansing of the tonsils 1.2 .

    Tonsillitis caused by viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics 1.3 – they are powerless against these pathogens. In addition, the inflammation caused by them is more often catarrhal and mild. In such cases, doctors usually recommend a throat gargle 1.3 .

    Gargling with angina effectively cleans the tonsils from pus and other toxic products of inflammation accumulating on their surface, helps to reduce the concentration of pathogens in the focus of inflammation, reduces local manifestations of the disease and relieves sore throat and swallowing 1 .

    Up to the table of contents

    How to gargle with a sore throat?

    For home rinsing to be beneficial, certain rules must be followed 1 :

    1. Only pharmacy products with proven efficacy and safety should be used.
    2. Do not trust dubious “folk” recipes. For example, gargling with apple cider vinegar for sore throat is not only ineffective, but can also be harmful.
    3. The liquid must be warm. Cold causes a spasm of the vessels of the mucous membrane and a weakening of local protective factors in the fight against infection.
    4. The duration of the procedure is at least 30 seconds, which ensures the necessary contact of the drug with the pharyngeal mucosa and the effectiveness of rinsing the throat in case of angina.
    5. The frequency of procedures is strictly according to the instructions. This ensures the continuity of the drug action.
    6. After the procedure, do not eat or drink anything for at least 30 minutes for the drug to take effect.
    7. If the use of the product involves the preparation of a solution, you must always prepare fresh and store it. This is especially true for those who, while waiting for a doctor’s consultation, decided to gargle with soda and salt with sore throat.
    8. Try not to swallow liquid.Topical medications are not intended to be taken orally.

    If you follow these simple instructions, gargling can be an effective adjunct to general therapy.

    Up to the table of contents

    How to gargle with sore throat?

    For rinsing, solutions and preparations are used that have a local antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect 4 . They destroy pathogens, disrupt their reproduction and thereby nullify the infection.Some of them have a cauterizing, hemostatic effect, which also contributes to recovery 4 .

    Iodine-containing preparations

    Iodine acts as their main component. It has a tanning and cauterizing effect; destroying the proteins of bacteria, it causes their death 4 . In the annotation to each iodine-containing drug, you can find an exact indication of how much to use for the procedure – it is important to follow it. The fact is that iodine actively penetrates through the mucous membrane into the general bloodstream 4 .An overdose of iodine when gargling with angina can cause thyroid dysfunction 4 . In addition, the development of symptoms of iodism is not excluded: runny nose, lacrimation, salivation, itchy skin rash 4 .

    Hydrogen peroxide

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidizing agent that exhibits a weak antiseptic effect, that is, it temporarily reduces the number of microorganisms in the treated area. For rinsing the throat with angina, peroxide is used in the form of a 0.25% solution of 4.5 .When the peroxide comes into contact with the inflamed mucosa, a large amount of oxygen is released. Its bubbles effectively flush out purulent “plugs” from the tonsils.

    Gargling with hydrogen peroxide for angina requires caution due to possible allergic reactions and a burning sensation in the throat resulting from a chemical reaction 4.5 .


    This substance acts against most bacteria and is included in many combined ENT drugs.Chlorhexidine is used in the form of an aqueous solution with an active substance concentration of 0.05-0.1% 4 .


    Broad-spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in surgery 4.6 . It is sometimes recommended for bacterial tonsillitis caused by streptococci and staphylococci for treating tonsils and gargling with purulent tonsillitis 4 . However, it should be borne in mind that when ingested, dioxidine has a teratogenic and embryotoxic effect, that is, it can cause deformities and fetal death 4.6 .In this regard, it is categorically contraindicated in pregnant women 5 .


    Chlorophyllipt – a preparation based on an extract from eucalyptus leaves 7 – sold without a prescription in a pharmacy in the form of solutions of various concentrations. Chlorophyllipt exhibits bactericidal, antiviral, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory effect 7 . Its main danger is its ability to cause allergic reactions.


    Furacilin, in addition to antiseptic action, enhances the activity of immune cells aimed at absorbing microbes 4 .It is sold in the form of tablets and ready-made solution. For self-preparation of the solution, furacilin (20 mg) must be crushed and dissolved in 100 ml of water 4 . Possible side effects when furacilin gets into the stomach are nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions 4 .

    Up to the table of contents

    How to gargle a child with sore throat?

    The underdevelopment of many systems and the fragility of the child’s body as a whole require special attention to the choice of drugs for the treatment of tonsillitis.In addition to efficiency, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of their action and safety. Of course, we are not talking about the use of salt or soda – the effectiveness of these improvised means is doubtful, but one must be careful with pharmaceutical preparations. Children often swallow solutions during the procedure and have a higher risk of side effects than adults.

    For rinsing the throat in children, you should use only drugs specially designed for them, such as HEXORAL ® .

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    Solution HEXORAL ® has advantages over pharmaceutical antiseptics. It can be used in the treatment of tonsillitis in children from the age of three 8 .

    The main active ingredient HEXORAL ® is a modern antiseptic hexetidine, which has a wide spectrum of antibacterial action, including active against beta-hemolytic streptococcus, which causes the most severe forms of tonsillitis.HEXORAL ® acts on viruses that cause inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and tonsils, as well as fungi of the genus Candida 8 , with which most fungal infections of the pharynx are associated.

    Use of HEXORAL ® solution for gargling helps to relieve sore throat, cleansing tonsils 8 . The procedure is recommended to be carried out twice a day, since the drug can be active up to 12 hours 8 .

    Unfortunately, despite the low effectiveness of “folk” methods, inquiries regarding gargling with sore throat with soda and salt and the proportions of these substances remain popular on the Internet.We hope this article will help you make the right choice.

    Of course, gargling with antiseptics cannot guarantee a cure for sore throat. Antibiotic therapy and other “heavy artillery” medications are sometimes required. Whether they are needed or not, in what dose and for how long – this can only be determined by a doctor. Therefore, when symptoms of tonsillitis appear, it is better to seek medical help right away.

    The information in this article is for guidance only and does not replace the professional advice of a physician.Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.


    1. Kunelskaya N.L. / Angina: diagnosis and treatment / N.L. Kunelskaya, A.B. Turovsky // “RMZh”. – 2010. – No. 7, p. 438.
    2. Dergachev, V.S. / Angina. Clinic, diagnostics and treatment algorithm. Choice of local antibiotic therapy / V.S. Dergachev // “RMZh”. – 2007. – No. 18, p. 1350.
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