Best medicine for runny nose and congestion: Cold Medicine Options for Cough, Stuffy Nose, Runny Nose, and More
Cold Medicine Options for Cough, Stuffy Nose, Runny Nose, and More
Over-the-counter medicines won’t cure your cold, but they might make you feel better, so you can rest as it runs its course. Here’s a look at some common products and what they can do for you.
Decongestants can curb swelling inside your nose and sinuses, and help you breathe more easily. If you have nasal or sinus congestion, then a decongestant can be helpful.
Decongestants can make some people hyper or keep them awake.
They can also increase blood pressure and heart rate, and raise the chance of heart attacks and strokes. Pseudoephedrine is the primary oral decongestant available. In general, if your blood pressure is well-controlled with medications, a decongestant shouldn’t be a problem as long as you monitor your blood pressure. This may not be true with certain types of blood pressure drugs. Check with your doctor or pharmacist about what may be best for you.
Nasal decongestants work fast to open breathing passages. But if you use them for more than 3 days in a row, you may have a “rebound effect” and end up more congested than you were at the start. Some doctors suggest using a saline spray instead of a medicated spray. Saline spray works more slowly but has no rebound effect.
Runny Nose, Watery Eyes, and Sneezing
When you have a cold, your body makes chemicals called histamines. That leads to sneezing, a runny nose, and watery eyes.
Over-the-counter antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine block this process and can relieve those symptoms. They can also make you sleepy and dry out your eyes, nose, and mouth. Antihistamines can make secretions thick, which can be a problem for people with asthma.
Can’t stop hacking? You have two main choices in the cold-and-flu aisle:
- Cough suppressants, like dextromethorphan, can provide relief for a short time. They work on the part of your brain that controls the process.
- Expectorants, like guaifenesin, can break up congestion in your chest by thinning the mucus in your airways. This way, when you do cough, you can get rid of phlegm more easily. Drink plenty of water if you take this medicine.
An occasional cough may clear the lung of pollutants and excess phlegm and probably shouldn’t be treated. But a cough that won’t go away should be diagnosed and treated.
Fever, Aches, and Sore Throat
These symptoms are usually mild with a cold compared to a more serious illness, like the flu. Still, if you feel bad and can’t rest, most experts agree it’s OK to take something to ease pain and lower a fever, like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
Fever may be a good thing. It helps the body fight off infection by suppressing the growth of bacteria and viruses and activating the immune system. Doctors no longer recommend fighting fever for most people, except perhaps for the very young, the very old, and those with certain medical conditions such as heart disease or lung disease. But if you’re uncomfortable, it’s fine to take these medications.
Young people (including those in their early 20s), however, should avoid aspirin. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil) are best. Each type of medicine has risks, so check with your doctor or pharmacist as to which type of pain reliever or fever reducer is best for you.
Drinking lots of fluids and using salt water gargles (made by mixing a cup of warm water and a teaspoon of salt) can often ease the pain of a sore throat. Some oral medications (such as Tylenol) and medicated lozenges and gargles can also temporarily soothe a sore throat. Check with your doctor before using any medications, including over-the-counter drugs, and don’t use lozenges or gargles for more than a few days. The drugs could mask signs of strep throat, a bacterial infection that should be treated with antibiotics.
Always check drug labels for side effects, and follow the instructions for taking the medicine. Make sure it won’t mix poorly with any other medications you’re taking or health problems you have — ask your doctor or pharmacist if you’re not sure.
Natural Cold Remedies
Maybe you’ve heard that vitamin C, echinacea, and zinc are good for a cold.
They aren’t cures, but vitamin C and zinc may shorten the length of an illness. Research on echinacea has been mixed. Before you try these products, check with your doctor to make sure they’ll work well with other medicines you’re taking.
Nasal strips can also help you breathe easier, since they can enlarge nasal passages while you wear them.
Other more traditional remedies might help relieve common cold discomfort, too.
- Drink plenty of liquids, including chicken soup. It can make you feel better.
- To relieve a sore throat, gargle with warm salt water, use throat sprays, and suck on ice or lozenges.
- Try a saltwater nasal rinse. These can help with a stuffy or runny nose.
- Use petroleum jelly on your nose if it’s irritated from constant blowing. Facial tissues with added lotions can help prevent, and heal, redness and soreness.
- Use a humidifier to help break up phlegm.
Do what you can to make yourself as comfortable as possible, and rest while your body fights the cold virus.
Which Allergy Medication is Best?
Dr. Menachof, MD, has specialized in conditions around the head, throat, ear, nose, neck and face for over 20 years, and was the first to bring sublingual allergy drops to Colorado in 2005. He has been recognized as a Fellow by multiple academies, named one of America’s Top Facial Plastic Surgeons continually since 2003 and is featured in multiple national publications.
There are many different ways to treat allergies, and some treatments work better than others depending on your symptoms and lifestyle. Each person reacts differently to allergens–the irritants that trigger histamine reactions and cause symptoms like stuffy nose and itching. The same is true for allergy medications as well.
It may take some trials with different medications, or a combination of several, to find the ideal relief from all of your allergy symptoms. Allergy treatment options include antihistamines, decongestants, combination drugs, corticosteroids, and other medications. Immunotherapy is also a long-term approach to allergy treatment, which gradually increases your tolerance to allergens through allergy shots or allergy drops.
Below we explain the differences between several types of allergy medicine, how they work, and which allergy symptoms they alleviate most effectively.
Best for Treating Itching and Nasal Allergy Symptoms
Antihistamines work by targeting and blocking histamine, which is the chemical substance your body releases when exposed to an allergen, such as pollen or pet dander. Antihistamine treatments can take the form of pills, liquid, nasal spray, or eye drops. Once antihistamine medications are in your bloodstream, they can quickly reduce symptoms caused by allergens and prevent the release of histamines in the first place.
Taking antihistamines before or during exposure to an allergen can help limit and even prevent allergy symptoms. Antihistamine pills are most effective against itching, sneezing and runny nose, while nasal sprays are primarily designed to relieve congestion and pressure. It’s important to note that certain antihistamine, especially older drugs, can cause drowsiness and dizziness, so you should be careful to avoid certain activities like driving after taking some antihistamines.
Symptoms Treated by Antihistamines
Examples of Antihistamines
- Allegra (fexofenadine)
- Benadryl (diphenhydramine, can cause drowsiness)
- Claritin (loratadine)
- Zyrtec (cetirizine)
- Clarinex (desloratadine)
- Astelin (azelastine, nasal spray)
- Optivar (azelastine ophthalmic, eye drops)
Side Effects of Antihistamines
Older antihistamines, especially over-the-counter drugs, may cause drowsiness or dizziness. However, newer second and third generation antihistamines are non-sedating, meaning they do not cause drowsiness and are safe to take before most activities. Antihistamines can also cause dryness as a side effect, especially after prolonged use.
Best for Treating for Nasal and Sinus Congestion or Pressure
Decongestants primarily target congestion and nasal-related allergy symptoms, and they can work well for fast relief. If nasal obstruction or trouble breathing is your worst allergy symptom, this may be the best option for you. Decongestants work by decreasing the inflammation and fluid production in your nose that are often triggered by allergens. This allows the nose to drain more effectively, air to flow freely, and any swelling of the nasal passages to go down, relieving symptoms.
Allergy medications that are decongestants can come in pill, liquid or nasal spray form. The most common form of decongestant are pills, which many people use to combat seasonal allergies especially. Nasal sprays and eye drops can both stop being effective or make symptoms worse if overused, so it is important to use them sporadically (no more than a few days at a time) to treat symptoms.
Symptoms Treated Best by Decongestants
Examples of Decongestants
- Afrin (oxymetazoline, nasal spray)
- Sudafed (pseudoephedrine, pill or liquid)
- Neo-Synephrine (phenylephrine)
- Certain Visine eye drops
Side Effects of Decongestants
Decongestants can raise blood pressure, especially with prolonged use, so they are not usually recommended for people with high blood pressure or glaucoma. Certain decongestant treatments may also cause insomnia or irritability and can restrict urinary flow.
Combination Allergy Drugs
The Best of Both Antihistamines and Decongestants
Certain allergy medications contain both an antihistamine and decongestant to relieve multiple allergy symptoms at once. These combination drugs can be an effective treatment for people who experience nasal congestion or trouble breathing in addition to other allergy symptoms like hives or itchy eyes.
Examples of Combination Allergy Medications
- Allegra – D
- Clarinex – D
- Claritin – D
Side Effects of Combination Medications
Since combination allergy meds include elements of both antihistamines and decongestants, it is possible for patients using these drugs to experience side effects associated with either treatment type. While drowsiness is unlikely it can still occur, as can insomnia or irritability and blood pressure increase.
Treats Inflammation and Swelling
Corticosteroids can reduce inflammation that is associated with allergies. These medications primarily treat and prevent nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and an itchy, runny nose caused by allergic reactions. They work quickly and limit the body’s histamine creation preventing the allergic response that leads to problematic symptoms like a stuffy nose or sore throat. Steroids can work well both for seasonal and year-round allergy symptoms.
Steroids are considered highly effective at relieving allergy symptoms, but they must be taken regularly, even when no symptoms are experienced, to work well. Like many allergy medication types, it can take several weeks before the full relief from the medicine is felt.
Systemic steroids are available as pills or liquids for serious allergies and asthma, but are also common as nasal sprays or inhalers. They can also be used as a topical cream for skin allergies to relieve hives and swelling. Many doctors recommend nasal steroid sprays to help with year-round allergies. Corticosteroid medications can take longer to kick in than antihistamines, but most healthcare providers consider them to be the most effective way to combat nasal allergies. Many, but not all, of these steroid treatments require a prescription.
Symptoms Treated by Corticosteroids
Examples of Corticosteroids Include
Side Effects of Corticosteroids
There are many potential side effects that can occur if steroid treatments are used for an extended period of time. Side effects are typically mild, such as weight gain, fluid retention, and increased blood pressure but certain patients may develop more serious complications including diabetes, osteoporosis, and muscle weakness. Steroids that are ingested through nasal sprays or inhalers can cause side effects such as cough, hoarseness, and fungal infections of the mouth.
Mast Cell Stabilizers
Treats Mild to Moderate Inflammation in Allergy Sufferers
Mast cell stabilizers are often used alongside other allergy treatments to help alleviate mild to moderate inflammation. These treatments work by preventing histamine from being released by the mast cells, which are the cells that produce and store histamine.
Mast cell stabilizers are available as eye drops for itchy eyes, also called allergic conjunctivitis, and as nasal sprays for nasal allergy symptoms. As with many drugs, it may take several weeks to start working at its best.
Examples of Mast Cell Stabilizers
- Opticrom (Cromolyn sodium)
- Alomide (Lodoxamide-tromethamine)
- Alocril (Nedocromil)
- Alamast (Pemirolast)
Side Effects of Mast Cell Stabilizers
Side effects are not common, but in some cases patients experience throat irritation, coughing, or skin rashes. Mast cell stabilizers taken as eye drops can occasionally cause burning, stinging, or blurred vision.
Treats Asthma and Nasal Allergy Symptoms
Leukotriene modifiers can be prescribed along with other allergy medications to help reduce allergy symptoms. These drugs are primarily used to treat asthma and nasal allergy symptoms. They work by blocking the leukotrienes, a type of chemical produced by the body in response to allergens. Leukotriene modifiers can be taken as pills, chewable tablets, and oral powder.
Examples of Leukotriene Modifiers
The only leukotriene modifiers that the FDA has approved is Singulair (monteleukast).
Side Effects of Leukotriene Modifiers
Side effects of leukotriene modifiers are rare but can include:
- Stomach pain or stomach upset
- Stuffy nose
Best Treatment to Manage Allergies Long Term
Immunotherapy is a great option for anyone who suffers from severe allergy symptoms, especially for those with year-round allergies. Immunotherapy works by exposing you to gradually increasing levels of an allergen to help your immune system slowly build a tolerance, relieving allergy symptoms and even preventing new allergies from developing.
Allergy shots are one form of immunotherapy that require frequent office visits to be administered by a doctor. Allergy drops are a revolutionary form of immunotherapy that can be taken under the tongue from home each day to relieve allergy symptoms long term. Both allergy shots and allergy drops can be prescribed by a doctor after specific allergies are determined by an allergy test. This is a long term approach to allergy relief and management, with most patients taking allergy shots or drops for a period of three to five years.
Symptoms Treated by Allergy Shots or Drops
Examples of Immunotherapy
- Allergy Shots
- Allergy Drops
- Allergy Tablets
Side Effects of Immunotherapy
The rare side effects that occur with allergy shots include redness, inflammation or irritation at the site of injection, with occasional allergic reaction to the allergy shot. There are no reported side effects or issues from the use of allergy drops.
Work With an Expert to Find Relief Faster
Deciding which allergy treatment option is right for you can be difficult. It’s important to understand your exact type and severity of allergies and discuss all of your options with a specialist. Working with an expert to discuss your symptoms and determine your best course of action will help you find the right medication and get relief from allergy symptoms faster. Schedule a consultation with Advanced ENT & Allergy Center to get to the root of your allergies and find the right treatment for your lifestyle.
Schedule an Appointment with an Expert
For cold symptoms, here are the best over-the-counter drugs
You feel terrible. You’re coughing, you’ve got a stuffy nose, a sore throat — the full monty.
But which products are worth the money and which should you skip? Consumer Reports chose the best over-the-counter drugs based on effectiveness and safety. Use its picks below to treat a run-of-the-mill cold. But keep in mind that certain symptoms, such as shortness of breath, chest pain, a high fever or an illness that worsens after seven days, warrant a trip to a health-care professional. While some of the products mentioned are name brands, be aware that you can often save money by picking a generic version.
For nasal congestion
Take: Afrin nasal spray (generic name: oxymetazoline)
Skip: Phenylephrine tablets such as Sudafed PE
The nasal spray wins because its active ingredients work fast to shrink swollen nasal blood vessels, which will help you breathe easier. If you stick to the recommended dose, sprays used short term cause fewer side effects than oral decongestants because they’re usually not absorbed into your bloodstream in significant amounts, as are oral decongestants. The active ingredient in Afrin is also in Dristan and Vicks Sinex, which are two other good options for 12-hour congestion relief. Sprays containing phenylephrine, such as Neo-Synephrine, also work well but last only up to four hours. Be sure to limit over-the-counter nasal-spray use to no more than three days or you could end up with rebound congestion, leaving your nose even stuffier.
If you’re still congested after three days, you can try an oral product containing pseudoephedrine such as Sudafed. You’ll have to ask for it since they’re kept behind the pharmacy counter; the less-effective Sudafed PE, which has phenylephrine, is stocked on open store shelves.
But if you have glaucoma, heart disease, high blood pressure, an enlarged prostate or thyroid disease, check with your doctor or pharmacist before using any type of decongestant, including sprays, since they might worsen those conditions.
For a runny nose
Take: Chlor-Trimeton (generic name: chlorpheniramine)
Skip: Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Cough and similar combination products
The single-ingredient antihistamine Chlor-Trimeton beats out the multidrug-remedy Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Cough. The Alka-Seltzer product has an antihistamine, but it also contains a pain reliever, a cough suppressant and a decongestant, which is overkill if you just have the sniffles. Taking all those extra medications puts you at risk for possible side effects. Besides, neither dextromethorphan (a cough suppressant) nor phenylephrine in pill form (a decongestant) works very well.
The downside of using older antihistamines such as Chlor-Trimeton are side effects that include drowsiness, dry eyes and dry mouth, and urinary retention. Newer antihistamines, such as Claritin (generic: loratadine) and Zyrtec (generic: cetirizine), work better for allergies but not as well for colds. Before you reach into your medicine cabinet, your best bet might be to have a bowl of chicken soup, drink a cup of tea and head for bed early.
For a cough
Take: Luden’s throat drops
Skip: Dextromethorphan cough syrup
Fits of coughing and hacking can be upsetting, but OTC remedies that contain dextromethorphan won’t do much to stop them. You’re better off sucking on a lozenge, such as Luden’s throat drops. They contain pectin and honey, which coat your raw throat and soothe the tickle that often triggers a coughing fit. Even easier: Try a spoonful of honey, which worked better than a honey-flavored cough syrup in a published study. But don’t give honey to babies younger than 12 months old because it could contain botulism spores, which can be dangerous to them due to their immature immune systems.
Copyright 2013. Consumers Union of United States Inc.
A Review of OTC Options
US Pharm. 2018;(43):6-10.
The common cold is a condition that is prevalent in the community and is associated with a variety of symptoms. Typically, it is an acute, self-limiting viral infection of the upper respiratory tract that is most frequently caused by rhinoviruses.1 Symptoms commonly associated with the common cold include coughing, nasal congestion, low-grade fever, and fatigue, usually presenting 1 to 2 days after exposure. Generally, most symptoms subside within 7 to 10 days, although some symptoms can persist for up to 3 weeks.2 The incidence of the common cold declines with increasing age. Data indicate that children experience colds about six to eight times a year, adults younger than age 60 years tend to have two to four colds per year, and adults older than age 60 years usually have only one cold a year.2 In addition to age, factors such as stress and lack of sleep may increase the risk of the common cold.3 While the cold does not cause serious illness or complications in most cases, patients with comorbidities may be at a higher risk for complexities such as exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia.
The common cold is often mistaken for the flu. The flu is caused by the influenza virus, classified as type A, B, or C. Types A and B affect humans, with type A generating more severe symptoms. The influenza virus can be dangerous in older people and in those patients who are immunocompromised. Nevertheless, people with influenza are sicker than those experiencing common cold symptoms and commonly manifest such signs and symptoms as temperatures greater than 102°F, chills, headaches, myalgia, and malaise (Table 1).3
The common cold is the leading cause of missed work and school days during the winter months. There is no known cure. Many patients seek out nonprescription medications for symptom relief, leading to expenditures in excess of $8 billion annually on cough and cold products.4
Because the common cold is a viral infection, antibiotics should be avoided. Treatment is limited to symptom relief and patients will often visit the pharmacy to inquire about OTC remedies. It is important to note that giving OTC medications to children less than 2 years of age may be dangerous; in 2008, the FDA recommended that OTC cough and cold medications be avoided in children younger than 2 years.5 Since then, manufacturers have changed the labeling of cough and cold products to state, “Do not use in children under 4 years of age.”6 For children between the ages of 4 and 6 years, there is limited evidence of clinically significant benefit regarding OTC products for treatment of the common cold.7,8
There are a multitude of products available to help provide relief from the symptoms of the common cold. Before the pharmacist makes a recommendation, the patient should be assessed to determine if he or she is a candidate for self-treatment (Table 2). Therapies available for symptom relief include antihistamines, decongestants, expectorants, antitussives, and analgesics/antipyretics used as monotherapy or in combination.
If patients are suffering from nasal congestion, a systemic or topical decongestant may be appropriate. Decongestants are adrenergic agonists; they cause vasoconstriction, resulting in a decrease in sinusoid engorgement and mucosal edema.9 Phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine are two systemic decongestants often found in OTC preparations. Topical decongestants in the form of nasal sprays include the short-acting products ephedrine, na-phazoline, and phenylephrine and the longer-acting product oxymetazoline.
Multiple doses of nasal decongestants seem to provide some relief in patients suffering from nasal congestion due to the common cold.9 Oral pseudoephedrine appears to relieve congestion more effetively than phenylephrine.10,11 One study evaluated the nasal-decongestant effects of phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine compared with placebo. Phenylephrine’s effect was not significantly different from that of placebo; pseudoephedrine was found to be significantly more effective than both placebo and phenylephrine.12 This lack of efficacy may, in part, be due to phenylephrine’s extensive systemic metabolism leading to low bioavailabilty.12,13 Although pseudoephedrine is available without a prescription, state and federal regulations have moved this product behind pharmacy counters because of its role in the illegal production of methamphetamine.14 There are new formulations of pseudoephedrine available that help deter this activity and do not adversely affect the product’s decongestant properties.
Topical decongestants also relieve nasal congestion.9 These agents provide a local effect at the nasal mucosa with limited systemic absorption, leading to fewer adverse effects. One study evaluated the effect of a single-dose trial of oxymetazoline. The drug reduced nasal airway resistance and symptoms of nasal blockage within 1 hour, with the effect lasting for up to 7 hours.15 The use of topical decongestants should be limited to 3 to 5 days to avoid rebound congestion, otherwise known as rhinitis medicamentosa.16
Decongestants are relatively safe if used appropriately, but their use is associated with many adverse effects resulting from their direct action on adrenergic receptors and stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). Common adverse effects include insomnia, increased blood pressure, restlessness, anxiety, tachycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias, hallucinations, and urinary dysfunction.17 These agents should be avoided in patients with heart disease, hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).17 Decongestants should not be used in patients who are concurrently taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors; this combination can result in a life-threatening rise in blood pressure.17
To help relieve a runny nose, itchy and watery eyes, and sneezing associated with the common cold, antihistamines may be considered. First-generation antihistamines including brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and clemastine, are preferred over the second-generation antihistamines in the management of these symptoms. Second-generation antihistamines such as cetirizine, fexofenadine, and loratadine do not cross the blood-brain barrier; effectiveness of the first-generation agents appears to be due to their actions on histaminic and muscarinic receptors in the medulla.18 First-generation antihistamines have been shown to provide some short-term benefit against rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and sneezing when used as monotherapy, but appear to be more beneficial when used in combination with other agents, such as decongestants and analgesics.19,20
First-generation antihistamines are associated with a variety of adverse effects because of their ability to interfere with CNS histamine receptors. These agents may cause drowsiness, sedation, somnolence, and fatigue; they should be used with caution in patients who require mental alertness. They may also potentially impair cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor performance.17,21 In addition, first-generation antihistamines are associated with undesired anticholinergic effects including dry eye, urinary retention, constipation, and mydriasis.17 Antihistamines should be not be used in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma or BPH.21
Many OTC cold preparations contain dextromethorphan, an antitussive, to suppress the cough that is often associated with the common cold and other respiratory infections. Although available as a single-agent preparation, dextromethorphan is also commonly available in combination with other agents in multisymptom cold and flu products. Multiple studies evaluating the efficacy of these products have been conducted but are limited by small sample size, poor study design, or variability in dosing and frequency of medication use.22 Although some reviews suggest that dextromethorphan may be effective in treating acute cough based upon cough-counting studies, others conclude that there is no strong evidence for or against the use of these agents in managing cough.22,23
When consumed in excessive doses, dextromethorphan is capable of producing hallucinogenic effects similar to those of phencyclidine and ketamine; this has resulted in the drug being abused by some individuals in the community setting.24 Surveillance data suggest that the peak prevalence of dextromethorphan abuse occurred in 2006, with an estimated 17.6 cases per million.25 Potential physiologic effects of excessively high doses of dextromethorphan include, but are not limited to, tachycardia, mental-status changes, hypertension, seizures, coma, and both respiratory and cardiac arrest.24 The abuse potential of this agent has resulted in numerous states enacting legislation prohibiting the sale of dextromethorphan to minors.24
Expectorants are agents that are generally employed to reduce the viscosity and volume of sputum produced by patients suffering from a variety of respiratory conditions. Guaifenesin is the only FDA-approved expectorant and is found in a variety of remedies for the symptomatic relief of acute, ineffective, productive cough. Although guaifenesin has been available in OTC preparations for decades, its efficacy as an expectorant in cold and flu preparations continues to be questioned. A 2014 Cochrane review of cough and cold products failed to find any clinical evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of the drug either alone or in combination.22
Despite the lack of trials demonstrating clinical benefit, guaifenesin continues to be promoted as an effective expectorant in OTC products. The drug is considered relatively safe and is not associated with any clinically significant drug interactions. When used at recommended doses, the drug is relatively well tolerated, with the most common side effect reported to be gastrointestinal intolerance.22
OTC analgesics and antipyretics such as aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen are often employed in the management of the generalized pain, headache, and fever associated with the common cold and other viral illnesses.13,26 Although these agents are generally considered to be equally effective in the management of the above symptoms, they should be used judiciously because they are associated with several adverse effects.13 Patients with aspirin allergy and those with active ulcers may not be candidates for aspirin or related nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In addition, a recent study suggested that patients who used NSAIDs during an acute respiratory infection tripled their risk of an acute myocardial infarction.27
Preventing the spread of common cold viruses is the primary method for reducing the risk of getting a cold. Pharmacists should educate patients on the various methods used to help reduce the risk of getting a cold. Good hygiene practices include washing the hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds; avoiding touching the face, eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands; and avoiding contact with infected people.28
Patients affected by the common cold often rely on OTC products to help manage their symptoms. Pharmacists are an invaluable resource, providing education and recommendations to ensure safe and appropriate use of OTC medications. It is important to properly assess patients to determine whether they are candidates for self-treatment. It is also important to counsel patients to make sure that they understand potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and warnings associated with any medication.
What are the symptoms?
The common cold usually causes nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing. You may also have a scratchy throat, headaches, and muscle aches; you may feel tired; and you may have a low-grade fever. If a cough occurs, it usually happens on the fourth or fifth day.
What can I do if I have a cold?
• Drink plenty of fluids
• Get plenty of rest
• Humidify the air
Are there any treatments for the cold?
There is no cure for the common cold, but there are medications that might help relieve some of the symptoms. Before you use any product, you should speak with a healthcare provider, especially if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, glaucoma, an enlarged prostate, or are allergic to aspirin.
Nasal congestion: Oral decongestants such as pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine may provide relief from a stuffy nose. If you use a decongestant nasal spray it is very important that you do not use it for more than 3 days.
Runny nose: Antihistamines may provide some relief.
Fever, sore throat/headache/body aches: Use a mild pain reliever such as acetaminophen or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent such as ibuprofen or naproxen.
Cough: Common ingredients include guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.
How can I prevent a cold?
Preventing the spread of cold viruses is the best way to prevent the spread of colds.
• Avoid contact with infected people if possible
• Practice good hand-washing habits and techniques, such as washing your hands for at least 20 seconds after touching surfaces, before preparing food and eating, and before touching your face, eyes, nose, or mouth
• Use hand sanitizers when hand-washing is not possible
• Do not share drinks or eating utensils
• Sneeze or cough into your crooked elbow and use tissues. Wash your hands afterwards
• Avoid touching the face with the hands and touching contaminated surfaces
• Have infected individuals use only one bathroom in homes with multiple bathrooms
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5. FDA. For consumers. Consumer update. Using over-the-counter cough and cold products in children. October 22, 2008. https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170722060133/https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048515.htm. Accessed December 21, 2017.
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7. Briars LA. The latest update on over-the-counter cough and cold product use in children. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther JPPT. 2009;14(3):127-131.
8. Bell EA, Tunkel DE. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children: are they helpful? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142(5):647-650.
9. Deckx L, De Sutter AI, Guo L, et al. Nasal decongestants in monotherapy for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(10):CD009612.
10. Meltzer EO, Bukstein DA. The economic impact of allergic rhinitis and current guidelines for treatment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106(2 suppl):S12-S16.
11. Hatton RC, Winterstein AG, McKelvey RP, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral phenylephrine: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41(3):381-390.
12. Horak F, Zieglmayer P, Zieglmayer R, et al. A placebo-controlled study of the nasal decongestant effect of phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine in the Vienna Challenge Chamber. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;102(2):116-120.
13. Eccles R, Jawad MS, Jawad SS, et al. Efficacy and safety of single and multiple doses of pseudoephedrine in the treatment of nasal congestion associated with common cold. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19(1):25-31.
14. Drug Enforcement Agency. Rules—2006. Retail sales of scheduled listed chemical products; self-certification of regulated sellers of scheduled listed chemical products. www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2006/fr0926.htm. Accessed December 13, 2017.
15. Akerlund A, Klint T, Olén L, Rundcrantz H. Nasal decongestant effect of oxymetazoline in the common cold: an objective dose-response study in 106 patients. J Laryngol Otol. 1989;103(8):743-746.
16. Mortuaire G, de Gabory L, François M, et al. Rebound congestion and rhinitis medicamentosa: nasal decongestants in clinical practice. Critical review of the literature by a medical panel. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130(3):137-144.
17. Malone M. Review: side effects of some commonly used allergy medications (decongestants, anti-leukotriene agents, antihistamines, steroids, and zinc) and their safety in pregnancy. https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ijam/international-journal-of-allergy-medications-ijam-3-024.php?jid=ijam.
18. Muether PS, Gwaltney JM. Variant effect of first- and second-generation antihistamines as clues to their mechanism of action on the sneeze reflex in the common cold. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(9):1483-1488.
19. De Sutter AIM, Saraswat A, van Driel ML. Antihistamines for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(11): CD009345.
20. De Sutter AIM, van Driel ML, Kumar AA, et al. Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(2):CD004976.
21. Simon FER, Simons KJ. h2 antihistamines: current status and future directions. World Allergy Organ J. 2008;1(9):145-155.
22. Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(11):CD001831.
23. Morice A, Kardos P. Comprehensive evidence-based review on European antitussives. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2016;3(1):e000137.
24. Gershman JA, Fass AD. Dextromethorphan abuse: a literature review. J Pharm Technol. 2013;29(2):66-71.
25. Wilson MD, Ferguson RW, Mazer ME, et al. Monitoring trends in dextromethorphan abuse using the National Poison Data System: 2000–2010. Clin Toxicol. 2011;49(5):409-415.
26. Kim SY, Chang Y-J, Cho HM, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(9):CD006362.
27. Wen Y-C, Hsiao F-Y, Chan KA, et al. Acute respiratory infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on risk of acute myocardial infarction: a nationwide case-crossover study. J Infect Dis. 2017;215(4):503-509.
28. CDC. Prevent the common cold. Published February 6, 2017. www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html. Accessed December 16, 2017.
29. Cleveland Clinic. Influenza. How often symptoms occur in a cold or the flu. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17146-influenza. Accessed December 21, 2017.
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31. Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(2):153-159.
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Common Cold | Johns Hopkins Medicine
What is the common cold?
The common cold leads to more healthcare provider visits and absences from school and work than any other illness each year. It is caused by any one of several viruses and is easily spread to others. It’s not caused by cold weather or getting wet.
What causes the common cold?
A cold is caused by any one of several viruses that causes inflammation of the membranes that line the nose and throat. It can result from any one of more than 200 different viruses. But, the rhinoviruses causes most colds.
The common cold is very easily spread to others. It’s often spread through airborne droplets that are coughed or sneezed into the air by the sick person. The droplets are then inhaled by another person. Colds can also be spread when a sick person touches you or a surface (like a doorknob) that you then touch.
Contrary to popular belief, cold weather or being chilled doesn’t cause a cold. However, more colds do occur during the cold season (early fall to late winter). This is probably due to a variety of factors, including:
Schools are in session, increasing the risk for exposure to the virus
People stay more indoors and are in closer proximity to each other
Low humidity, causing dry nasal passages which are more susceptible to cold viruses
Who is at risk for the common cold?
Everyone is at risk for the common cold. People are most likely to have colds during fall and winter, starting in late August or early September until March or April. The increased incidence of colds during the cold season may be attributed to the fact that more people are indoors and close to each other. In addition, in cold, dry weather, the nasal passages become drier and more vulnerable to infection.
Children suffer more colds each year than adults, due to their immature immune systems and to the close physical contact with other children at school or day care. In fact, the average child will have between 6 to 10 colds a year. The average adult will get 2 to 4 colds a year.
What are the symptoms of the common cold?
Common cold symptoms may include:
Colds usually start 2 to 3 days after the virus enters the body and symptoms last from several days to several weeks.
Cold symptoms may look like other medical conditions. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis if your symptoms are severe.
A cold and the flu (influenza) are two different illnesses. A cold is relatively harmless and usually clears up by itself, although sometimes it may lead to a secondary infection, such as an ear infection. However, the flu can lead to complications, such as pneumonia and even death. What may seem like a cold, could be the flu. Be aware of these differences:
Low or no fever
Sometimes a headache
A headache very common
Stuffy, runny nose
Mild, hacking cough
Cough, often becoming severe
Slight aches and pains
Often severe aches and pains
Several weeks of fatigue
Sometimes a sore throat
Normal energy level or may feel sluggish
How is the common cold diagnosed?
Most common colds are diagnosed based on reported symptoms. However, cold symptoms may be similar to certain bacterial infections, allergies, and other medical conditions. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis if your symptoms are severe.
How is the common cold treated?
Currently, there is no medicine available to cure or shorten the duration of the common cold. However, the following are some treatments that may help to relieve some symptoms of the cold:
Over-the-counter cold medicines, such as decongestants and cough medicine
Over-the-counter antihistamines (medicine that helps dry up nasal secretions and suppress coughing)
Increased fluid intake
Pain relievers for headache or fever
Warm, salt water gargling for sore throat
Petroleum jelly for raw, chapped skin around the nose and lips
Warm steam for congestion
Because colds are caused by viruses, antibiotics don’t work. Antibiotics are only effective when given to treat bacterial infections.
Do not give aspirin to a child who has fever. Aspirin, when given as treatment for viral illnesses in children, has been associated with Reye syndrome. This is a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children.
What are the complications of the common cold?
Colds can lead to secondary infections, including bacterial, middle ear, and sinus infections that may require treatment with antibiotics. If you have a cold along with high fever, sinus pain, significantly swollen glands, or a mucus-producing cough, see your healthcare provider. You may need additional treatment.
Can the common cold be prevented?
The best way to avoid catching cold is to wash your hands often and avoid close contact with people who have colds. When around people with colds, do not touch your nose or eyes, because your hands may be contaminated with the virus.
If you have a cold, cough and sneeze in facial tissue and dispose of the tissue promptly. Then wash your hands right away. Also clean surfaces with disinfectants that kill viruses can halt the spread of the common cold. Research has shown that rhinoviruses may survive up to 3 hours outside of the nasal lining.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, let your healthcare provider know. If your symptoms don’t improve within a few days, call your provider, as you could have another type of infection.
Key points about the common cold
A cold is caused by a virus that causes inflammation of the membranes that line the nose and throat.
The common cold is very easily spread to others. It’s often spread through airborne droplets that are coughed or sneezed into the air by the sick person. The droplets are then inhaled by another person.
Symptoms may include a stuffy, runny nose, scratchy, tickly throat, sneezing, watery eyes and a low-grade fever.
Treatment to reduce symptoms includes getting rest and drinking plenty of fluids.
Because colds are caused by viruses, treatment with antibiotics won’t work.
The best prevention for the common cold is frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds.
How to Get Rid of a Runny Nose From Both Allergies and Illness
- The first step to stopping a runny nose is determining if it is caused by allergies or something else — like a cold, the flu, temperature changes, or irritants like perfume.
- If you have a runny nose because of allergies, your best bet is to take an antihistamine.
- But if you have a runny nose because of something besides allergies, try methods like using a humidifier, applying a warm wet cloth to your face, or using a nasal saline rinse.
- This article was reviewed by Tania Elliott, MD, who specializes in infectious diseases related to allergies and immunology for internal medicine at NYU Langone Health.
- This story is part of Insider’s guide for Treating the Common Cold.
If you have a runny nose, chances are you’re suffering from rhinitis. Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal passages, which often comes with a side of congestion, nasal discharge, sneezing, an irritated throat, cough, and fatigue.
There are two types of rhinitis: allergic and nonallergic. Allergic rhinitis is associated with allergies. When you have an allergy, your body releases a chemical called histamine, which triggers the mucous glands in your nose to ramp up production, causing a runny nose. A common form of allergic rhinitis is environmental allergies from irritants such as:
- Tree pollen
- Grasses and weeds
- Dust mites
- Pet dander
Nonallergic rhinitis doesn’t involve histamines. It’s basically what’s causing your runny nose if allergies aren’t the culprit. And that can cover a wide range of triggers including:
- Viruses that cause colds and flu
- Rapid temperature changes
- Emotions like severe sadness
- Irritants such as strong fragrances and smoke
It’s important to know what type of rhinitis is causing your runny nose because that will ultimately determine how you should treat it.
How to stop a runny nose
If you’re suffering from allergic rhinitis, the best way to alleviate symptoms is to reduce the histamine levels in your body. That’s where antihistamine medications can help. But avoid sedating antihistamines — an ingredient in multi-symptom relief products — because it can have side effects including dry mouth, urinary retention, and in some cases, possible memory impairment.
If, however, you’re suffering from some form of nonallergic rhinitis, especially if you have a cold or flu, try the following.
- Blow your nose. But make sure to blow through one nostril at a time. Otherwise, you can generate pressure that shoots the mucus into your sinuses instead of draining them out.
- Drink plenty of fluids. This can help keep your nasal tissues moist, which can loosen any congestion.
- Using a humidifier can make indoor allergies such as dust mite and mold allergies worse, but too dry of a room can also irritate the nasal passages. The goal is to keep the relative humidity of the home at around 40-50 percent. If it’s higher than that, you create an environment wherein dust mites and mold will thrive.
- Applying a warm wet cloth to your face several times a day can help relieve your sinuses, which might be irritated from the dry air.
- Using a nasal saline rinse can wash away allergens, viruses, and bacteria from the nose and help clear out any trapped mucus.
- When sleeping, try to keep your head elevated and try using nasal strips. Keeping your head elevated allows for better drainage from nasal passages, and nasal strips widen the nasal passages to give more room for congestion to clear.
- Decongestants dry out and shrink inflamed nasal passages. But overuse of decongestants can cause jitteriness and increased blood pressure. Doctors recommend using decongestants for no more than three days.
And if your rhinitis — allergic or nonallergic — becomes chronic, this can increase your risk of getting a bacterial infection. If that happens, see a doctor who can prescribe you antibiotics.
Decongestants – NHS
Decongestants are a type of medicine that can provide short-term relief for a blocked or stuffy nose (nasal congestion).
They can help ease the symptoms of conditions such as colds and flu, hay fever and other allergic reactions, catarrh and sinusitis.
They work by reducing the swelling of the blood vessels in your nose, which helps to open the airways.
Types of decongestants
Decongestants are available as:
- nasal sprays
- tablets or capsules
- liquids or syrups
- flavoured powders to dissolve in hot water
Some products may just contain decongestant medicine, but many are sold as “all-in-1” remedies that contain decongestants, painkillers or antihistamines.
Most decongestants can be bought over the counter from pharmacies without a prescription.
Who can take decongestants
Most people can use decongestants safely, but they’re not suitable for everyone.
They should not be used by the following groups of people without getting advice from a pharmacist or GP first:
Babies and children
Decongestants should not be given to children under 6.
Children aged 6 to 12 should take them for no longer than 5 days. Ask a pharmacist for advice about this.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
It’s not clear whether it’s safe to take any type of decongestant if you’re pregnant, so you should only use them if told to by a healthcare professional.
Decongestants that come as tablets, liquids or powders that you swallow are not recommended if you’re breastfeeding.
Some decongestants that come as nose sprays or drops are safe to use if you’re breastfeeding, but check with a pharmacist or GP first before using them.
The patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine will say who should not use it and who should get advice before using it.
How to use decongestants
Most decongestants should only be used between 1 and 4 times a day.
Check the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine for advice about how much to take and how often to take it.
If you’re not sure, ask a pharmacist for advice.
Decongestant nasal sprays and drops should not be used for more than a week at a time because using them for too long can make your stuffiness worse.
Speak to a GP if your symptoms do not improve after this time.
Side effects of decongestants
Decongestant medicines do not usually have side effects, and any side effects you may experience are usually mild.
Possible side effects can include:
- feeling sleepy (look for non-drowsy medicines)
- irritation of the lining of your nose
- feeling or being sick
- a dry mouth
- feeling restless or agitated
- a rash
These side effects should go away once you stop taking the medicine.
More serious side effects can also happen, such as hallucinations and severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), but these are very rare.
Taking decongestants with other medicines
Ask a pharmacist or GP before taking decongestants if you’re taking other medicines.
Decongestants can increase or decrease the effect of some other medicines.
For example, taking decongestants alongside some antidepressants can cause a dangerous rise in blood pressure.
It’s also important to be careful when taking other medicines if you’re using an “all-in-1” decongestant remedy.
“All-in-1” decongestants also contain painkillers or antihistamines, so it could be dangerous to take extra doses of these medicines at the same time.
Page last reviewed: 28 February 2019
Next review due: 28 February 2022
90,000 Drops for nasal congestion, stuffy nose – what to do?
By the duration of vasoconstrictor activity
By the duration of the vasoconstrictor activity, almost all decongestants used for nasal congestion have a pronounced vasoconstrictor activity. At the same time, the molecules have different duration of action and, accordingly, have different frequency of application during the day. Conditionally distinguish between drugs *:
1) short-acting (within 4-6 hours) – naphazoline, phenylephrine, tatrizoline;
2) longer-acting (in the range of 8-12 hours) – xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, tramazoline.
* G.D. Tarasova. Topical decongestants in the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases. PEDIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY / 2006 / VOL. 3 / No. 3, p.54-58.
Khodzitskaya V.K. Nasal obstruction: anatomical and functional features, clinical presentation, treatment. Journal of Diseases and Antibiotics 1 (6) 2012.
In the table below, you can get general information on the features and properties of different molecules:
|rate of onset of activity||active duration||frequency of use||supply of children’s uniforms||age of use *|
|xylometazoline||to 10 o’clock||2-3 times a day||from 2 years|
|oxymetazoline||to 12 noon||2-3 times a day||from 0 years|
|tramazoline||8-10 hours||up to 4 times a day||from 6 years old|
|naphozoline||4-6 hours||up to 6-8 times a day||from 1 year|
|tetrizoline||4-8 hours||up to 6-8 times a day||from 2 years|
* According to the UTI of drugs with INN data presented on the GRLS website from 24.07.17.
TOP-10 of the best remedies for the common cold
How to choose a remedy for a cold?
The remedy for the common cold must be selected in accordance with its cause. It is also important to understand that many drugs are addictive – if you drip drops longer than prescribed, you will have to take them constantly in the future, and it will be difficult to reduce the dose.
- Reason. If a runny nose is associated with an allergy, its symptoms appear suddenly – in this case, antihistamine drops are needed.If it arose against the background of the disease – antibacterial or vasoconstrictor. If the cause is a nose injury (not a fracture!), Then before the doctor’s appointment, you can drip simple vasoconstrictors or rinse the nose with saline solutions.
- Presence of allergies. Remember that allergies can occur to any component. If one is found, you need to establish which specific component called it. If it is contained in drops, you can only rinse the nose with salt solutions, and then consult a doctor to select a remedy.Natural ones are less likely to cause allergies, because do not contain unnecessary impurities.
- Age. There are many drops from the common cold, therefore there are analogues of “adult” drugs for children – the amount of active ingredient in them is less than that of adults. Often it is calculated based on age and weight, so drops for adults are strictly prohibited for children.
- Price. In this case, more expensive does not mean better. Most vasoconstrictor drops contain xylometazoline and differ only in the brand under which they are released, as well as in the composition of the excipients, so it makes no sense to overpay for xylomethalosin.
Based on these criteria, you can independently choose what to treat – if you follow all the precautions described in the instructions for use, and do not drip drops for longer than the prescribed period, you will successfully get rid of nasal congestion.
Useful materials of choice
What are the remedies for the common cold?
As we have already found out, there are many types of rhinitis, and for each of them there is a preferred method of treatment.It is important to remember that some drops are sold by prescription: for example, hormonal or antibacterial – they are highly active and have side effects, so the doctor should decide on the appointment of such drugs, we will not consider them in this article.
- Nasal washes are solutions with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial effects. They can be prepared at home (a weak solution of salt, soda, furacilin) or you can buy ready-made ones at the pharmacy (chlorhexidine, saline, miramistin, herbal decoctions – for example, chamomile, etc.).). There are products with sea salt: they work in the same way as ordinary salt ones – remember the advertisement: the liquid always moves to the place where the salt content is higher. Based on this physical law, there is an effective elimination of edema and relief of breathing. Some of the best and safest medicines for the common cold.
- Vasoconstrictor – a small educational program: when the vessels of the mucous membrane are dilated, their permeability increases, the liquid part of the blood passes into the tissues – they “swell”, and edema appears.These funds, narrowing the blood vessels, reduce their permeability, and the edema quickly subsides. Such drops can be used for infectious, allergic diseases; with vasomotor rhinitis, but for a short time. Many suffer from them, without even knowing it (the vessels of the mucous membrane contract incorrectly): nasal congestion during stress, liquid discharge from the nose when leaving a warm room to a cold one and vice versa. They are addictive with prolonged use (a runny nose does not go away without the use of a product).
- Antihistamines (antiallergic) – the principle of action of these drugs is to protect cells from destruction, which releases a substance that provokes an allergic reaction – histamine. Basically, in the treatment of allergies, antiallergic drugs are used in tablets, but there are also nasal drops. For allergies, you can also use the tablets with vasoconstrictor sprays or drops.
- Antibacterial – used in the treatment of only a bacterial infection, it is useless to treat an allergic reaction or a viral infection with them.Together with them, vasoconstrictors must be used, because they successfully eliminate the cause, but the symptoms may remain. Like any antibiotics, it is sold by prescription, and the supervision of the attending physician is also necessary. Remember that such agents kill not only disease-causing, but also “good” bacteria.
- Hormonal – used for severe forms of allergic rhinitis, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. It is interesting that such drops do not cause addiction, but have many side effects, some are very serious, so they need to be taken only as directed by a doctor.They have a strong anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect.
- Combined – the name speaks for itself: such funds contain several components, for example, antiallergic and vasoconstrictor. Perfect for complex treatment of rhinitis, eliminating the need to buy drugs separately. If such a remedy contains an antibiotic or hormone, a prescription from the attending physician is required.
Many cold remedies are available over the counter as long as the symptoms do not greatly impair quality of life.However, there are such severe forms of rhinitis when a person cannot breathe through his nose at all. In such cases, a doctor’s appointment is required.
Frequently Asked Questions
Which is better spray or drops?
It is impossible to answer unequivocally which of these forms is better, much depends on your disease.
- Spray – it is most effective to use for ordinary, non-chronic rhinitis (rhinitis), it is more convenient to use than drops, the active substance gets on the entire surface of the nasal mucosa and is most often evenly distributed over it, but almost does not reach the sinuses.
- Drops – best suited for the treatment of sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses of the nose), act as a point and help in the treatment of chronic sinus diseases. A common cold is not dealt with much worse than a spray. It is best to choose a medicine with a pipette that is at the bottom of the cap, it is much more convenient than a pipette that is built into the cap at the top.
When it comes to a common cold, you should try both and choose the one that suits you best.
Do phytopreparations help with the common cold?
In addition to the groups listed above, there are phytopreparations consisting of plant extracts and oils.From the point of view of evidence-based medicine, they have no proven effect, so we decided not to include them in the collection.
However, they can help well against dryness of the mucous membrane and the presence of “crusts” in the nose. Experts recommend using these products in conjunction with rinsing or vasoconstrictor medications. The most famous representatives of phytopreparations are Pinosol and Eucasept.
Ask your question
The best vasoconstrictor drops
4. Rinofluimucil spray
- The best remedy for children
- Country: Italy
- Price: 277 P
- Active ingredient: tuaminoheptane, acetylcysteine
- Rating (2021): 9
Perhaps the best preparation for removing thick snot by thinning them.Compared to other products, it contains ethyl alcohol, but it is approved for use by children from 2 years of age. Under 2 years old – strictly under the supervision of a doctor. Effective against inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity, has a complex vasoconstrictor and anti-inflammatory effect.
- Suitable for children from 3 years old
- Adverse use during pregnancy
3.Ksilen drops (Tizin, Otrivin, Dlyanos, Xymelin, Rinostop)
- Another high-quality product
- Country: Russia
- Price: 25 P
- Active ingredient: xylometazoline
- Rating (2021): 9.5
Russian drug firm VEROPHARM. It has many analogues in terms of the active substance, but in this category it is the cheapest, and in terms of efficiency it is very similar to competitors. Runny nose and swelling are removed within a few minutes after application and the effect lasts up to 10 hours.Cases of a longer action are known, so you need to drip it 1-3 times a day, depending on the effect. If desired, you can purchase more expensive imported counterparts presented above. For example, Tizine is available as a spray. If oxymetazoline-based products have not worked for you, you should try one of these.
- Suitable for children from 6 years old
- Duration of admission no more than 5 days
- Inconvenient pipette for instillation
- Rarely causes allergies
- Country: Germany
- Price: 100 R
- Active ingredient: xylometazoline, sea water
- Rating (2021): 9
This drug was included in our list for a reason: in most cases it is well tolerated, side effects are not frequent, but there are reports of side effects such as headache, burning in the nose, nausea, etc. Not to be confused with an allergic reaction! These are the effects associated with the nature of the action of the components that make up the product.Contraindicated in pregnancy, if necessary, taking during lactation – a doctor’s consultation is required. For the rest – a high-quality fast-acting spray for the common cold.
- Contains seawater
- There may be side effects
1. Nazivin drops (Afrin, Nazol)
- The best remedy for nasal congestion
- Country: Germany
- Price: 150 R
- Active ingredient: oxymetazoline
- Rating (2021): 9
A good remedy for one of the oldest pharmaceutical companies in Germany.It works already a couple of minutes after application, and the effect lasts up to 12 hours. With periodic use by one person, the bubble is enough for 6-12 months, the most important thing is not to exceed the course of treatment, which lasts no more than 5 days, so that there is no addiction. Nazvin’s pipette is convenient, there are no problems with instillation. Contraindicated in children from 6 years of age. Well researched and scientifically proven to be effective.
- Fast effect
Best nasal rinses
- No side effects
- Country: Germany
- Price: 317 R
- Active ingredient: 84.6 ml of natural ocean water
- Rating (2021): 9.5
The product contains the largest amount of sea water per 100 ml, which ensures no side effects, with the exception of an allergic reaction. It can be used for colds and for the complex treatment of allergies. There is information that the drug increases local immunity, in other words – “nasal immunity”, that is, improves its barrier function.
- Suitable for children from 3 months
- Improves immunity
- Can be used with other drugs
3. Aqua Maris standards
- The best product with sea water
- Country: Croatia
- Price: 370 R
- Active ingredient: 30 ml sea water
- Rating (2021): 9.5
Aqua Maris includes sea water and all the necessary trace elements.The tool effectively cleans the nasal cavity, and also protects it from the effects of adverse environmental factors. The manufacturer claims that this drug is suitable for smokers to treat the onset and advanced rhinitis.
- Suitable for children from 1 year old
- Possible use during pregnancy
2. Sialor aqua
- The most natural
- Country: Russia
- Price: 170 R
- Active ingredient: sea water 10 ml
- Rating (2021): 9.5
A modern nasal rinse that also helps to loosen mucus so that it can be easily removed from the nose. The composition contains trace elements necessary for normal recovery of the mucous membrane. At the beginning of treatment, dryness and burning sensation in the nose may appear, which go away on their own. A distinctive feature is that it does not cause side effects.
- No side effects
- Suitable for pregnant and lactating women
- The safest (suitable for pregnancy)
- Country: Sweden
- Price: 353 R
- Active ingredient: sea water 30 ml
- Rating (2021): 9.5
This composition for a cold includes sea water and all the trace elements it contains, necessary to restore the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Suitable for preparation before carrying out diagnostic procedures on the nose, as well as for rinsing the nose before using other means, for example, vasoconstrictor drops.Enhances the effect of other nasal products and also reduces the likelihood of side effects. Suitable for a nursing mother.
- Suitable for children from birth
- Possibly poor bottle quality
The best drugs for allergic rhinitis
2. Aqua maris ectoin
- The most effective
- Country: Croatia
- Price: 429 R
- Active ingredient: ectoine, sea salt
- Rating (2021): 9
Substance called “ectoine”, which is part of this drug, creates a protective barrier that prevents allergens from attaching to the nasal mucosa.Has a stabilizing effect on cells from which histamine is released, and also has an anti-inflammatory effect. It is noteworthy that this substance can be used not only for a cold, but also for diseases of the skin and eyes, which makes it an excellent assistant in the treatment of allergic reactions of various localization (but in the form of other drugs).
- Suitable for children from 2 years old
- Can be used for a long time
- Qualitative composition
- Country: Great Britain
- Price: 290 R
- Active ingredient: phenylephrine, dimethindene
- Rating (2021): 9.5
This product includes a substance such as “phenylephrine”, which used in the emergency treatment of a severe allergic reaction. That is, if you have hypersensitivity or a tendency to allergies, “phenylephrine” will not allow it to develop fully, will prevent it from becoming a severe form.By the way, a similar substance is part of dental anesthesia. A good effective drug in the fight against allergic rhinitis.
- Allergic reactions are very rare
- Do not use for more than 7 days
- Not recommended for pregnancy and breastfeeding
90,000 The best nasal drops, top 10 rating of good nasal drops
Summer rushed with its hot days and sunny weather, it was replaced by rainy autumn, which means that the likelihood of respiratory infections and viruses has increased significantly.Most of them are accompanied by such an unpleasant phenomenon as a runny nose. Each person fights with it, as he sees fit – some just wait for it to pass, others resort to folk remedies, and still others go to the pharmacy and purchase special drugs.
A wide range of similar products is presented on the shelves of such stores today, and various types differ greatly from each other in composition, duration of effect, degree of addiction, and possible contraindications.As you can see, it is quite easy to get lost in the available variety. To prevent this from happening to you, we decided to compile a rating of the best drops from a cold. Here we will analyze in detail the properties of each drug and give several recommendations regarding the correct selection of the most suitable remedy.
How to choose the right drops for a cold?
Truly modern pharmaceutical companies have made excellent progress in the fight against rhinitis (as it is scientifically called inflammation of the nasal mucosa – colloquially a runny nose).First of all, it should be noted that all similar products are sold in pharmacies without a prescription, their cost is not very high, but they have excellent efficiency. With their help, you can easily get rid of the most acute symptoms of a cold – nasal congestion, discharge, in some cases even a headache. Because of this, people do not always think about which particular remedy will be more suitable for their particular case.
First of all, it is imperative that you see a specialist so that he can make an accurate diagnosis and find out what is the cause of the common cold.It can be very different, ranging from the common cold and ending with such serious diseases as sinusitis, otitis media, sinusitis or frontal sinusitis. In this case, drops designed for allergic rhinitis will be absolutely ineffective.
If pathogenic bacteria began to develop on the mucous membrane, then the drug must contain an antibiotic. Otherwise, even the best and most expensive means will not be able to have a depressing effect on microorganisms and will be useless.
Today there are quite a few varieties of nasal drops – vasoconstrictor, antiallergenic, containing antibiotics, to develop local immunity. The first type is the most common. They effectively cope with the typical symptoms of the common cold, help to cope with even more serious diseases, as they are included in the complex therapeutic treatment. With the help of these funds, it is possible to relieve swelling and facilitate breathing. However, it is not worth using the drugs for too long, otherwise addiction and even the opposite effect may occur.
Drops that stimulate local immunity, as a rule, contain an artificial protein called interferon, which the body uses to fight infections. Such drops effectively cope not only with the symptom – inflammation of the mucous membrane, but also with the cause – pathogenic microbes. The drugs are absolutely safe, so they are prescribed even for young children.
When choosing products for inclusion in our review of the best nasal drops, we took into account absolutely all the factors analyzed, so we divided the rating into three parts – vasoconstrictor, anti-allergy drugs and remedies for the treatment of common rhinitis.When choosing, we were based not only on our own preferences, but also based on user reviews and took into account the ratio of price and quality of products.
For the treatment of common colds
4. Drops Galazolin
Inexpensive, but very effective remedy that helps to quickly cope even with severe rhinitis and nasal breathing disorders. It is well suited for short-term symptomatic therapy. For example, if a person falls ill in the evening, and will only be able to see a doctor the next day.When this agent gets on the nasal mucosa, it quickly relieves it of swelling, causing blood to drain. With the help of the drug, it is possible to eliminate the inflammation of the Eustachian tube within a few minutes, to expand the passages for the free passage of air. As a result, breathing improves and becomes calm, without too much snot production. The positive effect lasts for about six hours. If the drops are used once, then there will be no irritating effect on the mucous membrane.Experts do not recommend using this tool for too long – the opposite effect may form.
The main active agent here is xylometazoline hydrochloride, which is contained in a concentration of about 0.2-0.3%. It does not cause allergic reactions, so it is often prescribed for pregnant and lactating women. If you use the agent in the correct dosage, then the active substance will practically not enter the body.
- Low cost;
- Fast and long lasting effect;
- Found in almost every pharmacy;
- Suitable for active symptomatic therapy.
- With excessive use, it leads to the opposite effect due to habituation of the body.
3. Drops Sialor Protargol
Such drops can be used not only for acute, but also for chronic rhinitis. Silver proteinate acts as the main active agent here. With the help of this substance, it is possible to achieve a drying and antibacterial effect.In addition, N-pyrrolidone is also contained here, the composition contains protargol, which was previously prescribed to patients as an independent medicine, but it has a short shelf life. Drops are well suited for combating pathological processes occurring in the nasal mucosa, with rhinitis resulting from inflammation or allergic reactions. They will also be quite useful in the presence of adenoids and polyps, if there are active pathologies in the paranasal sinuses. After various kinds of surgical interventions, the agent is often used to flush the surface of the mucous membrane.
The product can be used to treat sufficiently young children, as well as for prophylaxis in the cold season, when infectious diseases are very widespread. There are certain side effects, so this drug should be used only according to the instructions. In particular, such drops are not suitable for people suffering from atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and glaucoma. In addition, pregnant and lactating women should refrain from using them.
- Extended functionality;
- Several active substances with a variety of effects;
- Available without a prescription.
- There are some side effects – burning in the nostrils, redness of the eyes, and so on;
- People with certain medical conditions must not use this drug.
Drops Sialor Protargol
2. Drops Nazivin
Produced in several versions – in the usual dosage, for people prone to or suffering from allergic reactions, for children of different ages. The drug has an excellent vasoconstrictor effect, and the effect can be achieved almost immediately after application.Normal breathing immediately returns to the patient, well-being is greatly improved, and the amount of nasal discharge is also reduced. Due to this medication, it is possible to restore ventilation between the ear sections and sinuses, due to which the effect of blocked ears, which is so common with colds, disappears. This allows you to prevent the development of diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis or eustachitis. The concentration of active substances here is optimal in order to effectively cope with a cold and prevent the body from quickly getting used to this remedy.
Oxymetazoline hydrochloride is used here as an active substance – in one package it contains about 0.1 mg (it depends on who exactly this drug is intended for). When used in the correct concentration does not irritate the nasal mucosa. The positive effect can be achieved for up to 12 hours. Some people have an individual intolerance to some of the components of the drug. An overdose of the substance should not be allowed, as this can lead to the opposite effect – the feeling of congestion will increase, sometimes even blood pressure rises.
- It is possible to achieve an almost instant effect;
- There are options for young children, people with allergies, and so on;
- Long shelf life;
- Convenient product to use;
- Sold without a prescription;
- Acceptable value.
- There are some contraindications and side effects;
- Incompatible with some modern medicines.
Allows you to actively fight infections on the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. This is a fairly effective remedy that contains an antibiotic that has a depressing effect on pathogens. The product is produced in the form of a spray with a dispenser, due to which the medicine is evenly distributed over the nasal cavity, penetrating even the most inaccessible places.The function of the active substance here is performed by framycetin sulfate – its concentration is 12.5 ml per 800,000 IU. The volume of one bottle is 15 ml. In general, the developer and the only manufacturer of this product is the French pharmaceutical company Bouchard-Recordati Laboratories. The area of effect of the drug is not too wide, so it can be used both as an independent agent and in combination with other drugs.
Isofra has shown itself to be effective in the treatment of sinusitis, rhinitis, rhinopharyngitis and other complications of the common cold, a fairly good effect is obtained in the fight against sinusitis.However, to get rid of the latter pathology, it is necessary that the patient does not have deformities in the nasal septum. The spray is often prescribed for the prevention and restoration of immunity, especially during the period of postoperative recovery of the body, when its resistance to diseases is reduced.
- Contains an active antibiotic that kills viruses and bacteria;
- Can be used by children from 1 year of age;
- Well pronounced bactericidal effect;
- Used for individual use or for complex therapy.
- Use only on the advice of a doctor.
Nasal drops Isofra
Drops for vasoconstriction
3. Spray Snoop
With the help of this remedy, it is possible to quickly cope with the symptoms of a runny nose, which was caused by a variety of reasons – bacterial or viral infection, allergic reactions and etc. After use, the beneficial effect lasts about 5 hours, then it becomes necessary to reapply.This is a German-made product: it was developed and produced by pharmacologists of STADA Arzneimittel, it is a colorless transparent liquid with an active ingredient content of 0.05 (for children) or 0.1% (for adults). The constituent substances here are xylometazoline hydrochloride, specially purified seawater, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
This tool is absolutely safe, but not everyone should use it. For example, it is not suitable for people with the following diseases: high degree of atherosclerosis; with a rapid heart rate, hypertension, closed glaucoma, during pregnancy or breastfeeding.If you use the medicine too often, it can irritate and dry out the nasal mucosa, which will cause an unpleasant burning sensation, a person will often sneeze, and so on.
- Quite affordable drug that everyone can afford;
- Fast and fairly long acting;
- Convenient and compact packaging;
- Contains sea water with a rich content of minerals necessary for the normal functioning of the mucous membrane;
- No preservatives;
- The probability of overdose is reduced to almost zero.
- Maximum can be used for seven days;
- There are certain contraindications;
- Children can only be used from 6 years of age;
- Opened packaging can be stored for a maximum of three months;
- It is strictly forbidden to use for chronic rhinitis.
2. Sanorin with eucalyptus oil
With the help of such drops, it will be possible to alleviate the condition of a sick person after the first use, and literally five to six days later, the runny nose will completely recede.This product contains naphazoline nitrate, which has an original and complex mechanism of action on the human body. With its help, it is possible to achieve a narrowing of the blood vessels, it also contains additional substances that dry out the nasal cavity and the mucous membrane itself, reducing secretions. The product is produced in the form of drops, spray or emulsion, so each person can choose the most suitable option for himself. It contains water, boric acid, ethylenediamine and methyl parahydroxybenzoate as auxiliary elements.Available in pharmacies without a prescription, it is well suited to combat acute or chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis and other diseases of the nasopharynx.
The composition also contains aloe extract, which is able to cope well with seasonal allergic reactions. You should not use the drug in case of high blood pressure, tachycardia, various vascular diseases, and eye diseases. During the day, you can instill the product in the nose no more than four times, at approximately the same time intervals.The maximum should be used for seven days (children – no more than three).
- Inexpensive, but very effective tool;
- Contains a variety of active ingredients that allow you to quickly cope with a cold;
- Long shelf life;
- Available without a prescription.
- A decent number of contraindications.
Sanorin with eucalyptus oil
Designed for adults, but there are products designed for children as well. In principle, these preparations differ from each other only in the content of the active substance. The positive effect is long-lasting, moreover, the remedy can be used for a variety of diseases of the nasopharynx, which are accompanied by rhinitis, as an additional remedy. When used topically, this product allows a very pronounced vasoconstrictor effect to be achieved.With its help, swelling is eliminated literally within a few seconds, which allows you to quickly cope with hyperemia and restore normal breathing. Naphazoline is used here as an active substance, which, in combination with distilled water and boric acid, allows you to achieve the maximum effect and ensure its duration.
For children, this remedy is not used very often due to the presence of a large number of possible side effects, but sometimes they still resort to it.In particular, there is a need to stop nosebleeds, as well as with inflammation of the nasal paranasal sinuses. In some cases, the drug is also used in the field of ophthalmology – here it is needed as an aid to combat chronic and bacterial conjunctivitis.
- Low cost;
- Fast and long lasting effect;
- Good for otitis media;
- There is a children’s option.
- Quick addiction to the drug;
- Contraindicated in children under one year of age, pregnant and lactating women.
Anti-allergy nasal drops
3. Afrin drops Clean Sea
Drops can be used for regular hygiene of the nasal mucosa, allow to cope with the prevention and treatment of even serious infectious diseases, prevent the occurrence of allergic reactions.After use, there is no burning sensation and dryness. The products are made on the basis of seawater filtered using a special technology, it is suitable for both adults and children aged 2 weeks. Drops have several varieties, so everyone will be able to choose the most optimal option for themselves. The medicine is manufactured by the world-famous German pharmaceutical company Bayer. The concentration of medicinal salts here is 22 g / l. There are no preservatives, dyes or flavors in the products, so even people with hypersensitivity can use it.
With the help of this drug, you can quickly rid the nasal cavity of pathogenic bacteria, microorganisms, viruses and allergens, reduce the secretion of secretions and swelling of the mucous membrane. The moisturizing effect helps to maintain the normal state of the cell integument. The product has a high hygienic antiseptic effect, which reduces the viscosity of secretions, and the cavity is mechanically cleaned from mucus, bacteria and dust.
- Soft action;
- Complete absence of contraindications and side effects;
- Produced exclusively from natural materials that have undergone special purification;
- Acceptable value;
- Suitable for people of all ages, including children from 2 weeks of age.
- There is no such quick effect as with other drugs.
Drops Afrin Pure Sea
2. Tizin Alerji
This brand is well known to the domestic consumer of medicines for the treatment of rhinitis. Belgian pharmacologists have developed the latest remedy for the treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, including those of the allergic type. Levocabastine is used as the main active element in this medicine, which is much more effective than similar substances.The vial with the composition is equipped with a spray, and the agent itself is a suspension that is sprayed along the nasal cavity with a fine suspension. It remains on the mucous membrane for a long time. Thanks to this effect, it is possible to fight well against irritation and allergy symptoms. You can use this substance at home, directly at the workplace and even while traveling.
One application of the medicine will be enough to get rid of unpleasant symptoms for 12 hours.The active substance content is 0.5 mg per ml. It is dispensed in pharmacies without a special prescription. The tool interacts well with antiallergenic, antiviral and other drugs, without causing side effects. The composition is allowed to be used by children over the age of 6 years, and the course of treatment can last up to three weeks, since this remedy is not addictive.
- Long-term beneficial effect;
- Very convenient to use;
- Available without a prescription;
- Not addictive with prolonged use;
- Helps to cope even with serious attacks of allergies.
- It is more expensive than analogues.
In addition to anti-allergic characteristics, it also has vasoconstrictor properties. With the help of these drops, it is possible in the shortest possible time to cope with the swelling of the nasal sinuses, mucous membranes, and to restore normal breathing. The composition is such that children can bury the remedy literally from the moment of birth, and no side effects and contraindications were found.It uses two active ingredients: phenylephrine and dimethindene. The first of the bottom is a sympathomimetic, which is designed to narrow blood vessels by stimulating the receptors of blood vessels located in the nasal mucosa. Dimetindene produces its effect on histamine receptors, without inhibiting the layer of the nasal epithelium. There is also sorbitol and lavender oil extract, which not only helps fight microbes, but is also an effective natural antiseptic.
After one day of use, the effect of this medication will be noticeable – there will be much less mucus in the sinuses, and even serious allergic reactions will be reduced.It is allowed to use this remedy for all types of rhinitis, for acute and chronic sinusitis. As an additional medicine, drops are used to treat acute otitis media, they are buried in preparation for surgery on the nose and to relieve postoperative edema.
- Sufficiently mild effect on the nasal mucosa;
- No discomfort after use;
- Suitable even for small children;
- Nice smell;
- High efficiency.
- Poorly copes with very severe nasal congestion;
- The cost is somewhat high.
In conclusion, useful video
So we have finished telling you about the best drops from the common cold. We hope that in the article we managed to remove all the questions, and now you can purchase the most effective remedy for yourself and your loved ones. If you still have any questions, then you can always ask us in the comments to this article – we will try to answer them very quickly in order to dispel your doubts about this or that drug.
How to get rid of nasal congestion. Medical advice: Life is great!
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KSIMELIN – What drops to choose with a profuse rhinitis?
Uncomfortable manifestations of a cold are familiar to everyone, without exception. Too many factors lead to what doctors call rhinitis – inflammation of the nasal mucosa. Depending on the reasons that caused rhinitis, there are 3 main forms:
- Vasomotor (runny nose caused by dysregulation of vascular tone located in the nasal mucosa).
Why does it run from the nose?
In case of infectious and allergic rhinitis, a local inflammatory reaction develops in the nasal mucosa, causing expansion of capillaries, a local increase in blood flow. All this creates conditions for the unhindered exit of the liquid part of the blood (plasma) into the surrounding tissues. As a result, a person has nasal discharge.
There is no inflammatory reaction in vasomotor rhinitis. However, due to the peculiarities of the regulation of vascular tone, the spaces between cells are expanded.Plasma overcomes them unhindered, so a person can suffer from a cold for a long time.
How to deal with a runny nose?
Since any type of rhinitis is based on the expansion of blood vessels and the release of fluid from them, the optimal solution to the problem is the use of vasoconstrictors.
But which ones to choose? Pharmacy windows are full of various trade names. How to find the drug that will eliminate a runny nose, will not harm the body, and at the same time will not be expensive.The drug that meets all these requirements is Xymelin, a medicine for the common cold.
Which Xymelin should I choose?
The drug for the common cold “Xymelin”, getting on the nasal mucosa, immediately interrupts the pathological mechanism of rhinitis. The drug narrows blood vessels, which in a matter of minutes stops uncomfortable nasal discharge.
Modern medicines used to treat various types of rhinitis are vasoconstrictor drugs in the form of a spray.Drops are also effective, but are generally recommended if they are more convenient to use.
The Xymelin line of sprays is very diverse:
- Xymelin Eco
- “Xymelin Eco with menthol”
- Xymelin Extra.
Which Xymelin will help better cope with a nasal flow?
Of course “Xymelin Extra”. It contains not only a vasoconstrictor active substance (xylometazoline hydrochloride), but also a substance that blocks the receptors of the nasal mucosa (ipratropium bromide).”Xymelin Extra” affects all links of the pathological process, therefore, the drug is especially effective for rhinitis with abundant discharge from the nose.
However, it can only be used to treat the common cold in adults over 18 years of age. Due to the presence in the composition of the receptor blocker of the serous-mucous glands of the mucous membrane, the use of Xymelin Extra in children is not recommended.
In case of a cold in children, you should pay attention to the drug Xymelin Eco with menthol.It has a pronounced effect on cold receptors, due to which a feeling of relief in breathing appears in a matter of minutes.
Preparations Xymelin and Xymelin Eco are produced in the form of sprays at a concentration of 0.05% and 0.1%. The first is recommended for children aged 2 years and older, and the second – for children over 6 (Xymelin) and 10 (Xymelin Eco) and adults.
Advantages of “Xymelin” over other vasoconstrictor drugs
So, what are the features that make it possible to recommend the use of the Xymelin line of drugs for various types of rhinitis in children and adults?
- Convenient form of release.”Xymelin” is available both in drops and in the form of a spray;
- Possibility of safe use in children. According to the recommendations of the instructions for use, Xymelin, Xymelin Eco can be used in children from 2 years of age, and Xymelin Eco with menthol – from 10 years;
- The drug acts locally, narrowing the vessels of the nasal mucosa. Therefore, the likelihood of side effects such as headache, tachycardia, increased blood pressure is minimal.
- Long-term therapeutic effect. After using the drug “Xymelin” a person can forget about a cold for up to 10 – 12 hours, so you need to use the drug only 2 times a day.
If it flows from the nose – there is only one answer: “Choose Xymelin”! Takeda cares about the quality of your life, making it better and helping to get rid of the common cold.
Remedies for the common cold for children: what drugs can be used in a child from 2 years old
Co-author, editor and medical expert – Maksimov Alexander Alekseevich.
Date of last update: 06/30/2021
Number of views: 125 794.
Average reading time: 6 minutes.
Non-drug methods of treatment
Rules for the use of drugs for the treatment of rhinitis
A runny nose (rhinitis) is said when a child has discharge and a feeling of congestion due to inflammation of the nasal mucosa … This may be due to general hypothermia, sudden changes in ambient temperature, infection, allergies, or prolonged mechanical stress. 1 A physiological runny nose is possible during the neonatal period and during teething.
When selecting methods of treatment, not only the cause of rhinitis is taken into account, but also the age of the child. The younger the baby, the more carefully you need to choose remedies for the common cold for children. You can use both non-drug methods and special preparations. Treatment in any case is prescribed by a doctor.
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A runny nose causes discomfort to the child, interferes with sleep, increases the risk of complications from the lower respiratory tract, such as tonsillitis and bronchopulmonary diseases.Sucking is difficult in infants with nasal congestion. Fortunately, a child’s runny nose is curable; you need to start helping the child at the first symptoms of the disease.
First of all, you need to clean the nasal cavity. For infants, mucus is removed with an aspirator, after having instilled a saline solution into each nostril to dilute the secretion. It is advisable for an older child to regularly rinse his nose with special means 2 with a cold, even if he already knows how to blow his nose.
With rhinitis, the nasal mucosa is irritated and swollen.To reduce discomfort, it is advisable to soften it with oil solutions of vitamins A and E (if the child has no intolerance). To reduce the swelling of the mucous membrane, you can apply a special ointment with essential oils to the wings of the nose.
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Non-drug methods of treatment
Inhalation. During steam inhalation, the particles of the drug are evenly distributed inside the nasal cavity, providing anti-inflammatory, moisturizing and antimicrobial effects.For this purpose, alkaline mineral waters, decoctions and infusions of medicinal plants (calendula, chamomile, sage, linden blossom, pine needles, juniper) are used.
Warming up the paranasal sinuses. This procedure can be started in the first days of a cold, if the child does not have an increasing fever, severe intoxication and sinusitis. Warm boiled egg, boiled millet, salt or sand heated in a frying pan wrapped in cotton cloth can be used. Warming up helps to reduce inflammation and edema of the mucous membrane, improve nasal breathing.
Drink plenty of fluids. Frequent, heavy drinking helps to replenish fluid losses, prevents drying out of the nasal mucosa, stimulates the body to fight intoxication. You can give plain and mineral water, compotes, decoctions, herbal teas, fruit drinks, natural juices.
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It is not always possible to do without medication with a cold. But you can use them as directed by a doctor, finding out the exact cause of rhinitis.For children, medications for the common cold are available in the form of drops and sprays, and various agents can be used to relieve symptoms.
Vasoconstrictor drugs. By narrowing the superficial small vessels, they reduce mucus secretion and edema, improve nasal breathing. They do not cure the common cold, but only reduce its main symptoms.
Moisturizers. The use of moisturizers can improve the condition of the nasal mucosa and facilitate its cleansing.Usually it contains saline solutions of a certain concentration or sterile seawater.
Anti-inflammatory and antiseptic drugs. Contains silver ions or essential oils of eucalyptus, pine, mint. They are usually prescribed to a child with a prolonged runny nose, when, due to multiplying bacteria, nasal discharge becomes thick and yellow-green.
Antiviral drugs. These remedies for the common cold for children contain interferons, which inhibit the further multiplication of viral particles.They can be used as directed by a doctor at the initial stage of a viral infection accompanied by a runny nose. 3
Topical antihistamines. TIZIN ® Allergy and other agents from this group act locally, helping to quickly reduce swelling of the nasal mucosa in children with allergic rhinitis.
Topical glucocorticosteroids. Can be used as directed by a doctor for hay fever. They influence the severity of the main symptoms of rhinitis.
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Rules for the use of drugs for the treatment of the common cold
Most drugs for the common cold for children are contraindicated in the first year of a child’s life. You can only use drops, the concentration of which depends on the age of the baby. They are buried in each nostril after cleansing the nose, slightly tilting the child’s raised head in the opposite direction. And from 2 years old, children can use sprays. Vasoconstrictor drugs are used 2-3 times a day for no more than a week.
The information in this article is for reference only and does not replace professional medical advice. Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.
- Kirichenko I.M. The role of tonic decongestants in the treatment of acute rhinitis in children. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Scientific and Clinical Center of Otorhinolaryngology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow.Medical Council, 2018 (2): 118-121.
- Chia-Ling Li, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Chien-Yu Lin, Teh-Fu Hsu. Effectiveness of hypertonic saline nasal irrigation for alleviating allergic rhinitis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019 Jan; 8 (1): 64.
- Kryukov A.I., Kunelskaya N.L., Izotova G.N. and other Approaches to the treatment of acute rhinitis. Research Clinical Institute of Otorhinolaryngology named after L.I. Sverzhevsky Department of HealthMoscow. Medical Council, 2016 (9): 45-47.
Treatment of children’s rhinitis
Rhinitis in a newborn
An effective remedy for rhinitis and nasal congestion – the best medicine for rhinitis and nasal congestion
A runny nose and nasal congestion never come in handy. Despite the fact that these symptoms may seem minor at first glance, getting rid of them is not easy. It happens that a person tries dozens of recipes before finding an effective remedy for nasal congestion.In order to facilitate the search, this article contains information on the most proven and effective medicines for these misfortunes.
Runny nose and nasal congestion – what is it?
Scientifically, a runny nose is called rhinitis – an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. This inflammation is often accompanied by active secretion of nasal mucus. In some cases, the membrane swells so much and so much mucus is released that the nasal cavity becomes impenetrable for air.A person loses the ability to breathe through his nose, which seriously complicates his life. No less unpleasant is also the discharge of mucus from the nasal passages.
There can be several reasons for a runny nose:
- Allergic reactions to pollen, dust, pet hair, chemicals;
- bacterial or viral infection;
- hypothermia of the nasal cavity.
90 092 taking certain medications;
Often, several factors can be combined, for example, viral or bacterial infection and hypothermia.
Methods for the treatment of rhinitis
Medical science has developed many ways to cope with the common cold. This can be nasal medication, lavage, distraction therapy, physiotherapy. It is important that the different types of rhinitis have different treatments.
Most commonly used for the treatment of rhinitis:
- moisturizers and anti-inflammatories,
- combined products (containing components with different mechanisms of action).
Most medicines for the common cold come in topical forms (ointments, sprays and drops). They act directly on the nasal mucosa.
Sprays are the most convenient form. When the medicine is sprayed into the nasal passages, the smallest droplets of the spray are evenly distributed over the surface of the mucous membrane. If, when instilling drops, the patient must necessarily take a lying position, then the sprays are devoid of this drawback. However, sprays are contraindicated in young children, only drops are allowed.This is due to the fact that when using sprays, there is a high probability of infection in the Eustachian tube, which is very wide in children, and the development of otitis media.
Preparations for oral administration with a cold are rarely prescribed. These can be drugs with phenylephrine for the treatment of nasal congestion without heavy discharge (Rinza, Coldact, Coldrex). With allergic rhinitis, treatment with local drugs can also be accompanied by taking pills (Cetrin, Orinol, Erius). With bacterial rhinitis complicated by sinusitis or sinusitis, antibiotics from the groups of amoxicillins, macrolides or cephalosporins in capsules or tablets can be prescribed (Augmentin, Flemoxin Solutab, Hemomycin, Sumamed, Suprax, Pantsef).
Photo: u11116 / pixabay.com
They contain analogs of adrenaline, which constricts blood vessels, but they work only at the local level, interacting with adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa. The narrowing of the small capillaries of the mucous membrane leads to a decrease in its edema, getting rid of nasal congestion. The indications for vasoconstrictor drugs include infectious and allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis and frontal sinusitis.
These funds are among the most effective.They work for 4-12 hours. However, they have some contraindications. Many drugs with adrenergic agonists are not allowed for young children, pregnant women, suffering from cardiovascular diseases. These drugs also have a number of side effects. In particular, they can cause addiction and mucosal degeneration with prolonged use. Therefore, the course of treatment with adrenergic agonists should not exceed a week (for some drugs, this period is even shorter). You cannot use these drugs too often (more often 4 times a day).In addition, they should not be used for early symptoms of a common cold or a mild cold.
Commonly used vasoconstrictors:
For children, vasoconstrictor drops and sprays are prescribed with caution. Phenylephrine-based drugs are considered the safest. Also, in preparations for children, the concentration of the active substance is usually lower than in preparations for adults.
This adrenomimetic is part of many inexpensive drugs for the common cold, such as Sanorin and Naphtizin. The effect of naphazoline develops quickly – after 3-5 minutes and lasts 4-6 hours. Cannot be used to treat children under 3 years of age.
More modern drug. Its duration is up to 12 hours. The substance is a part of preparations under the trademarks Galazolin, Otrivin, Rinonorm, Xymelin, Tizin, Dlya Nos.They are available as drops and sprays. There are two concentrations – 0.1% (for adults), 0.05% (for children). The course of treatment with drugs based on xylometazoline should not exceed a week.
Preparations based on oils
These include preparations containing essential oils of camphor, mint, eucalyptus, pine, fir. These products moisturize the mucous membrane and protect the mucous membrane from drying out, relieve irritation, heal microcracks, and destroy bacteria. Essential oils are of natural origin and have a minimum of side effects.
Moisturizing salt solutions
Saline solutions also successfully absorb toxins from the nasal cavity and thin mucus. There are hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. The Aquamaster hypotonic solution has a salt concentration lower than the plasma salt concentration (less than 0.9%). It liquefies mucus and dissolves the crusts on the mucous membrane.
In isotonic solutions (Aquamaris, Humer, Physiomer, Aqualor, Marimer, Morenazal), the concentration of sodium chloride is the same as in the blood.Isotonic solutions are often made with seawater. They moisturize the mucous membrane well and flush bacteria out of it. Suitable for the treatment of infants, pregnant women.
Hypertonic solutions (the concentration of sodium chloride is more than 0.9%) draw out excess fluid from the mucous membrane, which leads to a decrease in edema, liquefaction of mucus. The term of application of hypertonic solutions is no more than 3 days. Also, they cannot be used to treat children under 3 months. Hypertonic solutions include Humer 050 Hypertonic, Aqua Maris Strong, Quicks, Aqualor Aqua Forte.
Designed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Affect the receptors of histamine – an inflammatory mediator responsible for the development of allergic processes. They relieve swelling by reducing the permeability of the capillary walls. Popular antihistamine drugs:
- azelastine (Allergodil),
- levocabastine (Tizin Allergy),
- cromoglycic acid (Cromohexal),
- dimethindene (Vibrocil).
They can be prescribed for rhinitis of viral etiology. Contains substances that stimulate cellular immunity at the local level. The most commonly prescribed drugs are Interferon, Viferon, Ingaron. Available in drops, ointments and gels.
This is a “heavy artillery” used for complex allergic rhinitis. Hormonal preparations contain analogs of glucocorticosteroid hormones.Indications for hormonal nasal preparations:
- seasonal or perennial allergies with nasal congestion;
GCS drugs quickly relieve swelling and inflammation. However, they cannot be used for a long time due to the risk of side effects. In particular, they weaken the immune system, which puts you at risk of infection. For the same reason, hormonal drugs are not used for bacterial rhinitis.
Antibiotics and antiseptics
Used for bacterial rhinitis. They kill pathogenic bacteria, eliminating the cause of the infection. Also effective for sinusitis and sinusitis. Available as drops or aerosols. Antibiotic medications can only be taken with a doctor’s prescription. The course of treatment with antibacterial drugs should not exceed 10 days.
Along with antibiotics, silver-based antiseptics (Collargol, Protargol) are also used.
Best remedies for runny nose and nasal congestion
There are drugs that are most popular among patients and doctors.However, this does not mean that all other drugs are worthless. It is not always worth chasing well-known brands of drugs, since many generics may not be inferior to them in terms of effectiveness, and at the same time have a lower price.
French remedy with oxymetazoline. Belongs to the category of vasoconstrictor drugs. The medicine is produced in the form of a spray with two dosage options. A lower dosage (0.025%) can be prescribed for children 1-6 years old, a larger one (0.05%) is intended for children over 6 years old and adults.The medicine begins to act very quickly – after 3-5 minutes, and the effect is felt for 12 hours. Therefore, the drug is recommended to be used at night. The spray can also be used during pregnancy.
Combined product containing oxymetazoline, eucalyptus and camphor extracts, benzalkonium chloride. Oxymetazoline has a vasoconstrictor effect, and the other components are bactericidal and anti-inflammatory. Also Nazol Advance reduces the viscosity of the nasal secretion and promotes its excretion.The drug should not be used for more than 3 days in a row.
Spray contains the adrenergic agonist xylometazoline, menthol and eucalyptus oil. The drug can be used to treat patients over 10 years of age. The effect appears 2 minutes after injection into the nose, and continues to be felt up to 12 hours.
This medicine is also available as a spray. It contains xylometazoline and ipratropium bromide, which reduces nasal secretion.The spray should not be used in children. The effect appears after 3-5 minutes after application. The duration of action is 4-6 hours. The drug should not be used more often than 3 times a day.
Nazol Kids and Nazol Baby
Preparations in this series contain the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. Used to treat children from 2 years of age (option with drops for instillation in the nose of Nazol Baby – children from 2 months). The action of the drug occurs after 3-5 minutes, and ends after 6 hours. The drug should not be used for more than 3 days.Contraindications: atherosclerosis, severe hypertension, tachyarrhythmia, thyrotoxicosis, heart failure in the stage of decompensation, hepatitis, prostatic hyperplasia, renal failure. Children 2-6 years old are given 1-2 injections, children over 6 years old – 2-3 injections, no more than every 4 hours.
Drops contain the adrenergic agonist xylometazoline. The effect comes after 1-2 minutes. Duration of action – 6 hours. The drug should not be used for more than 5 days.It is contraindicated in pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding, babies under 2 years old. Children 2-6 years old need 2-3 drops 4 times a day, patients over 6 years old and adults – no more than 4 drops 4 times a day.
This spray is produced by a Swiss company and contains sea water with isotonic sodium chloride solution (8-11 g / l). The spray can be used to treat children from six months of age, pregnant and lactating women. Drug:
- removes mucus and crusts,
- reduces nasal discharge,
- moisturizes the mucous membrane,
- is suitable as one of the components of the treatment of severe rhinitis.
The shelf life of the drug is 3 years. This period is not shortened even after opening the package.
Aqua Maris Strong
This hypertonic saline solution is produced by a Croatian manufacturer. Contains sea water, reduces puffiness, removes toxins from the nasal cavity, has a moderate antibacterial effect. The treatment can be carried out for children from 1 year old. The drug is used 3-4 times a day, 1-2 injections are needed. At the beginning of the application, a slight burning sensation is possible, which should soon disappear.After opening the bottle, the drug can be stored for 1.5 months.
This drug is classified as anti-congestive. It contains exclusively plant components: oil of mountain pine, mint and eucalyptus, vitamin tocopherol and thymol.
The effect of Pinosol is to reduce edema and inflammation, to reduce the viscosity of nasal secretions. The drug can be used to treat children over 3 years old. Vitamin E (tocopherol) promotes mucosal tissue regeneration. It is enough to repeat one injection into the nasal passage 6 times a day.The frequency of use can be adjusted depending on the intensity of the inflammatory process.
The preparation contains a natural component – extract of cyclamen tubers. The peculiarity of Sinuforte is that for its use it is necessary to first perform the operation of dissolving the lyophilisate. After receiving the solution, the medicine can be sprayed into the nasal passages. It is enough to do this just once a day. The action begins already after 2-3 minutes and lasts up to 2 hours.The drug is approved for children from 5 years of age. Sinuforte is effective not only for rhinitis, but also for sinusitis and frontal sinusitis.
A hormonal preparation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, can be used for adenoids. Manufactured in the UK, available as a spray. Contains fluticasone. Suitable for treating children from 2 years of age. Valid until 8 o’clock.
This Belgian spray contains the steroid hormone mometasone. It is indicated for seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis.Can be used for children over 2 years old. Children from 2 to 11 years old need one injection into the nasal passages a day, children over 11 years old and adults need two injections. The duration of the drug is up to 12 hours.
Contains beclomethasone, which reduces inflammation and reduces the activity of the local immune system. The drug is used to combat allergic rhinitis. The medicine can be used from 6 years of age. The effect of the drug becomes noticeable only on the 5-7th day of use.
Available as a spray. The main component is the antibiotic framycetin. Before using the spray, it is necessary to clear the nose of mucus and rinse it with saline. It is necessary to use Izofra 3 times a day. Enough 1-2 injections in each nasal passage.
This preparation contains 2 active antimicrobial components at once – neomycin and polymyxin, as well as phenylephrine. This ensures that the drug is active against various types of bacteria.It is necessary to apply the spray 2-3 times a day for children and 4-5 times for adults. One spray in each nasal passage is sufficient for each use.
SINUPRET – the classic recipe for the treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis
Runny nose is the body’s natural reaction to infection.But for all its naturalness, you should not put up with it. Not only is rhinitis a rather unpleasant thing, but it can also lead to various complications such as sinusitis – an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.
Of course, it is difficult to predict when rhinitis will heal. It is good if it proceeds in an acute form and lasts for several days. But something else can happen: when the most seemingly ordinary rhinitis will lead to a chronic process and will continue for several months, or even years.
A person is forced to breathe through his mouth due to chronic rhinitis, which looks rather ugly. Gradually, due to the resulting congestion in the ears, hearing impairment is noted, which can lead to deafness.
The nasal cavity is involved in the formation of the timbre of the voice, and if nasal breathing is disturbed, the voice acquires a nasal / nasal tone.
In chronic rhinitis, the sense of smell usually worsens ( hyposmia ), as a result of which a person begins to distinguish odors poorly, and a complete loss of smell may develop ( anosmia ).
The nose is a kind of protective barrier on the path of air to the lungs, since in its cavity the air is warmed, humidified, cleaned of dust and, to some extent, rendered harmless. If a person breathes through the mouth and not through the nose, then dry air, getting directly into the mouth and throat, dries and irritates the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx.
It is necessary to treat a cold!
In the arsenal of modern medicine there are many drugs that will help eliminate the symptoms of the disease, but they do not act on the very cause of the running pathological process.
The drug, which has a complex effect on all the links of the inflammatory process in rhinitis and sinusitis, that is, on the very cause of the disease, is the well-known German pharmaceutical company “Bionorica AG” on the Ukrainian market – SINUPRET ® !
SINUPRET ® was registered in Germany back in 1934.and is still released in the original lineup.
The high quality of the drug is the key to its effectiveness and favorable safety profile.
In terms of the number of clinical and research scientific works, SINUPRET ® is one of the most studied herbal medicines in the world. It combines the high safety inherent in herbal preparations with proven efficacy.
The research results of SINUPRET have convincingly shown that all its components have a pronounced therapeutic effect, and their combination – to an even greater extent.Natural combination of yellow gentian root extract ( Gentiana lutea L. ; contains the bitter substances amarogencin and gentiopicroside, saccharides, gentian acid), spring primrose flowers ( Primula veris; contains the flavonoids rutin and quercetin, derivatives of saliciloids) sorrel herbs ( Rumex acetosa; contains flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, emodin, oxalic acid, vitamin C), black elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra L.; contains the flavonoids rutin, hyperezide, sitosterols, triterpenes, esters of caffeic acid) and verbena herb ( Verbena officinalis L. ; contains the glycosides verbenalol, verbenaline and gastatoside) provides the opening of the congested passages to the paranasal sinuses; viscous mucous discharge liquefies and flows; the severity of inflammation decreases and it becomes possible to breathe freely. In addition, SINUPRET ® activates the body’s defenses and helps to quickly cope with infectious agents.
In other words, SINUPRET ® exhibits secretolytic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects. The first of them is due, first of all, to the presence of verbena and gentian root extracts in the composition of the preparation, while the second is due to the presence of sorrel and verbena herb extracts. SINUPRET ® also has an effect on the immune system, stimulating the release of prostaglandins (Lopatin A.S., 2002).
Some components of the preparation exhibit antibacterial and antiviral activity.The extracts of primrose flowers and verbena herb included in the preparation prevent the replication of influenza A and parainfluenza viruses, which are actual infections of the paranasal sinuses, especially in children (Lopatin A.S., 2002). Comparative studies of in vivo confirmed the direct antibacterial effect of SINUPRET ® , comparable to that of antibacterial drugs (Ismail C., 2005).
Thus, SYNUPRET ® eliminates not only the symptoms, but also the cause of the disease.
|SYNUPRET ® eliminates not only the symptoms, but also the cause of the disease|
The effectiveness of the treatment of colds of the respiratory tract using this drug has been confirmed by the results of numerous clinical studies conducted by both foreign and domestic scientists. It has been proven that SINUPRET ® is equivalent to ambroxol and acetylcysteine in the treatment of tracheobronchitis, and given the immunostimulating and antimicrobial effects of this drug, it is preferred in therapy, especially for chronic forms of diseases (Melzer J., Saller R, Schapowal A, Brignoli R, 2006).
SINUPRET ® can be used simultaneously with other drugs, it enhances their effect. The drug potentiates the action of antibacterial agents, and this has been proven by the results of controlled studies (Marz R.W., 1999).
An important argument explaining the popularity of SYNUPRET is its high safety profile. Thus, in a multicenter comparative study involving 3187 patients, a post-marketing trial was conducted to identify side effects for herbal and synthetic secretolytics.About half of the patients received SYNUPRET ® . The frequency of side effects with monotherapy is as follows (in ascending order): SINUPRET ® – 0.8%, ambroxol – 1.0%, acetylcysteine - 4.3% and myrtol – 5.6%. In patients receiving additional drug therapy, the incidence of side effects was higher, but the sequence remained the same. Thus, in comparison with other drugs, SINUPRET ® shows the lowest incidence of side effects. The study also noted that based on all symptoms at the beginning and at the end of treatment, the clinical efficacy of both forms of SINUPRET ® – drops and tablets – was at least the same or greater than others (Ernst E., M rz R. W., Sieder C., 1997).
|SINUPRET ® has been proven to potentiate the action of antibacterial agents|
In addition to the extensive experience of using this drug, indicating its good tolerability, there are several toxicological and clinical studies to study the mutagenicity, reproductive toxicity and toxicity of high doses of the drug. None of the trials showed signs of adverse effects.