About all

Baby development by age: Baby Development Stages: The First Year


Infant development: Birth to 3 months

Infant development: Birth to 3 months

Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something’s not right.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

A lot happens during your baby’s first three months. Most babies reach certain milestones at similar ages, but infant development isn’t an exact science. Expect your baby to grow and develop at his or her own pace. As you get to know your baby, consider these general infant development milestones.

What to expect

At first, caring for your baby might feel like an endless cycle of feeding, diapering and soothing. But soon, signs of your baby’s growth and development will emerge.

  • Motor skills. Your newborn’s head will be wobbly at first and movements will be jerky. But soon your baby will be able to lift his or her head and chest while lying on his or her stomach, as well as stretch and kick his or her legs in that position. If you offer a toy, your baby might grasp it and hold on tight for a few moments.
  • Hearing. Your infant will be sensitive to noise levels. Expect your baby to begin responding to the sound of your voice by smiling and gurgling back at you. He or she will also begin turning toward the direction of sounds.
  • Vision. Your baby will probably focus on your face, particularly your eyes, during feedings. At age 1 month, your baby will prefer to look at bold patterns in sharply contrasting colors or black-and-white. By around age 2 months, your baby’s eyes will become more coordinated, allowing for tracking an object. Soon your baby will begin to recognize familiar objects and people at a distance.
  • Communication. By age 2 months, your baby might coo and repeat vowel sounds when you talk or gently play together.

Promoting your baby’s development

Your relationship with your child is the foundation of his or her healthy development. Trust your ability to meet your baby’s needs. You can:

  • Hold your baby. This can help your newborn feel safe, secure and loved. Let your baby grasp your little finger and touch your face.
  • Speak freely. Simple conversation lays the groundwork for language development. Sing. Read a story out loud. Ask questions and respond to your baby’s coos and gurgles. Describe what you see, hear and smell around the house and when you’re out and about. Remember that your tone of voice communicates ideas and emotions as well.
  • Change positions. Hold your baby facing outward. With close supervision, place your baby on his or her tummy to play. Hold a colorful toy or make an interesting noise to encourage your baby to pick up his or her head. Many newborns get fussy or frustrated on their tummies, so keep these sessions brief at first — just a few minutes at a time. If drowsiness sets in, place your baby on his or her back to sleep.
  • Respond quickly to tears. For most newborns, crying spells peak about six weeks after birth and then gradually decline. Whether your baby needs a diaper change, feeding session or simply warm contact, respond quickly. Don’t worry about spoiling your baby with too much attention. Your care will help build a strong bond with your baby — and the confidence he or she will need to settle down without your help one day.

When something’s not right

Your baby might reach some developmental milestones ahead of schedule and lag behind on others. This is normal. It’s a good idea to be aware of the warning signs of developmental delay, however. Consult your baby’s doctor if you’re concerned about your baby’s development or you notice any of these red flags by age 3 months:

  • Hasn’t shown any improvement in head control
  • Doesn’t seem to respond to loud sounds
  • Doesn’t smile at people or the sound of your voice
  • Doesn’t follow moving objects with his or her eyes
  • Doesn’t notice his or her hands
  • Doesn’t grasp and hold objects

Remember that every baby is unique — but your instincts are important, too. The earlier a problem is detected, the earlier it can be treated.

June 25, 2020

Show references

  1. Assure baby’s physical development. Pathways.org. https://pathways.org/growth-development/0-3-months. Accessed May 23, 2017.
  2. Shelov SP, et al. The first month. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014.
  3. Birth to 3 months: Your baby’s development. Zero to Three. https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/80-birth-to-3-months-your-baby-s-development. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  4. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Other FAQs. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/sids/conditioninfo/pages/faqs.aspx. Accessed May 23, 2017.

See more In-depth


Infant development: Milestones from 10 to 12 months

Infant development: Milestones from 10 to 12 months

Your baby will keep you on your toes in the next few months. Infant development milestones for a 10- to 12-month-old include crawling and improved hand-eye coordination.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Your baby is constantly on the move. Nothing makes him or her happier than dropping a spoon from the highchair over and over again. If you aren’t stifling the urge to say “No!” chances are you’ve said it in the last few hours. Welcome to life with a 10- to 12-month-old! At this age, infant development is rapid.

What to expect

From ages 10 to 12 months, your baby is likely to enjoy:

  • Improved motor skills. Most babies this age can sit without help and pull themselves to a standing position. Creeping, crawling and cruising along the furniture will eventually lead to walking. By 12 months, your baby might take his or her first steps without support.
  • Better hand-eye coordination. Most babies this age can feed themselves finger foods, grasping items between the thumb and forefinger. Your baby might delight in banging blocks together, placing objects in a container and taking them out, as well as poking things with his or her index finger.
  • Evolving language. Most babies this age respond to simple verbal requests. Your baby might become skilled at various gestures, such as shaking his or her head no or waving bye-bye. Expect your baby’s babbling to take on new inflection and evolve to words such as “dada” and “mama.” You might hear certain exclamations, such as “uh-oh!”
  • New cognitive skills. As your baby’s understanding of object permanence improves, he or she will be able to easily find hidden objects. Although your leaving the room might lead to crying, your baby will begin to realize that you still exist even when you’re out of sight. You might find your baby imitating you by brushing his or her hair, pushing buttons on the remote control or “talking” on the phone.

Promoting your baby’s development

Your baby’s budding curiosity is bound to keep you on your toes. Keep your baby safe while challenging him or her to learn through play.

  • Create an exploration-safe environment. Move anything that could be poisonous, pose a choking hazard or break into small pieces from your baby’s reach. Cover electrical outlets, use stairway gates, and install child locks on doors and cabinets. If you have furniture with sharp edges, pad the corners or remove it from areas where your baby plays. The same goes for lightweight objects your baby might use to pull himself or herself to a standing position, such as plant stands and decorative tables. Anchor bookcases, televisions and their stands to the wall.
  • Snuggle up and read. Set aside time for reading every day — even if it’s only a few minutes. At this age, your baby might love books with flaps, textures or activities. Make your reading more interesting by adding facial expressions, sound effects and voices for characters. Store books within easy reach so that your baby can explore them whenever the mood strikes.
  • Keep conversations going. If your baby reaches for a book, ask, “Would you like to read a story?” If he or she points to the cow on the cover, say, “You found the cow! What does a cow say?” Wait for your baby’s response and then offer the correct answer. As you’re reading the book, get creative. Make up your own stories to fit the pictures. Ask your baby questions about the pictures. Don’t limit yourself to yes or no questions.
  • Help your baby handle his or her feelings. Expect episodes of frustration as your baby struggles to make sense and take control of his or her environment. If your baby throws plastic rings out of frustration, calmly pick up the pieces and say, “I can see you’re frustrated. Let’s figure it out. The big ring goes here. Now you try.” For some babies, learning a few words in sign language can be helpful. Teach your baby simple motions for common words, such as milk and blanket.
  • Set limits. Babies don’t have a sense of right or wrong. Praise your baby for good choices while steering him or her away from hazardous situations. Use a calm no if your baby hurts others. Explain calmly why the behavior isn’t OK, and then redirect your baby’s attention.

When something’s not right

Your baby might reach some developmental milestones ahead of schedule and lag behind a bit on others. This is normal. It’s a good idea, however, to be aware of the signs or symptoms of a problem.

Consult your baby’s doctor if you’re concerned about your baby’s development or your baby:

  • Doesn’t crawl or consistently drags one side of the body while crawling
  • Can’t stand with help
  • Doesn’t use gestures, such as waving or shaking the head
  • Doesn’t babble or attempt words such as “mama” or “dada”
  • Doesn’t search for objects that are hidden while he or she watches
  • Doesn’t point to objects or pictures

Trust your instincts. The earlier a problem is detected, the earlier it can be treated. Then you can look forward to the delights and challenges that lie ahead.

June 25, 2020

Show references

  1. 9-12 months: Your baby’s development. Zero to Three. https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/103-9-12-months-your-baby-s-development. Accessed May 31, 2017.
  2. Shelov SP, et al. Age eight months through twelve months. In: Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 6th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2014.

See more In-depth


Your Baby’s Development Milestones at a Glance

It’s so exciting to watch your baby’s development, but it’s easy to worry if they’re not rolling, sitting or crawling at the ‘right’ time.

Here’s roughly what developments to expect and when.

At a glance

  • Most babies start crawling between six and nine months

  • The average age to start walking is 12-13 months

  • Some babies are saying ‘mama’ and/or ‘dada’ around nine months, and the average age for a first word is 10-11 months

If there’s one thing we know about babies it’s that they’re all different and do things at their own pace. Particularly with baby milestones, it’s easy to get concerned your baby hasn’t reached a stage when another child has at the same age. Development anxiety is common for parents, but try to remember your little one is an individual and will get there in their own time. 

Below is our rough guide to what you can start to look out for and when.

Rolling over

Some babies can do this at three months, but most are nearer to five or six months. Some haven’t mastered it by seven or eight months. All are completely normal.


Most babies can sit without cushion props somewhere between five and seven months. By nine months almost all can do this pretty well.


The word crawling covers a multitude – bottom shuffling, commando crawling (on the tummy) and crawling backwards. Most babies start it between six and nine months, but others are closer to 12 months. Some don’t crawl at all and go straight from sitting to cruising then walking.


There’s an absolutely huge variation in the age babies/toddlers walk –and how early they start is not necessarily a sign that they will be more physically capable in later life. The average age to start walking is 12-13 months, but there are plenty who don’t take their first steps until 16-18 months. If they aren’t walking by 18 months it is officially classed as ‘delayed’, but it’s still nothing to worry about if your health visitor is happy with their development.


Very occasionally, babies are born with teeth, but most babies get their first tooth, usually one of the bottom front ones, between four and eight months – the average is six months, but it’s quite possible to reach their first birthday and still have no teeth. By aged two and a half to three they will all have their 20 milk teeth.


Some babies are saying ‘mama’ and/or ‘dada’ around nine months, and the average age for a first word is 10-11 months. However, lots of babies/toddlers don’t take much of an interest in talking until after their first birthday, some nearer to 18 months. As long as you’re talking to them lots and they seem to understand you, don’t worry – talking will come.


All babies are unique and develop at different paces – don’t forget, they haven’t read the baby books! But if you’ve got concerns – especially about their sight or hearing – do talk to your health visitor or GP.

Development Milestones for Your 1-Year-Old Child

During the 12 months between ages 1 and 2, you’ll watch your baby start to become less like an infant and more like a budding toddler. You’ll witness a physical transformation as your 1-year-old begins to master new motor skills that helps them gain a bit of independence and you’ll likely begin to see a unique personality begin to emerge.

Illustration by Emily Roberts, Verywell

Physical Development

The 12-month mark will likely reflect some big changes for your child. In a short amount of time, they’re likely to go from crawling to walking, and before you know it, trying to climb stairs and navigate through your home without any assistance. 

Key Milestones

  • Gross motor skills: Most babies take their first steps before 12 months and are walking on their own by the time they’re 14 or 15 months old.
  • Fine motor skills: By 18 months, your little one can likely drink from a cup, eat with a spoon, and help get undressed. 
  • Major highlights: Between ages 1 and 2, you’ll likely see your child go from struggling to walk to learning how to kick a ball and begin to run.

Parenting Tip

Your 1-year-old won’t understand which objects are stationary and which aren’t safe to hold onto. As they begin learning to walk, folding tables, delicate breakables, and stacked items that can topple can all pose a danger so it’s important to remove unstable objects they may try to use for balance. Now that they’re on the move, it’s also easier to access different parts of the house, so brush up on your baby-proofing as well.

Emotional Development

Your 1-year-old will begin to try and become independent in many ways. They may insist on trying to help dress themselves and may want to test out new physical skills.

But, they’re also likely to be clingy and seek you for comfort when feeling tired, scared, or lonely. By the time your child turns 2, you’re likely to see some defiant behavior as they insist on doing what they want, even when you say “no. “

Key Milestones

  • Reacts to unfamiliar situations or people with shyness or nervousness
  • Copies other people
  • Shows fear in some situations

Parenting Tip

Dealing with separation anxiety can be tough. Avoid “sneaking away” when your child isn’t looking, to escape a meltdown at daycare.

Disappearing unexpectedly may make your child’s anxiety worse in the long-term. Instead, give a kiss and promise you’ll return shortly. Dragging out your goodbye too long will make it worse too, so try to keep your routine short and reassuring. 

Social Development

While you may notice your 1-year-old become a bit more wary of strangers, you’ll also see an amazing desire to interact with others, especially siblings and regular caretakers. Your child might become excited to see other children.

For the most part, 1-year-olds prefer to play next to other kids, as opposed to with them. But, you may see your child begin to include other kids in play at times. 

Key Milestones

  • Hands you a book for storytime
  • Plays games like “peek-a-boo” and “pat-a-cake”
  • Shows preference for parents or certain caregivers

Parenting Tip

Your 1-year-old won’t understand what it means to share and may be very possessive of their own toys. Don’t insist they share with the other kids.

Instead, give them a few items that are off limits from everyone else so they feel like they have some control over their play. 

Cognitive Development

You’ll likely see some big changes when it comes to your child’s cognitive development. Between 12 and 24 months, your child is likely to be able to recognize named items, like cat or dog. 

They will also be able to play simple make-believe games and show an improved ability to follow your instructions. 

Speech & Language

At the end of your baby’s first year, they are still likely to rely on nonverbal communication strategies, such as pointing, gesturing, or throwing items.

But the coos and screams of the early baby talk will give way to distinct babbling sounds like “da,” “ba,” “ga,” and “ma.” Your child will slowly begin to pull those together into recognizable words, and all the while, comprehend more of what you’re saying.

Before your child’s second birthday they will likely be able to say simple sentences with two to four words and point to simple objects when you name them. 


Play is important to a child’s development at this age. Your 1-year-old’s newfound dexterity will make them eager to investigate nearby objects.

Shaking or banging musical instruments and playing with toys that have levers, wheels, and moving parts are all popular at this age. Blocks are always a good choice, especially when your child gets to knock down a tower you build together.

When it comes to the best toys for 1-year-olds, push toys can be a lot of fun. Look for sturdy items that will help your little one maintain their balance as they begins testing out new motor skills. 

Key Milestones

  • Responds to their name
  • Follows very simple instructions and requests
  • Understands “no”

Parenting Tip

The best way to help your child develop verbal skills at this age is to talk to them constantly. As you dress them, talk about the color of the clothes, the feel of the fabric, the name of the body part you’re touching.

Name items that you use every day, like towels, cups, the car, dolls, etc. Try to be consistent and avoid using cutesy names, such as “toesywoesy” for toes. This “labeling” will help your child learn the names of objects and actions and prepare for speaking on their own.

Other Milestones

Your 1-year-old may become more assertive physically. Children at this age don’t understand that other people have feelings too so they may hit without realizing it’s hurting someone else.  

You can support your child’s budding independence by offering choices. Hold out two different toys and let them pick which one they wants to play with.

You’ll likely see problem-solving skills begin to improve as they figure out how to manipulate toys or how to put a block inside of a box. The memory skills will begin to improve as well. 

When to Be Concerned

While all babies develop at slightly different rates, you should talk to your doctor if your child isn’t meeting certain milestones or if you notice potential developmental delays.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends talking to your doctor if by 18 months your child:

  • Can’t walk
  • Doesn’t point to show things
  • Loses skills they previously had
  • Doesn’t copy others
  • Doesn’t have at least six words
  • Doesn’t gain new words
  • Doesn’t notice or mind when a caregiver leaves or returns

A Word From Verywell

Your 1-year-old may try to help you when you’re feeding them or insist on trying to wash their own hands. They want to eagerly participate in whatever you’re trying to do. It’s an important time to pay attention to what you’re role modeling because your child will imitate what they see.

It can also be a trying time as your little one may insist on taking their shoes off a dozen times in a row or may learn how to scream to get your attention. But, it can also be a great time to watch your child learn new skills every day.

Infant Vision: Birth to 24 Months of Age

Babies learn to see over a period of time, much like they learn to walk and talk. They are not born with all the visual abilities they need in life. The ability to focus their eyes, move them accurately, and use them together as a team must be learned. Also, they need to learn how to use the visual information the eyes send to their brain in order to understand the world around them and interact with it appropriately.

From birth, babies begin exploring the wonders in the world with their eyes. Even before they learn to reach and grab with their hands or crawl and sit-up, their eyes are providing information and stimulation important for their development.

Eye and vision problems in infants can cause developmental delays. It is important to detect any problems early to ensure babies have the opportunity to develop the visual abilities they need to grow and learn. Parents play an important role in helping to assure their child’s eyes and vision can develop properly.

Baby’s first eye exam

Even if no eye or vision problems are apparent, at about age 6 months, you should take your baby to a doctor of optometry for his or her first thorough eye examination. Your doctor of optometry will test for many things, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism as well as eye movement ability and eye alignment. Your doctor will also check the overall health of the eyes. Eye health problems are not common, but if present early detection and treatment offer the best option.

InfantSEE ® managed by Optometry Cares ®—The AOA Foundation is the American Optometric Association’s public health program designed to ensure that eye and vision care becomes an integral part of infant wellness care to improve a child’s quality of life. Under this program, participating doctors of optometry provide a comprehensive infant eye assessment between 6 and 12 months of age as a no-cost public service. Visit the InfantSEE website to learn more and locate a doctor in your area who can provide a free infant assessment.

Steps in infant vision development

At birth, babies can’t see as well as older children or adults. Their eyes and visual system aren’t fully developed. But significant improvement occurs during the first few months of life. The following are some milestones to watch for in vision and child development. It is important to remember that not every child is the same and some may reach certain milestones at different ages.

Birth to 4 months

  • At birth, babies’ vision is abuzz with all kinds of visual stimulation. While they may look intently at a highly contrasted target, babies have not yet developed the ability to easily tell the difference between two targets or move their eyes between the two images. Their primary focus is on objects 8 to 10 inches from their face or the distance to the parent’s face.
  • During the first months of life, the eyes start working together and vision rapidly improves. Eye-hand coordination begins to develop as the infant starts tracking moving objects with his or her eyes and reaching for them. By eight weeks, babies begin to more easily focus their eyes on the faces of a parent or other person near them.
  • For the first two months of life, an infant’s eyes are not well coordinated and may appear to wander or to be crossed. This is usually normal. However, if an eye appears to turn in or out constantly, an evaluation is warranted.
  • Babies should begin to follow moving objects with their eyes and reach for things at around three months of age.

5 to 8 months

  • During these months, control of eye movements and eye-body coordination skills continue to improve.
  • Depth perception, which is the ability to judge if objects are nearer or farther away than other objects, is not present at birth. It is not until around the fifth month that the eyes are capable of working together to form a three-dimensional view of the world and begin to see in-depth.
  • Although an infant’s color vision is not as sensitive as an adult’s, it is generally believed that babies have good color vision by 5 months of age.
  • Most babies start crawling at about 8 months old, which helps further develop eye-hand-foot-body coordination. Early walkers who did minimal crawling may not learn to use their eyes together as well as babies who crawl a lot.

9 to 12 months

  • At around 9 months of age, babies begin to pull themselves up to a standing position. By 10 months of age, a baby should be able to grasp objects with thumb and forefinger.
  • By twelve months of age, most babies will be crawling and trying to walk. Parents should encourage crawling rather than early walking to help the child develop better eye-hand coordination. • Babies can now judge distances fairly well and throw things with precision.

1 to 2 years

  • By 2 years of age, a child’s eye-hand coordination and depth perception should be well developed.
  • Children this age are highly interested in exploring their environment and in looking and listening. They recognize familiar objects and pictures in books and can scribble with crayons or pencils.

Signs of eye and vision problems

The presence of eye and vision problems in infants is rare. Most babies begin life with healthy eyes and start to develop the visual abilities they will need throughout life without difficulty. But occasionally, eye health and vision problems can develop. Parents need to look for the following signs that may be indications of eye and vision problems:

  • Excessive tearing may indicate blocked tear ducts.
  • Red or encrusted eyelids could be a sign of an eye infection.
  • Constant eye turning may signal a problem with eye muscle control.
  • Extreme sensitivity to light may indicate an elevated pressure in the eye.
  • The appearance of a white pupil may indicate the presence of eye cancer.

The appearance of any of these signs should require immediate attention by a doctor of optometry.

What parents can do to help with visual development

There are many things parents can do to help their baby’s vision develop properly. The following are some examples of age-appropriate activities that can assist an infant’s visual development.

Birth to 4 months

  • Use a nightlight or other dim lamp in the baby’s room.
  • Change the crib’s position frequently and change the child’s position in it.
  • Keep reach-and-touch toys within the baby’s focus, about eight to twelve inches.
  • Talk to the baby while walking around the room.
  • Alternate right and left sides with each feeding.

5 to 8 months

  • Hang a mobile, crib gym, or various objects across the crib for the baby to grab, pull and kick.
  • Give the baby plenty of time to play and explore on the floor.
  • Provide plastic or wooden blocks that can be held in the hands.
  • Play patty cake and other games, moving the baby’s hands through the motions while saying the words aloud.

9 to 12 months

  • Play hide and seek games with toys or your face to help the baby develop visual memory.
  • Name objects when talking to encourage the baby’s word association and vocabulary development skills.
  • Encourage crawling and creeping.

1 to 2 years

  • Roll a ball back and forth to help the child track objects with the eyes visually.
  • Give the child building blocks and balls of all shapes and sizes to play with to boost fine motor skills and small muscle development.
  • Read or tell stories to stimulate the child’s ability to visualize and pave the way for learning and reading skills.

Parents Guide to Developmental Milestones

Movement Milestones

  • Rolls both ways (front to back, back to front)
  • Sits with, and then without, support of her hands
  • Supports her whole weight on her legs
  • Reaches with one hand
  • Transfers object from hand to hand
  • Uses raking grasp (not pincer)

Visual Milestones

  • Develops full color vision
  • Distance vision matures
  • Ability to track moving objects improves

Language Milestones

  • Responds to own name
  • Begins to respond to “no”
  • Distinguishes emotions by tone of voice
  • Responds to sound by making sounds
  • Uses voice to express joy and displeasure
  • Babbles chains of consonants

Cognitive Milestones

  • Finds partially hidden object
  • Explores with hands and mouth
  • Struggles to get objects that are out of reach

Social and Emotional Milestones

  • Enjoys social play
  • Interested in mirror images
  • Responds to other people’s expressions of emotion and appears joyful often

Developmental Health Watch

Because each baby develops in his own particular manner, it’s impossible to tell exactly when or how your child will perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones listed in this book will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect, but don’t be alarmed if your own baby’s development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your baby displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.

  • Seems very stiff, with tight muscles
  • Seems very floppy, like a rag doll
  • Head still flops back when body is pulled up to a sitting position
  • Reaches with one hand only
  • Refuses to cuddle
  • Shows no affection for the person who cares for him
  • Doesn’t seem to enjoy being around people
  • One or both eyes consistently turn in or out
  • Persistent tearing, eye drainage, or sensitivity to light
  • Does not respond to sounds around him
  • Has difficulty getting objects to his mouth
  • Does not turn his head to locate sounds by four months
  • Doesn’t roll over in either direction (front to back or back to front) by five months
  • Seems inconsolable at night after five months
  • Doesn’t smile spontaneously by five months
  • Cannot sit with help by six months
  • Does not laugh or make squealing sounds by six months
  • Does not actively reach for objects by six to seven months
  • Doesn’t follow objects with both eyes at near (1 foot) [30 cm] and far (6 feet) [180 cm] ranges by seven months
  • Does not bear some weight on legs by seven months
  • Does not try to attract attention through actions by seven months
  • Does not babble by eight months
  • Shows no interest in games of peekaboo by eight months

Your Preemie’s Growth & Developmental Milestones

​Was your baby born more than 3 weeks early? Read on f​or information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about developmental milestones for your preterm baby.

Keep in mind that babies develop at their own speed and in their own way. However​, parents of preemies will need to adjust their baby’s age to get a true sense of where their baby should be in his development.

Your Child’s ​Progress

You know your child better than anyone else. Even with an adjusted age, you will want to see him move forward in his development. For example, your child should progress from pulling himself up, to standing, and then to walking. When you watch him carefully, you will see ways he is growing well. You will also know whether he needs more help.

Remember to take your child to his recommended well-child (health supervision) visits. At each visit, your child’s doctor will check his progress and ask you about the ways you see your child growing. See the next section, Developmental Milestones.

Developmental Milestones

Here is information about how babies and young children typically develop. Examples of developmental milestones for ages 1 month to 6 years are listed. The developmental milestones are listed by month or year first because well-child visits are organized this way.

For a preterm baby, it is important to use the baby’s adjusted age when tracking development until 2 years of age so that his growth and progress take into account that he was born early.

What is your child’s adjusted age?______________________. See milestone for the adjusted age in the next section.

NOTE: Ask your baby’s doctor about Early Intervention (EI)—extra care some babies and children receive to help them develop.

At 1 Month (4 Weeks)


  • ​Looks at parent; follows parent with eyes

  • Has self-comforting behaviors, such as bringing hands to mouth

  • Starts to become fussy when bored; calms when picked up or spoken to

  • Looks briefly at objects


  • ​Makes brief, short vowel sounds

  • Alerts to unexpected sound; quiets or turns to parent’s voice

  • Shows signs of sensitivity to environment (such as excessive crying, tremors, or excessive startles) or need for extra support to handle activities of daily living

  • Has different types of cries for hunger and tiredness


  • ​Moves both arms and both legs together

  • Holds chin up when on tummy

  • Opens fingers slightly when at rest

At 2 Months (8 Weeks)



  • ​Makes short cooing sounds


  • ​Opens and shuts hands

  • Briefly brings hands together

  • Lifts head and chest when lying on tummy

  • Keeps head steady when held in a sitting position

At 4 Months (16 Weeks)



  • ​Turns to voices

  • Makes long cooing sounds


  • ​Supports self on elbows and wrists when on tummy

  • Rolls over from tummy to back

  • Keeps hands unfisted

  • Plays with fingers near middle of body

  • Grasps objects

At 6 Months (24 Weeks)



  • ​Babbles, makin​​g sounds such as “da,” “ga,” “ba,” or “ka”


  • ​Sits briefly without support

  • Rolls over from back to tummy

  • Passes a toy from one hand to another

  • Rakes small objects with 4 fingers to pick them up

  • Bangs small objects on surface

At 9 Months (36 Weeks)


  • ​Uses basic gestures (such as holding out arms to be picked up or waving bye-bye)

  • Looks for dropped objects

  • Plays games such as peekaboo and pat-a-cake

  • Turns consistently when name called


  • ​Says “Dada” or “Mama” nonspecifically

  • Looks around when hearing things such as “Where’s your bottle?” or “Where’s your blanket?”

  • Copies sounds that parent or caregiver makes


  • ​Sits well without support

  • Pulls to stand

  • Moves easily between sitting and lying

  • Crawls on hands and knees

  • Picks up food to eat

  • Picks up small objects with 3 fingers and thumb

  • Lets go of objects on purpose

  • Bangs objects together

At 12 Months (48 Weeks, or 1 Year)



  • ​Uses “Dada” or “Mama” specifically

  • Uses 1 word other than
    Dada, or a personal name

  • Follows directions with gestures, such as motioning and saying, “Give me (object).


At 15 Months (60 Weeks, or 1 ¼ Years)


  • ​Imitates scribbling

  • Drinks from cup with little spilling

  • Points to ask something or get help

  • Looks around after hearing things such as “Where’s your ball?” or “Where’s your blanket?”


  • ​Uses 3 words other than names

  • Speaks in what sounds like an unknown language

  • Follows directions that do not include a gesture


At 18 Months (72 Weeks, or 1½ Years)


  • ​Engages with others for play

  • Helps dress and undress self

  • Points to pictures in book or to object of interest to draw parent’s attention to it

  • Turns to look at adult if something new happens

  • Begins to scoop with a spoon

  • Uses words to ask for help



At 24 Months (2 Years)



  • ​Uses at least 50 words

  • Combines 2 words into short phrase or sentence

  • Follows 2-part instructions

  • Names at least 5 body parts

  • Speaks in words that are about 50% understandable by strangers


  • ​Kicks a ball

  • Jumps off the ground with 2 feet

  • Runs with coordination

  • Climbs up a ladder at a playground

  • Stacks objects

  • Turns book pages

  • Uses hands to turn objects such as knobs, toys, or lids

  • Draws lines

At 2½ Years


  • ​Urinates in a potty or toilet

  • Spears food with fork

  • Washes and dries hands

  • Increasingly engages in imaginary play

  • Tries to get parents to watch by saying, “Look at me!”



  • ​Walks up steps, alternating feet

  • Runs well without falling

  • Copies a vertical line

  • Grasps crayon with thumb and fingers instead of fist

  • Catches large balls

At 3 Years


  • ​Enters bathroom and urinates by herself

  • Puts on coat, jacket, or shirt without help

  • Eats without help

  • Engages in imaginative play

  • Plays well with others and shares


  • ​Uses 3-word sentences

  • Speaks in words that are understandable to strangers 75% of the time

  • Tells you a story from a book or TV

  • Compares things using words such as
    bigger or

  • Understands prepositions such as
    on or


At 4 Years


  • ​Enters bathroom and has bowel movement by himself

  • Brushes teeth

  • Dresses and undresses without much help

  • Engages in well-developed imaginative play

  • Language

  • ​Answers questions such as “What do you do when you are cold?” or “What do you do when you are you sleepy?”

  • Uses 4-word sentences

  • ​Speaks in words that are 100% understandable to strangers

  • Draws recognizable pictures

  • Follows simple rules when playing a board or card game

  • Tells parent a story from a book


  • ​Hops on one foot

  • Climbs stairs while alternating feet without help

  • Draws a person with at least 3 body parts

  • Draws a simple cross

  • Unbuttons and buttons medium-sized buttons

  • ​Grasps pencil with thumb and fingers instead of fist

At 5 and 6 Years




  • Balances on one foot

  • Hops and skips

  • Is able to tie a knot

  • Draws a person with at least 6 body parts

  • Prints some letters and numbers

  • ​Can copy a square and a triangle

At School Age

Ongoing Issues Your Child May Face

As preterm babies get older, some of them may face ongoing physical problems (such as asthma or cerebral palsy). They may also face developmental challenges (such as difficulties paying attention or lack of motor control). This may be especially true for babies who were very small at birth.

Once your child reaches school age, it will be important for you to work closely with his teacher and other school staff to identify any areas of concern. They can also help you find the right resources for help. If the school does not have the resources your child needs, his teachers can help you find local groups or programs to help him do well in school. You are not alone! Your child’s teachers and health care team are dedicated to helping you meet all his health and educational needs.

All children will babble before they say real words. All children will pull up to a stand before they walk. We are sure that children will develop in these patterns. However, children can reach these stages in different ways and at different times. This is especially true if they were born preterm. Take some time to think about your child’s development and answer the following questions. Contact your child’s doctor if you have any questions about your child’s development.

Your Child’s Development

  • How does my child like to communicate?

  • How does he let me know what he is thinking and feeling?

  • How does my child like to explore how to use his body?

  • Does he prefer using his fingers and hands (small muscles)?

  • Does he prefer using his arms and legs (large muscles)?

  • How does my child respond to new situations?

  • ​Does he jump right in?

  • Does he prefer to hang back and look around before he feels safe?​

  • How does my child like to explore?

  • What kinds of objects and activities interest him?

  • What do those interests tell me about him?

  • What are my child’s strengths?

  • In what ways does my child need more support?

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

90,000 Development and education of children. Research on the stages of a child’s development from birth to one year, books on raising a child after one year on the Ya-roditel.ru portal.

Child development

The birth of a baby is, of course, a joyful and exciting event for every family. However, at first, many parents experience severe stress associated with a lack of knowledge about child development and age crises.Many are tormented by the question: “Is my child normally developed for his age?” In order to dispel these doubts, let’s look at the calendar of the child’s development from birth.

Select the age you are interested in

Up to 1 year

1 to 3 years

4-7 years

8-11 years


Child development Up to 1 year

Select the month of the child’s life you are interested in

1 month

The newborn sucks at the breast, actively moves the arms and legs, brings the clenched fists to the mouth, reacts with a start to a sharp noise.The kid smiles for the first time, fixes his gaze on a bright object and follows moving objects.

2 month

The baby is actively growing, he needs more and more milk during feeding. He starts to raise his head and tries to hold it for a few seconds. Sometimes the baby can “pound” the air with his hands – this is a normal reaction for two months. The baby reacts to the sound and tries to find its source, can already focus for a short time on toys or the faces of parents

3 month

A child at the age of three months responds well to sound: he can determine where he is coming from, turns to him, recognizes the voice of his mother, walks.A healthy baby can rest his feet on the surface if he is supported in his armpits. The kid is already confidently holding the head.

4 month

The period of a little helpless creature is over, and your child begins to actively explore the world and literally “try it out.” Parents can relax a little and sleep more at night, but they can pay more attention to the baby during the day. At this age, the first grasping reflexes appear, the child holds his head and even makes his first attempts to sit down.He reaches for toys, tries them “on the tooth”, getting an idea of ​​the texture and volume of objects.

5 month

Closer to this period, the baby begins to roll over from the abdomen to the back, “discovers” the arms and legs and begins to play with them. The child likes songs for the night. Fine motor skills are actively developing – the child learns to use the thumb separately from everyone else.

6 month

At six months, the child already knows how to grab toys.Now your little one can roll over on their own from back to stomach. The child can sit up on his own for a few seconds, but he still needs help. It is likely that closer to six months, the baby will have the first tooth.

7 month

The kid is growing noticeably and is already trying to crawl: during this period, the main attention should be paid to the safety of the space. He enjoys looking at pictures in books, recognizes close people in photographs.The baby’s speech becomes more articulate, and for the first time he can pronounce “mom”, “woman”, “dad”.

8 month

At the eighth month of life, the child already understands the connection “word – object”, so games with well-known nursery rhymes will become the most interesting for him. In addition, the baby begins to actively explore objects: receiving a certain result – for example, a sound – the child begins to reach it again and again. He has already mastered gripping objects and can pick up toys from the floor.

9 month

In the babbling of the baby, you can already hear the distinct “mother” when addressing you. A child at nine months already attracts your attention in every possible way – pulls the hand, makes sounds. The kid begins to distinguish colors and finer details.

10 month

During this period, the baby is already able to find a familiar toy at the request of an adult and bring it if it is in his field of vision. Logical thinking develops: the child can not only open, but also close the lid of the box with toys, as well as put all the toys there after taking them out.

11 month

At eleven months, many babies take their first steps. The baby’s motor development progresses: he can independently squat, bend over to pick up an object, assemble a tower of cubes, a pyramid. The child becomes aware of the generalizing nature of words: he can find among different toys similar in color or shape.

Child development From 1 to 3 years

Choose the year of the child’s life you are interested in

1 year

By the age of one year, the baby most often already knows how to walk independently, speaks from six to ten simple words.The child knows the names of people close to him. In addition, the baby, closer to the year, already knows how to drink from a cup on his own and tries to wash and dress himself.

2 years

A two-year-old child can string pyramid rings on a rod, feed a doll. The speech of a two-year-old baby already consists of simple sentences (including pronouns and adjectives). A one and a half year old baby can already be planted on a pot.

3 years

Three years is the age of crisis.At this age, the personality of the child begins to manifest. Sometimes such changes are accompanied by screams, tantrums and even aggression. The kid actively requires independence.

Child development From 4 to 7 years

Choose the year of the child’s life you are interested in

4 years

A child at the age of four strives for joint games, knows how to throw and catch a ball, stand on one leg. Swinging on a swing, he can already maintain balance.He draws geometric shapes, assembles a tower of nine cubes. According to the child’s development calendar, the fourth year of life is marked by an intensive expansion of vocabulary and the construction of more complex speech structures.

5 years

By the age of five, the most important activity for a child is learning – preparation for school begins. The kid builds long sentences and knows how to retell texts. Knows synonyms and antonyms, counts to ten, recites small poems by heart.

6 years

From the age of six, active preparation for school usually begins. It consists in systematizing the child’s fragmentary knowledge about natural phenomena, cultural and everyday life. The child knows counting, draws geometric shapes, compares the sizes of objects, understands mathematical signs.

7 years

At the age of seven, the maturation of the frontal parts of the cerebral hemispheres finally occurs, the processes of excitation and inhibition are harmonized.Therefore, this age, from the point of view of physiology, is the most acceptable for the beginning of the educational activity of children.

At the same time, seven years is another crisis that your baby is going through. He learns new social roles, wants to make decisions on his own and begins to copy adults.

Child development From 8 to 11 years

Choose the year of the child’s life you are interested in

8 years

At this age, a son or daughter begins to separate from you, he has his first friends at school, he learns to interact with peers.The child gains the experience of confidential communication and interaction outside the family. However, he still needs a “senior advisor” ready to support him in case of school troubles.

9 years

At the age of nine, a child is actively developing intellectually: he is already able to draw conclusions, generalize and analyze information. He also learns to evaluate his own state and can tell you what emotions he is experiencing. The child is quite autonomous, but still needs adult support.

10 years

At ten years of age, the so-called “prepubescent” period, the child begins to grow rapidly and prepares to become a teenager. At school, he already has an established social role, and his environment begins to acquire more and more importance for the child. For parents, the most important thing during this period is the formation of the child’s self-esteem.

11 years

A child at the age of eleven is subject to great mood swings: outbursts for an insignificant reason are replaced by tides of irrepressible fun.Gradually, the child enters adolescence and in every possible way tries to get recognition of the very fact of his growing up. During this period, acne begins to appear in children, breasts begin to grow in girls, and in some boys, their voice begins to “break”.

Choose the year of the child’s life you are interested in

12 years

At the age of twelve, social life plays the most important role for a “novice” teenager. He learns to respect the needs and rights of the people around him.For parents, this age is a great time to revise family rules and, if necessary, define new boundaries of what is permissible.

13 years old

During this age period, considered by psychologists to be the most difficult in a child’s life, most parent-child conflicts occur due to the child’s desire to defend his independence. The teenager is extremely concerned about his appearance and the assessment of others, he has the first tender feelings for the opposite sex, he begins to ask serious questions of self-determination.The most important skill of parents is the ability to change roles – from “parental” to “friend”, and vice versa.

14 years old

During this age period, considered by psychologists to be the most difficult in a child’s life, most parent-child conflicts occur due to the child’s desire to defend his independence. The teenager is extremely concerned about his appearance and the assessment of others, he has the first tender feelings for the opposite sex, he begins to ask serious questions of self-determination.The most important skill of parents is the ability to change roles – from “parental” to “friend”, and vice versa.

15 years

Towards the age of sixteen, the child’s puberty ends, passions subside, and the search for an answer to the question “who am I?” Begins. This time is the preparation for the first final exams and the choice of the direction of professional activity. Children begin to form groups of interests, peers, as well as leaders of popular musical groups and other famous personalities, still have a great influence on them.

16 years old

Towards the age of sixteen, the child’s puberty ends, passions subside, and the search for an answer to the question “who am I?” Begins. This time is the preparation for the first final exams and the choice of the direction of professional activity. Children begin to form groups of interests, peers, as well as leaders of popular musical groups and other famous personalities, still have a great influence on them.

17 years old

Towards the age of sixteen, the child’s puberty ends, passions subside, and the search for an answer to the question “who am I?” Begins.This time is the preparation for the first final exams and the choice of the direction of professional activity. Children begin to form groups of interests, peers, as well as leaders of popular musical groups and other famous personalities, still have a great influence on them.

90,000 The main stages of the mental development of a child from 0 to 18 years old

The types of activities that a child is engaged in are diverse: he draws with enthusiasm, sculpts, designs, learns to read, sing, count, master something, help, play.And each of these species contributes to its development. Especially important is the so-called “leading activity”, which is the head of every stage. The special role of this activity is explained by the contribution to the formation of the most important changes in the psyche, to preparation for the next age period, to changes in the personality of the child. Each age has its own leading activity.

The task of the parents is to manage it wisely, providing the most favorable conditions and prospects for the further harmonious development of the child.

INFANT (0 to 1 year old)

  • A “social smile” (ie a smile in a communication situation) may appear at the beginning of the 2nd month of life.
  • Vocalizations, a child hums, hums, heaves, vocalizes towards an adult, demonstrates motor reactions, revitalization.
  • Starting from 2 months, one of the most important activities for a toddler is communication with a close adult.
  • Smell, taste, tactile sensitivity, hearing and sight develop intensively.
  • During the entire first year, the child actively develops fine and large motor skills: by the age of 6 months, the child can grab objects, reach for toys that are interesting to him, shift objects from one hand to another, the toddler can raise his head, roll over on his side and stomach from position lying on your back.
  • From 9 to 12 months, crawling occurs, the baby can pull himself up on his hands to get up, learn to stand with support; by the age of 10 months, the child can walk, holding on to the support with both hands and spreading his legs wide apart; by the age of 12 months, he learns to overcome a short distance without support.

Operating activities

Emotional communication with mom, dad (or with an adult who replaces her).

How to develop

It is especially important to satisfy the child’s need for affection, attention, benevolence: to love, cuddle, fiddle with, kiss, amuse, iron, hug, carry, press to the chest, cherish, swing, lull.

EARLY CHILDHOOD (from 1 to 3 years)

  • Speech actively develops, vocabulary expands, speaks in short sentences, words can have a “fancy” form (new words are generated).
  • He actively studies the world around him: he wants to touch everything, turn it over in his hands.
  • Communication with family and friends of adults is emotionally colored: it shows joy, openness.
  • He is embarrassed by a stranger, may not make contact for a long time, is jealous of another child.
  • They cannot hold their attention for a long time, are easily distracted, quickly forget about what is happening.
  • Tired quickly.
  • Available toys: pyramids, blocks, balls, games for the development of fine motor skills.

Operating activities

Preliminary and handling. Development of memory, attention, speech, thinking, perception.

How to develop

Involve in household chores, observe nature together, teach manipulation with objects (use them for other purposes).

PRESCHOOL (from 3 to 6 years old)

  • In the child’s speech, the words appear: “I want,” “I don’t want,” “Why?”, “I myself” (three-year crisis).
  • Possesses great curiosity and imagination.
  • The child begins to think in the mind (correlates action and result).
  • An adult acts as a standard of behavior in various situations.
  • Limited representation of time and space.
  • The leading type of activity is a role-playing game (simulates reality).
  • Develops design and drawing skills.
  • Available toys / games: dolls, soft toys, constructors, plasticine / paints / pencils.

Operating activities

Role-play, combining communication and substantive activity.

How to develop

Play with a child, invent role-playing games and participate in them.

YOUNG SCHOOL AGE (6 to 11 years old)

  • Intensive development of the intellectual and speech sphere.
  • Development of voluntary attention and memory, orientation in the environment.
  • Ability to act according to the model, according to the rules.
  • Striving for self-affirmation and recognition from adults and peers
  • Actively develops communication skills, the ability to establish and maintain friendly contacts
  • Self-control skills are formed
  • Role ID
  • Games available: educational board games, outdoor games and electronic games

Operating activities

Operational and technical activities, mainly academic

How to develop

Spend time with your child, teaching him something, learn the alphabet, learn to write and count, read, retell.Help your child prepare homework assignments, answer his questions.

ADOLESCENT (11-14 years)

  • Striving to communicate with peers (grouping)
  • “Nihilism” in relation to adults (striving for leadership, release from the care of relatives, frequent conflicts: provocative, defiant behavior)
  • Fatigue
  • Emotional lability
  • Puberty, increased interest in the opposite sex
  • Fixation on the external view (body, clothing, etc.)etc.)
  • Emancipation: the desire to imitate adults (experimentation)
  • Begins to form its own system of views and values, self-consciousness
  • Hobbies: modern youth alternative trends in fashion, art, music, cinematography, technology

Operating activities

Intimate-personal, emotional communication with peers

How to develop

Allow the child to communicate with peers, arrange holidays, joint trips, participate in performances, performances.Spend time in circles for interests.

SENIOR SCHOOL AGE (14 to 17 years old)

  • Formation of life plans
  • Acceptance of one’s own externalness, awareness of the peculiarities of one’s body, creating an image of oneself
  • Assimilation of male or female roles
  • The range of social roles and interests is expanded
  • Conversion in the future, building life plans and prospects
  • Self-control, self-regulation
  • Desire for discussion
  • Hobbies: professional and moral definition in the world around

Operating activities

Educational and professional in the process of which the worldview, professional interests, ideals are formed.

How to develop

Provide space for learning, help in learning, drawing up one’s own life plans, plans for choosing a professional activity, looking for means of their implementation.

Psychomotor development of a child in the first year of life

The formation of character begins from the first days of life, and with conditioned reflexes, both positive and negative. Positive conditioned reflexes arise for communication, affection, regular meals, hygiene procedures, and massage.Therefore, the child must feel constant care.

It’s no secret that a child develops in certain stages, both universally and individually. On the one hand, the steps that the child steps over are predetermined by nature, but on the other hand, he himself determines the moment at which he moves to the next stage. And only when one stage has been passed does the transition to the next one take place. So do not worry that your baby does not always fit into the standard development framework, he develops according to his own “rules”, both physically and emotionally.It is not so important when exactly the child begins to do something, more important is the sequence of progress in mastering the main stages of development.

Let’s trace the basic skills (on average) that a child acquires in the development process from the moment of birth to 1 year.


In the first month, the baby demonstrates various behaviors designed to respond: crying, cooing, cuddling. Sometimes the child can, while lying on his stomach on a flat surface, for a short time raise his head, looking around, focus his gaze on the face.Perhaps he will react to the sounds of a rattle, follow the moving objects (although the gaze is not yet focused), and also make other sounds besides crying. At this age, the baby needs to press skin against your skin, listen to parental voices, he loves to be carried in his arms and fed on demand.


In the second month of life, your baby should learn to hold his head well in an upright position, examine toys suspended a little from the side, at a distance of 30-45 cm for a long time, watch moving objects in both directions with a slight turn of the head, turn his head towards the voice of an adult, quickly respond with a smile when contacting.

2-3 times a day, put the child on his tummy, while he should lift well and hold the head for a few seconds. In the second month, the child begins to hum, at first these are separate sounds, and by two months the humming becomes loud and prolonged. Do not be afraid to take the child in your arms more often, to communicate with him affectionately. At this age, it is still impossible to “pamper” him, and the mother’s affection has a very beneficial effect on the development of the baby. Try to eliminate as soon as possible any discomfort that worries the baby (hunger, cold, damp diapers).


In the third month of life, the baby holds his head well in an upright position, focuses and for a long time holds his gaze on the speaker’s face, while pulling his lips with a tube, hums. At this age, a “revitalization complex” appears: during emotional communication with an adult, the baby develops strong motor excitement, the child is happy, smiles a lot. At this age, bright rattles should be hung at the level of the baby’s chest and slightly to the side on a bracket at a height of 30-40 cm.The kid looks at the toy for a long time, follows its smooth movements. By the age of three months, the child hums melodiously for a long time, the cry has a certain intonational expressiveness. At this age, more often put the baby on his tummy, while he should raise the breast with support on the forearms. The child is already able to move the handles to shoulder level, the first directed movements to the toy appear.


In the fourth month of life, your baby should already recognize and enjoy your appearance.He already reacts differently to calm and dancing music, looking for an invisible source of sound with his eyes. He often has a “revitalization complex” outside of communication with an adult. He rejoices at the sight of another child, examines, reaches out to him. By the age of four months, he must grip the toy with both hands, examine it for a long time, touch it, and reach out towards the object of interest to him. At this age, the child must be given and hung on the bracket bright, easy to grasp with a hand rattles.More often put the baby on his tummy, while by the age of four months he should already be trying to raise his torso, leaning on the forearms or palms of bent arms. It is useful to use an individual playpen, and if it is not there, then while awake, lay the child on a plywood board wrapped in a blanket in his crib. By this age, the child hums loudly for a long time. During feeding, he begins to hold the mother’s breast or bottle with an extended handle. We advise you to contact your child more often, to talk affectionately with the baby, causing him positive emotions.

While sleeping, place your baby alternately on both sides. If he constantly sleeps on one side or with his mouth open, the shape of the bones of the head and face may be disrupted. Therefore, train him to sleep on both his right and left sides, as well as on his back. The pillow should be flat, cotton or hair is better, but not down. Cover the sleeping child’s mouth with care. If your baby keeps his mouth open all the time, consult an ENT doctor.


By the age of five months, your baby should be able to distinguish “friends” and “foes” by voice and appearance, and to react differently to them.He already distinguishes well between a strict and affectionate tone. Treat him affectionately more often, show him toys that are comfortable to grip with a handle. In this case, the child should purposefully reach for the toy, grip it firmly, shift it in his hands, and pull it into his mouth. At this age, the movements of his arms become more free, he can raise them above shoulder level. Do not forget to lay the baby on a tummy on a hard surface more often. This is important because in the prone position with a raised breast, the view is significantly increased, the child begins to observe the environment, which significantly improves his development.In the fifth month of life, the baby more confidently rests on the palms of straightened arms, lying on his stomach, begins to roll over from his back, first on the side, and then on the tummy. He rests well on his legs with support under the armpits, begins to jump. At the same time, he does not know fatigue. At this age, he has an unusually benevolent appearance and is mainly in a good mood and for a long time, melodiously, loudly hums. If in the fifth month of life the doctor prescribes the introduction of complementary foods, the baby quickly begins to remove semi-thick and thick food from the spoon with his lips.

Soon, your baby’s first milk teeth will erupt. This is preceded by a sharp increase in salivation in all children, and itching appears in the gums. This may be the cause of his concern. You can help him by giving him a rubber ring to chew on. A little later, you can give the child a dryer, a crust of bread or a slice of a peeled apple.


By the sixth month, your baby should know and respond well to her name. He freely takes a toy from different positions, examines it for a long time, pulls it into his mouth, transfers it from one hand to another.At this age, the baby turns well not only from back to stomach, but also from stomach to back, there is a real danger of falling from a height. He loves to lie on his stomach, while holding his raised chest well and for a long time on straightened arms, in this position he begins to move a little, crawling to the toy on his stomach. The child should often be laid out on a hard surface, while carefully observing his actions. You can use the arena to prevent it from falling. In the sixth month, he develops a three-dimensional vision of objects, so he needs to be picked up more often, to show various objects in the room.By the age of six months, many babies are able to observe active attention. The kid begins to babble – to pronounce individual syllables. He already eats well, removing food with his lips, begins to drink from a cup that an adult is holding.


In the seventh month, the baby’s manual skill is even more improved. He actively knocks, waves, throws toys, transfers them from one hand to another. Change toys more often; there should be no more than 3-4 of them in the environment of the child. Do not let your baby play with small objects, as he can put them in the nose, ear, “suffocate”, swallow.At this age, the child begins to crawl on his stomach and sit, leaning on his hands. To the question “where?” the baby easily finds with his gaze the called object, which is constantly in the same place. In the seventh month, the formation of active speech continues, the baby babbles loudly for a long time, repeating the same syllables in babbling. He drinks well from a cup held by an adult. Dentist advice

Your baby’s milk teeth are already beginning to erupt. In order for them to grow beautiful and healthy, do not give the child a pacifier, and if he is already accustomed to it, try to give it as little as possible only when he is worried, otherwise the growth of teeth and jaws may be disrupted. sometimes gnaw a crust of bread, an apple.Teach your toddler to eat from a spoon.


By the age of eight months, the baby is engaged in a long and varied way with toys, imitating the actions of an adult – pushing, knocking, putting in, taking out. At this age, children willingly come into contact with adults, emotionally play “hide and seek”, “catch up and catch up”, “okay”, at the request of an adult “give me a pen” gives a pen, waves a pen “goodbye” without a preliminary show. The kid loves to observe the actions of other people, while being active, he can laugh, babble.By the age of eight months, the child himself sits down and sits without support, gets up and crouches, steps over, holding on to the barrier, and crawls very quickly. The kid already knows his loved ones very well, not only by their appearance, but also by their voice, recognizes the faces in the photograph, and points with a finger. The child’s speech continues to improve, he loudly, clearly repeatedly pronounces various syllables, babbling becomes intonationally expressive, the baby begins to use it for communication. Feeding skills are being improved – the child himself holds the crouton and gnaws it, without pouring out drinking from a cup.


In the ninth month of life, the baby has an expressed desire for communication, when another child appears, he happily crawls towards him, during the game imitates actions and movements. The child uses objects in the game in different ways, depending on their properties – rolls, opens, presses, takes out, rattles, etc. At this age, the child can already move from one support to another, slightly holding onto them; depicts dancing movements to cheerful music.At the request of an adult to bring an object, the baby searches for it even in an unusual place. A child at eight months already knows his name well, turns to the call. The development of speech also continues. Babbling acquires intonation expressiveness that imitates a phrase. The kid begins to repeat after the adult individual syllables that he had previously mastered in babbling. He drinks from a cup on his own, holding it slightly with his hands. By 9 months the child develops neatness skills – he is calm about planting on a pot.


In the tenth month of life, your baby has already been playing well with other children for a long time, independently and at the request of an adult, performs previously memorized actions with objects, while it begins to acquire a more stable and lasting character. At this age, he crawls very quickly, he can stand for several minutes, slightly adhering to the support. He likes to go down and up on a low surface on his own, holding onto the railing. At the request of “give”, he finds and gives familiar objects everywhere.The child willingly enters into games with adults such as “okay”, “magpie-crow”, “hide and seek”, “goodbye”. He more confidently and quickly repeats new syllables after adults, begins to pronounce the first babbling words “mom”, “ba-ba”, “pa-pa”, etc. After training, the child begins to show parts of another person’s face. Dentist advice

Your baby has already erupted 4-6 teeth. By this time, it is very desirable to wean him from feeding through a nipple and pacifiers (if he was accustomed to them).Constant sucking on a pacifier can interfere with the growth of baby teeth and contribute to malocclusion. At this age, a child should only eat from a spoon, remove food with his lips, and drink from a cup.


At the twelfth month of life, the child begins to walk more confidently, with little or no support. He distinguishes well between objects in shape – bricks, balls, cubes. The picture correctly shows familiar heroes, likes to listen to fairy tales while looking at colorful pictures that illustrate these fairy tales.The kid quickly recognizes familiar faces in the photograph, shows them with his finger. At the request, he holds out and gives the toy to the adult, purposefully searches for the hidden object. The child is engaged with toys for a long time, plays the simplest story games – rolls the car, feeds, shakes the doll. At this age, the baby can assemble a pyramid with large ring holes. By the age of one, the child knows the names of loved ones, performs individual assignments such as “find”, “bring”, “give aunt”, “put in place”, knows the prohibition, and when the word “cannot” stops actions.In a year, the child easily repeats new syllables after adults, pronounces 6-10 lightened words, and begins to use words for communication. By the age of one year, the baby drinks without pouring, while independently taking the cup with both hands and putting it back on the table.


At the age of one to three months, the baby’s stock of understandable words rapidly expands (up to 30-50); at the moment of joy, the child uses babbling and some light words. He orients himself in two contrasting dimensions with a difference of 3 centimeters – balls, cubes, sticks.In the game, the baby often reproduces various previously memorized actions with objects, for example, stringing rings on a pyramid, feeding dolls, rolling cars, etc. In this age period, the baby can already walk for quite a long time, change positions – squat, bend over, back away, turn. Correctly brought up child by 1 year 3 months. independently eats thick food with a spoon.

Since by this time almost all children begin to stand up and move independently, it becomes necessary to think about the choice of shoes.Walking barefoot, of course, is useful, but boots protect delicate feet from surface roughness, splinters and sharp objects. Choose shoes with thin, flexible soles, firm heels and small heels.

The child’s vocabulary expands significantly, although from the outside it seems that the child is speaking in a language he has invented. He still pronounces some words clearly and loudly. The voice of children by this time generally becomes much louder than before. This is a period of screaming, screeching, yelling and other loud noises.The kid also distinguishes between voices and names of relatives and knows how to connect them.

By this time, children usually already understand the meaning of the words “no”, “no”, although they do not always obey them. Therefore, it is worth starting to explain to them what is “good” and what is “bad”, that is, gradually accustom them to discipline. It will take a long time before your child fully assimilates these concepts, but now you must teach him to distinguish between bad and good, to control his desires, to respect the rights and feelings of other people.Knowing what not to do is also important for his own safety. Try to teach your child calmly, avoiding punishment and harsh shouts. Your task is to teach, not frighten. The child already understands you almost completely, and although he utters a few words, he has a fairly developed sign language and feels intonation. Therefore, it is important in what tone you pronounce, for example, the word “no” and with what gestures you accompany it. Explain strictly the danger posed by a hot iron or a table lamp (“No – boo!”), And turn the baby’s attention to a safer object.Be prepared for the fact that not all of your instructions will be followed unquestioningly. So patience and patience again!

Balls, large inflatable and small tennis, rubber and foam, multi-colored and solid, are perhaps the favorite toys at this age. Children love to roll, catch and throw them away. They also like various pyramids and cubes. It is worth starting with pyramids with pins and rounded holes, since such parts are easier to fit one on top of the other, and then move on to toys with square holes.Toys that require pushing, turning, twisting, pulling, pushing are useful. Of course, you will have to repeatedly show how to use the capabilities of this or that toy before the child can repeat the necessary movements. Frankly speaking, almost anything can serve as toys for a child, he will certainly find a use for them. If only they were harmless. Kids at this time really like playing with new words and gestures. When you play word games with your child (wave your pen and say goodbye, hide and seek, okay, cuckoo, etc.)), leave him to continue the game, thus developing his memory. Play more games that combine gestures, facial expressions and simple words. Name everything that surrounds your child, pronounce aloud the names of objects, often pronounce his own name, the names of relatives and friends. Concentrate his attention on the concepts: hot – cold, empty – full, wet – dry, up – down, etc. Explain everything that happens around, as well as cause and effect, introduce the concept of color.

Be sure to expand your reading circle! Books, magazines and everything that has pictures, read and review with your child several times a day. Since the baby is only able to maintain concentration for a short time, each such lesson should last several minutes.

90,000 Child development from 1 to 2 years

Age characteristics of a child from one to two years.

By 1 year and 3 months, the child can walk, squat and bend independently.Knows how to fulfill simple requests of an adult (feed a doll, build a house, etc.), correctly names 4-6 objects when they are shown to him.

Begins to actively use light words (dog – “av-av”, car – “bb”, etc.), can step over objects lying on the floor, run, hold a cup while drinking, more skillfully uses a spoon.

A one and a half year old toddler string rings of a pyramid, builds a tower of cubes, knows almost all of his toys and gives them on request.Parents should regularly put their child on the potty – every time before bed and after sleep, after meals, before and after a walk. You can praise your success, but you shouldn’t give a stern reprimand for wet pants, persistently hold onto the pot, demanding a result, and be angry for its absence. This causes a negative reaction in the child and can contribute to the development of stubbornness.

In the second year of life, a child’s character changes noticeably. He begins to show an increased interest in the surrounding objects, tries to look into all corners of the apartment, to climb into the drawers of the table or closet.Knows well the meaning of the words “can” and “not”, but is not always able to obey the prohibition. This is due to the fact that the child has not yet developed certain behavioral models, and in some cases, when the word “no” is said to him, he simply does not know how to behave, so he continues to misbehave.

At 1 year and 9 months, the child pushes the ball with his foot, climbs the stairs, answers questions when examining the plot pictures. There are about 20 words in his dictionary. Attempts to dress and undress independently.

At 2 years old, the child throws the ball from behind the head, uses short sentences, understands the defining prepositions (on, under, next to, behind). Can give his name when talking about himself. The child knows how to eat independently, unfastens large buttons, washes and wipes his hands, willingly plays simple games, and brushes his teeth with the help of an adult. At this stage of development, it is necessary to enrich the child’s world with educational toys, they contribute to the development of intelligence, creative inclinations and abstract thinking.

I won’t, I don’t want to! Obedience is one of the components of upbringing.With its help, adults try to protect the child from mistakes, pass on their own life experience, help to avoid dangerous turns. And often adults perceive refusals of the kid to obey as a “challenge”. But the period of denial is an inevitable phase in the development of a crumb: his future volitional qualities depend on it.

A hundred times “no”!

“At the age of one and a half, Hera turned into a“ reluctant ”. I offer him a banana, his favorite delicacy, – he runs away screaming: “I don’t want to!” I try to wash my face – it breaks out, stubbornly repeating: “No, no!”Even to the morning greeting he responds with dissatisfied denial. ” (Galina, mother of Herman 1 year 7 months)

Commentary of a psychologist

At the age of 1.5-2 years, there is a leap in the physical and mental development of the child. The kid already understands the meaning of many words, learns to speak, communicate with others. One of the first words in the child’s vocabulary to appear is the word “no”, which has a pronounced negative connotation. Children realize early on that with the help of this short word, which carries a strong emotional charge, they are able to convey their opinion to adults.Around the same period, children (some later – about 3 years) have the so-called “age of systematic refusal”, when the baby begins to deny the place and out of place, refusing even his favorite dishes or a desired toy. Sometimes one gets the impression that the child no longer needs the approval of his relatives, but, on the contrary, is trying in every possible way to anger the parents, does everything in spite of, provoking a conflict: the mother offers to read a book – the baby shouts: “Take a walk!” , as a child throws himself shouting: “Read it!”.Parents often attribute such manifestations to “spoiled character”, “bad heredity”, “bad upbringing.”

The child’s refusals must be taken calmly: a nervous reaction aggravates the situation. However, the fact is that at about 2-3 years of age, children develop strong-willed qualities, a desire for independence, independence, which the famous psychologist Eric Erickson called “autonomy.” Children stop needing excessive care from adults and want to make their own choices. Often, the child is not yet able to competently express his desires and, more often than not, even cannot understand his feelings and experiences, and therefore, torn apart by contradictions, he begins to deny everything, to give up everything.However, it is precisely this “eccentric” behavior that speaks of the normal mental development of the baby. The child still needs the recognition of adults, wants to earn praise, but at the same time seeks to stand out, to find his own “I”. Therefore, parents should not be angry with the baby, but should “expand the living space”, provide an opportunity to choose.

Lessons in diplomacy

Excessive restrictions, constant prohibitions, neglect of the child’s achievements only reinforce obstinate behavior.Excited children can go into hysterics, fall to the floor, bang their feet, and sob. However, it is important for parents not to succumb to provocation, but at the same time to “loosen the reins”, remove some of the prohibitions and give the baby some freedom. Of course, in this case, adults can (and should) guide the child, but carefully, imperceptibly, without pressure.

Source: psychologist Larisa Zakharova

Happy Parents Magazine, # 135.


List of used literature:

1.Akhmylova, N. Rash sand, pour some water / N. Akhmylova // Liza. My child. – 2007. – N 8. – P.66-68.

2. Zabegailova, S. What book to buy for a child? / S. Zabegailova // Lisa. My child. – 2007. – N 1. – P.70-71.

3. Karelskaya, EG Our clean babies / EG Karelskaya // Liza. My child. –2007. – N 9. – S. 134-136.

4. Matushkina, O. I am a know-it-all! / O. Ya. Matushkina // Liza. My child. – 2008. – N 5. – S. 118-123.

5.Pavlova, L. Pedagogy for the little ones: the ninth month / L. Pavlova // 9 months. – 2010. – N 9. – S.90-98.

6. Pavlova, L. Pedagogy for the smallest: the eighth month / L. Pavlova // 9 months. – 2010. – N 8. – S.82-87.

7. Smirnova, E. Maria Montessori: the system of preschool education / E. Smirnova // Preschool education. – 2007. – N 2. – C. 110-114.

8. Shibanova, A. Ah yes, our fingers! / A. Shibanova // Lisa. My child.- 2007. – N 7. – P.142-144.

9. I want to be smart // Liza. My child. – 2007. – N 2. – S.86-91.

90,000 Neuropsychic development of children 1, 2 and 3 years old

Neuropsychic development of children 1, 2 and 3 years old

Updated: 08.05.2018 10:13
Published: Wednesday, 08 May 2018 10:13

Dynamics of neuropsychic development of young children

The period from 1 to 3 years is called the early childhood period.This is a very important stage in a child’s life. By the age of 2.5, the weight of the brain in children doubles, while in the rest of the period, up to the age of 21, its weight increases only 1.5 times. Of course, the neuropsychic development of children 2-3 years old and his mental abilities are not determined only by the size of the brain. But these figures indicate how intensively the growth of brain cells, nerve fibers connecting it with the sense organs and muscles occurs.

A one-year-old child lives only for today and perceives only real objects and events.For him there is no concept of “yesterday”, he does not know how to think about tomorrow. It is still difficult for him to understand such abstract things.

But he has already accumulated a lot of knowledge about the world in which he lives. If the dynamics of the neuropsychic development of young children corresponds to the average level, the baby distinguishes between familiar objects, sounds, recognizes the voices of relatives. But the world changes, and the child is sometimes deceived if objects or people look unusual.

From 1 to 1.5 years old, the baby uses the newly acquired skills and abilities to further explore the world around him.He seeks to touch, smell, taste everything. He simply has no time to be bored, because there is so much new and unknown around. This is a research period. Taking into account the peculiarities of the neuropsychic development of children, you need to give them the freedom to explore everything around, but do not forget about safety, you cannot leave the baby unattended for a second.

When showing an object, it should be named several times, ask the kid to repeat, then explain why this object is needed. For example, “Here is soap, mom, dad and you wash their pens to keep them clean.This is a hat, it warms the head of my baby. This is a spoon, it is needed in order to eat delicious porridge. Dad has a big one because he is big. And yours is small, because you are still small. ” So the process of cognition is combined with the study of new words.

Speech level of neuropsychic development of a child 1.5-3 years old

The speech and nervous development of a child at 2 years old is very active. At first, he still speaks little, but he understands everything well. Up to 1.5 years old, the baby spends all his energy on mastering.His vocabulary consists of simple words, sometimes it is just a shortened version of a long one (for example, “ku” instead of “doll”, “me” instead of “ball”). The mental development of a child at 1.5 years old is such that he actively uses gestures and facial expressions in conversation. If the baby names an object, you need to confirm: “Yes, this is a chair (or a car, etc.).” The child will be very glad that he is understood and will try to master more new words.

Another interesting feature of the neuropsychic development of young children: the child has certain associations with the word.If you say “Let’s read a fairy tale”, he goes to the room where his favorite book is.

Words help the development of thinking. The child has already formed many images in his memory. And now these images also have a verbal designation. The kid hears a familiar word and an image associated with this word emerges in his memory. Thanks to the expanding vocabulary, the baby is able to follow short instructions (“Give the doll”, “Take the cube and put it in the box”),

At this age, the level of speech and neuropsychic development of the child is quite high.By the age of 1.5, your baby has about 50 words in his luggage. Many of them are still obscure, but there are fewer shortened versions. The child begins to compose the first simple sentences, which consist of the name of the object and the action, for example: “Kitty is eating.” The pronoun “I” appears in many sentences. This speaks of the mental development of children: even before the 3rd year of life, a small person realizes his importance among others.

Help of parents in the neuropsychic development of children of the 3rd year of life

Help from parents in the neuropsychic development of children 1-3 years of age is simply necessary.To enrich the child’s vocabulary, you can look at colorful pictures together and discuss what you see. Show an object in a book, and then try to find it in the environment. For example, here is a ball in the picture. “Where is your ball? Look what a beautiful cat. She is very similar to our Murka. ”

So that the mental development of children 2-3 years old does not stop in place, naming an object, you need to give it a short description: “This is a bus. He carries people. ”

Educational songs and jokes in a playful way help children to quickly memorize many words and gestures.They repeat them with pleasure, and after a while they can finish singing a familiar song themselves. The most interesting thing is that children try to repeat even the intonations of their parents. Adults with a child should speak slowly, measuredly and not very complex sentences. At the same time, try not to use children’s variants of words. If you say “Let’s go eat”, then the child will perfectly understand. And if you constantly repeat “Let’s go yum-yum”, then the baby will not soon move on to the word “eat”. Correct speech is what the baby should strive for.But you don’t have to jerk your child all the time when he speaks incorrectly.

Considering the level of mental development of a child under 3 years old, be prepared for the fact that at first his speech will be poorly understood. If the baby has difficulty with any word, do not scold him. Difficulties can be overcome only by repeated repetition of words in the process of mutual communication.

Neuropsychic development of a healthy child at 2-3 years old

The neuropsychic development of a 2-year-old child enters a new stage: after 1.5 years, the baby moves from research activity to experiments.You should prepare yourself for the fact that many things will undergo severe strength tests. The child will throw objects and watch what happens to them: the ball bounced off the floor, but the doll did not. It’s very interesting why the tumbler doesn’t want to go to bed, what’s inside it? Children set up many experiments with water: they pour from a large glass into a small one, pour it into a bucket, into the back of a typewriter.

These experiments are troublesome. But you need to understand that for the mental development of a healthy child at 2-3 years old, this is necessary.The kid feels like a pioneer. He begins to understand that there is a connection between many objects, even if they are dissimilar, and vice versa, seemingly similar objects actually differ. Two-year-olds are young inventors. They turn boxes, pots, pillows into a lot of things. Imagination helps a child to see in a simple box a car, a house, and a boat, and in a pillow – an impregnable rock or a formidable giant. In children at the age of two, the rudiments of abstract thinking begin to form.If earlier for them everything existed only here and now, now they are able to retain images in their memory, for example, to return to the started game after a lunch break. There are many toys for children nowadays. But for a deeper understanding of the world, natural materials are indispensable – sand, pebbles, shells, leaves, cones, etc. And of the purchased ones, those that allow the child to build, design, create are good. They are great at developing the imagination and movements of the hands and fingers.

Another stage in the mental development of a 2-3-year-old child is the ability to group objects.This can be turned into a game and combined with the cleaning of toys, inviting the kid to put cubes, cars, animals, dolls in different bags.

Some activities of the little experimenter lead to the fact that he can get dirty himself, and dirty everything around. Therefore, in advance, you need to worry about that this “disgrace” took place in appropriate conditions and in appropriate clothing. It is advisable to alternate between noisy and calm activities. Having run and jumped, the child can sit next to his mother and watch a book or listen to music.The kid also needs a periodic change of scenery. Outdoor walks are ideal. Among other things, the child gains important life experiences. After all, no words can explain what rain, snow, wind, earth, trees are, if the baby himself does not see it, does not feel it, does not touch it. It is necessary to instill in the child a craving for knowledge, not to interfere with his observations and experiments. Let the knowledge of the world give him pleasure. And parents should try to help him in all his affairs and make every effort to ensure that a warm, trusting relationship is established between them and the child.Then the authority of the parents will be indisputable for the baby, which means that they can easily establish the limits of what is acceptable for their child, and he will trust their opinion. It is necessary to reward the kid for good behavior and say that his help is simply invaluable. You can never go on about if the kid is capricious and immediately demands toys or candy. It is necessary to concede once, and these “performances” will be repeated many times. You cannot create provocative situations, it is better to distract the child and try to take him away.

The child should not be overly patronized. He must get his own life experience. The challenge for adults is to create a safe space. But do not rush to the baby if he is trying to climb onto a sofa or chair. You need to be nearby in order to help him if necessary, but not to interfere with his cognitive activity. Constant shouts “No,” “Don’t touch,” “Throw this nasty thing,” “Don’t come near,” kill the craving for research in a child. He can become weak-willed, lack of initiative and susceptible to other people’s influence.Wise parents maintain balance in everything. Giving the child freedom, they do not leave him alone with himself unattended. By being around, they will be playmates, gently guide the child and give him more opportunities to experience everything for himself (within reason, of course). Giving the baby, love and affection, you should treat him as a person, albeit small.

Norms of neuropsychic development – Official site GKUZ DRS No. 1 MZ KK

Age Analyzer Development
10 days Az Keeps a moving object in sight.
Ac Shudders and blinks at a harsh sound.
18-20 days Az Keeps a stationary object in sight.
Ac Calms down with strong sound.
1 month Az Focuses the gaze on a stationary object, smooth tracking of moving objects appears.
Ac Listens to the sound and voice of an adult.
E First smile in response to conversation.
To Lying on his stomach, trying to raise his head.
Ra Pronounces individual sounds.
2 months Az Prolonged visual concentration.
Ac Seeking head turns with prolonged sound.
E Quickly replies with a smile to an adult conversation.
To Lying on his stomach, raises his head and holds it for a while.
Ra Re-pronounces individual sounds.
3 months Az Visual concentration in an upright position, on the face of an adult talking to him.
E Resuscitation complex in response to toys.
To Lying on his stomach, holding his head, rests on his forearms. Raising his head high, he rests firmly on his feet with the support of the armpits.
Dr Accidentally bumps into toys hanging low over the chest.
4 months Az Mother recognizes, rejoices.
Ac Finds an invisible sound source with the eyes.
E Laughs loudly in response to communication.
DR Examines, grabs and swings the hanging toy.
Ra Gulit.
N Supports mother’s breast or bottle.
5 months Az Distinguishes close people from strangers in appearance (reacts differently to the face of a familiar and unfamiliar adult).
Ac Recognizes the mother’s voice, distinguishes between the strict and gentle intonation of the addressed speech.
E Rejoices at the child, takes a toy from him, and walks.
Dr Clearly takes a toy from an adult’s hands, holds a toy in his hand.
To Lies on his stomach for a long time, lifting the body and resting on the palms of his straightened hands. Turns over from back to stomach, stands flat and steady with the support of the armpit.
Ra For a long time he hums melodiously.
N Eats half-thick and thick food from a spoon.
6 months Ac Reacts differently to his own and someone else’s name.
DR Confidently takes toys, being in any position, engages with them for a long time, transfers them from one hand to another.
To Rolls over from belly to back. Moves by rearranging hands or crawling a little.
Ra Pronounces individual syllables, start babbling.
N Eats from a spoon, removes food with his lips.
7 months Dr Knocks, waves, shifts, throws a toy, etc.
To Crawls well (a lot, quickly, in different directions).
Rp When asked where? seeks and finds with a glance an object, repeatedly named, constantly located in a certain place.
Ra He babbles for a long time, pronounces the same syllables.
N Drinks from a cup held by an adult.
8 months E Looks at another child’s action and laughs or babbles.
Dr He deals with toys for a long time and acts with them in various ways, depending on their properties. Imitates the actions of an adult with toys (pushes, knocks, takes out, etc.).
To He sits down, sits and lies down himself.Holding onto the barrier with his hands, he himself gets up, stands and falls. Steps sideways, holding on to the barrier.
Rp When asked where? finds several (2-3) items in permanent places. At the word of an adult, performs previously learned actions (without showing), for example, “okay”, “give me a pen”, etc.
Ra loudly, clearly, repeatedly pronounces various syllables.
N Eats a crust of bread, which he himself holds in his hand.Drinks from a cup held by an adult.
9 months Ac Dance moves to dance music.
E Catching up with the child, crawling to meet him. Imitates the actions, movements of another child.
DR Acts with objects in different ways, depending on their properties (rolls, takes out, opens, rattles, presses, etc.).
Up to Moves from one object to another, lightly holding onto them with his hand.
Rp When asked where? finds with a glance several familiar objects in different places, regardless of their permanent location. Knows his name – turns to the call.
Ra Imitates an adult, repeats new syllables after him, which are already in his babbling.
N Drinks well from a cup, holding it lightly with his hands. The skill of neatness is formed (calmly refers to planting on a pot).
10 months E Acts with the child or plays with the child.
DR Performs various actions with toys independently or at the request of an adult.
To Enters a low surface or “hill”, holding onto the railing and leaves it.Goes forward with support from both hands.
Rp At the request of “give”, finds and gives familiar objects. When flirting with him (“hide and seek”, “catch up, catch up”) performs the learned actions and movements.
Ra Imitates an adult, repeats new syllables after him, which are not in his babbling.
N Skills acquired at 9 months are fixed.
11 months E Rejoices at the arrival of children. Selective attitude towards children.
DR Mastering skills and learned actions, performing them at the request of an adult.
To Stands alone. Takes the first independent steps.
Rp According to verbal instructions, performs various actions not prompted by objects / drives a doll /.The first communication appears in understood speech, / at the request of an adult, he finds and gives a doll that he sees among the toys /.
Ra Pronounces the first words – the designations “av-av”, “kis-kis”, “give”.
N Skills and skills are consolidated.
12 months Az Distinguishes objects by their shape – a cube, a brick. Recognizes acquaintances in the photograph.
E Holds it to another child and gives the toy, accompanying it with babbling, laughter. Looking for a toy hidden by another child.
Dr Performs various actions with toys independently. Transfers actions learned with one subject to another.
Up to Walks independently.
Rp Understands object names, adult names, individual assignments.Understands “no”.
Ra Pronounces 5-10 lightweight words, easily imitates new syllables.
N Drinks from a cup on his own.
1 year 3 months C When playing, distinguishes between two objects of different sizes, for example, two cubes.
Dr Knows how to reproduce learned actions in the game / feeds a doll, collects a pyramid /.
To Walks for a long time, changes position / sits down, bends over /.
Rp The stock of understandable words has increased significantly.
Ra Uses babbling and a lightweight word / “give”, “mom”, “no way”, “bang” /.
N Eats thick porridge on his own with a spoon.
1 year 6 months C From objects of different shapes / 3-4 / to the proposed pattern and word, he selects the same shape, / for example, to a cube – a cube /.
Dr Knows how to reproduce actions often observed in life / combs, washes the doll /.
To Movement is more coordinated – steps over obstacles with a side step, /, for example, through a folder lying on the floor /.
Rp Finds by word among several outwardly similar objects two of the same meaning, but different in color and size.
Ra In surprise, joy, or strong interest, names the object.
N Self-eating liquid food with a spoon.
1 year 9 months C When playing, distinguishes between three objects of different sizes (for example, 3 cubes).
To Can walk on a surface 15-20 cm wide at a height of 15-20 cm from the floor.
Dr Builds “gate”, “bench”, “house”.
Ra Uses two-word sentences.
Rp Answers the questions of an adult when considering plot pictures.
N Knows how to partially undress with a little help from an adult.
2 years C Based on the proposed sample and the request of an adult, finds an object of the same color.
To Steps over the obstacle in alternating steps.
Dr The game reproduces a series of logical related actions.For example, a doll, bathes, wipes.
Ra Uses 2-3 word sentences when communicating with adults, using adjectives and pronouns.
Rp Understands short stories about events familiar to the child from his personal experience.
N Knows how to partially dress clothes with a little help from an adult.
2 years 6 months C Matches a variety of items in four colors / red, blue, yellow, green /.
To Steps over a stick or rope, horizontally raised above the floor by 20-28 cm.
Dr In the game, it acts interconnected, consistently (feeds the doll, puts it to bed, walks).
Ra Constructs a sentence of three or more words.Questions arise where? where to?
N Dresses independently, but still does not know how to fasten buttons and tie shoelaces.
3 years C Names the 4 primary colors.
To Steps over a stick or rope, horizontally raised above the floor by 30-35 cm.
Games In games plays a role.For example: playing with a doll, says: mom, doctor.
Ra Uses complex sentences. There are questions why? when?
N Dresses independently with a little help from an adult, fastens buttons, ties laces.
4 years Thinking, speech. Knows how to group objects by class: furniture, dishes, clothes, animals, birds, etc.
Motor skills. Knows how to jump simultaneously on two legs, in place and moving forward. Always or sometimes he fastens the buttons himself, ties the laces.
Attention and Memory Attentive, collected. Age-appropriate poetry can be memorized quickly, firmly or slowly, after many repetitions, but generally successfully.
Social contacts. Knows how to play with other children and, observing the rules of the game.
Psyche No deviations.
5 years Thinking Knows how to compose a story from a picture from several sentences. Correctly answers the question of how the hero got into this situation.
Motorics Knows how to jump in place on one leg and move forward.Always or almost always dresses and undresses on her own.
Attention memory Attentive, collected. Age-appropriate poetry can be memorized quickly, firmly or slowly, after many repetitions, but generally successfully.
Social contacts. Knows how to play with other children and, observing the rules of the game.
Psyche No deviations.

90,000 Articles – Preschool child development

Responsible time from 3 to 7 years | Features of physical development | Features of the development of the psyche | What is important for parents to know | Preparation for school


As soon as the baby turns 3 years old, it seems to parents that the most difficult thing is over. Now the child independently knows how to walk, talk, eat. In fact, an equally important, but incredibly exciting period begins.It is at the preschool age from 3 to 7 years that those basic features are laid on which a person relies all his life: character, temperament, vision of the world, attitude towards others, perception of reality, etc. Correct development in preschool age will help the child become a full-fledged person, free from complexes and fears.

Modern early childhood development programs are very popular. They allow you to form competent speech, train memory, attention, develop creative and mental abilities.Certified specialists of the Research Institute “Children of Indigo” are proficient in various technologies for the development of preschool children and are ready to offer a comprehensive approach to this important issue.


At preschool age, the child grows rapidly, in 4 years he adds 20-25 cm in height. The proportions of the body change, the muscles are actively developing. The child needs proper physical activity. The musculoskeletal system is still rather weak, so muscle overstrain can lead to severe pain and cramps.

Coordination is gradually trained. If at 3 years old when running, the baby minces, then by the age of 5-6 the child has clearer movements: he is able to jump over obstacles, stand and jump on one leg, hit the target with the ball, etc.

Exercise therapy. BOBAT therapy. Vojta – therapy. Exart. Hydro bath. These and other methods of rehabilitation, which have proven themselves well all over the world, make it possible to catch up in the shortest possible time in motor development, to prevent scoliosis and other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

The respiratory system is being rebuilt. Rapid shallow breathing on the one hand provides a high demand for oxygen in the body, on the other hand, it can cause congestion in the lungs. Frequent walks in the fresh air and breathing exercises are not always effective enough.

Hyperbaric oxygenation will help to saturate the blood with oxygen, greatly improving the activity of all internal organs and the brain. Serves as a great way to strengthen the immune system.

The brain is almost completely completed by the older preschool age. Although the nervous system is still extremely sensitive and excitable. Therefore, preschoolers are characterized by emotional instability.

Classes with a psychologist, group and individual, will help the child quickly and comfortably cope with existing behavioral problems, instill the necessary social skills.


SPEECH.The process of forming speech is completed by the age of 7. The child actively enriches his vocabulary and perceives his speech not just as a means of exchanging information, but also as a way of thinking. The kid learns to think and reflect aloud. By this age, the child is aware of the sound features of pronunciation. Therefore, he takes any of his speech disorders as a serious physical disability, which ultimately forms an inferiority complex. The development of speech in preschool children should be given special attention.

Consulting a speech therapist will be useful even for a completely healthy child without delay in mental or speech development. The specialist will be able to assess the child’s capabilities, correct speech skills, select the necessary exercises for the development of speech in preschool children. If serious disorders are found (alalia, dyslalia, dyslexia, stuttering), joint work with psychologists and physiotherapists will be required. At the Research Institute Children of Indigo, computer speech therapy programs for Tigers are presented, as well as hardware techniques that stimulate speech centers, for example, microcurrent reflexology.It is necessary to be in time with the correction of possible speech problems on time, while the process of formation of the articulatory apparatus is underway. This will allow the child to get rid of the problem before school and learn to speak correctly.

MEMORY. In the younger preschool age, the child has an involuntary memory. The kid remembers emotions and images associated with a specific situation, action or object. And only closer to the age of 7 does a child acquire a mechanical memory, which allows him to memorize material as it is perceived by ear or by sight.It is mechanical memory that makes it possible to analyze, reason, reflect. The ability to concentrate, learn, cognize must be encouraged in every possible way. Intellectual and creative development in preschool age will allow the child in the future to quickly adapt to the educational process, it is easier to memorize educational material and cope with complex tasks.

Brain training. At the Research Institute Children of Indigo, they practice unique brain training with biofeedback (BFB).Progressive technology is carried out in the form of an exciting computer game and allows for the correction of serious neurological disorders without medication. Develops in kids the ability to concentrate attention, memorize new material, control emotional arousal.

IMAGINATION. The older the baby gets, the more he begins to imagine. It also serves as an indicator of correct early preschool development. The child imagines various characters, comes up with dialogues, builds up possible situations.This behavior can confuse parents. But in no case should a baby be forbidden to live in a fictional world. The desire to fantasize must be supported by actively participating in the child’s games.

Fairytale therapy with an experienced psychologist will allow the child to open up, get rid of tightness, obsessive fears. In the classroom on the creative development of preschool children, fairy tales by role teach the kid to distinguish between good and bad, good and evil. Sand animation is a good stimulating material.

THINKING. If up to 3 years old a child had visually effective thinking: “I see and do”, then at 4-5 years old thinking becomes visual-figurative. During this period, a child needs more complex toys (constructors, mosaics, labyrinths) in order to learn to look at the situation from different angles, to learn to reason and think. This is especially important for the development of older preschool children. The ability to build logical chains will help in the further development of the child’s intelligence.

The sensory room is a great opportunity to spur the development of thinking in a child while performing non-standard exciting tasks with the use of stimulus material. A visit to the sensory room is interesting in a new way every time. Constructors, toys, simulators evoke light, color, sound, tactile, spatial sensations and actively engage the brain in work.


The behavior and development of a child is always a reflection of life in his family.Parents who prefer to spend time watching TV and computers should not hope that their child will become a genius. It is quite possible for parents to engage in intellectual and creative development in preschool age with their child and independently. To do this, you should adhere to simple rules: try to speak yourself correctly and express your thoughts beautifully. On the way from kindergarten to home, you can describe the world around and involve the child in the dialogue. The kid will enrich his vocabulary, reason aloud, speak and discuss situations with the participation of the child.The kid will learn to catch logical connections and understand the reasons for actions, watch and discuss cartoons with the child, read fairy tales. At the end, it is important to discuss with the child what he saw or read, ask him to retell and evaluate the actions of the characters.


The development of older preschool children is directly related to such a crucial moment as preparing for school. And here it is important not only whether the child can read and write, but also how ready he is for a serious stage morally and physically.Are the skills of teamwork, team communication, perseverance instilled? Is your immune system strong enough? Will the child’s gastrointestinal tract cope with the new diet?

It is better to solve such important issues together with professionals. Specialists of the Research Institute Children of Indigo recommend that you consult in advance with children’s specialists. Do not neglect the advice of an otolaryngologist, gastroenterologist, pediatrician. First of all, make an appointment with a psychologist.

Testing by the Wechsler method will allow you to assess the level of intelligence, the creative capabilities of the child, the level of his social adaptation.Based on the test results, individual recommendations for parents will be given and a development program will be drawn up.

The R-300 program is a unique diagnostics of the cognitive functions of the brain. In the Ural region, it is held exclusively at the Research Institute Children of Indigo. Thanks to advanced diagnostics, it is possible to separate educational gaps from disturbances in the functioning of the brain and organs of perception. Allows you to exclude the presence of pathologies that require attention from doctors, and not teachers and psychologists.

It is important to trust professionals for the physical, intellectual and creative development of preschool children.The early preschool development program should be drawn up individually, taking into account all the characteristics of the baby. The Scientific Research Institute Children of Indigo employs certified specialists who have a huge selection of different technologies at their disposal. We are ready to choose methods and exercises that the child will definitely like, help to strengthen health, develop motor skills, attention, reveal creativity and desire to learn.