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Best ways to prevent scarring: How to minimize a scar

How to Prevent Scarring – Cleveland Clinic

From kitchen mishaps to skinned knees to surgical incisions, we all have scars with stories behind them — but most of us would rather our wounds heal without reminders of misfortunes past.

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We talked to dermatologist Shilpi Khetarpal, MD, to find out what causes scarring and how to prevent a cut from turning into a scar.

What is a scar?

Scars come from the tearing of the dermis, our lower level of skin, which is rich in collagen — the elastic fibers that keep our skin springy (among other bodily benefits). Scarring can happen after any injury to the dermis.

“Think of our normal collagen like a basket weave, very nice and even,” Dr. Khetarpal explains. “When we get a scar or injury to our skin, it triggers a wound-healing response that can create just enough collagen, not quite enough, or a little bit extra. It’s always going to be different than the initial skin you had in that area.”

Our bodies lose collagen as we age, which means elderly people are more prone to scarring than children. And whether a wound is likely to scar may depend on what part of your body you’ve injured — and how much blood is circulating to it.

“Your face and scalp tend to heal the fastest because we have the most circulation there,” Dr. Khetarpal says, “but a cut on your foot, where circulation isn’t as good, could take weeks to heal.”

Types of scars

Ideal scarring is minimal and light, but scars can take a variety of forms:

  • Atrophic scars: These indented scars, as from acne or chickenpox, happen when the skin can’t regenerate enough collagen to replace the original tissue.
  • Hypertrophic scars: These scars are thick, raised and often reddish, appearing within the bounds of the original injury.
  • Keloid scars: Keloid scars are thick, raised scars that extend beyond the original injury; they’re created when the skin makes too much collagen in trying to repair itself. Some people are genetically predisposed to keloid scars, and they’re more common among Black people than other populations.

The best way to prevent scarring

You’ve cut yourself. Now what? “We want to minimize inflammation or further trauma to the skin,” Dr. Khetarpal says. Here’s how to lessen your chances of scarring:

  • Clean the wound. As soon as you’re injured, clean the affected area with soap and water to get rid of any bacteria and prevent infection.
  • Keep it moist and covered. You might’ve grown up learning to keep cuts dry, but the opposite is true. “Keeping it moist is best to prevent a scar,” Dr. Khetarpal says. Use petroleum jelly on your wound, and bandage it up to let it heal.
  • Avoid bacitracin. Resist the temptation to apply topical ointment, as 8% of people are actually allergic to it — which can further inflame the area and increase the likelihood of scarring.
  • Minimize movement. “Every time the scar moves, it’s going to alter the formation for a wider or thicker scar,” Dr. Khetarapal says. Give your wound time to heal by not overexerting the injured area.
  • Leave those scabs alone: Scabs are our skin’s natural bandages, so keep your fingers off of them and let them do their thing. Picking will only prolong your injury and keep it from healing. Think you’re picking at scabs in your sleep? Purchase a pair of cotton gloves to wear to bed.

In summary, Dr. Khetarapal says, “The bottom line is don’t let it crust up, keep it moist, keep it clean, keep it covered, and minimize tension.”

Do scar prevention creams work?

Silicone scar sheets might help improve prevent new scars, but only if you use them in the first few weeks after an injury. And there’s no need to apply special, designated creams to your scars, either, Dr. Khetarpal says.

Instead, it’s the act of massaging that cream — or any simple, bland moisturizer — into a scarred area that can have the most impact on healing.

“In the first year, it’s important and has been shown to be helpful to do a gentle massage on your scar for a few minutes a day,” she says. “It helps break up any scar tissue for ones that are getting thick.”  

The full scar remodeling process takes a year, during which time your scar may go through different phases of appearance: redder or darker, thicker or more textured. But once you hit the one-year mark, your scar is unlikely to change much on its own. 

“After you’re beyond the one-year phase, topical medicines aren’t going to do anything,” Dr. Khetarpal warns.

Seek early intervention

In the past, you might’ve been told to let a wound heal for a year and then seek medical intervention if you’re not happy with the result. But Dr. Khetarapal says that guidance has changed; now, doctors can influence a scar’s healing by getting involved sooner rather than later.

“If someone is concerned with a scar — say, they’ve had surgery or a major trauma — the earlier we intervene, the better,” she says. “We can actually influence how a scar heals versus waiting for it to heal and then trying to make it better.”

You can explore scar-minimization options as early as a week after your injury (or as soon as your stitches are removed, if you have them). In-office procedures such as lasering and microneedling — which trigger a controlled wound response — can reduce the appearance of scars by 50-60%.

“We can’t erase it, but we can improve it,” Dr. Khetarpal says.

4 Tricks for Minimizing the Appearance of Scars

Whether caused by injury, acne, surgery, or disease, scars can serve as unwanted reminders of past trauma. Fortunately, most scars do fade over time, even if they never entirely go away. Some scars, however, are more stubborn, and while they don’t cause pain or health problems, they can contribute to significant emotional stress depending on their location (i.e. one’s face). If your self-esteem has taken a hit thanks to your scars, you’re probably looking for ways to make them disappear. Let’s go over four tips and tricks for minimizing the appearance of scars.

1. Act Early After an Injury

It isn’t always possible to tell if and when an injury or surgery will lead to scarring after it has healed. That said, the earlier you act and the better you treat a wound, the less likely you’ll be to experience severe scarring. Dermatologists recommend that you keep the recent wound clean (with mild soap and water) and hydrated (petroleum jelly can help here), cover it with an adhesive bandage to maintain cleanliness and moisture, change the bandage and clean the wound at least once a day, and protect it from direct sunlight. Following these steps won’t just protect the wound from infection — it will also aid in the body’s natural healing process, thereby minimizing scar tissue.

2. Stay Cautious in the Sun

Some people infer that getting some additional color from the sun would actually help their scars blend in and/or fade away. On the contrary, too much sun exposure can actually cause further discoloration in scars, and scar tissue is more susceptible to sun damage than the rest of your skin. For these reasons, it is paramount to protect your scars (and all of your skin) from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The best ways to do this include staying out of the sun for prolonged periods of time, applying SPF 30+ sunscreen to your skin (especially your scars) when spending time outdoors, seeking shade, and wearing protective clothing.

3. Apply Topical Treatments

While existing scars cannot be waved away via magic wand, you can speed up the fading process by regularly applying certain topical creams, lotions, and gels to them. Some common ingredients in these scar treatments include aloe vera, cocoa butter, Vitamin E, honey, and other hydrating materials. Vaseline (petroleum jelly) and Aquaphor can also help soothe and reduce the appearance of scars.

4. Consider Cosmetic Dermatology

If you’re struggling to minimize your scars even after keeping them out of the sun and applying topical treatments, seek advice from a cosmetic dermatologist. Your doctor can tell you about treatments and therapies that promote collagen production, reduce discoloration, resolve uneven skin texture/tone, and more. They might recommend a chemical peel, which sloughs off old, dead skin cells and encourages newer skin cells to take their place; dermaplaning, a manual exfoliation technique that can improve skin texture, reduce acne scars, and more; laser resurfacing, which targets specific areas of the skin and speeds up the skin’s healing processes; the list goes on. While none of these procedures will completely eliminate scar tissue, they can greatly minimize the appearance of scars while also benefiting your skin’s appearance in other ways.

Are your scars hampering your self-esteem? The cosmetic dermatology experts at Vanguard Dermatology can help you find the right scar-reduction solutions for your skin. To learn more about our providers and services, send us an email at [email protected], or book an appointment online.

Scars (for Kids) – Nemours KidsHealth

Holly loved nothing more than riding her bike. But one day, she missed a curb and hit the pavement — splat! Now her knee was scraped and her elbow was cut. Her brother Darren helped Holly up and used his T-shirt to dab at the blood on her elbow. “Wow,” he said, “You’re probably going to have a huge scar.”

What Exactly Is a Scar?

A scar is the pale pink, brown, or silvery patch of skin that grows in the place where you once had a cut, scrape, or sore. A scar is your skin’s way of repairing itself from injury.

Look at your skin. You probably have one or two scars already. Most people do. Why? Because a lot of things leave behind scars — from falls, like the one Holly had, to surgeries.

Scars are part of life and they show what you’ve been through. For some people, scars are special. A kid in your class might have a scar on his chest because he had heart surgery as a baby. Or you might have a scar like Holly’s, from a fall.

Centuries ago, warriors showed off their scars as symbols of their bravery and to impress their friends with the exciting tales about how each one happened. Do any of your scars have a story?

How Do I Get a Scar?

No matter what caused your scar, here’s how your skin repaired the open wound. The skin made a bunch of collagen (say: KAHL-uh-jen) — tough, white protein fibers that act like bridges — to reconnect the broken tissue. As the body did its healing work, a dry, temporary crust formed over the wound. This crust is called a scab.

The scab’s job is to protect the wound as the damaged skin heals underneath. Eventually, a scab dries up and falls off on its own, leaving behind the repaired skin and, often, a scar. A scar isn’t always a sure thing, though.

How Do I Prevent a Scar?

Of course, the best way to prevent scars is to prevent wounds! You can reduce your chances of getting hurt by wearing kneepads, helmets, and other protective gear when you play sports, ride your bike, or go in-line skating.

But even with protective gear, a person can still get hurt once in a while. If this happens, you can take steps to prevent or reduce scarring. You can help your skin heal itself by treating it well during the healing process.

How do you do that? Keep the wound covered as it heals so you can keep out bacteria and germs. Avoid picking at the scab because it tears at the collagen and could introduce germs into the wound. Some doctors say vitamin C (found in oranges and other citrus fruits) helps by speeding up the creation of new skin cells and the shedding of old ones.

Also, some people believe rubbing vitamin E on the wound after the scab begins forming can aid the healing process. Your parent can talk to your doctor about whether you should try this.

So Long, Scars!

Some scars fade over time. If yours doesn’t and it bothers you, there are treatments that can make a scar less noticeable, such as skin-smoothing medicated creams, waterproof makeup, or even minor surgery. Talk to your parent and doctor to find out if any of these treatments would be right for you.

Sometimes the best medicine might just be to talk. Tell your parent or doctor what’s bothering you about your scar and how you feel on the inside. Because when the inside feels good, the outside always seems to look better!

How to Prevent Facial Scarring

When it comes to facial scarring, prevention is your best friend. There are three main types of scars: depressed or indented scars, discolored scars and thick or raised scars. While depressed, indented and raised scars are notoriously difficult to fade, getting a jump on minor abrasions, skin-deep punctures and discolored scars before they become permanent is key. A scar’s visibility ultimately depends on how well its wound has healed—to make sure small marks become nothing more than memories, encouraging a healthy healing process is absolutely essential.

Basic Prevention

A great many facial scars result from acne. When you have a breakout, don’t squeeze, pop, pick or otherwise irritate pimples at all, lest you cause permanent scarring. The same goes for scabs—they might not look nice, but they’re nature’s own wound dressing. Picking them prolongs the healing process and increases the chances of scarring. When popped pimples and skin-deep wounds do happen, disinfect them with a cotton swab dabbed in witch hazel—an antibacterial agent that won’t dry out the skin—and wash (but don’t scrub) them immediately with your favorite mild, non-drying facial cleanser.

Essential Moisturizing

If you already have a moisturizing routine in place to keep your skin supple, you’ll be glad to know that moisture is also paramount to healthy healing. When wounds dry out, they form scabs and are more likely to leave scars behind, so keep them moist with an oil-based moisturizer or ointment. Even plain-old petroleum jelly, or moisturizing products that feature it as a key ingredient, do the trick. Be sure to reapply the moisturizer after cleaning the wound daily with a facial cleanser.

Keep It Covered

Keep healing skin covered after you clean and moisturize it, to speed up the healing process and reduce the potential for scarring. Using a circular bandage or cutting a flesh-toned bandage down to size helps keep healing skin covered, while remaining fairly inconspicuous. Alternatively, you can turn to products such as hydrogel or silicone gel sheets. In any case, change the bandage or cover the wound every day after cleaning and moisturizing. If your skin is sensitive to adhesives, keep small marks covered with a nonstick bandage and a dab of petroleum jelly.

Protect and Massage

Once your wound has healed, continue to follow your regular moisturizing routine, and keep the mark covered with broad-spectrum sunscreen rated at SPF 30 or higher to prevent redness and discoloration. Each day, apply a bit of vitamin E oil to your fingertip and gently massage the scar for a few minutes. While vitamin E—contrary to popular belief—doesn’t actually fade scars, the oil does serve as a moisturizer and massaging the skin helps break down dense collagen bonds, minimizing the scar’s visibility over time.

This article has been reviewed by board-certified dermatologist Dr. Emmy Graber.

How to Prevent a Scar

  • If you don’t want a wound to leave a scar, care for it before it has the chance to develop a scab.
  • A scab is the like the human body’s own bandage, but you must keep it clean and moisturized.
  • The more you hydrate and care for a wound, the less likely it is that you will develop a scar.

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So, you scraped your knee or picked at a pimple. You now have a wound, or maybe a scab, and the last thing you want is for it to form a scar. The key to avoiding scars is to take care of the wound before a scab can even form, however, if you missed that step and already have a scab, the care is largely the same.

When your skin experiences a trauma, a scab is formed, and when the skin has healed and the scab falls off, a scar is left in its place. According to Debra Jaliman, MD an American Academy of Dermatology spokesperson, “the darkness of the skin [in the scarred area] depends on the degree of the trauma,” which is why it’s imperative to take care of the wound before the scab even forms.  

“The more trauma to the skin, the longer it is going to take for the wound to heal and also the greater the chance of having an obvious scar,” Dr. Jaliman added. “Taking proper care of your trauma initially is crucial because it will ultimately dictate how it heals.”

Sometimes a scar will form regardless because of various factors including your genetic makeup or the size and severity of the wound, but these tips could help you lessen its impact or simply keep your wound clean. 

Before the scab even forms, proper wound care is the key to avoiding scarring

Keep the wound moist.

Moussa81/ iStock

Dr. Jaliman said that wound care is all about keeping “the area moisturized and hydrated. Anything that creates a protective barrier on the skin’s surface to lock in moisture to help protect skin while it heals will help lessen the chances of a noticeable scar.”

The American Academy of Dermatology recommended cleaning the wound every day, covering it in petroleum jelly, and then bandaging it, making sure to change the bandage every day.

Instead of a bandage, Dr. Jaliman said she also likes using silicone gel sheets on the wound which keep the area hydrated and reduce irritation and redness.

Joshua Zeichner, MD, director of cosmetic and clinical research in the department of dermatology at Mount Sinai Hospital recommends covering the cleaned wound with antibiotic ointments like over-the-counter bacitracin which he says to apply around the clock to help “keep the open skin area protected from the environment.”

The bacitracin also “kills any bacteria on the skin [which helps] to minimize the risk of infection.”

Keep it clean and covered.


If you don’t protect the skin in any of the aforementioned ways and leave it open to the environment, that’s when a scab will form, which Dr. Zeichner called “mother nature’s bandage.” When and if this happens, Dr. Zeichner said that you must “leave [the scab] alone and let it fall off on its own. If you try to pick a scab, you may be more likely to develop inflammation or even an infection” which increases the chances of developing an even worse scar.

However, if a scab has formed, scab care is largely the same as it is for wound care

To care for a scab that has already formed over a wound, keep the area moisturized and hydrated either by using petroleum jelly, silicone gel sheets, or covering it with a bandage.

If you did all this and still have a scar, there are still a variety of ways to decrease the scar’s appearance

There are still steps you can take after a scar has already formed.

piggypa/ iStock

You can use the aforementioned silicone gel sheets on an existing scar to help smooth and flatten them. Vitamin A has long been used in scar treatment because Dr. Jaliman said it stimulates the cells responsible for producing the tissue that keeps skin firm and healthy and therefore encourages healthy new skin cell production.

If the scar is on your face (say from acne that was picked at) Dr. Jaliman said that salicylic acid “will help fade spots by exfoliating dead skin cells and smoothing out skin texture” and also suggests glycolic acid which “promotes cell turnover” by sloughing off the top layer of the skin, which can help fade a dark or rough scar.

Of course there are times when you cannot prevent a scar, due to the size of the wound or your genetic makeup and that’s OK. But these tips can help make you more comfortable and can make sure that traumas stay clean and healthy. 

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How To Treat A Wound To Reduce Scarring

Want to look mean and tough? Just dress in black, smoke a big, fat cigar, carry a violin case, and—above all—have a big scar running down one cheek of your face. Of course, looking mean and tough may not be the look you’re after. If that’s the case, you’ve come to the right place. How you treat a cut can determine what kind of scar may develop. Then, how you care for that scar can determine how fast and to what extent it will fade over time.

MORE: 5 Ways To Keep Scars From Sticking Around

Here’s what our experts suggest for how to treat a wound so that you can limit the scarring damage.

Nip Scars In The Bud

If you don’t want dog hair on your sofa, don’t own a dog. If you don’t want cavities, don’t eat sugar. And if you don’t want scars, don’t get cut. It’s that simple. “Every time the skin gets cut, it scars,” says Gerald Imber, MD. Some people, he says, tend to scar more than others. “It’s a very individual thing.” However your body reacts, consider protecting your skin with gloves, long pants, and long sleeves whenever working around thorny, sharp, or jagged objects. If you mountain bike or skate, wear elbow and knee pads, and wrist and shin guards to prevent accidental scrapes and abrasions.

MORE: 5 Natural Ways To Treat Cuts And Scrapes

Thoroughly Clean The Wound

A wound that heals quickly and neatly is less likely to develop a scar than a wound that festers. Make sure that all of your cuts and scrapes are properly cleaned, says Jeffrey H. Binstock, MD. It’s critical to remove dirt and debris that may impede healing or become visible through the skin as a “road tattoo,” says Imber. If dirt and debris remain in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove particles.

But Skip The Hydrogen Peroxide

It destroys white blood cells that help repair wounds, actually slowing healing. Plus, it extends the time that the wound is open and vulnerable. Also not helpful are soap and rubbing alcohol, which can be irritating. Instead, rinse the cut with warm clear water and a gentle soap if necessary, even though it might sting.

Keep The Wound Moist And Covered

Moisture prevents a hard scab from forming, which slows development of new tissue. Plus, cells regenerate faster in a moist environment, so leaving a cut open to the air may promote scarring. Cover your wound with plain petroleum jelly to keep it moist, then slap on an adhesive bandage. Research shows that keeping wounds covered with a bandage speeds healing by as much as 50%.

But Consider Skipping The Ointment

“Neosporin and other ointments are virtually useless,” says Imber. “They don’t penetrate and don’t allow the daily washing needed to keep the wound clean.”

Don’t Pick The Scab

Mom was right. Picking a scab off a healing wound could increase your chances of leaving behind a scar, says John F. Romano, MD.

MORE: 12 Fixes For Your Most Annoying Beauty Issues

Close Gaps With A Butterfly Bandage

If you get a large cut, you should go to a doctor for stitches, particularly if the cut is on the face where a scar would be most visible. But even if a cut is small and you are concerned about scarring, consider using a butterfly bandage, says Romano. These bandages, available at most drugstores, can help keep the wound closed for better healing and minimal scarring. They should be used only after the wound has been thoroughly cleaned.

Eat A Well-Balanced Diet

Wounds won’t heal right unless your body has what it takes to make them heal right. What does it take? Protein and vitamins—obtained by eating a good, well-balanced diet—are essential. Of particular importance to wound healing is the mineral zinc. Good sources of zinc include roasted pumpkin and sunflower seeds, Brazil nuts, Swiss and Cheddar cheeses, peanuts, dark-meat turkey, and lean beef. (Find out what a perfect day of eating looks like.)

Get Moving

Exercise can speed the healing process by as much as 25%. Ohio State University researchers gave 28 sedentary men and women each a small puncture wound. (How’d they get people to volunteer for that?) The researchers then asked half of the people to exercise on a treadmill, ride a stationary bike, or strength-train three times a week, for an hour each time for 3 months, while the other half of the people stayed sedentary. After 3 months, the wounds of the active people healed an average of 10 days faster (in 29 days versus 39 days) than those of the couch potatoes. The study researchers suggest that exercise increases circulation and helps regulate the immune system and hormones that influence the healing process. They believe that exercise may even help wound healing in people traditionally slow to heal, such as those with diabetes. Is there nothing exercise can’t do?

Manage Your Anger

When you have a cut or wound, try to keep your cool. Inability to control strong emotions can slow recovery from an injury. Ohio State University scientists gave 100 volunteers identical blisters on their forearms. The hot-tempered subjects took four times longer to heal than their calmer peers. The researchers think that increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol can suppress your immune system.

MORE: How To Walk To Reduce Your Stress

Cover Your Scabs With Sunblock

Scars have less pigment than the rest of your skin. This means they lack the ability to develop a protective tan, and they are especially vulnerable to sunburn. Cover all scars with a strong sunscreen whenever you head outside. Also, UV rays slow healing by interfering with new collagen production. Always protect healed wounds with a broad-spectrum SPF 15 or higher sunscreen. It’s a myth that scars blend better into surrounding skin after sun exposure. The contrast of a tan actually can make the scar more visible.

Level Out

After your scar has healed, an over-the-counter scar treatment, such as ScarGuard Scar Care or Curad Scar Therapy Clear Pads, may help to level raised scars. You can buy them at drugstores.

And here’s one bonus tip from Romano: Put a little Mylanta, milk of magnesia, or calamine lotion on a pimple to help dry it out a bit, possibly preventing a scar.

Reduce Scarring With Kitchen Helpers

Keep an aloe plant on your kitchen windowsill, and make the plant your ally for any minor cuts, scrapes, or wounds. Aloe is antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and an immune stimulant. Plus, the plant contains vitamins C and E and the mineral zinc, all nutrients shown to speed wound healing. Studies suggest that commercial aloe preparations lose some of their wound-healing ability, so the plant is your best bet. Just snip off a leaf, slit it open, scoop out the gel, and apply it to your cut.

Hasten healing by applying some honey to a cut. Its antibacterial properties help prevent infection and help you to heal faster. Apply a dab of honey to the wound and then cover it with an airtight bandage.

When To See A Doctor

You probably know intuitively when a cut requires a doctor’s call—when it’s deep or it doesn’t stop bleeding, for example, or when it shows signs of infection. Another reason to see your doctor is to minimize the appearance of scars. Even old scars can be improved with lasers, which remove redness and flatten tissue. Other scars can be repositioned with surgery. But act fast, because you can get better results if you treat scars within 6 weeks of the injury, the time new skin cells begin forming over the wound. Laser therapy during that time is most effective.

Panel Of Advisors

Jeffrey H. Binstock, MD, is a clinical professor in the department of dermatology at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine.

Gerald Imber, MD, is an attending plastic surgeon at New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.

John F. Romano, MD, is an assistant professor of dermatology at the Weil Medical College of Cornell University and an attending physician at New York Presbyterian Hospital and St. Vincent’s Hospital, all in New York City. He has a practice in Manhattan.

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Laceration: How to Minimize Scarring

A laceration is a cut through one or more layers of the skin. Cuts heal as the edges of the cut grow together and heal. After the cut heals, the skin may not look exactly the same. The mark left behind is called a scar. Scars are a natural part of the healing process. They are hard to avoid. How much you may scar depends on the depth of the cut, its location on your body, your age, and how your skin heals. Some people tend to heal with more scarring than others. Most scars fade and become less noticeable over time. You can take steps to help this process along.

NOTE: Please inform the staff of your last tetanus shot and if your wound was caused by a rusty or dirty object.

What you can do

The tips below can help reduce scarring as your wound heals.

  • Keep the wound clean. Unless you are told to keep the area dry, gently wash the area with mild soap and water. You don’t need to use antibacterial soap. 

  • Keep the wound moist. Apply petroleum jelly to the wound to keep it moist and prevent a scab from forming. Scabs lengthen the time it takes a wound to heal.

  • Cover the wound. Use a non-adhesive bandage or gauze pad with paper tape. Change the bandage daily or if it gets wet or dirty.

  • Try hydrating or silicone gel sheets. These dressings keep the wound moist and may help it heal faster with less scarring. They may be useful for larger wounds, scrapes, sores, burns, or wounds with persistent redness. Ask your healthcare provider whether you should use this product on your wound.

  • If you have stitches (sutures), follow your healthcare provider’s instructions. Care for the wound as instructed. Also, return to have stitches removed on time. If you wait, scarring might be worse.

  • Use sunscreen. Once the wound heals, apply sunscreen to the area daily. Sun may cause the scar to be more visible and discolored.

  • Once the wound heals, there is some evidence that over-the-counter scar creams can reduce the appearance of a scar.

Follow up

Make a follow-up appointment as directed by our staff. If you are advised to see a specialist or you have concerns about scarring, please contact a dermatologist.

When to seek medical advice

When to seek medical advice

  • Call your health care provider right away if any of these occur:

  • Shaking chills or fever above 100.4°F (38°C)

  • Bleeding that soaks the dressing

  • Pink fluid weeping from the wound

  • Increased drainage from the wound or drainage that is yellow, yellow-green, or has a foul odor

  • Increased swelling, pain, or redness in the skin around the wound

  • A change in the color or size of the wound

  • Increased fatigue

  • Loss of appetite

  • Sutures pulling away from the wound or pulling apart

90,000 How to get rid of blackheads on the nose

Unfortunately, skin imperfections are not limited to adolescents. Hormonal disorders, junk food, stress, ecology – all these factors seriously affect the condition of the skin.

Black spots on the nose are considered especially unpleasant. They are easy to spot and difficult to disguise.And it’s even harder to get rid of it. However, there is undoubtedly a chance to achieve a clean and well-groomed face.

Expert Clinics services

Acne (acne) treatment

To warn yourself against the appearance of such an aesthetic flaw as acne, you should follow the rules.

Acne (acne) treatment

Peeling (cleaning) of the skin of the face

Peeling helps to renew the epidermis and remove dead cells, involves not only the upper thin layer, but also deeper ones.

Peeling (cleaning) of the skin of the face

Facial mesotherapy

Facial mesotherapy is a universal way to solve most aesthetic problems.

Facial mesotherapy

call me back

Causes of the formation of black dots on the nose

Together with the forehead and chin, the nose enters the so-called T-zone – an area where many sebaceous glands are located, the pores are larger, and the excretory canals are wide.

Blackheads in cosmetology are called “open comedones”. These are superficial rashes consisting of hardened sebum, dead cells, dust, dirt, and makeup residues. Such a composition forms a “plug” and interferes with the normal functioning of the sebaceous glands. During the oxidative reaction of sebum with oxygen, the dot turns black.

The main reason for the appearance of blackheads on the nose is the disruption of the sebaceous glands.Excessive sebum production can be provoked by completely different reasons:

  • Hormonal imbalance , in particular, an increase in androgens – male sex hormones.

  • Oily skin type.

  • Incorrect power supply. An excess of simple carbohydrates, as well as food with a high glycemic index, promotes an immediate release of insulin.And he, in turn, enhances the production of sebum.

  • Non-compliance with personal hygiene (the habit of not taking off makeup at night and touching the skin with your hands, using a reusable towel).

  • Multi-layer application of cosmetics.

  • Diseases of various organs and systems (digestive, endocrine).

  • Hyperkeratosis (inability of the epidermis to cleanse itself of dead cells in a timely manner).

  • Stress.

  • Hyperhidrosis (increased sweating).

As you can see, there are not so few reasons for the appearance of black dots. That is why the vast majority of adults suffer from this aesthetic problem.

How to cleanse your nose from blackheads using cosmetic methods

The skin is our largest protective organ that breathes and secretes sweat, salt and toxins through our pores. Salon treatments will help to promote cellular renewal, regulate sebum production and prevent the appearance of blackheads.

This procedure has a deep effect on the skin, damaging skin cells down to the basal layer. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) promotes cell renewal, smoothing acne scars and, of course, cleansing pores.But such a result comes at a price. Firstly, this is a rather unpleasant procedure, during which you get a 2nd degree burn. Secondly, chemical peeling has a large list of contraindications and a rehabilitation period of 5-7 days. However, it will suit you if, in addition to blackheads, your face suffers from age-related changes in the form of wrinkles, folds, age spots.

If the middle chemical peeling is the elimination of the result of pore pollution, then cleansing the face will serve as both prevention and “medicine”.

Facial cleansing, depending on the cleansing tool, is of three types: mechanical, ultrasonic and vacuum.

Mechanical is performed by the hands of a beautician using special tools. During the procedure, patients feel a little discomfort, and among the side effects are redness and possible itching.

Ultrasonic cleaning is carried out using a scraper that generates sound waves.Ultrasound pulls the accumulated dirt out of the pore. The procedure is considered more painless, but compared to mechanical clean, it gives less lasting results.

Vacuum cleaning. The principle of operation is as follows: drainage tubes are sucked to the face and remove all impurities from the pores. The procedure was loved by patients for its absolute painlessness, improved blood circulation and skin appearance, cleansing pores from blackheads.

Regardless of the type of cleansing, the skin receives the most necessary – cleansing that we cannot give it at home.Despite the slight trauma to the skin, they regenerate and, as a result, improve the functioning of the sebaceous glands.

Folk methods against blackheads

Unfortunately, we cannot rid the skin of blackheads using folk methods. But the properties of natural ingredients help to whiten blackheads and make them less visible.

We recommend using folk remedies in the absence of:

– dry skin type;

– the body’s tendency to allergic reactions;

– open skin wounds.

Recipe 1. Whitening mask.

We will need: 1 tablespoon of baking soda, ½ tablespoon of water and apple cider vinegar, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice.

What to do: Stir all the ingredients to a mushy state, apply to the nasal area. Leave for 10 minutes, rinse with cool water.

Recipe 2. Drying mask.

We will need: 1 tablespoon of natural clay powder, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 1 teaspoon of water.

What to do: Mix until smooth, apply on nose evenly for 10-15 minutes (or until it starts to dry). Wash off with water.

Before applying the mask with clay, it is recommended to slightly moisten the skin, and after application, moisten the surface of the nose with thermal water.

Lemon juice, due to its high acid content, has exfoliating and whitening properties, while white clay detoxifies the skin, cleanses impurities and evens out the complexion.

Precautions for cleaning blackheads

Doing mechanical cleaning at home is strictly prohibited. Without a medical education, you will do more harm to your skin:

– enlarge the pores even more;

– you can bring an infection;

– increase the risk of scarring and post-acne.

The best thing you can do at home is to cleanse your skin 2 times a day and use a mild exfoliating scrub 2 times a week.The smaller the granule, the less traumatic it is for the skin. Apply scrubs and cleansing masks only to damp and steamed skin. After cleansing, do not forget to moisturize your skin, as even if it is oily, it can be very dehydrated.

Prevention of comedones on the nose

It’s hard to argue with genetics. And if you inherited oily skin type, then blackheads will be frequent guests on your face. But in order to prevent the deterioration of the situation, it is important to remember 5 simple rules with which your face will look as well-groomed and aesthetically pleasing as possible:

  1. Moisturize the skin inside and out.Don’t forget about your daily intake of drinking water and moisturizers. It is better that they are light rather than dense in texture and contain mostly natural ingredients.

  2. Follow the rules of hygiene (wipe your face with disposable paper towels and do not touch it with your hands).

  3. The problem may be internal, therefore, once a year, be sure to undergo a scheduled examination and get tested.

  4. Eat tasty and healthy foods at the same time.

  5. Do not forget about the beautician and monthly facial cleansing.

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90,000 Vasily Smychek: To breathe after COVID-19: rehabilitation therapist on lung recovery

People who have had severe or moderate COVID-19, even after they have recovered, complain of shortness of breath for some time.Sometimes light physical activity can be uncomfortable. Therefore, after a long illness, it is important to breathe and restore lung function in full. For such patients, rehabilitation centers are provided in each region, whose specialists help to return to a full life. The director of the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Examination and Rehabilitation, Honored Scientist of Belarus, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Vasily Smychek told BelTA about what methods are offered and whether they are applicable at home.

– The consequences of COVID-19 are poorly understood, there are many theories. At the same time, according to your information, are the lungs recovering after pneumonia? How long can this process take?

– After pneumonia, including those caused by COVID-19, the lungs are recovering. If fibrosis (formation of scar tissue), which leads to impaired respiratory function, has not yet formed, of course, recovery will occur completely. Moreover, even if there is still fibrous tissue in the lungs, after rehabilitation these phenomena are minimized.And the sooner rehabilitation begins, the better. Therefore, today they start it back in intensive care, continue in the specialized department of the hospital, and then at the outpatient stage and at home.

It is necessary to fight the consequences of covid pneumonia. If this is really not a pronounced fibrosis, then the prognosis is favorable. However, regarding the long-term consequences of the COVID-19 disease and how much the lung tissue will be restored, I note: there is no such data either in our country or in the world, because a sufficient period of time has not passed to talk about it.

– Does pulmonary fibrosis only occur in those patients who have had a hard time COVID-19? How serious is this consequence?

– In simple terms, with fibrosis, the lung tissue goes into another state – into a connective, cicatricial. As a result, it no longer fulfills its function, so a person develops shortness of breath and fatigue. It is worth noting that covid pneumonia does not necessarily end with fibrosis in the lungs. Lung tissue degeneration can also occur after common pneumonia or other infections.

Scar tissue may be limited to a very small area. Perhaps a person lives and does not even know about it. In some cases, this is an accidental finding during any diagnostic study performed. The concept of fibrosis did not appear yesterday, but has existed for many decades, if not centuries. Now they talk about it so widely only because the COVID-19 infection has covered the whole world.

If fibrous tissue has formed, this phenomenon should be minimized by various rehabilitation measures, breathing exercises that will improve the function of the lungs, increase their vital capacity, and help the discharge of secretions from the alveoli of the lungs and airways.

– Today there are different opinions about what mark the coronavirus will leave in patients whose disease is asymptomatic. Do you think that irreversible lung lesions can occur in this case?

– There are no irreversible lung lesions in patients who have asymptomatic covid infection. We are not talking about the severe consequences of the fibrous plan. Certain changes may occur, but they pass during treatment and rehabilitation.

Those patients who have had a severe or moderate infection are referred for rehabilitation in hospitals. With a mild course, intensive rehabilitation is not required, people immediately return to work. By the way, about 80% of those patients who undergo rehabilitation in our center, upon completion of it, start to work. Some of the patients are discharged with an open certificate of incapacity for work to continue treatment and rehabilitation on an outpatient basis. The effect of the rehabilitation measures is very good, so later, I think, we will immediately send more people to work.

– Are there any proven techniques that allow at the stage of rehabilitation to minimize residual effects in the lungs after covid pneumonia, or is this issue still poorly understood?

– No, why. It is 100% proven that the earlier rehabilitation measures begin, the better the effect: the consequences of the disease, including disabling ones, are minimized, and the general condition improves.

Medical rehabilitation of patients, whether it be covid pneumonia, heart attack, stroke or other serious illness, takes place in several stages.The treatment and rehabilitation stage begins with resuscitation or a specialized (pulmonological, neurological, etc.) department of the hospital. This is followed by early inpatient medical rehabilitation. At this stage, patients with the consequences of pneumonia are transferred, in particular, to our center. We have 110 beds. Rehabilitation ends with outpatient and outpatient and home stages. A whole system of rehabilitation measures has been developed at each of them.

If we talk about whether there is any universal exercise to minimize the consequences of the disease, I will note: this does not happen.Each person is individual, each has its own characteristics in terms of health, the presence of concomitant diseases, age. Covid pneumonia is handled in different ways. The rehabilitation program includes physiotherapy exercises, breathing exercises, various psychotherapeutic measures, dosed therapeutic walking, diet therapy, supportive medication. This process implies a complex of different activities.

– Excellent specialists work in your center who know what techniques to apply and how to find an individual approach.What recommendations can you give to those people who want to do rehabilitation on their own at home?

– We see that people who come to us for rehabilitation, first of all, need not even medication support and physiotherapy exercises, but psychotherapy. People are scared, asthenized, exhausted, there are psychological problems, so a specialist psychologist should work with them. At home, you can use excellent methods of autogenic training, in the clinic and in the previous stages of rehabilitation, they must teach various relaxation techniques, self-relaxation.

Physiotherapy exercises will be useful, and in a gentle training mode. Experts tell patients how to do a set of static and dynamic, breathing, restorative exercises, which are aimed at improving the mobility of the chest, helping to stretch pleural adhesions, if such consequences are caused by a disease. Perhaps these people need balance and coordination training.

At home, as a rehabilitation measure, dosed therapeutic walking at an individually adjusted pace is important.Someone needs to walk a little faster, someone more slowly, on level ground or with small ups and downs. Diet therapy should be taught: what can and should not be eaten after suffering from covid pneumonia. Of course, supportive medication is also important, because middle-aged and older people, unfortunately, suffer from many comorbidities.

I have named a couple of points that make up a home rehabilitation program. Everyone can write a plan for themselves, what they will do during the day – starting with remedial gymnastics and ending with other activities.

– Many experts advise to pay attention to breathing exercises, because it is very important to “breathe” the lungs, to return the previous lung volume. At the same time, the classical methods, which are performed with strengthening and resistance on exhalation, can only harm if a person is faced with coronavirus pneumonia. Is it so?

– Indeed, there is such an expression – “breathe your lungs.” At the stationary stage of rehabilitation, a person is taught therapeutic gymnastics, they show what exercises need to be done in order to restore respiratory function.After 2-3 days of staying in our hospital, patients say that it has become easier for them to breathe, and the chest begins to fill up with air better.

In each case, the specialist prescribes individual lessons, teaches the correct inhalation and exhalation. There is a whole range of exercises that are recommended specifically for patients after suffering pneumonia caused by COVID-19 infection. Moreover, it is not always possible to be guided by the usual methods. In some cases, lung tissue suffers over a large area, seals develop too quickly, turning into fibrosis.Therefore, the lungs need to be spared, and the techniques should be used very carefully and individually.

In particular, some recommend inflating balloons in order to expand the lungs, improve respiratory function. But sometimes it can lead to severe lung barotrauma. If somewhere there are foci of fibrosis, compaction of the lung tissue, inflation of the balls may be an excessive load on the lungs.

Now in an interview, I would not describe the set of exercises that must be performed, how many repetitions should be – everything is individual.Again, there is no one-size-fits-all exercise for all patients. You need to see a person, know his condition, and then recommend something.

– Is it beneficial for the lungs to include antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables in the diet during the recovery phase? What foods can help fight inflammation?

– There is not a single food product that can destroy the coronavirus or prevent it from entering the body. For example, rose hips, onions, garlic, sea buckthorn, butter do not protect against infection, but eating them is very useful.

When it comes to nutrition for survivors, there are several key points. The first is a drinking regimen. The moist mucous membrane is the first barrier to the virus. Although today the World Health Organization does not give clear recommendations on the amount of water a person should drink, it is believed that at least 25 ml is needed per 1 kg of body weight per day. If, say, a person weighs 80 kg, this is at least 2 liters.

Omega-3 fatty acids are very beneficial for cell membranes, which provide building blocks for the production of anti-inflammatory hormones – eicosanoids, which have a beneficial effect on the immune system.Therefore, it is necessary to eat sea fish (halibut, salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardine), flaxseed oil.

In addition, vitamin D is useful for patients who have undergone covid pneumonia, a full source of which is fish, eggs, offal, forest mushrooms, and dairy products. Sources of animal protein – meat, poultry, etc. – are also very important. At the same time, fried, salty, spicy foods, flour products, baked goods should be excluded – all this does not in the best way affect the gastrointestinal tract and, in general, the state of the body.The same recommendation applies to alcohol.

– Is it true that Nordic walking allows for better lung opening? Is it possible, after suffering covid pneumonia, to go headlong into sports training?

– Of course, Nordic walking will allow the lungs to open up, increase their excursion, and improve respiratory function. This is a good method of rehabilitation, it can be applied, but caution is also important here. You should consult with a specialist: what to choose the pace of walking, distance, the terrain should be flat or with ups and downs.As for physical activity, you cannot plunge into it with your head, it will not work. Excessive exercise can harm the lungs and must be spared.

Depending on the consequences that have arisen in the lungs, the rehabilitation process can last from several weeks to several months. As far as covid pneumonia is concerned, our observation period is too short. We have been engaged in active rehabilitation of such patients for just a couple of months – since April.

By the way, protocols for the rehabilitation of patients after pneumonia caused by COVID-19 infection have been developed and recently approved by the Ministry of Health, covering all stages.It also contains criteria for the effectiveness of rehabilitation. The protocols are for physicians. The patient himself is unlikely to be able to assess the state of the cardiovascular, respiratory systems, mental sphere, general condition.

– Were these protocols developed on the basis of our own experience or taking into account international?

– We developed them on the instructions of the Ministry of Health. Of course, they took into account international experience, attracted specialists not only from our institution, but also from the departments of rehabilitation, physiotherapy, pulmonology.The specialists worked with deep knowledge of these issues. The protocols specify which methods should be used, how many procedures and repetitions of an exercise should be per day. This is a detailed, step-by-step guide.

In addition, we have prepared a manual for doctors on the medical rehabilitation of patients who have had pneumonia caused by this infection. I hope this manual will be useful for those doctors who are involved in the rehabilitation of this category of people.

– Does it make sense to go to the clinic to prescribe, for example, physiotherapy procedures?

– You should definitely go to the clinic.Indeed, along with the home stage, rehabilitation is also important at the outpatient clinic: it would be nice to undergo a course of certain physiotherapy procedures, get advice on physiotherapy exercises, possibly psychotherapy, etc.

You need to take care of yourself and love. You should carefully listen to the body, take into account the advice of experts, and then the quality of life will increase.

Outside of the epidemic situation associated with COVID-19, the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Examination and Rehabilitation is engaged in the medical rehabilitation of patients after the completed radical treatment of malignant tumors of the breast, female genital organs and other oncological diseases.The RSPC is the only specialized center in the republic for this profile. Now it has been redesigned to receive patients who have undergone severe or moderate coronavirus infection. The center is located in a picturesque forest on the shore of an artificial lake, 10 km from the city limits (Gorodishche village). The moderate climate of the middle zone, beautiful landscape, mixed forest, clean air create favorable conditions for rehabilitation.

Photo of the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Expertise and Rehabilitation


90,000 All recovered from COVID-19 will need long-term rehabilitation

“Pulmonary fibrosis – the cause of irreversible consequences”

– Rehabilitation will be required for everyone who has had COVID-19, says the first deputy. Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Health Protection, Chief Therapist of the Moscow Region, Dr.MD, professor Natalia SANINA. – But those who suffered from this disease in severe and moderate form will recover especially for a long time. Changes in the lungs can be very serious and persist long enough after treatment. Therefore, immediately after discharge from the hospital, such patients should be registered at the dispensary at the place of residence. By the way, at the end of May, the Russian Ministry of Health published recommendations for the rehabilitation of patients who had recovered from COVID-19.

One of the changes in the lungs after coronavirus treatment is fibrosis, when healthy lung tissue is replaced with connective scar tissue.As a result, the respiratory organs become denser, their volume and elasticity decrease. The patient’s tissue oxygen saturation decreases, it is difficult for him to breathe. According to doctors’ observations, the risk of developing fibrosis arises after a patient is on a ventilator (artificial lung ventilation) in an emergency in order to maintain normal breathing. Fibrosis of the lungs often leads to respiratory failure, and this is already an indication for disability.

It will not be possible to completely get rid of fibrosis (replace the scar tissue formed in the respiratory organs with healthy tissue).But to prevent the further development of pathology, if you apply therapeutic and preventive measures, is realistic.


First, Chinese and then Italian health researchers of those who had been ill with COVID-19 in an extremely serious form came to the conclusion: a third of those who were connected to a ventilator (artificial lung ventilation) experienced breathing problems after being discharged from the hospital. In particular, fibrotic changes in the lungs are observed in 30% of those who recovered.Sometimes they occupy up to a third of the lungs. And pulmonary fibrosis (scarring) can cause irreversible consequences. Breathing problems can persist for many months, and for some they can even become chronic.

But, fortunately, not all COVID-19 patients develop fibrosis. It is possible to avoid such consequences for patients who have undergone it in a weak or moderate form.

And it turns out that it is possible to prevent pulmonary fibrosis even with coronavirus. To begin with, it is important to have good immunity or try to strengthen it with all your might.Quitting smoking can also help reduce the risk of pulmonary fibrosis. Tobacco smoke irritates the mucous membrane and provokes inflammation.

Smoking is highly undesirable during the rehabilitation period.

Rosemary and burdock leaves will help improve lung respiration

So what should be done to get rid of the residual effects after the previous COVID-19 disease?

– It is important not only to lead a correct lifestyle, to engage in breathing exercises, although this is very important for the rehabilitation of covid patients, but also to carry out drug therapy prescribed in this case, – says Professor Natalya Petrovna Sanina.- Moreover, it is necessary to treat not only the pulmonary consequences of the disease, but also chronic pathologies in patients exacerbating against the background of coronavirus – diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular problems, obesity. For example, during treatment for coronavirus, some patients with type 2 diabetes had to be switched to insulin. Therefore, patients discharged from the hospital need to periodically do CT, ECG, tests and be sure to carry out spirometry – to investigate the function of external respiration.

– Natalya Petrovna, allegations appeared that smokers allegedly get sick with coronavirus less often.So, maybe smoking will help with the rehabilitation of recovered people?

– No way! This is someone’s speculation. The conclusions are based on very little research material, and therefore are unsubstantiated. Someone benefits from people buying more cigarettes. In fact, smokers are at least as likely to be affected by COVID-19 as non-smokers. And most importantly, they are much more ill and much more difficult to recover. Smokers are more likely to end up in intensive care and on a ventilator (artificial lung ventilation). Among them, the mortality rate is higher.In Russia, as you know, a third of the population smokes. This bad habit must be fought very actively. The coronavirus is killing those whose lungs are weakened. And in smokers, under the influence of smoke and nicotine, the lungs cease to function normally: pulmonary emphysema (inflammatory process), chronic bronchitis develop, smokers cough …

As the practice of treating coronavirus has shown, it is those who, against the background of smoking, already have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma, and especially those who have had pneumonia against the background of influenza, ARVI are more likely to become infected.These concomitant diseases in patients with COVID-19 have not disappeared either. Therefore, patients after an infection immediately after discharge from the hospital should consult a general practitioner or a pulmonologist at their place of residence. And if, after suffering from coronavirus pneumonia, someone also has pulmonary fibrosis, it is necessary to regularly do x-rays, CT scans, spirometry. The results will allow doctors to see changes in the lungs in time and adjust treatment.

For those who have been ill, the doctor will prescribe drugs that increase the elasticity of the lung tissue with fibrosis, inhalation with antiseptic agents.Physiological procedures are also used in polyclinics for this purpose: electrophoresis, UHF, cupping massage, chest massage, etc. There are also day hospitals in Moscow, which also have a whole arsenal of means for the rehabilitation of patients discharged from clinics, and preventive sanatoriums are preserved in the Moscow region …

But in addition to medical care, the person who has passed the coronavirus test must be on the alert. Regularly measure temperature, monitor blood pressure, measure blood sugar.Do breathing exercises daily, give yourself moderate physical activity. In this case, according to doctors, moderate walking and cycling in the fresh air are especially effective in this case. All this allows you to gradually increase the volume of respiration, saturation of the body with oxygen.

Nutrition should also be adjusted: the menu should contain enough proteins, vitamins (especially vitamin D), and trace elements. Vitamin D is abundant in fermented milk products, cottage cheese and cheese, vegetable and butter, raw yolks; in seafood, fish liver – especially halibut and cod; in fish oil, herring, tuna, mackerel.

And, of course, you should stop smoking. All this must be started immediately, immediately after discharge from the clinic.

Folk remedies will also help. In particular, it is good to combine breathing exercises with the intake of infusions of medicinal herbs – rosemary, anise; decoctions of flax seed, rosehip and elecampane. And also make compresses with cabbage and burdock leaves attached to the chest.

In the zone of pulmonary risk – more than a quarter of Russians

The lungs have been one of the main targets of polluted environments throughout history.It became especially difficult to breathe, and therefore to live, after the global industrial revolution. Today, a third of the deaths on earth from lung diseases and cardiovascular diseases are due to spoiled air. A year ago, at one of the press conferences, pulmonologists made a global statement: “the new generation that follows us has a different pulmonary pathology.”

What is the other? Against the background of poor ecology, such serious diseases of the respiratory system as bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, and lung cancer are “getting younger”, experts explain.The air we breathe by itself changes the structure of the lung tissue. But today the water is also polluted with chemicals. Many harmful compounds are absorbed by plants, which are then consumed by animals. Then people also consume meat, milk from infected animals, eat vegetables, fruits grown on the infected land …

This is the cycle of harm in today’s nature.

And the lungs are the first organ to suffer from an unhealthy environment. Its pathologies are ecologically conditioned.The highest incidence of lung disease in cities with poor ecology. Moscow in this row is no exception. Quite the opposite – in the forefront. Moscow is a very unhealthy city, experts say. Millions of cars, industrial and other enterprises create a high concentration of suspended harmful substances, poisonous gases in the air we breathe. These aggressive substances damage the nasal mucosa, throat, and respiratory tract of townspeople.

Therefore, the inhabitants of megacities are especially susceptible to viruses and bacteria.What, in fact, we are seeing now, during the coronavirus pandemic. The first, which is not accidental, to react to the new virus and give the highest incidence of respiratory diseases of those Muscovites who already had problems with their lungs: bronchial asthma, COPD, pneumonia. Moreover, the incidence of bronchial asthma practically doubles every 15 years, says Professor Sanina.

The situation in our country is even worse with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (in the world this disease is already in fourth place among the causes of death).According to experts, in the coming years, COPD may take third place. In Russia, mortality from pneumonia (among all respiratory diseases) is already in first place, and COPD is in second.

Now, the coronavirus pandemic has confirmed: for patients with asthma and COPD, COVID-19 turned out to be the most destructive – the highest mortality rate among patients. And it will be more difficult for surviving patients who have a diagnosis of “three in one” to recover.

So you will have to reckon with these “accomplices” of COVID – bronchial asthma and COPD.But in our country so far there is neither a proper accounting of these diseases, nor effective treatment. There is no well-developed rehabilitation base either. But that’s not all. In Russia today there is a real failure with the staff of pulmonologists. The optimization of healthcare in Russia in recent years has led to the fact that out of 4 thousand pulmonologists in the whole country there are only 2300; 1700 left in an unknown direction.

“This is very little for such a huge country like ours,” states one of the founders of the Russian school of pulmonology, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexander Chuchalin.- And in connection with the unprecedented attack of the coronavirus on the lungs of people, personnel training comes out on top.


Rehabilitation after infection with coronavirus will be needed for all patients without exception. However, most of all, it will be necessary for patients who have suffered from a disease in moderate and severe forms.

Among the main tasks are the restoration of the vital capacity of the lungs, the restoration of blood oxygen saturation (saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen), the restoration of the strength of the muscles of the extremities.

The key to recovering from COVID-19 is daily breathing and aerobic exercise such as walking for at least 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 8-12 weeks.


To improve respiratory function, patients can also use medicinal herbs, proven for centuries. But only as an aid. In particular:

rosemary will help clear mucus from the lungs and improve breathing;

decoctions of wild rose and elecampane will facilitate breathing, cleanse the lungs;

anise broth will help restore lung tissue;

flaxseed will reduce shortness of breath and cough.

Homemade compresses will also help in the fight against pulmonary fibrosis: cabbage and burdock leaves can be applied to the chest area at night.

According to phytotherapists, the result of rehabilitation will be even better if you combine folk remedies with breathing exercises.

But first you need to quit smoking.

90,000 Urethral stricture and how to prevent it from urologist Dr. Suresh Radhakrishnan

Dr. Suresh Radhakrishnan is one of the most famous and renowned urologists in Chennai.He currently works at Dr. Rela Institute and Medical Center . With over 18 years of experience, he has experience in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, including transrectal prostate biopsy, rigid and flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser treatment of renal and ureteral stones, bipolar TURP, open radical and laparoscopic radical. Prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, stone disease of the urinary tract, minimally invasive surgical treatments such as laparoscopic nephrectomy and laparoscopic pyeloplasty, and laser prostatectomy.He is a distinguished member of the ecu Urology Association, the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, the Indian Medical Association and the British Association of Urological Surgeons. Dr. Suresh Radhakrishnan has contributed to several national and international publications. Dr. Suresh is also actively invited as an invited speaker to scientific conferences, CME conferences and world conferences to talk about laser prostatectomy.

Urethral stricture

Urethral stricture is a type of scarring in which the tube that carries urine out of the body narrows.It restricts the flow of urine from the bladder and causes many medical problems in the urinary tract, such as inflammation or infection.


Signs and symptoms of urethral stricture:

  • Decreased urine stream
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • Increased urge to urinate or more frequent urination
  • Urinary tract infection, urinary obstruction
  • or pain when urinating


Scar tissue that can narrow the urethra due to:

  • A procedure that involves inserting an instrument, such as an endoscope, into the urethra.
  • Cancer of the urethra or prostate
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Radiation therapy
  • Periodic or prolonged use of a tube inserted through the urethra to empty the bladder.
  • Trauma or injury
  • Enlarged prostate or previous surgery to get rid or shrink an enlarged prostate

Urethral stricture is more common in men than in women and the cause is unknown.


Treatment of urethral stricture depends on the results of the imaging procedures.Treatment options include:

  1. Dilatation of the urethra.
  2. Internal urethrotomy.
  3. Reconstruction of the urethra.

Urethral dilatation or internal urethrotomy should probably be tried first with a short stricture. With general anesthesia, the urethra is dilated with larger dilator instruments and a cystoscope. A urethrotomy can also be a procedure where a cystoscope is used in conjunction with a special instrument to cut a ring of animal tissue and expose the blocked area.

After the procedure, the urethral catheter is usually left in the urethra for about three to five days. After enlargement, the urethrotomy can also return the stricture. In some cases, this procedure can fix the problem. Blood in the urine is expected some time after this or any urinary tract procedure.

Reconstruction of the urethra may be required for a permanent result if dilatation or urethrotomy fails and the stricture returns. The urethra is also reconstructed by removing the scar tissue and then suturing the ends of the urethra.


Pelvic injury should be avoided to prevent some forms of urethral stricture. To prevent this condition, infections must be strictly avoided. For details, contact Dr. Suresh Radhakrishnan, one of the top urologists in Chennai. works at the Dr. Rela Institute and Medical Center.

What is a cut scar?

An incision scar, also called a surgical scar, is a scar that forms where the surgical incision was made.A surgical incision is an incision made through the skin to perform an operation or surgical procedure. Scarring occurs when new skin grows on old skin and a surgical wound heals. The severity of the incision scar depends largely on where the incision is made, what type of incision is needed, and how well the incision heals. Unfortunately, scarring is an inevitable result of any surgery.

Some of the most prominent surgical scars are the result of abdominal or chest surgery that cannot be performed laparoscopically.Heart surgeries and caesarean sections are examples of surgeries that leave a pronounced scar on the incision. Some surgical procedures that require smaller incisions can sometimes be performed to reduce the amount of visible scarring. For example, cosmetic surgical incisions are often made along the hairline where scars are less visible, and manual surgeons often use lines along the palms as incision points when performing surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome.

Although scarring from a surgical incision cannot be avoided, there are ways to reduce the severity of the scar after healing.Surgical wound care is vital to minimize scarring of the incision. Infection and further trauma will only delay the healing process and may increase the amount or appearance of scar tissue. Closing the wound sometimes also affects the healing of the incision. The decision to use stitches, Steri-strips® or staples is usually left to the surgeon, but patients can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each during a preoperative consultation.

More recent studies have shown that the type of dressing used on a surgical wound can reduce the appearance of a scar on an incision.Traditional surgical dressings include sterile gauze, which helps cover the wound and prevent infection, but does not support skin healing. A team of researchers at Stanford University has developed a plastic dressing that compresses the area of ​​the surgical incision and supports skin healing.

There are other options for minimizing incision scarring, but many cosmetic procedures, including lasers, excisions, and ointments, are minimally effective, if they exist at all.The best way to minimize surgical scarring is to properly care for your incision as it heals by keeping it clean and dressed and following all post-operative care instructions. After the wound has closed properly, regularly apply a moisturizing ointment or lotion to the new skin and surrounding area to minimize the final appearance of a fully healed scar.


90,000 Is it possible to have an abortion at home?

Abortion is a serious measure that leads to the death of the ovum and its subsequent exit from the uterine cavity.This procedure must be performed strictly in a clinic, with the help of a qualified gynecologist. Self-termination of pregnancy at home is very dangerous for a woman, and can result in possible serious complications. Only an experienced gynecologist can correctly determine the duration of the onset of pregnancy, take into account the presence of contraindications, concomitant diseases and choose the right tactics. If you suspect you are pregnant – urgently see a gynecologist for an appointment.

Types of termination of pregnancy

Several methods of abortion are known. Each of them carries a certain threat to a woman’s health and only a gynecologist can take into account all the nuances of the upcoming procedure. One of these methods is medical abortion. It involves the use of drugs – mifepristone and misoprostol.

These drugs stimulate uterine contraction and promote the expulsion of the ovum. In this way, it is possible to solve the problem of unwanted pregnancy in 95% of cases.However, even this method is fraught with risks, and it must be carried out in a clinic setting.

Is it possible to terminate a pregnancy at home?

Traditional methods should never be used in case of termination of an unwanted pregnancy, because capable of causing irreparable harm to a woman’s body. If you are faced with an unwanted pregnancy, you should seek qualified help. Even a full-fledged abortion in a clinic is associated with fewer complications than the independent use of dubious means.Do not look for drugs with an abortive effect in pharmacies – such drugs are supplied only to medical institutions, the dispensing of such drugs in pharmacies is prohibited!

What is the danger of abortion at home?

Lack of qualified medical care and abortion at home can lead to the following complications:

  • massive bleeding that can cause death;
  • infertility – develops as a result of damage to the endometrium and the development of adhesions, scarring of tissues;
  • incomplete abortion – the remaining parts of the ovum in the uterine cavity provoke an inflammatory process that can lead to the removal of the uterus and its appendages;
  • the absence of termination of pregnancy and the development of congenital anomalies in the fetus due to exposure to toxic substances.

What should be done if the pregnancy is not planned?

If conception did not occur as planned, do not make hasty decisions. In any case, after you find out about the onset of pregnancy, you should go to an appointment with a gynecologist. The doctor will consult, examine and help you decide on further actions.
Even if you decide to interrupt, keep your preference for civilized and (as far as possible) safe methods that are performed by experienced doctors.

90,000 obstetrician-gynecologist, Ph.D. Danilova Olga Vladimirovna.

The topic of this article is of concern to many women. This is not surprising, since more than half of the gynecologist’s patients suffer from
or any other type of cervical pathology.
In addition, cancer
the cervix is ​​the main contributor to mortality among women worldwide. V
our country cervical cancer is on
second place among oncological diseases in women after breast cancer
glands.The saddest is the one
the fact that the detection rate is very high
this disease in the later stages,
when full recovery is practically
impossible. In my opinion, the rise in frequency
detection of advanced forms of cervical cancer is associated,
mainly with the fact that at present
During the period of time, there is practically no prophylactic medical examination of the population. Namely, the regular
examination by a gynecologist with the collection of the necessary simple tests, allows
to the doctor to identify the disease at the initial
stages, and even more often to determine the pathology,
against which the
cancer in the future,
to prevent the appearance of a terrible

Currently, all non-oncological
diseases of the cervix are divided into background and precancerous.
Background diseases of the cervix include those that, according to statistics, are extremely
can rarely serve as the basis for the oncology, but require constant monitoring. These include ectopias
of various origins, leukoplakia,
erythroplakia, polyps and flat warts.

Precancerous diseases of the cervix,
as the name implies, very often develop into cancer over time.All degrees of dysplasia are referred to as precancer.
Separately, inflammatory diseases of the cervix are isolated, but this is more
refers to genital infections.
I will dwell in more detail on the most
common diseases of the cervix
Cervical erosion.
Most often, women at the reception hear
diagnosis of cervical erosion. Diagnosis
this one is not entirely correct from a clinical point of view
view, but widespread, so we will use it for clarity.
Pure cervical erosion is characterized by damage to the cervical mucosa
the uterus facing the vagina.That is, this is a kind of wound on the neck.
uterus visible to the naked eye
when examined by a gynecologist. She looks
like a bright red spot on a pink background
intact mucous membrane of the cervix.
The most common cause of erosion
is an inflammatory process, various chemical or physical influences or hormonal disturbances. Gynecologists rarely observe a similar picture, since this
erosion is usually no more than two weeks. Further, if the cause is eliminated, erosion
heals completely.If healing is not
occurs, erosion turns into ectopia. It is precisely this that is most often referred to as “cervical erosion”.

Ectopia, in turn, is an incomplete or incompletely healed erosion of the cervix. That is, healing has begun, but since the causative factor
was not fixed, the process went wrong. As a result of this “wrong”
healing, particularly on the cervix
the so-called nabot cysts are formed, which are also quite common.

Nabot cysts are clogged ducts of the cervical glands, stretched by the secretion of these glands. Simply put, these are bubbles filled with liquid,
located under the mucous membrane
on the surface of the cervix. Sometimes if
the cause of the ectopia has been eliminated, and a complete cure may occur. But
more often the erosion healing process proceeds
wave-like, with a change in the picture visible upon examination. With a long course
ectopia of the cervix, processes constantly occurring in the cells of the superficial
layer of the neck can change, leading to
the development of dysplasia.If this does not happen, ectopia of the cervix can exist indefinitely, clinically in no way
not showing up.
Ectopia of the cervix can also develop after traumatic
childbirth, abortion and other intrauterine interventions. Moreover, on
ruptures form on the cervix,
the cervix seems to be inverted
to the outside and an eroded ectropion is formed.
It should also be said about the possibility of the existence of a physiological
ectopia of the cervix in young
women under 23-24 years old who are not
require no treatment and go away on their own.Leukoplakia.
Leukoplakia can develop from ectopia and is a compaction on
cervix in the form of a white spot. Leukoplakia can also progress with the development of precancerous conditions.

Erythroplakia is a red
a spot that bleeds easily when touched.
Polyps of the cervix.
Cervical polyps are outgrowths on the surface of the cervix or in its canal of various
structures. The cause of the development of polyps
most often there are hormonal or inflammatory processes.Flat warts.
Flat warts are
one of the manifestations of human papillomavirus
infections. Within flat warts
dysplasia can also develop, which characterizes them as precancer.
Dysplasia of the cervix.
Dysplasia of the cervix is ​​of three degrees. The first is mild, the second is
moderate and third – severe dysplasia. The degrees vary depending on
from the depth of the defeat. The deeper the process,
the more severe the dysplasia. Dysplasia is not visible
with the naked eye and can be determined only with special studies as a pathologically altered
cervix and healthy women.Diagnosis of pathological conditions
How is the diagnosis of pathological conditions of the cervix carried out? The first
turn, this is a regular examination by a gynecologist, which is recommended to be carried out every six months. Even with a simple examination, the doctor
may suspect this or that pathology
cervix. In addition, it is obligatory 1 time
a year to do a smear from the cervix for cytological examination. According to the results
this smear can determine the contingent
women who need a more complete examination.Colposcopy.
Colposcopy is performed to clarify the diagnosis. Colposcopy is a procedure
examination of the cervix, and if necessary
and external genital organs, and the vagina
using a colposcope. Colposcope – a device with a special optical system,
allowing to consider the objects under study with a magnification of up to 30 times. During colposcopy, the cervix is ​​usually treated with special solutions that
allows the doctor to better investigate the pathology. The procedure is completely painless
and does not require any special training.If, during colposcopy, any area requires more careful
study, the doctor will suggest that you do a biopsy of the cervix. Cervical biopsy
Is the procedure for taking a small piece
cervix for detailed examination.
The diagnosis obtained on the basis of this
research, is as accurate as possible and allows the doctor to choose the right tactics
further treatment of the patient. As you know, the tasks of colposcopy include:
– assessment of the state of the cervical epithelium;
identification of a pathological focus;
– differentiation of benign
changes from suspicious
– selection of the most altered area of ​​the exocervix for targeted biopsy.Treatment of diseases of the cervix.
First of all, you need to install
and, if possible, eliminate the cause of the appearance of a cervical disease
uterus. For this, inflammatory processes are treated, hormonal disorders are corrected. In the presence of a viral etiology of the disease, it is necessary
specific antiviral treatment and
correction of immunological disorders.
Sometimes, if the process does not have a long
history, these measures are enough to eliminate the pathology.But often the next step is to resort to surgical treatment of the cervix.
uterus. If surgical treatment is envisaged, it is necessary in advance
achieve a good smear, otherwise the result
will not be achieved.
Surgical treatments for the cervix
Surgical treatments are pretty
varied. These include the actual surgical, diathermosurgical
intervention, cryodestruction, radio wave and laser treatment. Surgical treatment includes restorative
operations (Emmet, Eltsov-Strelkov) and
removal of the cervix.Restorative
used for severe deformation
cervix due to rupture and subsequent scarring. Restore shape
cervix, preventing the development of ectropion and other diseases. Various options for removing the cervix most often
used for cancer.
Diathermosurgical treatment methods
Diathermosurgical methods are widely
widespread and available due to the relatively low cost of equipment for this manipulation.Distinguish between diathermocoagulation (DEK), the so-called.
cauterization of the cervix and diathermoexcision (DEE), in which part of the cervical tissue
the uterus is removed with an electric knife. This method can be used to treat “cervical erosion”
including nabotovy cysts. DEE is used for deformity of the cervix and dysplasia. Healing usually occurs
within 2-3 months. The operation is performed on the eve of menstruation, is not painful and does not require general anesthesia.
Complications of this method of treatment can be bleeding, scarring
on the cervix, which is especially important if
You are planning to give birth in the future.In addition, it is possible to develop after treatment
endometriosis of the cervix. To be observed
after treatment it is necessary within 1 year
every three months.
Radio wave treatments for the cervix
Radio wave treatments have
similar indications, but the active agent is not electric current, but radio waves. Complications may be the same, but
they are much less common. Healing
occurs within 1.5-2 months. Method
more preferable, especially for women planning to have children.Laser surgery.
Laser surgery – the most commonly used in practice is a carbon dioxide laser.
Can be used in various modes for tissue dissection in the same way
scalpel and for coagulation. It is used to treat pseudo-erosion of the cervix
uterus, removal of genital warts, leukoplakia,
treatment of dysplasia and benign
formations. Healing takes place in
within 1-2 months, depending on the pathology. Bleeding during laser treatment is extremely rare, healing
usually occurs without scarring.Treatment
carried out on days 5-7 of the cycle. No pain relief is required.
Cryodestruction is based on the use of low temperatures that cause necrosis of the pathological focus. Applicable
a liquid nitrogen. Mainly used for
treatment of pseudo-erosion of the cervix, dysplasia. Treatment is carried out for 8-10 days
cycle, does not require anesthesia. Complete
healing occurs within 2-3 months.
In addition to the methods described above, treatment of the cervix with solkovagin is used.It is a chemical that has
cauterizing effect on the cervix.
After applying the drug to the pathological focus, a crust forms, which disappears
for 3-4 days. If necessary, several treatments are carried out. The drug is effective in the treatment of small superficial
erosion, removal of genital warts. Does not possess
no side effects, absolutely safe.
The specific method of treatment, as much as possible
effective and safe with the available
pathology, of course, must recommend
doctor after diagnosis.If you are on
for some reason, do not want to present
time to deal with the treatment of the pathology of the cervix that you have, then at least
at least, regularly see a gynecologist so as not to miss the appearance of adverse consequences of this pathology.