Badly broken arm: Broken arm – Diagnosis and treatment
Broken arm – Diagnosis and treatment
Your doctor will examine your arm for tenderness, swelling, deformity or an open wound. After discussing your symptoms and how you injured yourself, your doctor likely will order X-rays to determine the location and extent of the break. Occasionally, another scan, such as an MRI, might be used to get more-detailed images.
Treatment of a broken arm depends on the type of break. The time needed for healing depends on a variety of factors, including severity of the injury; other conditions, such as diabetes; your age; nutrition; and tobacco and alcohol use.
Fractures are classified into one or more of the following categories:
- Open (compound) fracture. The broken bone pierces the skin, a serious condition that requires immediate, aggressive treatment to decrease the risk of infection.
- Closed fracture. The skin remains unbroken.
- Displaced fracture. The bone fragments on each side of the break aren’t aligned. Surgery might be required to realign the fragments.
- Comminuted fracture. The bone is broken into pieces, so it might require surgery.
- Greenstick fracture. The bone cracks but doesn’t break all the way — like what happens when you bend a green stick of wood. Most broken bones in children are greenstick fractures because children’s bones are softer and more flexible than are those of adults.
- Buckle (torus) fracture. One side of the bone is compressed, which causes the other side to bend (buckle). This type of fracture is also more common in children.
Setting the bone
If you have a displaced fracture, your doctor might need to move the pieces back into position (reduction). Depending on the amount of pain and swelling you have, you might need a muscle relaxant, a sedative or even a general anesthetic before this procedure.
Restricting movement of a broken bone, which requires a splint, sling, brace or cast, is critical to healing. Before applying a cast, your doctor will likely wait until the swelling goes down, usually five to seven days after injury. In the meantime, you’ll likely wear a splint.
Your doctor might ask you to return for X-rays during the healing process to make sure the bones haven’t shifted.
To reduce pain and inflammation, your doctor might recommend an over-the-counter pain reliever. If your pain is severe, you may need a prescription medication that contains a narcotic for a few days.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can help with pain but might also hamper bone healing, especially if used long term. Ask your doctor if you can take them for pain relief.
If you have an open fracture, in which you have a wound or break in the skin near the wound site, you’ll likely be given an antibiotic to prevent infection that could reach the bone.
Rehabilitation begins soon after initial treatment. In most cases, it’s important, if possible, to begin some motion to minimize stiffness in your arm, hand and shoulder while you’re wearing your cast or sling.
After your cast or sling is removed, your doctor might recommend additional rehabilitation exercises or physical therapy to restore muscle strength, joint motion and flexibility.
Surgery is required to stabilize some fractures. If the fracture didn’t break the skin, your doctor might wait to do surgery until the swelling has gone down. Keeping your arm from moving and elevating it will decrease swelling.
Fixation devices — such as wires, plates, nails or screws — might be needed to hold your bones in place during healing. Complications are rare, but can include infection and lack of bone healing.
Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.
Preparing for your appointment
Depending on the severity of the break, your family doctor or the emergency room physician might refer you or your child to a doctor who specializes in injuries of the body’s musculoskeletal system (orthopedic surgeon).
What you can do
Make a list that includes:
- Details about your or your child’s symptoms and the incident that caused them
- Information about past medical problems
- All the medications and dietary supplements you or your child takes
- Questions to ask the doctor
For a broken arm, questions to ask your doctor include:
- What tests are needed?
- What is the best course of action?
- Is surgery necessary?
- What restrictions will need to be followed?
- Do you recommend seeing a specialist?
- What pain medications do you recommend?
Don’t hesitate to ask other questions.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, including:
- Did the symptoms come on suddenly?
- What caused the symptoms?
- Did an injury trigger the symptoms?
- How severe are the symptoms?
- What, if anything, seems to improve the symptoms?
- What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms?
Broken Arm: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment
Broken Arm Overview
A broken or fractured arm means that one or more of the bones of the arm have been cracked. This is a common injury occurring in both children and adults. In adults, fractures of the arm account for nearly half of all broken bones. In children, fractures of the forearm are second only to broken collarbones.
The arm consists of 3 major bones. The humerus runs from the shoulder to the elbow. This is called the upper arm, or, simply, the arm. At the elbow, the humerus connects with 2 bones: the radius and the ulna. These bones go from the elbow to the wrist and are regarded as the forearm.
Broken Arm Causes
Almost all injuries to the arm that result in a broken bone are caused in 2 ways: falls and direct trauma.
- The typical fall that produces a fracture occurs when you fall on your outstretched hand. The location of the fracture can be from the wrist up to the shoulder depending on the direction of the fall, the age of the person, and other factors that modify the stresses applied to the bone.
- Direct trauma can be from a direct blow from an object such as a bat, the trauma during a car accident, or any accident that causes the direct application of force to a part of the arm.
Broken Arm Symptoms
Most broken arms have these symptoms:
- A large amount of pain and increased pain when moving the arm
- Maybe an obvious deformity compared to the other arm
- Possible open wound either from the bone puncturing the skin or from the skin being cut during the injury
- Decreased sensation or inability to move the limb, which may indicate nerve damage
When to Seek Medical Care
Call your doctor after an accident if these signs are present:
- Significant pain that is not relieved by ice and home pain medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin)
- A large amount of swelling or mild deformity of the arm compared to the opposite arm
- Significant pain with use or limited use of the affected arm
- Pain in one specific part of the arm when it is pressed
Your doctor may advise you to go directly to a hospital’s emergency department. Under the following conditions, go directly to the hospital for emergency care:
- Visible bone sticking out through the skin
- Heavy bleeding from an open wound
- Complete lack of movement or sensation of part of the arm
- Obvious deformity that looks drastically different from the usual appearance
- Loss of consciousness
- Many other injuries
Exams and Tests
The initial evaluation by any physician, in the office or in the emergency department, begins with a thorough history and physical exam. By finding out the details of the accident, the doctor may be able to determine what damage was done based on the mechanism of the trauma.
After taking a history, the physician will do a complete physical exam with special focus on the painful areas. The doctor is looking for signs of a fracture (such as swelling or deformity) and checking for possible nerve or blood vessel damage.
X-rays are typically the test used to assess for broken bones. At least 2 views of the arm are taken. Initially, most broken bones will have an apparent fracture or other abnormality on the x-ray. Some fractures are not always visible on the first set of x-rays. In those instances, a CT scan or MRI may be done immediately for further evaluation, or follow-up x-rays may be obtained at a later date.
Broken Arm Treatment Self-Care at Home
- The most important aspect of first aid is to stabilize the arm. Do this by using a towel as a sling. Place it under the arm and then around the neck. An alternate approach to keep the arm from moving is to position a rolled and taped newspaper along the swollen area and to tape it in place.
- Apply ice to the injured area. This can help to decrease pain and swelling. Place ice in a bag and leave it on the arm for 20-30 minutes at a time. It may be helpful to place a towel around the ice bag or in between the bag and the skin to protect the skin from getting too cold. Never put ice directly on the skin.
The most important aspect of treating fractures is to determine which ones can be treated with outpatient care and which require admission to the hospital.
In most instances, the broken arm will be able to be treated in the emergency department.
- Most fractures will need to have a splint or partial cast applied to stabilize the broken bones. Some breaks especially in the upper arm and shoulder may only need to be immobilized in a sling.
- In addition to splinting the broken arm, the physician will prescribe medicines for pain control and ice to decrease swelling.
- Typically, wounds that warrant admission to the hospital are these:
- Bones that have gone through the skin or have lacerations over the broken area
- Fractures that are associated with nerve damage
- Fractures that are associated with blood vessel damage
- Complicated fractures that have multiple breaks, involve the joints, or are unable to be stabilized in the emergency department or doctor’s office
Next Steps Follow-up
Most broken arms will not require admission to the hospital. For all other fractures, the treating doctor will suggest you follow up with an orthopedic doctor (bone specialist). At that time, the orthopedist will determine what further care (continued splinting, casting, or surgery) is necessary based on the type of fracture.
Additional follow-up instructions for fractures include the following:
- Wear any support device (splint, sling, or brace, for example) until the doctor sees you for follow-up.
- Keep your splint or cast clean and dry.
- Apply ice to the injured area for 20-30 minutes 4-5 times a day.
- Keep your arm elevated above the heart as much as possible to decrease swelling. Use pillows to prop your arm while in bed or sitting in a chair.
- Take pain medicine as prescribed. Do not drink or drive if you are taking narcotic pain medication.
- Call your doctor for increased pain, loss of sensation, or if your fingers or hand turn cold or blue.
There are 2 main ways to help prevent a broken arm.
- Wear appropriate personal safety equipment as protection. Wearing car seat belts, using wrist guards for in-line skating and skateboarding, and wearing appropriate pads for contact sports are all good ways to prevent bone fractures.
- Prevent and treat osteoporosis, the disease that causes bone loss, especially in older women. These women tend to have more fractures as they age. In this group, the use of calcium supplements and estrogen replacement would help to reduce the number of fractures resulting from weakened bones. The best treatment for osteoporosis is prevention. This is best done early in life by building stronger bones through a good diet and exercise. Women of all ages should discuss techniques for prevention and treatment of ongoing osteoporosis with their doctor.
The majority of fractures heal and normal arm movement is restored.
Many of these factors based on the individual injury and medical history may determine the final outcome of a broken bone:
- Earlier treatment usually improves results.
- Fractures in younger children and adolescents tend to heal better.
- Fractures that have multiple breaks, involve a joint, have open wounds, or become infected could have healing complications.
- Older adults have an increased chance of losing some ability or movement in the broken arm.
- Chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes may slow the healing process.
Media file 1: Fractured forearm of both bones (radius and ulna). Photos courtesy of Courtney Bethel, MD, and Anthony Dean, MD.
Media file 2: Forearm fracture with multiple fragments
Media file 3: Upper arm fracture after casting
Media file 4: Forearm fracture (ulna) after splint application
Media file 5: Broken shoulder (humerus)
Media file 6: Fracture of the forearm in a child
Synonyms and Keywords
fractured arm, greenstick fracture, dislocation fracture, pathologic fracture, closed fracture, occult fracture, comminuted fracture, compound fracture, buckle fracture, Colles fracture, broken arm
Broken Arm (Upper) – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
You might hear your bone crack or snap as you land but you will certainly feel pain. You might also notice that your upper arm is swollen and is beginning to bruise or even that it looks a different shape. Sometimes you can feel numbness or tingling in your arm.
If you think you (or someone you are with) have broken an upper arm, you should seek medical attention straightaway. If you think it is a bad break, call 999/112/911.
The upper arm
The upper arm has one bone, called the humerus. At the top it meets the shoulder blade (scapula) to form the shoulder joint. At the bottom, with the two bones of the lower arm (radius and ulna), it forms the elbow joint.
Humerus – front
BDB, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
By BDB, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Breaking one or both of your forearm bones, particularly at the wrist, is fairly common; breaking your upper arm bone is much less common. If you do break your upper arm bone (humerus), it is most likely to break at the top – 6 times out of 10 this is where the upper arm bone breaks. It is called a proximal humerus fracture.
The next most common place for the upper arm bone to break is at the elbow. When it breaks here it is called a distal fracture (supracondylar or transcondylar), an intercondylar fracture or a condylar fracture, depending on where exactly the bone has broken.
The least common place for the upper arm bone to break is somewhere in the middle – this is called a shaft fracture.
How do you break your upper arm?
If you break your upper arm it is usually following a bad fall on to your elbow or shoulder or by something hitting it hard, such as being knocked down by a car. Falling on to your elbow or shoulder is likely to cause a broken upper arm (fractured humerus). You can also break your upper arm by falling on to your hand when your arm is straight, especially if it is out to your side.
If you are elderly, it is possible you have developed ‘thinning’ of the bones (osteoporosis). This makes it more likely that you will break your arm following a relatively minor fall or accident. Occasionally you can break your upper arm because you have developed a type of cancer that is affecting the bone and has made it so weak that it has cracked. This is called a pathological fracture.
In very small children their upper arm, particularly the shaft, can be broken by someone abusing them, by hitting or throwing them.
Young people who break the top of their upper arm (proximal fracture) are more likely than older people to have also dislocated their shoulder. This is because the amount of force needed to break a young person’s arm is large and therefore it is more likely to have done other damage too.
What are the symptoms of a broken upper arm?
If you have had a fall or hit your arm you might feel or hear a snap or a cracking sound.
The main symptom is pain, which will be worse if you try to move your arm. A broken upper arm (fractured humerus) can be extremely painful, so much so that you may feel sick, dizzy or faint.
Other symptoms of a broken upper arm are:
- You will be unable to use your arm.
- Your elbow or upper arm may be swollen.
- Your elbow or upper arm may bruise.
- If it is a very severe break, your arm may be a different shape.
- You may notice tingling or numbness.
- There may be bleeding if the broken bone (or your fall) has damaged the skin.
If you have dislocated your shoulder at the same time as breaking your upper arm, you may also notice that your shoulder is out of place or deformed.
When should I contact a doctor?
If you think you have broken your upper arm you should get medical advice immediately. It is important to treat a broken upper arm (fractured humerus) as soon as possible, so that it can start to heal properly. You should go to your nearest Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department or Minor Injuries Unit. Putting your arm into a sling that goes under your arm and around the back of your neck before you go, will make the journey easier. If you haven’t got a sling, you can make one out of a square scarf folded in half diagonally.
Sling folding method
If it’s a bad break, call 999/112/911 for an ambulance.
How is a broken upper arm diagnosed?
An X-ray test is used to diagnose an upper arm break (fractured humerus). It is unusual for a fracture not to show up on an X-ray test but in difficult cases you might need to have a computerised tomography (CT) scan carried out as well.
If the doctors think you might have ‘thinning’ of the bones (osteoporosis) they might also need to arrange for you to have a special scan called dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA – formerly DEXA), which is used to help diagnose osteoporosis.
How is a broken upper arm treated?
The most important emergency treatment is to keep the arm as still as possible, by using a sling, and to be given strong painkillers. Treatment then depends on which part of the upper arm bone is broken.
Break to the top of your upper arm (proximal humerus fracture)
- 8-9 times out of 10, your arm will heal simply by being kept still using a sling or some other mechanism to keep the upper arm and shoulder from moving.
- However, some people will need surgery to fix this type of fracture. Surgery will be needed if the ends of the broken bone have moved apart or are at an angle to one another.
- Different operations are used:
- The ends of the bones can be fixed by using pins that go through the skin into the bones (percutaneous fixation).
- The ends of the bones are fixed together using screws (or a plate).
- The very top of the humerus (humeral head) is removed and replaced with an artificial humeral head (partial shoulder joint replacement).
Break to the bottom of your upper arm (distal, intercondylar or condylar fracture)
- Most of these kinds of fractures need to be operated on. This is because the ends of the broken bones usually move away from each other (displaced or angled).
- If the bones haven’t moved (non-displaced), it can be treated in a plaster cast with your elbow bent to a right angle.
- Sometimes, before any surgery is undertaken, a doctor will inject a needle into your elbow to remove blood that has got into the joint. This can relieve the worst of the pain.
Break to the middle of your upper arm (humeral shaft fracture)
- This type of break is usually treated in a plaster cast. After 1-3 weeks the plaster cast is changed to a type of brace called a functional arm brace. This is a brace which you can remove yourself to do arm exercises, as guided by a physiotherapist.
- If the broken bones have moved away from each other, you might need to be given a brief anaesthetic so that the doctors can move the bones into a good position for healing.
- If it is not possible to get the bones into a good position or if the bone is broken into more than two pieces, you will need an operation. The bones will be fixed together with screws or by using a piece of metal screwed across the break (a plate)
What is the outlook?
How well a break to the upper arm (fractured humerus) usually heals does depend on things such as which part you have broken, how you broke it, how badly you have broken it and how old you are. Most breaks of the upper arm heal very well and a broken upper arm has usually healed within a month or two.
However, if you are very elderly and have broken your upper arm at the top (proximal humerus fracture), it is unlikely that you will get the full range of movement back in your arm and shoulder but the aim of treatment will be to get the movement good enough for you to be able to do everything that you need to do.
What are the possible complications?
Complications are rare. There are several types of complications that can occur:
When the two ends of the broken bones don’t mend, this is called malunion. This is not always as bad as it sounds and may still allow you to use your arm almost normally. It is more common in older people.
There are lots of important nerves and blood vessels that are very close to the bone of the upper arm. These can be injured when the upper arm is broken. This is called a neurovascular injury. Nerves and blood vessels may also be injured during surgery to mend the break. Your health carers will check you regularly after an upper arm break to make sure that there is no sign of any injury to a blood vessel or a nerve.
- About 1 in 3 breaks of the top of the upper arm (proximal humerus fracture) will damage one of the nerves.
- About 2 out of every 10 people who break the middle of their upper arm (humeral shaft fracture) will also damage a nerve called the radial nerve. It is particularly common if the break is in the lower part of the shaft. For 7 out of 10 of the people affected, it recovers completely without any need for surgery.
- The brachial artery can be injured with a humeral shaft fracture but this is rare.
If the blood supply to bone is damaged, that bit of bone dies. This is called avascular necrosis. It can happen if you have broken your upper arm right at the top, affecting the humeral head. Avascular necrosis is more common if the break has created several fragments. If affected, you will develop a painful and stiff shoulder. Eventually you may need to have surgery to replace your shoulder joint.
Associated shoulder dislocation
Dislocating your shoulder at the same time as breaking the top of your upper arm (proximal humerus fracture) is most likely if you are young.
Associated rotator cuff injury
The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that are positioned around the shoulder joint. It helps to stop the shoulder from dislocating. It can be damaged when you break the top of your upper arm (proximal humerus fracture). Rotator cuff tears usually improve with physiotherapy but surgery may be needed.
Humerus Fracture (Upper Arm Fracture)
What is a humerus fracture?
The humerus — also known as the upper arm bone — is a long bone that runs from the shoulder and scapula (shoulder blade) to the elbow. Fractures of the humerus are classified in one of two ways: proximal humerus fracture or humerus shaft fracture.
A proximal humerus fracture usually occurs close to the shoulder joint and can be located at different levels with different fracture patterns: simple or comminuted. A humerus shaft fracture, on the other hand, is one that is localized at the mid portion of the upper arm.
What causes a humerus fracture?
A broken arm is a common injury and is usually a consequence of a fall with an outstretched hand, a car crash or some other type of accident.
What are the symptoms of a humerus fracture?
Symptoms vary depending on the specific type of fracture but may include:
Swelling and bruising
Inability to move the shoulder
A grinding sensation when the shoulder is moved
Deformity — “It does not look right.”
Occasionally bleeding (open fracture)
Loss of normal use of the arm if a nerve injury occurs
What is the treatment for a humerus fracture?
Proximal Humeral Fracture
Most fractures of the proximal humerus can be treated without surgery if the bone fragments are not shifted out of position (displaced). If the fragments are shifted out of position, surgery is often performed to allow earlier mobility. However, other factors are also considered when deciding between surgical fixation or nonoperative treatment.
Nonoperative treatment is usually with a sling or shoulder immobilizer with no shoulder mobility for the first two weeks. Thereafter, the patient will be given weekly exercises to slowly increase the shoulder’s range of motion. An X-ray of the shoulder will be taken on a weekly or biweekly (every two weeks) basis to confirm the fracture is healing properly.
Surgery usually involves fixation of the fracture fragments with plates, screws or pins. Severe fractures with previous arthroscopy (joint degeneration) may require shoulder replacement. Mobilization with physical therapy is begun immediately following surgery.
Humerus Shaft Fracture
A humerus shaft fracture may be treated with or without surgery, depending on the fracture pattern and associated injuries (i.e., nerve injury or open fracture). A temporary splint extending from the shoulder to the forearm and holding the elbow bent at 90 degrees can be used for initial management of the fracture.
Nonoperative treatment usually includes the placement of fracture bracing that will be replaced by a cylindrical brace (Sarmiento brace) three to four weeks later that fits the upper arm while leaving the elbow free. The doctor will tell you how long to wear the cast or splint and will remove it at the right time. It may take several weeks to several months for the broken arm to heal completely.
Rehabilitation involves gradually increasing activities to restore muscle strength, joint motion and flexibility. The patient’s cooperation is essential to the rehabilitation process. The patient must complete range of motion, strengthening and other exercises prescribed by the doctor on a daily basis. Rehabilitation will continue until the muscles, ligaments and other soft tissues perform normally.
Surgery usually involves internal fixation of the fragments with plates, screws or a nail. The rehabilitation differs slightly from nonoperative treatment, with no splints or cast. The patient is usually given a sling for comfort and arm support. Elbow exercises may be started immediately after surgery, while shoulder exercises may be delayed for a few weeks based on the fracture pattern.
Surgery for a Broken Arm: What To Expect: Tadje Orthopaedics: Sports Medicine
For a broken bone to heal properly, the pieces need to be held in position long enough for new bone tissue to grow in between them. Without this, a break can heal out of alignment, leading to long-term issues like deformity, loss of function, and pain.
Some fractures can get straightened without surgery and held in place with casting or splinting alone, depending on the break. However, other breaks require surgery to realign the fractured bones and stabilize it with screws, pins, plates, or other devices to ensure it heals in the optimal position.
As an orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Jared Tadje specializes in treating bone fractures. In fact, he keeps open space at Tadje Orthopaedics in Meridian, Idaho, to provide treatment for injuries requiring immediate attention.
If you need surgery for a broken arm, here’s what you can expect.
During your procedure
Your treatment depends on the type, location, and severity of your break. Before your surgery, Dr. Tadje uses imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs to determine exactly how and where your bone or bones have broken. Using this information, he creates a personalized approach for repairing your fracture.
In most cases, surgery to repair a broken arm can take several hours, and you receive general or local anesthesia beforehand. If you receive general anesthesia, you sleep through the procedure. Whereas local anesthesia only numbs your broken arm.
During your surgery, Dr. Tadje makes one or more incisions to access the break. Then, he realigns your bones and secures them in place with temporary or permanent devices, like rods, screws, or plates. Dr. Tadje also works to repair damage to blood vessels that occurred during your injury.
If you have severely damaged bone, like shattered fragments, your procedure could involve bone grafting. A bone graft either comes from a different part of your body or a donor and replaces lost tissue.
After setting your broken bone and repairing the damage, Dr. Tadje closes your incision with stitches or staples and wraps it in addressing. In most cases, you also need a cast applied to protect the area while you heal.
You may need to stay in the hospital for a night or two after your procedure, and it’s common to have pain and swelling.
After your surgery
Healing from a broken arm takes time. You should expect to have your arm immobilized in a splint, cast, brace, or sling for anywhere from two to six weeks or longer.
Once you go home, you have to follow Dr. Tadje’s post-operative instructions to ensure the best results. He personalizes these guidelines on a case-by-case basis, but they generally include:
- Icing, elevating, and resting your broken arm
- Taking medication to reduce inflammation and pain
- Keeping your surgical site dry and clean
- Having regular doctor appointments to monitor the healing process
- Staying active through activities that protect your broken, like walking
It’s also crucial to follow your physical therapy program. These exercises often begin while your arm is still mobilized and focus on preventing stiffness and weakness. Once the immobilization period comes to an end, you start physical therapy exercises designed to restore strength and range of motion to your broken arm.
It takes approximately 12 weeks for a broken arm to heal. However, it can take up to two years to regain full use, strength, and motion in a fractured arm that requires surgery. To ensure the best outcomes, Dr. Tadje offers guidance on things you should avoid, like lifting, pulling, and pushing, and when you can safely resume activities like work, driving, and sports.
If you have a broken arm in the Boise area, get expert care to ensure optimal healing. Contact Tadje Orthopaedics in Meridian, Idaho, by calling 208-231-7851 or booking an appointment online today.
Broken Bones (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth
What Is a Broken Bone?
A broken bone, also called a fracture, is when a break goes through part or all of a bone.
How Do Broken Bones Happen?
Most broken bones in kids happen from a fall. An accident or sports also can lead to broken bones.
What Are the Kinds of Broken Bones?
Types of bone fractures include:
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Broken Bone?
The signs of a fracture depend on the type of break and the bone affected. It always hurts to break a bone. There also might be swelling and bruising. The injured area may be hard to move and use.
Sometimes there is a deformity — this means that the body part looks crooked or different than it did before the injury.
How Are Broken Bones Diagnosed?
Doctors order X-rays if they think a bone is broken. An X-ray usually can show if there is a break, where it is, and the type of break.
How Are Broken Bones Treated?
Doctors treat most broken bones with a cast, splint, or brace. This keeps the broken bone from moving while it heals. Even broken bones that don’t line up (called displaced) often will heal straight over time.
Sometimes the displaced bones are put back in place before the cast, splint, or brace is put on. This is done through a procedure called a reduction. This is also called “setting the bone.”
The two types of reductions are:
- A closed reduction. This is done in the emergency room or operating room, after the child gets medicine to ease the pain. The surgeon moves the bones back into the right position. No incision (cut) is needed.
- An open reduction. This surgery is done for a more complicated injury. It happens in the operating room under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes a cut and moves the bones into the right position. Surgical plates, screws, or wires might keep the bones in place.
How Do Bones Heal?
In the first few days after a fracture, the body forms a blood clot (or
hematoma) around the broken bone. This protects the bone and delivers the cells needed for healing.
Then, an area of healing tissue forms around the broken bone. This is called a
callus. It joins the broken bones together. It’s soft at first, then gets harder and stronger over the following weeks.
New bone forms in the weeks to months after a break, but full healing can take longer.
How Can I Help My Child?
As your child recovers from a broken bone, make sure that he or she:
- eats a healthy diet that includes plenty of calcium and vitamin D
- takes good care of the cast or splint
- follows the health care provider’s directions for rest and/or doing any exercises
- goes to all follow-up appointments
Broken bones are a common part of childhood. With the right treatment, a broken bone usually heals well. Help your child follow the health care provider’s recommendations. After a few months, your child will be back to all the activities he or she did before the injury.
Broken bones: How do you know when it’s more than just a bump or bruise?
Signs of a bone fracture
Broken bones are most common in the upper and lower extremities (limbs). The upper extremities include the arms, elbows, wrists and fingers and the lower extremities include the legs, knees, ankles and feet. Tendon and ligament injuries (sprains and strains) can occur in these areas as well, but do not occur as frequently in children.
If your child has an extremity injury, there are a few ways to determine if they need to be seen immediately or if it can wait until later. Some symptoms may seem obvious; others may not. The general signs of a fracture are:
- Swelling with tenderness over the area involved
If the child or adult heard a snap or grinding sound when the injury occurred, it is more likely to be a fracture, but not necessarily.
Regardless of when they need to be seen, our same day orthopaedic clinic is open Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and can be reached by calling (804) 828-2467.
Common broken bones in children
- Ankles: This typically occurs from a twist or fall from an activity like skateboarding, running, riding on a scooter or rollerblading.
- Elbows: A common injury making up about 10% of fractures in kids, elbow fractures happen when a bone breaks at or near the elbow joint and can happen in one or more of the three bones that make up the elbow.
- Forearms: Forearm fractures are the most common type of fractures in children. A fracture can occur anywhere on the two bones that make up the forearm (called the radius and the ulna)
- Femur fracture: Your femur bone is the largest bone in the body and connects the pelvis together to form the hip. Most commonly femur fractures occur close to the knee through the growth plate since it is weaker than the bone.
- Tibial shaft fracture: The tibial shaft area refers the shin bone and the smaller fibula bone that make up the major bones in the lower leg. Most commonly, the tibia breaks in the middle of the bone (which is called the tibial shaft), but the shin bone can face other types of fractures depending on the force of the injury. Fractures also occur frequently in kids in the growth plates at the end of the tibia that is part of the ankle.
What are the different types of fractures?
- Open vs closed fractures: Bone fractures are classified as either open or closed. A closed fracture happens when the bone is broken but hasn’t come out of the skin. An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is a relatively rare occurrence in children and happens when the bone breaks through the skin.
- Non-displaced fracture: Occurs where there is a crack in the bone, but the bone hasn’t shifted out of place. Stress fractures (that occur when tiny cracks form in the bone) or buckle fractures (when one side of the bone buckles upon itself) are two common non-displaced fractures. They can typically be treated with a brace, splint or cast.
- Displaced fractures: This happens when a bone is broken, and it moves out of position. Displaced fractures can be broken into a few types:
- Greenstick: When one side of the bone is broken, causing the other to bend like a broken tree branch.
- Rotated: When the bone spun when it broke
- Angulated: When the ends of the broken bone are angled to each other
- Translated: When the bones have shifted out of alignment
- Growth plate fracture: Growth plates refer to the softer pieces of developing cartilage tissue, which form the length and shape of the bone. Left untreated, a growth plate fracture can lead to issues with growth and bone development. Since your child is still growing, the growth plates can be very prone to injury so injury prevention during sports and playground activities is especially important.
What is a bone bruise?
Bone bruises are less severe than bone fractures. This happens when the bone gets several small cracks with blood and fluid building among the cracks right under the skin. The most common areas for bone bruising occur are the knee and ankle.
If your child is experiencing severe pain, swollen or tender area near the injury, swollen or stiff joints near the injury or changes in skin color over the injury, it might be bruised.
We recommend that you seek medical attention so we can check the injured area and determine whether the bone is broken or bruised.
Treating a broken or bruised bone: When to seek care and how to help
Our walk-in orthaepedic clinic can see your child if you suspect your child has a bruised or broken bone.
A child should be seen ASAP if:
- The extremity has a deformity (may look like a bump or change in shape around the bone).
- There is a break in the skin and bone is showing.
- The child cannot bear weight on or use the extremity 15 minutes after the injury occurred
- The child’s pain is not being controlled and the child is crying with rest, elevation, ice and over-the-counter pain medication.
If ANY of these things are true seek medical attention immediately and do not allow the child to eat in case surgery or a procedure to align the fracture is needed. If there is severe bleeding, a break in the skin or a question of a spinal injury, call for emergency care.
If the extremity appears deformed, clothing should be carefully removed or cut from the injured limb and the limb should be supported with a makeshift splint. A makeshift splint can be made with some soft padding around the injury and something firm extending beyond the joints above and below the injury. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends wrapping a small board, cardboard or folded up newspapers with an elastic bandage or tape to make a temporary splint.
If all of the above things are negative and the extremity is not very swollen, then the child can potentially wait to see a physician in an outpatient clinic to have an exam and get x-rays if needed. To reduce swelling, you can apply cold compresses or ice wrapped in cloth, a towel or other material, but do not apply ice directly to the skin as this could cause frostbite (freezing of the skin and underlying tissues).
Most broken bones will be recognized immediately or within a day if a child is still not able to use the extremity as usual. If after a day this is the case, the child should be seen in an outpatient clinic, either with the primary care doctor or an orthopaedic surgeon. Although many children are not able to tell us exactly where this type of injury is, they usually will protect that extremity or cry when it is touched, which is another sign that a child may need medical care.
Sometimes x-rays will not show a fracture if it is through the growth plate and the child will still be treated for a fracture if there is enough suspicion. Growth plates are cartilage and do not show up on x-ray. Therefore a fracture through the growth plate that has not moved or shifted will not show on the x-ray. These are minor fractures, but still may need to be immobilized for symptoms and to protect the child from doing more harm.
To learn more about ankle, elbow, femur, forearm or growth plate injuries and how each are treated, see the “I Broke My…” section of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America website.
How long does it take to heal a broken bone?
Depending on the type of bone and the severity of the break, it can take about six weeks or more until your child can return to normal activity. For example, bigger bones will take longer to heal than smaller bones.
Our orthaepedic specialists will walk you through the what the healing process will be like, how long it will take for the broken bone to heal and answer any other questions you have.
A broken bone can be scary, but with proper care and treatment, they will heal and be okay.
Disclosure: This article is solely dealing with extremity injuries and not multiple traumas including possible abdominal or head injuries. If any of those are suspected, seek medical attention immediately. Do not move the child if there is suspected neck or spine injury.
Originally published in April 2016
Updated July 2020
90,000 Fracture of the wrist joint of the hand with / without displacement – Symptoms, first aid, treatment, rehabilitation – Traumatology CDB RAS
The wrist joint connects the hand to the forearm. It is formed by several bones, two of which – the lunate and the scaphoid – are most often injured. Fractures of the wrist joint are more common in women, especially older women, due to lack of calcium and weakened bones. In men, bones are stronger and larger, and age-related hormonal changes are not so pronounced.
Lack of correct and timely treatment can subsequently cause:
- Pain during functioning;
- Restrictions on the volume of movements performed;
- Development of arthrosis;
- Weakness of the hand.
Injury to the hand joint is the result of increased stress as a result of a fall or a sharp emphasis on the hand.
Another reason is osteoporosis, a disease that is accompanied by increased fragility of bones.
Symptoms of fracture
- The brush loses its ability to perform its functions. Swelling occurs.
- Fracture of the bones of the wrist joint is accompanied by severe pain.
- After the fracture, the deformity of the joint is visually determined. There is a tingling sensation in the area of the fracture and numbness in the fingers.
- With an open fracture, hemorrhage may occur.
Since it will fracture signs similar to a bruise or sprain, only a specialist can make a diagnosis.
In accordance with the signs of the disease, you can consult a doctor:
- to a surgeon or traumatologist – if the patient has a mechanical injury;
- rheumatologist, therapist, urologist or dermatologist – for arthrosis, arthritis or bursitis.
With an intra-articular fracture, CT or MRI is prescribed.
If necessary, an additional examination is carried out.
First aid consists of the following actions:
- Pain relief;
- Immobilization of the hand by placing a splint on the palmar surface and bandaging the hand;
- Hospitalization in the inpatient department (traumatology).
Treatment of fracture of the wrist joint
In case of fracture of the bones of the wrist joint, conservative or surgical treatment is used, depending on the severity of the disease.Fixation is performed using an orthosis (fixator).
If the patient has a closed fracture without displacement, a plaster cast or polymer bandage is applied for several weeks – until the time when the bones are completely healed. In case of a fracture with displacement, when fragments are formed, it is important to give them the correct position and fix in order to exclude arthrosis. In some cases, surgery is performed. At this time, a monitoring X-ray is required to exclude repeated displacement.
After applying the fixing bandage, painful sensations are possible.In this case, apply cold compresses, use anti-inflammatory drugs.
The plaster should not press on the hand. In case of numbness of the hand and increased pallor of the skin, you should consult a doctor.
Reconstructive procedures are recommended after removal of the anchoring structure.
The patient can begin rehabilitation on his own at an earlier period:
- From the second day after the injury, move the joint and fingers as far as possible;
- Two weeks after injury, try to clench a fist, avoiding straining the injured muscles.
- To have magnetotherapy sessions.
After removing the plaster, rehabilitation therapy is recommended:
- Healing mud;
- Salt baths;
- Physiotherapy based on specially selected exercises.
The doctor selects the exercise therapy complex for each case separately.
The speed of recovery depends to a large extent on the nature of the injury. If you follow the doctor’s recommendations, the development after the fracture will be successful, excluding the negative consequences – the development of contracture and arthrosis.
90,000 Fracture without consequences. The detainees are often inflicted with the same injuries as David Frenkel, but the police are not punished for this
Wrong arm hall
Doctors discovered in David Frenkel a closed fracture of the middle third of the right humerus with displacement of fragments.The Investigative Committee began a pre-investigation check on the day of the attack.
According to a source Znak.com , the investigation decided to conduct a forensic medical examination of the journalist’s injuries, since “it is not yet clear why Frenkel broke his arm.” The experts should answer the questions about the “mechanism of the formation of the received injuries”. Frenkel and his lawyer Olga Karacheva from the “Apology of Protest” were not informed about the appointment of the expert examination.
While there are no results, Mediazona showed pictures of Frenkel’s broken arm to Svetlana Danilova, head of the Interregional Center for Independent Medical and Social Expertise.A fracture of the humerus diaphysis most often occurs either from direct force, such as a fall or impact, or from twisting and excessive rotation, Danilova says.
“The picture shows a helical fracture of the humerus diaphysis with displacement, which is not typical during a fall, but occurs during twisting, excessive rotation along the axis, when one of the ends of the shoulder is fixed, and the other is flexed or twisted,” the expert comments on the pictures. “Most likely, the arm was broken when it was folded back.”
Danilova adds that such an injury is characteristic of the wrong wringing of the arm when detained by the security forces.
Fracture without criminal cases
This is not the first time that doctors fix a fracture of the diaphysis of the humerus in a journalist or activist after being detained by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
In May 2010, journalist Alexander Artemyev, as an activist, took part in the “Strategy 31” action on Triumfalnaya Square in Moscow. On that day, the police dispersed the protesters “as brutally as never before,” Vedomosti wrote.Artemiev was also among the detainees. For several hours they were kept on a bus near the Zamoskvorechye police station.
According to Artemyev, at some point one of the detainees said that she would go home and the police had no right to keep her any longer. “I did exactly the same – said:” Guys, three hours have passed, I’ll go home. ” I turn to the exit: three or four policemen are standing in front of me, they grab my hands and drag me to the OVD, and from the crowd at the entrance another (not a riot policeman, a policeman) comes running up and sharply pulls my hand from the other side, “Artemyev said. Novaya Gazeta “.
So the militiamen broke the journalist’s arm. From the department he was taken to the 29th city clinical hospital, where doctors diagnosed a closed comminuted fracture of the diaphase of the left humerus – this is a serious harm to health.
Artemyev recalls that although he was at the rally as a participant and not a journalist, Alexey Venediktov, editor-in-chief of Ekho Moskvy, immediately stood up for him, then he was a member of the presidium of the public council under the Moscow police department, and Mikhail Mikhailin, editor-in-chief “ Newspapers.ru “, where he worked then.
“The day after my hospitalization, an article was published in Novaya Gazeta with a long story about what had happened. And I don’t know whether this article, or pressure from Venediktov and Mikhailin and some other participants in the process led to the fact that a check was ordered after the publication in the media, ”the journalist says.
The check did not lead to anything – the Investigative Committee refused to open a criminal case. But at the end of October, Artemyev was invited to a meeting with the head of the Internal Affairs Directorate of the Central Administrative District of Moscow, Viktor Pukov.
“I was personally offered an official apology for this whole situation,” the journalist recalls. – During this conversation, I was asked to stop or not continue these all my legal claims, I said that I would not stop it. But it stopped by itself. ”
It was not possible to appeal against the refusal to initiate a criminal case in the Russian courts, he filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights, but she “got lost somewhere between Moscow and Brussels”.
Artemiev notes that his case was the first when during the “Strategy 31” a protester’s arm was broken, and therefore caused “the effect of a bomb exploding.”But a year later, when on July 31, 2011, the activist of the Solidarity movement Aleksey Davydov, the police – this year the militia was renamed the police – broke his arm at the same action, there was no such effect.
Davydov was diagnosed with a complex compression fracture of the humerus. The Investigative Committee again refused to initiate a criminal case, since “the employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia did not commit any actions clearly outside their powers.” Two years later, the activist died in hospital (a few days before that he fell into a coma due to diabetes).
Article “I solve questions”. Who is Dmitry Abramov and what did he do before the attack on David Frenkel
“Due to the fact that the repressive practice of law enforcement agencies has become more and more, now it does not raise any questions at all. Well, they broke and broke, – says Artemyev. – It’s just that now we are used to completely different things. Because if we compare with regard to administrative detentions, for example, when in 2007 Kasparov was given 5 days, it just shocked the activists, it seemed like an attempt on all freedoms in general, the GULAG came.And now, 13 years later, when Yashin or Yankauskas are imprisoned for 15, 15, and another 15 days or given a day for single pickets – this is the new norm, yes. We are used to it, and, probably, we are also outraged, but there is no explosion effect. ”
According to the lawyer Andrei Lepekhin, who cooperates with Zona Prava, it is very difficult to prosecute the siloviki for such actions. The lawyer represents the interests of a resident of Chelyabinsk Sergey Startsev – he and his friend were taken to the police department in 2017 on suspicion of trying to steal two packs of cigarettes from a store.
“His arm was broken right in the police station, allegedly he refused to enter the cell,” says Lepekhin. – But in fact, it can be seen from the video: he began to take off his cap from his head, and one of the employees thought that this was an attack on another employee and rushed. I used a trick and broke his arm. Although the investigation opened a criminal case, it considered that the employee acted within the limits of necessary defense. ”
Despite the fact that Startsev was diagnosed with a fracture of the diaphysis of the humerus – that is, causing grievous bodily harm – the Investigative Committee has repeatedly dropped the case due to the absence of corpus delicti in the actions of the police.
“We have appealed the decision to discontinue the case several times in court, it has been canceled, canceled, canceled, but now again the period is such that the decision is still there,” says the lawyer. – They all refer to the law “On the Police”, if the type lawfully used force, then that’s it. And who decides whether it was rightfully applied or not? They also decide. ”
Police officers do not know how to detain correctly
Injury during arrest suggests that the security forces misused a combat technique, says Igor Burmistrov, an instructor who has served in special forces for 30 years.He was a consultant on special tactics at the Department of Combat and Physical Training of the North-West Institute for Advanced Training of the Federal Drug Control Service, a senior lecturer at the training center of the St. Petersburg Main Internal Affairs Directorate, and also acted as an expert in the “swamp case” trial.
“When I was a senior teacher at the training center, I always said:“ Guys, mind you, there is one very interesting feature: if we really need to detain someone with the use of physical force, something else, then we should never start from the very capture.Because a person can always get hurt and then file a complaint against you, he goes to the emergency room, something else, “” Burmistrov recalls. a person, for example, go to the police department. Refusal is regarded as disobedience to a policeman, so after him the security forces can already touch the citizens.
“If he pulled back his hand, this is already complete disobedience,” says Burmistrov.- And if you took a person, and he starts to twitch, then this can already be regarded as resistance. And only then do you already have every right to use physical force. ”
The instructor emphasizes that fighting techniques used during arrest should always start with a relaxing blow – for example, with a leg or hand. However, the current employees, according to his observations, are not trained in such strikes and do not know how to use them.
Article “We beat, we beat, we disperse”. The former special forces instructor examines the mistakes of the police at the protests
In his opinion, the problem is that the teachers who are now teaching the security forces in hand-to-hand combat are mostly athletes who do not know what tactically competent detention is.“Sport and detention are completely different things,” explains Burmistrov. – There is no task here to win, but in sports there is such a task. There, the tougher the better – sport is sport. But real things – everything should be the other way around, with minimal costs. Some kind of minimal trauma, there should not be any in real life. ”
As a result, he says, the security forces do not know how to detain them correctly, but they must obey the order, otherwise they will be left without work.
“This is practiced in the OMON, and throughout the Russian Guard – because the main thing now, to my regret, is not the protection of citizens, but to protect yourself,” the coach argues.”Therefore, it is better to do bad things to the one you are detaining, rather than later, not being able to argue for their actions, you will have to answer [to the authorities].” The siloviki, in his opinion, “would like to do it differently, but they don’t know how” and are afraid that they will be fired.
Policeman Denis Dmitriev, who broke the arm of journalist Frenkel at the polling station, was not fired. The employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, who broke the hands of journalist Artemyev, activist Davydov and Startsev from Chelyabinsk, did not answer for their actions either. Despite the serious harm to health, in all these cases the Investigative Committee did not initiate criminal proceedings.
In the case of Frenkel, the inspection of the Investigative Committee has not yet been completed, but the Ministry of Internal Affairs has already decided to shift the blame onto the Mediazona correspondent. Several administrative protocols were drawn up against him – on disobedience to a police officer (Article 19.3 of the Administrative Code), interference in the work of the election commission (Article 5.69 of the Administrative Offenses Code of St. Petersburg) and violation of the “self-isolation regime” (Article 20.6.1 of the Administrative Code).
Editor: Yegor Skovoroda
Several reasons why a broken arm is fun 🙂
Let me tell you today what an interesting event a broken arm can be 🙂 Well, not all about Italy, right? 🙂
On my last visit to Moscow, I decided to go rollerblading.And not just decided, but maniacally pulled herself out on this campaign. Need to do sport!!! Movement is life !!!
Ride great! True, not for long. Then she fell.
And quite low.
I worked with children for seven years and therefore I believe that I have every right to be a fool 🙂 While good passers-by were pulling the rollers tightly attached to me, I remembered the healer Madame Pomfrey from Harry Potter, who knew how to splic bones with a magic wand in a few seconds.
And here I am sitting on the asphalt in Gorky Park in my venerable 32 years and thinking somewhere in the Gryffindor area … And I clearly understand exactly how Harry felt, having all the bones removed from his hand … And I dream of a bubble of Kosterosta … Well, in order to take it on my chest, overnight everything grows and the figs again on rollers as if nothing had happened.
But I have another part of my brain, honestly, honestly. And it is much more prosaic. She generally painfully lowered me from heaven to earth, saying that the Harry Potter school with all its magical belongings is in England and that their healer will go to us anyway longer than the Russian folk ambulance.
So my desires were cruelly trampled underfoot. But as a consolation prize, I had to promise myself a painted plaster of Paris. All my life I dreamed. And dreams must come true. And even the drawing immediately surfaced – the way it should be. And the performer was immediately chosen – my favorite artist and also a wonderful friend Nikolai Kalinin. Who, of course, at that moment could not even imagine what kind of happiness he had … But it didn’t matter, he already got there 🙂
In general, the ambulance hadn’t arrived yet, but I already had a significant list of why a broken arm will definitely be a fun adventure.And in general, I was not mistaken 🙂
The first couple of weeks, undoubtedly, there is a small side effect – all sorts of bruises, swelling, sausage fingers. But it all heals quickly (our body is amazing!), And the new world remains with you – and you just need to open it)))
To begin with, I generally seemed very stylish to myself during this period. Because my beautiful bruise changed its color palette every few days – and the girls really need a change! Different dresses could be matched to the new colors.This dark blue was gorgeous with my elbow in the first week.
Then the elbow became burgundy – and again excellent. I just had a handkerchief with burgundy hearts with me. Everything looked very cool. But when the bruise turned yellow, there was a bummer – I had nothing yellow. I had to go to the store and buy myself a beautiful mustard-yellow dress. But nothing improves mood and heals wounds like a new thing.
That is why I didn’t deny myself anything at all during this period – I’ll bandage a bandage, then I’ll get a new plaster cast.In general, every day is a little joy.
And even ordinary things during this period turn into something special, like a gift from Santa Claus under the pillow. I don’t remember ever so happy in my life with a manicure 🙂
Or styling 🙂
And how many, how many surprises a new level of mastery of owning your body brings you! For example, I could not even imagine that one day I would take and easily become like Spider-Man.Now I can fasten any zipper and fastener with one right one, and it doesn’t matter where it starts – even from the navel, even from the floor.
And by the way, the pen has already appeared, but the habits of the girl from the Chinese circus remain! Now I know that even if I get tired of everything else, I can easily get a job in the DuSoleil circus. And in my opinion, confidence in the future is wonderful.
I also learned to use my feet and one hand to open deadly twisted cans. True, in this case, for some reason, nothing came out without magic swear words.But as soon as you say some kind of sim-sim in one of the subordinate languages - and everything went like clockwork!
(For Italian learners: it has been noticed that cans of artichokes produced in Rome are best opened to the cry “Vaff @ nculo !!!”) kind people. All doors open in front of you, all seats are given up, you will be brought up for free. Any acquaintances start right away, because all new interlocutors now have a secret code: “Senya, take care of your hand!”, “You probably have not a closed fracture, but an open one!” and, of course, “Fell, woke up, plaster cast.”
There is still an endless scope for imagination.
A week later, the official version about the fall from the rollers begins to bore you pretty much, so with every new question “GOT IT HAPPENED?!?!?!” you invent something new – from a parachute jump to a failed attempt to escape from a particularly annoying Italian. What is most beautiful, absolutely everyone, looking into your honest and clearly suffering eyes, unconditionally believes in any of these versions.
And you can also make your life dream come true and proudly wear a plaster cast painted by your friends as a keepsake !!!
You receive compliments from passers-by on the street who ask where you can buy such a stylish jewelry on your hand)))
(No, no, don’t even dream, this is exclusive!)
They even beg you not to remove the plaster before moment, until they came to him (not to me, to him !!!) to be photographed)))
And by the way, who does not know – this wonderful animal is called a desman.Rare in nature, found mainly only in Kolya’s drawings – he recently opened a whole desman online store)))
There are no gypsums there 🙂
But most importantly, during this period you are filled with pride in Russian Doctors … Because you meet some unreal professionals in their field. Virtuoso, attentive, with a sense of humor. Those who assemble your limb like a Lego constructor, making it almost better than it was.
Those who are ready to help you even at two o’clock in the morning, when you get caught up in another story (and it’s impossible not to get stuck completely – you have to add variety to the everyday life of dry cleaning!)
The impossible is possible – it turns out that a trip to the hospital can to be light and pleasant – no less interesting and exciting than going to the cinema for the premiere of some horror movie.Here, too, there is a plot, a plot with super-heroes, a heart pounding in anticipation of a verdict, and then a happy ending.
… And how many reasons for your family and friends to troll you 🙂 This, for example, a postcard from my kind mother as a wish for a wonderful day 🙂
Well, the most important thing is that you are in another once you understand that life is beautiful, regardless of the events taking place from the outside. Beautiful and that’s it 🙂
Any difficulties are instantly forgotten, but the joy of what is happening against this background remains.
Anyway, by the way, any situation itself is neither white nor black. Absolutely any experience brings new events and new people into your life.
And, of course, it is given for something 🙂 There is always a choice – to feel sorry for yourself or to use the new state given to you to the maximum. In everything.
And the Universe, by the way, is always on guard. The very next morning after removing the plaster in my favorite Italian group, I found this announcement:
And just my 41st size.In my opinion, it was fate, it was necessary to take.
And I, you bastard, prodinam 🙁
But my mother always knows how to comfort me in any difficult situation. She promised that very soon winter will come and it will be possible to practice ice skating. But this is the case. Judging by the weather reports, which continue to come from Moscow, the skating season is really just a stone’s throw away;)
First aid: what to do in case of a fracture?
What to do in case of bone fracture? Do I need to take independent action or is it better to just call an ambulance? We usually rarely think about such things.Until suddenly a situation arises when you have to remember everything that is known about first aid for fractures.
As the Medaboutme.ru portal writes, unfortunately, no one is insured against injuries – neither children, nor old people, nor young people full of strength. The risk of getting a fracture is especially high in old age, when most people suffer from osteoporosis. In women, the likelihood of developing osteoporosis and decreasing bone strength increases with menopause.
The basis of the human body is the skeleton, which carries all the other organs and muscles.And any part of the skeleton can break – from the skull to the little toe on the leg. Each type of fracture has its own rules for first aid.
Symptoms of a fracture
As a rule, a fracture makes itself felt with severe pain, loss of limb mobility, or mobility in places where it should not be. The site of injury swells strongly and quickly, hematomas appear. With an open fracture, the integrity of the skin is compromised, and fragments of bone may be visible in the wound.
But it is not at all necessary to independently try to determine the type of injury – a fracture, dislocation or just a severe bruise.For this there are professionals, traumatologists, to whom the patient must be delivered. Doctors know best what to do when a fracture occurs.
First aid rules
However, it is not always possible to call an ambulance, and sometimes you have to provide first aid yourself. The rules for providing assistance are simple, they are easy to remember:
- An open fracture should be treated with an antiseptic and covered with a clean cloth.
- Do not try to set the bone yourself or try to align the ends of a broken bone.
- In case of severe pain, you can and should give the victim pain medication. Alcohol must not be given!
- If you have to independently deliver a patient to the clinic, you must immobilize the site of injury. In case of limb fracture, two joints are fixed on both sides of the fracture site.
- You can use materials at hand for the tire. If nothing is at hand, the hand can be fixed on the torso, the leg can be bandaged to the healthy leg. The splint is not applied to the naked body: it is imperative to put a soft cloth, cotton wool or clothing under it.
- In case of a fracture of the hip, pelvic bones and spine, the victim is transported on a flat, hard surface.
- In case of a fracture of the ribs, the chest is pulled together with a towel or sheet, transportation is carried out in a half-sitting position.
- In case of a fracture of the femoral neck, spine and skull bones, the victim should be transported on their own only as a last resort. Any movement can cause displacement of bone fragments, trauma to internal organs and painful shock.
If you do not know exactly what to do in case of a fracture, it is better to wait for the doctors or seek help from others.
Treatment Fracture of the distal end of the humerus
A distal humerus fracture occurs when there is a breach of bone integrity within the distal region (lower end) of the humerus.
The bone may crack slightly or break into many pieces (fractured fracture).
Broken pieces of bone may align in a straight line or may be out of place (misaligned fracture).
In some cases, bone breaks in such a way that fragments of the bone protrude through the skin – this is called an open fracture.Open fractures are especially serious because once the skin is damaged, there is a greater likelihood of infection in both the wound and the bone. Immediate treatment is required to prevent infection.
Distal fractures of the humerus are rare, accounting for about 2% of all fractures in adults. They can be part of a more complex elbow injury.
Fractures of the distal humerus are most often caused by:
- falling directly onto the elbow
- receiving a direct blow to the elbow from something heavy, such as a baseball bat, dashboard, or car door during a vehicle collision
- falling on an outstretched arm with the elbow tightly pressed to the body.In this situation, the ulna (one of the bones of the forearm) gets into the distal humerus and this leads to its rupture.
Fractures of the distal humerus are also sometimes caused by mild trauma, and this is most common in older patients whose bones have weakened as a result of osteoporosis.
A distal humerus fracture can be very painful and will restrict movement in the elbow joint.
Other fracture symptoms may include:
- subcutaneous hematoma
- pain on palpation
- A feeling of instability in the joint, as if your elbow is about to “pop out”
- in rare cases, a broken bone can protrude from the skin (open fracture)
- Examining the skin for cuts and tears: In severe fractures, bone fragments can break through the skin, increasing the risk of infection;
- palpate around the elbow to determine if there are other painful areas.This could indicate other broken bones or injuries, such as a dislocated elbow;
- you need to make sure that there is good blood flow to the hand and fingers by probing the pulse on the wrist;
- needs to make sure you can move your fingers and wrist and can feel with your fingers. In some cases, the ulnar nerve can be damaged at the same time as the fracture. This can lead to weakness and numbness in the fourth and fifth toes.
The best way to diagnose a fracture is X-ray.
In case of questionable results of radiography and when planning surgical treatment, computed tomography can be recommended, which can show an accurate picture of the fracture in three-dimensional reconstruction.
Magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound may be required to diagnose damage to soft tissues (ligaments, tendons, nerves, etc.).
Conservative treatment can be recommended for stable fractures in which bone fragments are not displaced.Also, this method can be recommended for patients with an increased risk of surgical complications.
To fix the elbow, you need to put on a polymer splint or a removable bandage. The healing process is monitored by x-rays to make sure the bone hasn’t budged.
Splints are usually worn for 6 weeks before controlled movement begins.
In case of displacement of the fracture, surgical treatment may be necessary.
The operation is usually required for fractures of the distal humerus, in which:
- bones are displaced (the fracture is displaced)
- parts of the bone pierced the skin (open fracture)
External fixation.For severe open fractures, an external fixator is used to stabilize the bones before a second surgery.
In this operation, small incisions are made in the skin and metal pins are inserted through the bones. The pins protrude from the leather and attach to the carbon fiber frame on the outside of the leather. The external brace acts as a frame to help keep your elbow in a good position until a second operation is performed. This gives the damaged skin time to improve before surgery to repair the fracture and may reduce the risk of infection.
Open reduction and internal fixation. It is the procedure most commonly used to treat fractures of the distal humerus. During the procedure, the bone fragments are first moved to their normal position and then held in place using plates and screws attached to the outside of the bone.
Complete elbow replacement (arthroplasty). In some cases, the humerus is so badly damaged that it cannot be repaired properly and requires replacement.
In an elbow replacement, a metal and plastic implant is attached to the humerus after the fractured bones have been removed. Another metal and plastic implant is attached to the ulna (forearm bone) and the two implants are hinged.
Whether your treatment is surgical or non-surgical, recovering from a fracture of the distal humerus requires a lot of work.
TRUST YOUR HEALTH CARE TO REAL PROFESSIONALS!
First aid for fractures
First aid for fractures
Fracture – damage to the bone with a violation of its integrity.Fractures occur due to some diseases associated with reduced bone strength, but most often they are traumatic in nature and occur due to falls, traffic accidents or other sudden effects of significant mechanical force on the bone.
There are two types of fractures:
Closed, as a result of which, if the bone is damaged, the skin is not damaged;
Open, characterized by skin rupture, severe bleeding and a high risk of infection.
Symptoms of fractures
The main symptoms of closed fractures are:
– Severe or shooting pain in the bone area;
– Distinct bone deformity or abnormal mobility of any segment of the limb;
– Severe pain on movement or limitation of movement.
Open fractures are characterized by additional symptoms – wounds with arterial, venous, mixed or capillary bleeding, which can be expressed in varying degrees.In this case, the broken bone, as a rule, is exposed to a greater or lesser extent. Most often, the condition of victims with a closed fracture is satisfactory, while multiple open fractures may be accompanied by traumatic shock.
First aid for closed fractures
First aid for closed fractures consists in fixing the limb. At the same time, the painful sensations in the victim will depend on its quality. A splint is applied to the damaged bone according to the general rules.In this case, you should not wrap the damaged area very tightly so as not to disrupt active blood circulation. In cases where there are no means for applying a splint, the injured hand can be “suspended” on a scarf, and the injured leg can be bandaged to the healthy leg. Also, when providing first aid for fractures, ice should be applied to the site of injury. This will help reduce swelling and reduce pain and the likelihood of developing hematoma.
First aid for open fractures
First of all, when providing first aid for open fractures, it is necessary to treat the skin around the wound with an antiseptic solution and apply a sterile bandage.Since an open limb fracture is usually accompanied by profuse bleeding, it may be necessary to apply a tourniquet. When providing first aid, you should not try to completely correct the existing deformities of the limb, and even more so to set bone fragments protruding on the surface into the depth of the wound, so as not to infect the wound, as well as not to damage the nerves and blood vessels and not cause a new attack of pain in the victim.
First aid for fractured ribs
Signs of rib fracture are pain when moving, coughing, breathing or sneezing.When providing first aid for fractured ribs, to reduce shortness of breath, the victim should be placed in a semi-sitting position. Usually, a broken rib without internal damage does not lead to serious health problems and the victim can be taken to a hospital or emergency room in a machine.
If you have any of the following symptoms indicating damage to internal organs, you should immediately call an ambulance:
– Difficulty breathing, which resembles choking;
– Isolation of red frothy blood;
– Increased thirst and disorientation.
First aid for spinal fracture
Fracture of the spine is one of the most dangerous injuries, because it can damage the spinal cord, which leads to the development of paralysis of the legs or all limbs. Symptoms of a spinal fracture are acute pain in the spine and inability to turn or bend the back.
Splint as first aid for fractures
When providing first aid in case of a spinal fracture, the victim should be laid with his back on a hard surface.If in the process of receiving a spinal injury, the victim lies on his back, he must not be lifted by his legs and shoulders, so as not to damage the spinal cord. In this case, a board or other hard surface should be carefully slipped under the victim, without lifting him from the floor. You can also flip it over onto its stomach, making sure that the torso does not bend as it lifts. Transportation to the hospital is allowed only on a solid stretcher, and any available materials can be used for this purpose – a door, a wooden board or boards.
First aid for fractures of the lower extremities
Fractures of the lower leg and ankle bones are the most common fractures of the lower extremities. As a rule, edema grows in the area of the fracture immediately after the injury, and the fracture itself is accompanied by sharp pain. When providing first aid, the injured leg must be given the correct position, after removing the shoes. For immobilization, you can use any available means – ski poles, boards or rods, which are applied along the inner and outer surfaces of the leg.In this case, two joints should be fixed simultaneously – ankle and knee. A fracture of the knee joint is extremely painful and often accompanied by deformity. When providing first aid for fractures, you should not try to straighten the knee by force. The victim must be placed in the most comfortable position for him and the fixation must be strengthened by placing blanket or fabric rollers around the injured leg.
First aid for fractures of the upper limbs
Signs of a broken arm are pain along the bone, abnormal shape of the limb, swelling and atypical mobility in places where there is no joint.For first aid, splints or “hanging” a hand on a kerchief to the neck, and then bandage it to the body. Cold can also be applied to the injury site. In case of a fracture of the bones of the hand, for first aid, it should be bandaged to a wide splint that covers the hand from the middle of the forearm to the end of the fingers. The fingers should remain relaxed and slightly bent, and a ball of cotton wool or a bandage should first be placed in the palm of the injured hand.
First aid for jaw fractures
A fracture of the jaw is usually accompanied by a change in the contours of the soft tissues of the face and difficulty in speaking.Usually, when providing first aid for a fractured jaw, a bandage around the head is not applied. With such a fracture, the victim must be taken to the hospital, while the injured jaw should be held with palms folded in a boat.
First aid for clavicle fracture
Signs of a clavicle fracture are acute pain in its area and pronounced swelling. For first aid, put a small lump of gauze, cotton wool or some soft material in the armpit and bandage the arm bent at the elbow at a right angle to the body.You can also put ice or a towel soaked in cold water on the damaged area.
Do not forget that in any case the victim must be taken to the hospital!
90,000 “Slumdog Beauty” by Michael Winterbottom at the box office
In his new film Slum Belle, Michael Winterbottom brings Thomas Hardy’s novel Tess of the D’Urberville to India.
A company of carefree young people led by the heir to the hotel business Jay (Reese Ahmed) travels across India and, at the end of their vacation, meets a beautiful and modest girl Trishna (Frida Pinto).Soon after Trishna meets her father, they get into a car accident, and the broken arm of the poor beauty turns out to be the lesser of troubles: the head of the family is bedridden, a loan must be paid for the broken jeep. Jay immediately offers the victim a job in one of his father’s hotels (Roshan Set), where the young man tries his hand as a manager. A noble proposal slowly but surely turns into a dangerous rapprochement.
A regular at the Cannes Film Festival, British director Michael Winterbottom (Tristram Shandy: The Story of a Cock and a Bull, 24-Hour Party People, 9 Songs, Wonderful Country, Welcome to Sarajevo) brings the action of Thomas Hardy’s novel to modern India Tess is of the d’Urberville family. “
In the Victorian tragedy, a peasant woman with a complex pedigree consistently became a victim of class inequality and double standards in society’s attitude towards premarital sex in men and women, and gained short freedom and mutual love only at the cost of a terrible crime.
This book was filmed by Roman Polanski in the late 1970s at the suggestion of his then wife Sharon Tate, who later died tragically. The main role was played by Nastassja Kinski. It was charged with inner energy, close to the original movie about a passionate, but suppressed by circumstances and rock nature.
Winterbottom, in turn, not only changes the time and place of action (this, by the way, is already Hardy’s third novel, which he undertakes after “Jude the Obscure” and “The Mayor of Casterbridge”), but also rewrites the system of relations.
In the first third of the film, walks to a carvai-like soundtrack (composer Shigeru Umebayashi used similar strings to accompany the secret feelings of the heroes of “In the Mood of Love”) and general indecision fit into the idea of Victorian stiffness.Moreover, the highly stratified Indian society outwardly disposes of such a transfer.
Jay is a representative of the post-British upper class: he came from London, does not speak Hindi, and would like to exchange provincial Jaipur for a movie party and the liberated life of Bombay. Trishna is an educated and well-bred young lady, but comes from the lower classes.
But as soon as the action travels to Bombay, the rules of the game change. The silent compliance of the heroine Frida Pinto is very different from the character of Tess, which Hardy wrote her: she tried to enter into a confrontation with the male world and wrote angry letters.Trishna chooses (although this verb seems too decisive for her) the path of non-resistance. Jay turns out to be not only Alec d’Urberville, who seduced Tess, but also pushed her away with Angel Clare.
Winterbottom habitually plays with the plot of the original source and the cultural codes of the world in which he places it. And if we look for analogies in his filmography, then “Slumdog Beauty” is closer not to the free treatment of “Tristram Shandy” by Lawrence Stern, but to the film “Demand”, which the director made from the already mentioned ” Mayor of Casterbridge. “
Indian realities turn out to be livelier than the plot.
Main after the role in “Slumdog Millionaire” by Danny Boyle (hence the rolling translation of the title of the picture – in the original simply “Trishna”) Indian beauty Frida Pinto compensates for some limited acting range with her natural beauty.
But here girls from the provinces watch Bollywood films, dancing in front of the TV screen. And the directors and performers of these film dancers appear in the roles of themselves.
Against this background, the absence of any chemistry between the characters and the artificiality of the relationship between them are especially noticeable.However, in this one can also see an artistic solution, precisely embodied in how a cheerful Indian dance turns into a broken tragic striptease to the music of Portishead, the Bristol singers of world sorrow.