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Biotin (Oral Route) Proper Use

Proper Use

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex


The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (capsules or tablets):

    • To prevent deficiency, the amount taken by mouth is based on normal daily recommended intakes:

      • Adults and teenagers—30 to 100 micrograms (mcg) per day.

      • Children 7 to 10 years of age—30 mcg per day.

      • Children 4 to 6 years of age—25 mcg per day.

      • Children birth to 3 years of age—10 to 20 mcg per day.

    • To treat deficiency:

      • Adults, teenagers, and children—Treatment dose is determined by prescriber for each individual based on severity of deficiency.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

If you miss taking biotin supplements for one or more days there is no cause for concern, since it takes some time for your body to become seriously low in biotin. However, if your health care professional has recommended that you take biotin, try to remember to take it as directed every day.


Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Do not refrigerate. Keep from freezing.

Store the dietary supplement in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Portions of this document last updated: July 01, 2021

Copyright © 2021 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.


Vitamin H (Biotin) Information | Mount Sinai

Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:238-43.

Fiume MZ, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety assessment of biotin. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 4:1-12.

Greenway FL, Ingram DK, Ravussin E, Hausmann M, Smith SR, Cox L, Tomayko K, Treadwell BV. Loss of taste responds to high-dose biotin treatment. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30(3):178-81.

Gulati S, Passi GR, Kumar A, Kabra M, Kalra V, Verma IC. Biotinidase deficiency — a treatable entity. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(6):464-466.

Head KA. Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies. Altern Med Rev. 2006 Dec;11(4):294-329. Review.

Keligman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.

McCarthy MF. Toward practical prevention of type 2 diabetes. Med Hypotheses. 2000;54(5):786-793.

Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(2):295-299.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins. Accessed June 1, 2011.

Said HM. Biotin: the forgotten vitamin. [editorial] Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(2)179-180.

Schulpis KH, Karikas GA, Tjamouranis J, Regoutas S, Tsakiris S. Low serum biotinidase activity in children with valproic acid monotherapy. Epilepsia. 2001;42(10):1359-1362.

Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006 Dec;8(6):636-43.

Taniguchi A, Watanabe T. Roles of biotin in growing ovarian follicles and embryonic development in domestic fowl. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2007;53(6):457-63.

Taniguchi A, Watanabe T. Transplacental transport and tissue distribution of biotin in mice at midgestation. Congenit Anom. 2008;48(2):57-62.

Wolverton: Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.

The Truth About Biotin Supplements, According to Nutritionists

Fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, and dairy products contain it as well, Jessica Cording, a registered dietitian in New York City, tells Allure, and so do some vegetables like sweet potatoes, spinach, and broccoli. It can also be found in prenatal vitamins and multivitamins, per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

What does biotin actually do?

Biotin helps with the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose (blood sugar, in other words), and amino acids in your body, the NIH reports. In other words, biotin helps turn the carbs, fats, and proteins in the food you eat into energy you need, Angelone says. The NIH also says it plays a role in gene regulation (the process that controls how your genes get expressed) and cell signaling (the process that coordinates the actions of all of your body’s cells).

It even helps maintain the normal function of your nervous system, Beth Warren, a registered dietitian nutritionist and the author of Secrets of a Kosher Girl, tells Allure. And yup, it does play a role in creating healthy nails, skin, and hair, Angelone says. (That’s not to say that if you’re already getting enough biotin, taking a biotin supplement will create a real difference in how yours look, though.)

How can I tell if I need more biotin?

There’s actually no Recommended Dietary Allowance for biotin, so it’s hard to know exactly how much you should get on a regular basis. However, the Mayo Clinic says that teens and adults should probably get anywhere from 30 to 100 micrograms a day. There are also no hard numbers on how much biotin the average American gets, but the NIH says people’s average biotin intake in other Western countries is about 35 to 70 micrograms a day, within the generally recommended range.

Here’s the thing: It’s actually pretty rare to have a biotin deficiency if you eat a varied diet, Cording says. The Mayo Clinic specifically cites conditions like a genetic disorder of biotin deficiency, seborrheic dermatitis in babies (a skin condition that causes a scaly, itchy rash), and surgical removal of the stomach as possible causes of a biotin deficiency. A heavy drinking habit can also inhibit your body’s ability to absorb biotin, the NIH says.

At least a third of pregnant women have a slight biotin deficiency, even when they have more than the average amount of it in their diet.

Things are a little different during pregnancy, though: At least a third of pregnant women have a slight biotin deficiency, even when they have more than the average amount of biotin in their diet, the NIH says. A biotin deficiency can cause a skin rash around your eyes, nose, and mouth, as well as seizures, brittle nails, and thinning hair, Angelone says.

Vitamin B7 (biotin) — | Viva!

Biotin is also called vitamin B7 and was formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R.

How much do you need daily?

UK dietary reference values for biotin have not been set due to insufficient data. The UK Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) consider that intakes between 10-200 micrograms a day are both safe and adequate. Note, a micrograms (μg) is one thousandth of a milligram!

In the US, the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, set an adequate intake at 30 micrograms a day for adults. The UN Food and Agricultural Organisation and World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) recommend 30 micrograms a day too. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have set an adequate intake for adults at 40 micrograms per day (which also applies to pregnant women). It may then be that between 30 and 40 micrograms a day is a reasonable target.

The government recommends the following intakes

Recommended amounts of biotin vary between different organisations:


Adequate intakes of biotin as set by US FBN (micrograms per day)


Recommended nutrient intake of biotin set by FAO/WHO (micrograms per day)


Adequate intakes of biotin as set by EFSA (micrograms per day)

7-11 months


7-12 months


7-11 months


1-3 years


1-3 years


1-3 years


4-8 years


4-6 years


4-10 years


7-9 years


9-12 years


11-17 years


14-18 years


10-18 years


19+ years


19+ years


18+ years (including pregnancy)








FBN: Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, US.

FAO/WHO: The UN Food and Agricultural Organisation and World Health Organisation.

EFSA: The European Food Safety Authority.

Are we getting enough?

The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey has not looked at biotin since its 2000-2001 survey which found average daily intakes of biotin from food were 41 micrograms for men and 29 micrograms for women. They noted that younger adults had significantly lower intakes than older adults. Overall, they found that average intakes of biotin were within COMA’s recommended range of 10 to 200 micrograms. Less than 0.5 per cent of men and two per cent of women had average intakes below 10 micrograms.

Why do we need it??

Biotin plays a central role in fat, sugar and protein metabolism and is essential for healthy skin and nails. The bacteria in your bowel are able to make some biotin and it’s not clear how much we need from the diet so the below is mostly a healthy recommendation.

Do I need a supplement?

No, a healthy vegan diet containing the foods listed below will cover your needs.

The best plant sources

The best plant sources of biotin include tempeh (fermented soya beans, sold in health food shops in blocks), peanuts and peanut butter, nuts (hazelnuts, almonds, walnuts, pecans and pistachios), muesli, nutritional yeast, oatmeal or rolled oats, mushrooms, avocado, seeds (sunflower and sesame), tahini (sesame seed paste), fortified breakfast cereals and wheat germ.

Nutritional yeast is a food additive that can be used as a condiment or ingredient. It is made from yeast grown on molasses and then harvested, washed and heated to kill or ‘deactivate’ it. It doesn’t froth or grow like baking yeast as it is inactive. It is sold in tubs of flakes that can be sprinkled on dishes or added to sauces. Very popular with vegans, it even has its own nickname – nooch! A 5g teaspoon of nutritional yeast may provide around a third of your daily requirement for biotin. Buy one that’s fortified with vitamin B12 to cover all bases!

Signs of deficiency

Hair loss, brittle nails, rashes or other skin problems, impaired sugar metabolism, depression and exhaustion. Symptoms of biotin deficiency in infants can include weak muscles, sluggishness and delayed development.

Foods to include


Micrograms of biotin per serving

% of  adequate intake

(*35 micrograms)

Tempeh – fermented soya beans (100g)



Peanuts, plain (medium bag, 50g)



Hazelnuts/filberts (1 handful, 28g)



Peanut butter, smooth (thickly spread on one slice, 20g)



Almonds (12 whole nuts, 26g)

16. 6


Muesli, Swiss style (large portion, 80g)



**Nutritional yeast (5g serving)



Walnuts (6 halves, 20g)



Oatmeal or rolled oats (40g portion)



Mushrooms, fried (average portion, 44g)



Pecan nuts (5 nuts, 30g)



Avocado (1 medium, 145g)



Pistachio nuts (1 handful, 28g)

5. 0


Sunflower seeds (1 tablespoon, 16g)



Tahini – sesame seed paste (1 heaped teaspoon, 19g)



Sesame seeds (1 heaped teaspoon, 19g)



Fortified vegan breakfast cereals (Shreddies, medium portion, 50g)



Wheat germ (2 tablespoons, 14g)



*The US FBN and WHO/FAO set and adequate intake at 30 micrograms, EFSA set it at 40 micrograms, so we have calculated the percentage of 35 micrograms.

Source: Public Health England: McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset, **Engevita, Marigold Health Foods Ltd.

Note, many wholegrain foods, pulses and green vegetables contain significant quantities of biotin, but there is no reliable information on the precise amount. Eat a wide variety of plant foods and you will get plenty of biotin along with the other B vitamins.

Additional information

If you take biotin supplements, don’t take too much as this might be harmful. The government say that you should be able to get all the biotin you need by eating a varied and balanced diet but that taking 0.9 milligrams or less a day of biotin in supplements is unlikely to cause any harm.


Can my medication interfere with biotin?

Some medications may affect your biotin levels and biotin may interact with certain medications. For example, treatment for at least one year with anti-seizure medications (used to treat epilepsy) can significantly lower biotin levels.

Biotin (Vitamin B7) Sources, Health Benefits and Dosage

Vitamin B7, more commonly known as biotin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is vital for the body’s metabolism and functioning. It is an essential component of a number of enzymes responsible for several crucial metabolic pathways in the human body, including the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, as well as amino acids involved in protein synthesis.

Biotin is known to promote cell growth and is often a component of dietary supplements used for strengthening hair and nails, as well as those marketed for skin care.

Sources of Biotin

Vitamin B7 is found in a number of foods, though in small amounts. This includes walnuts, peanuts, cereals, milk, and egg yolks. Other foods that contain this vitamin are whole meal bread, salmon, pork, sardines, mushroom and cauliflower. Fruits that contain biotin include avocados, bananas and raspberries. In general, a healthy varied diet provides the body with sufficient amounts of biotin.

Foods rich in Biotin (vitamin B7). Foods as liver, eggs yolk, yeast, cheese, sardines, soybeans, milk, cauliflower, green beans, mushrooms, peanuts, walnuts and almonds. Image Credit: By Evan Lorne / Shutterstock

Health Benefits

Biotin is essential for the body’s metabolism. It acts as a coenzyme in a number of metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and essential amino acids, as well as in gluconeogenesis – the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrates. Although biotin deficiency is rare, some groups of people may be more susceptible to it, such as patients suffering from Crohn’s disease. Biotin deficiency symptoms include hair loss, skin issues including rash, an appearance of cracking in the corners of the mouth, dryness of the eyes and appetite loss. Vitamin B7 promotes appropriate function of the nervous system and is essential for liver metabolism as well.

Biotin is commonly advised as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails, as well as in skin care. It is suggested that biotin aids cell growth and the maintenance of mucous membranes. Although biotin may be present in certain cosmetics, it is important to remember that it cannot actually be absorbed through skin, hair or nails.

Vitamin B7 can aid in caring for thinning hair and brittle nails, especially in those suffering from biotin deficiency. However, research so far has shown no conclusive results to back up the claim that biotin is directly related to the improvement of skin and nail condition or in increased hair growth.

Some evidence has shown that those suffering from diabetes may be susceptible to biotin deficiency. Since biotin is an important factor in the synthesis of glucose, it may help maintain an appropriate blood sugar level in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes.


As a water-soluble vitamin, biotin is not stored in the body, instead being secreted through urine, so it must be provided in our daily diet. Some amount of vitamin B7 can also be synthesized by the bacteria living in the gut. However, since biotin deficiency is rare and the amounts needed by the body are small, many countries do not actually provide a recommended daily intake of biotin. The daily amounts suggested by the United States Food and Nutrition Board are 6 micrograms for an infant up to the age of 6 months, 30 micrograms for adults of 19 years and older and 35 micrograms in the case of breastfeeding women. Studies have shown that people consume on average 36 micrograms of biotin daily, meeting the average intake recommended above. Different amounts may be recommended to treat vitamin B7 deficiency and will be advised by a proper health professional.

According to the Mayo Clinic, a daily intake of biotin of up to 10 milligrams has no adverse effects to the body. Moreover, so far no research has shown the possibility of overdosing on vitamin B7. Since it is water-soluble, excess amounts are not stored in the body and are instead flushed out through the urine.


  • Shari R. Lipner. (2018) Rethinking biotin therapy for hair, nail, and skin disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 78:6, pages 1236-1238.
  • Shari R. Lipner & Richard K. Scher (2018) Biotin for the treatment of nail disease: what is the evidence?, Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 29:4, 411-414, DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1395799
  • Pacheco-Alvarez, Diana et al. Biotin in Metabolism and Its Relationship to Human Disease. Archives of Medical Research , Volume 33 , Issue 5 , 439 – 447, https://www.arcmedres.com/article/S0188-4409(02)00399-5/ppt    
  • Mayo Clinic: Biotin (Oral Route), https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/biotin-oral-route/description/drg-20062359

Further Reading

Here’s how too much biotin can harm your body

Biotin, in the right amount, can give you long hair, strong nails and flawless skin. But the side effects of biotin can be quite hazardous too.

We all want voluminous hair and strong nails. Our stressful lifestyle, though, proves to be a real hurdle. To overcome this hurdle, all you need is biotin! Touted to be a magic pill that can resolve all your beauty issues, biotin can help you boost your hair health and nail growth.

Recently, however, it has become a trend to take large doses of the vitamin with the intention of achieving results faster. Unfortunately, this actually creates health problems. Hence, it is important to know everything about the side effects of biotin before taking supplements. 

Biotin belongs to the family of vitamin B. Also known as vitamin H or vitamin B7, it is a water-soluble vitamin. Biotin is a component of enzymes in our body that help in breaking down fats and carbohydrates, converting them into energy. The thing is that our body doesn’t store water-soluble vitamins and hence, we need to attain them from our food.

Here’s why you must include biotin in your diet

According to nutritionist Manisha Chopra, biotin is essential for:

  • Metabolic processes such as the production of glucose and fatty acids in our body
  • Keeping our hair, skin, eyes, liver, nails and nervous system healthy
  • Regulating blood sugar levels
  • Embryonic growth during pregnancy
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Increasing good cholesterol in the body
  • Improving cognitive function

Biotin can be the solution to all your hair woes. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Ditch the supplements for natural sources of the vitamin

Some biotin-rich foods are eggs, nuts, fish, sweet potatoes, soybeans, whole grains, mushrooms, bananas, cauliflower, seeds and meat. Peanuts, walnuts, milk and cereals also include biotin in small amounts. 

Wait! Taking too much biotin also has its side-effects. Here are 7 most common side effects of biotin:

1. Too much biotin can lower vitamin C levels. That can weaken immunity.

2. It can also lead to high blood sugar levels which can prove to be dangerous for people with diabetes.

3. It can lower vitamin B6 level which can impact the neurological system.

4. Instead of making your skin flawless, an overdose of biotin can lead to skin rashes.

Too much biotin can wreck your skin. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

5. It can also lead to problems with insulin release and interfere with the functioning of your liver.

6. You can end up with digestion problems that can lead to gut-related problems.

7. Too much biotin leads to excessive urine production. This means that your kidneys will be burdened.

“Biotin is fairly safe but an overdose can lead to a multitude of side-effects. Hence, the dosage is the most critical part. The recommended daily dosage for adults is 30 micrograms. If a woman is lactating, 35 micrograms is good enough,” said Manisha Chopra.

So, ladies, make it a point to include biotin in your diet but remember that too much of anything can be harmful! And these side effects of biotin are proof.

Vitamin B7 (biotin): deficiency, benefits, sources, supplements

Panainte Ancuta-GeorgianaGetty Images

Vitamin B7 belongs to the B group of vitamins. It is also known as biotin. Your body needs small amounts of biotin to metabolise carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

The bacteria that live naturally in our bowel produce biotin so it remains unclear whether we need additional biotin from our diet.

Vitamin B7 is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails and it’s found in many cosmetic products for hair and skin. There is, however, little evidence to prove any benefit.

Vitamin B7 daily needs

There is no recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin B7 in the UK because there isn’t enough evidence to set one. A suggested amount that is safe and adequate is 20µg (micrograms) per day.

Vitamin B7 deficiency

What happens if I don’t have enough vitamin B7? Vitamin B7 deficiency is extremely rare. This is because vitamin B is produced by bacteria in the intestine and is widely available in food.

Vitamin B7 deficiency can be caused be eating raw egg whites (two or more a day) over many months, as raw egg white contains a protein called avidin, which binds to vitamin B7.

People with genetic disorders, such as biotinidase deficiency, multiple carboxylase deficiency and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency are also susceptible to vitamin B7 deficiency.

Vitamin B7 deficiency symptoms

Symptoms of deficiency include:

  • a fine scaly seborrhoeic dermatitis and/or a red rash, usually on the face
  • brittle hair or hair loss
  • conjunctivitis
  • poor co-ordination of body movements (ataxia)
  • lethargy
  • loss of appetite and nausea
  • mild depression
  • hallucination
  • birth defects (reported in animals)
  • possible reduced immunity and susceptibility to bacterial/fungal infections

    Vitamin B7 best foods sources

    Good food sources of vitamin B7 include:

    • liver
    • egg yolk
    • seeds and nuts e.g almonds
    • green, leafy vegetables such as spinach and Swiss chard
    • sweet potatoes
    • saskatoon berries

      What are the effects of cooking on vitamin B7? Vitamin B7 is not particularly susceptible to loss during cooking.

      When cooking, it is important to use fresh food, steam rather than boil and avoid overly long cooking times to preserve vitamins.

      Should I take a vitamin B7 supplement?

      The Department of Health advises that you should get all the vitamin B7 you need by eating a healthy and balanced diet.

      People on kidney dialysis or receive all their nutrition through a drip, may need a vitamin B7 supplement, but this must be checked with the relevant healthcare provider.

      Research suggests vitamin B7 supplements may have a role to play in improving blood sugar levels in people with diabetes but more research needs to be done to confirm this.

      Pregnant women with low levels of vitamin B7 may be advised to take vitamin B7 supplements.

      Preliminary evidence suggests that vitamin B7 could help to strengthen brittle nails but the benefit is not proven.

      Other uses of vitamin B7 supplements for conditions such as cradle cap, hair loss, depression and hepatitis have been untested.

      However, if you take biotin supplements, do not take too much as this can be harmful.

      Vitamin B7 supplement side effects

      What are the side effects and safety precautions of taking a vitamin B7 supplement? Deficiency is rare and supplementation is not often required.

      Vitamin B7 is deemed likely to be safe for most people when taken orally at the correct dosage. There isn’t thought to be any harm in taking up to 0.9mg daily.

      What happens if I take too much vitamin B7?

      Vitamin B7 is a water-soluble vitamin, which means that any excess is excreted in the urine and faeces making toxicity rare.

      Little information is available regarding toxicity but if you are concerned that you may have overdosed on vitamin B7, then seek medical advice.

      A condition called eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion may result when excess vitamin B7 is ingested along with vitamin B5.

      Do vitamin B7 supplements have any drug interactions?

      Alcohol and some anti-convulsant drugs may affect the transport of biotin in the body.

      Last updated: 29-04-2020

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      Biotin (Vitamin B7) – description of the ingredient, instructions for use, indications and contraindications

      Description of biotin

      Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin B₇. Sometimes it is called coenzyme R or vitamin H. The compound is involved in the processes of gluconeogenesis and metabolism, it is necessary for the full functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the gastrointestinal tract.

      Attention! Partially biotin is synthesized by the intestinal microflora.But this amount of the vitamin is not enough to cover the body’s need for it. Therefore, each person must take care of its intake from the outside: with food or supplements.

      Physical and chemical properties

      Biotin is readily soluble in water and alcohols. Bad – in fats and ethers. It does not degrade under UV rays, but it is not stable in contact with caustic alkalis.

      Effects on the body and norms

      Vitamin H is essential for the proper course of energy metabolism.It regulates the level of glucose in the blood, protects against the destruction of brain cells, participates in cell division, supports the normal functioning of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and the cardiovascular system. All this is enough to realize its importance for health. However, this is only a small part of its functions.

      Vitamin B₇ regulates the course of all reactions in the body, controls the level of enzymes. It is used to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of psoriasis, baldness, depression, eczema, diabetes mellitus, exhaustion, neuropsychiatric disorders.

      The need for biotin is calculated individually for each person, based on the number of calories consumed by him: for 1000 kcal, 100 μg of vitamin is required. On average, for men it is 300 mcg, and for women – 250 mcg. But here it is important to take into account that most of the compound, provided that the gastrointestinal tract is fully functioning, is synthesized in the body. That is, those who do not have health problems need to receive additionally only ⅕ part of the vitamin from the daily requirement.

      Biotin deficiency

      Biotin is synthesized by the microflora in the intestine and absorbed completely, since it does not come into contact with hydrochloric acid in the stomach.From this it follows that a vitamin deficiency in the body can occur due to an imbalance of microflora. Other reasons for violations include:

      90,030 90,031 taking antibiotics;

    1. alcohol abuse;
    2. 90,031 taking oral contraceptives;

    3. strict diet and, as a result, dramatic weight loss;
    4. biotinidase deficiency, in which the efficiency of B₇ absorption decreases;
    5. poor diet – biotin is excreted in the urine and is not stored for a rainy day.
    6. With a vitamin deficiency, dermatitis and convulsions are observed, the complexion of the face deteriorates, hair fragility increases, the level of sugar in the blood rises, chronic fatigue occurs, digestion is disturbed, and mood swings occur. A person can get depressed. Sometimes memory suffers, anemia develops, and early gray hair appears.

      Excess biotin

      An excess of biotin in the body is rare as it is excreted in the urine.But an individual reaction to an active substance is possible.

      Attention! Long-term use of high doses of coenzyme is fraught with the development of an allergic reaction, increased urination, increased sweating. In this case, you need to immediately interrupt the intake of biotin, start drinking more and take an enterosorbent, for example, activated carbon.

      Assessment of the body’s supply

      To determine the level of biotin supply to the body, a comparative analysis of its excretion in the urine is carried out. Normally, the amount of excreted vitamin is close to 30-50 mcg.

      Food Sources

      Biotin is found in foods of both plant and animal origin. These include:

      • pork and beef liver;
      • 90,031 beans and soybeans;

        90,031 almonds;

      • rice bran;
      • 90,031 whole grains;

      • egg yolks;
      • 90,031 sardines;

      • cauliflower;
      • 90,031 mushrooms.

      Attention! The best source of vitamin B₇ is fermented milk products enriched with bifidus supplements. They contain not only biotin, but also the microorganisms necessary to maintain a healthy microflora, on which its natural synthesis depends.

      Preventive and curative use

      The daily norm of biotin for adults is 20–30 mcg. In some diseases, it can reach 50 mcg. Until the age of 18, it is enough to take 5-12 mcg of the compound.

      For prophylaxis, you can take 1 or 2 tablets of a biotin preparation with a dosage of the active substance equal to 5 μg. If you have problems with hair and nails, you can increase the dose to 2.5 mg of the vitamin per day. And with malabsorption – up to 10 mg. The therapeutic dosage of biotin should be determined by a physician. Take it in the process or before meals, drinking plenty of water.


      Hypovitaminosis is a group of diseases caused by a lack of one or more vitamins in the body.The extreme degree of hypovitaminosis is vitamin deficiency.

      The following types of hypovitaminosis are distinguished: beriberi (lack of thiamine), pellagra (lack of niacin), night blindness (lack of vitamin A), scurvy (lack of vitamin C), rickets (lack of vitamin D), as well as other pathological conditions associated with a deficiency of folic acid, biotin, vitamins E, K, B 2 90 100, B 6 90 100 and B 12 90 100.

      At present, severe hypovitaminosis is rare in developed countries. However, the results of laboratory studies indicate that mild forms of hypovitaminosis, proceeding without pronounced symptoms, are very widespread even in countries with a high standard of living. The main causes of vitamin deficiencies in Europe and the United States are chronic diseases or operations on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, diet, alcoholism, taking a number of medications, inadequate parenteral nutrition (the introduction of nutrients by injection). In Russia, hypovitaminosis is quite common, especially among the elderly and children.The severity and prevalence of various types of hypovitaminosis may vary depending on the region, season.

      Treatment of hypovitaminosis consists, respectively, in replenishing the lack of vitamins. The prognosis with timely treatment started is favorable. However, some changes that occur with prolonged, severe deficiency of certain vitamins may be irreversible.

      Russian synonyms

      Lack of vitamins, vitamin deficiency diseases, vitamin deficiency.

      Synonyms English

      Hypovitaminosis, vitamin deficiency, vitamin deficiency diseases, vitamin deficiency disorders, lack of vitamins.


      The manifestations of hypovitaminosis are very diverse, it can be a violation of the work of almost all organs and systems of the body. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of vitamin deficiency. The most common signs of hypovitaminosis are:

      • weakness, fatigue,
      • anemia,
      • bleeding,
      • dermatitis,
      • dysfunction of the nervous system,
      • disruption of the gastrointestinal tract,
      • osteogenesis disorder,
      • visual impairment,
      • violation of the physical and mental development of the child.

      General information about the disease

      Vitamins are low-molecular compounds of various structures, necessary for the full functioning of the body. A person needs vitamins A, C, D, E, K and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamins B 12 90 100, B 6 90 100). With the exception of D and K, which are synthesized in the body, most vitamins are found in food. Despite the very small quantities, they are vital for the full growth and development of the body.Vitamins are involved in most metabolic reactions.

      The cause of hypovitaminosis can be a lack of vitamins in food (with an unbalanced diet, fasting), impaired absorption of vitamins in the intestine (with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, after surgery) or an increase in vitamin requirements (during pregnancy, lactation, taking anticonvulsants and other medicinal drugs). As a result of vitamin deficiency, biochemical processes in the body are disrupted, which can manifest itself as a number of general symptoms (decreased appetite, weakness, fatigue), and specific signs characteristic of each type of hypovitaminosis.

      Vitamins are most often divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble.

      1. Fat-soluble

      • Vitamin A (retinol). Participates in the synthesis of rhodopsin – retinal pigment, maintaining the integrity of the epithelium. It is found in liver, fish, eggs and as provitamin (carotenoids) in vegetables and some fruits. Its deficiency is manifested by dry eyes, skin rashes and a weakened immune system.
      • Vitamin D. It is converted in the body into active metabolites that perform specific functions in individual organs.Stimulates the development of bone tissue, the functioning of the immune system, including antitumor immunity, increases the absorption of calcium in the intestine. The main part of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, a certain amount comes from food (cod liver, egg yolk, butter). In developed countries, dairy products are additionally fortified with vitamin D. Its deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
      • Vitamins of group E have antioxidant properties, that is, they slow down the aging process.They are found in vegetable oils and nuts. With their deficiency, erythrocytes and neurons are destroyed, which leads to anemia and nonspecific neurological symptoms.
      • Vitamin K. It is partially synthesized by bacteria found in the human intestine, but this amount is not enough for the normal functioning of the body. Found in green vegetables. With vitamin K deficiency, bleeding occurs. Newborns are especially susceptible to its lack, in whom it can cause hemorrhagic disease.

      2. Water-soluble

      • Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid. Participates in the synthesis of collagen, a number of amino acids and hormones, is responsible for the strength of the vascular wall and bone tissue, improves the functioning of the immune system and wound healing. Found in broccoli, strawberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, bell peppers, rose hips, and cabbage. When vitamin C is deficient, scurvy develops, which is characterized by bleeding, tooth loss, brittle bones, gingivitis, and poor wound healing.
      • Biotin. Participates as a coenzyme in the reactions of metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Contained in egg yolks, liver, legumes, yeast, nuts, cauliflower. Biotin deficiency leads to impaired physical and mental development of children, impairs the functioning of the immune system, can cause rashes, paralysis.
      • Folic acid (folate). It is necessary for the maturation of erythrocytes, the development of the nervous system of the fetus. Its deficiency occurs when folate is not absorbed in the intestine or when taking medications, although this vitamin is found in sufficient quantities in many products of both plant and animal origin.Hypovitaminosis causes megaloblastic anemia and congenital neural tube defects.
      • Nicotinic acid (niacin, nicotinamide). Participates in redox reactions. Contained in meat, fish, legumes, and cereals. The lack of niacin in the diet can be compensated by the use of tryptophan, since the latter in the body can be converted into niacin. Niacin deficiency causes dermatitis, diarrhea or constipation, neurological disorders, but it is very rare in developed countries.
      • Thiamine (vitamin B 1 90 100). Participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids, in the work of the central and peripheral nervous system, myocardium. It is found in many foods, especially cereals, meat, potatoes. With a lack of thiamine, beriberi disease occurs – disruption of the nervous system and myopathy.
      • Riboflavin (vitamin B 2 90 100). Provides many reactions of carbohydrate metabolism and maintains the integrity of the mucous membranes.With a deficiency of riboflavin, there are signs of damage to the mucous membranes, dermatitis, anemia.
      • Group B vitamins 6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine). Participate in the metabolism of lipids, amino acids, in reactions that ensure the functioning of the central nervous system, blood cells, skin. Contained in cereals, legumes, liver, fish. Their lack can cause dermatitis, lymphopenia, depression, convulsions.
      • Vitamin B 12 90 100 (cobalamin). Participates in the synthesis of DNA, methionine, maturation of erythrocytes, the work of the central nervous system.It is found mainly in animal products: meat, fish, eggs, milk. Cobalamin deficiency leads to anemia and various neurological disorders: paresthesia, ataxia, impaired consciousness.

      Who is at risk?

      • Pregnant and lactating women.
      • Malnourished, not consuming specific foods – only a varied diet can provide the right amount of vitamins of different groups.
      • Dieters.
      • Taking anticonvulsants.
      • Suffering from chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or undergoing surgery on the stomach or intestines.
      • Alcoholics.


      Symptoms in severe forms of hypovitaminosis, as a rule, are quite specific, which allows the doctor to easily assume a deficiency of one or another vitamin. However, in cases of slight hypovitaminosis and the presence of concomitant diseases with similar manifestations, a number of laboratory or instrumental studies may be required.

      Laboratory diagnostics

      • Determination of the level of vitamins in blood serum
      • Vitamin B 12 90 100 (cyanocobalamin)
      • Vitamin B 9 (folic acid)
      • Vitamin A (retinol)
      • Vitamin B 1 90 100 (thiamine)
      • Vitamin B 5 90 100 (pantothenic acid)
      • Vitamin B 6 90 100 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate)
      • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
      • Vitamin D, 25-hydroxy (calciferol)
      • Vitamin E (tocopherol)
      • Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
      • Complete blood count.With a deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B 12 90 100, megaloblastic anemia may be observed, with a deficiency of vitamin B 6 90 100 – lymphopenia.
      • Phosphatase, alkaline, total. It can be increased with rickets.
      • Prothrombin index (PI), INR (international normalized ratio). With a deficiency of vitamin K, the prothrombin index can be increased at normal levels of other coagulation indicators: fibrinogen, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count.With a deficiency of vitamin C, the coagulogram is normal.
      • Calcium in daily urine. With rickets, the calcium level is reduced. To control the therapy of rickets with vitamin D, the Sulkovich test can also be used – the determination of the amount of calcium in a single portion of urine. The result is indicated in crosses from 0 to 4.
      • Ionized calcium. With rickets, it can also be reduced.
      • Serum calcium. Calcium levels in rickets can be reduced or within normal limits due to an increased concentration of parathyroid hormone.
      • Serum phosphorus. This indicator is sometimes reduced with rickets.
      • Homocysteine. Homocysteine ​​levels increase with vitamin B deficiency 12 90 100.
      • Parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone levels may be elevated due to rickets.

      Other research

      • X-ray of bones. With rickets, changes in bone tissue resemble atrophy, there is a flattening of the epiphyses of the bones, the periosteum is elevated and calcified.
      • Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS) – examination of the digestive system using an endoscope.Allows you to identify diseases that result in impaired absorption of vitamins.
      • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computed tomography). Imaging techniques that can be used to differentiate hypovitaminosis from other diseases associated with damage to the nervous system, such as tumors.

      In some cases, consultation of such specialists as a neurologist, ophthalmologist, gastroenterologist is required.


      Treatment consists in oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration of appropriate doses of vitamins, as well as in the treatment of diseases leading to impaired absorption and metabolism of vitamins in the body.


      Prevention of hypovitaminosis consists in a balanced diet, as well as in taking additional doses of vitamins if necessary (for example, during pregnancy or during the recovery period after serious illness).

      Recommended analyzes

      • Complete blood count
      • Phosphatase alkaline total
      • Vitamin B 12 90 100 (cyanocobalamin)
      • Vitamin B 9 (folic acid)
      • Vitamin A (retinol)
      • Vitamin B 1 90 100 (thiamine)
      • Vitamin B 5 90 100 (pantothenic acid)
      • Vitamin B 6 90 100 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate)
      • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
      • Vitamin D, 25-hydroxy (calciferol)
      • Vitamin E (tocopherol)
      • Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
      • Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
      • Coagulogram number 1 (prothrombin (according to Quick), INR)
      • Fibrinogen
      • Thrombin Time
      • Calcium in daily urine
      • Serum calcium
      • Calcium ionized
      • Phosphorus in serum
      • Homocysteine ​​
      • Parathyroid hormone, intact
      • Laboratory diagnostics of rickets
      • Monitoring the prevention of rickets
      • Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
      • Water-soluble vitamins (B 1 , B 5 , B 6 , B 9 , B 12 , C)
      • Comprehensive blood test for vitamins (A, D, E, K, C, B 1 , B 5 , B 6 , B 9 , B 12 )


      • MarkX. Bierce (ed.) – The Merck Manual. Medicine Guide. Diagnostics and Treatment – 2011
      • Harrison S. Principles of Internal Medicine. 18Ed.

      Nutritionist of the Ministry of Health questioned the dangers of uncontrolled intake of vitamins :: Society :: RBC

      Society ,

      02 Oct 2019, 11:11
      Made for aggregators


      Scientific director of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Research Center of Nutrition and Biotechnology”, chief freelance nutritionist of the Russian Ministry of Health Viktor Tutelyan, in a conversation with RBC, expressed doubt that uncontrolled intake of vitamins is dangerous.

      “I only know one thing: vitamin supply is a guarantee of our protection against unfavorable environmental factors. Perhaps, with excessive intake of vitamins, some negative effect is possible. I know that for fat-soluble vitamins – A, D and E – there is such data, with their excess, manifestations of hypervitaminosis are possible. Therefore, we strictly control their reception. As for the water-soluble vitamins [C, B vitamins, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin], their excess is excreted from the body immediately through the kidneys, ”Tutelian said.

      According to the doctor, the residents of Russia have a deficiency of water-soluble vitamins, so they must be taken additionally. He explained that if a person does not play sports, then his daily energy requirement is approximately 1800-2000 kcal for women and 2200 for men. But, according to him, it is impossible to get the required amount of vitamins even with a diet consisting of natural products.

      “And if we consider that during storage, processing, home cooking there is a loss of vitamins, we can say with confidence that we have a widespread deficiency of vitamins. Against this background, taking vitamin and mineral complexes, especially in the autumn-winter period, is an extremely necessary preventive measure and increasing the adaptive potential, “Tutelian emphasized.

      Also, the nutritionist advised the Russians to play sports more actively and not to limit themselves too much in their diet to prevent hypovitaminosis. “Energy has to be spent, the more the better. But as a rule, people consume more energy than they spend. This is followed by another problem – obesity. But if you limit yourself to food, then there will be a deficiency of micronutrients.It is necessary to fight this with the help of sports, increasing the load and taking vitamin complexes, ”he concluded.

      Biotin – Provence

      Clinical studies have shown that people who lack biotin experience hair loss and brittle nails.
      ✓ “Beauty Vitamin” – delivers sulfur atoms to hair follicles in all layers of the skin and in the nail plates. As a result – silky hair, strong nails,
      complexion acquires a healthy tone, the skin glows from the inside!
      ✓ Cell growth and renewal
      ✓ Metabolism of amino acids
      ✓ Synthesis of fatty acids
      ✓ Metabolism of proteins, folic and pantothenic acids, vitamin B 12
      ✓ Synthesis of glucose from nutrients (energy production)
      ✓ !!!! Breaks down fats and is responsible for their rapid removal from the body.
      ✓ Prevents the development of sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease

      The paradox of vitamin B7 (biotin) is that it participates in all metabolic processes in the body, but the daily need for it is very small, and the body itself does not produce it.

      Signs of deficiency:
      – Hair loss
      – Dry skin
      – Brittle and thinning nails
      – Cracked lips and corners of the mouth
      – Swelling and soreness of the tongue, dysfunction of taste buds
      – Peeling of the skin and scalp
      – Loss appetite
      – Increased fatigue, lethargy, chronic fatigue
      – Insomnia, frequent headaches, tearfulness, irritability, depression.

      Water-soluble compound, daily requirement – up to 50 μg.

      Products containing BIOTIN:
      + Liver (especially chicken)
      + Cheese, dairy products
      + Fish (salmon, cod, herring, sardines)
      + Nuts (almonds, peanuts, cashews, pistachios)
      + Oat flakes
      + Cereals
      + Legumes
      + Mushrooms
      + Yeast
      + Cauliflower
      + Berries (strawberries, sea buckthorn, red and black currants, blueberries)
      + Tomatoes, beets
      + Apricots, apples, peaches.
      You need to know that preservatives E 221-228 destroy biotin
      – When preserving food, biotin is destroyed
      – Vitamin B5 blocks the action of biotin.

      Taking care of you and your health “PROVENCE BEAUTY WORKSHOP”

      Back to Articles

      90,000 how to take, what products contain, standards

      For almost every one of us, doctors have prescribed vitamins at least once – and for some people, Instagram doctors prescribe a dozen jars of nutritional supplements at a time.

      Daniil Davydov

      medical journalist

      Author’s profile

      Manufacturers of vitamin supplements do not complain about sales either: according to a report by DSM, in March 2020, at the peak of coronavirus anxiety, Russians purchased 32.9 million packs. By July 2020, the passions have subsided, but supplement sales are still strong, with 23.4 million units sold, 7.5% more than last year.

      I tried to figure out when such prescriptions are really justified, and when it is quite possible to do without vitamins – for example, by simply changing the diet.

      See your doctor

      Our articles are written with a passion for evidence-based medicine. We refer to reputable sources and go for comments from reputable doctors. But remember: the responsibility for your health lies with you and your doctor. We do not write prescriptions, we make recommendations. It is up to you to rely on our point of view or not.

      If after this article you suspect you are deficient in any vitamins – discuss this with your doctor before you go to the pharmacy or to the website to buy jars of food supplements.

      Let’s talk about the following vitamins

      Vitamins: what they are and why are they needed

      What are vitamins . These are thirteen organic compounds that the body needs for normal growth and a healthy life. Most vitamins work as a support group for enzymes – proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body. But some vitamins – for example, vitamin B6 – can control chemical reactions themselves.

      An article on how vitamins work in the body – online textbook for chemists

      It is impossible to live without vitamins, because without their participation the chemical laboratory inside us is not capable of fully functioning.But in order for the reactions to proceed correctly and in a controlled manner, there should be exactly as much vitamins as needed.

      Review of vitamins on examine.com

      If there are not enough vitamins, chemical processes go too slowly or stop altogether. For example, if a child eats monotonously or is starving, he may not have enough vitamin A. As a result, the synthesis of the visual pigment rhodopsin is disrupted, so that the patient’s eyesight deteriorates and he risks going blind.

      Review of Vitamin A in the international medical handbook UpToDate

      But if there are too many vitamins, this also does not benefit the body.For example, if a person takes frequent dietary supplements, he may get an excess of vitamin A. As a result, excess vitamin A builds up in the liver and poisons it.

      What are the vitamins. All vitamins are divided into two groups: fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water-soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C). Fat-soluble vitamins are not destroyed during cooking and are stored in the liver and adipose tissue. They are able to accumulate in the body – because of this, they are easier to poison.Water-soluble vitamins are destroyed during heat treatment of food and in bright light and are excreted in the urine, therefore they do not accumulate in the human body.

      Can vitamins be considered a medicine? There really are dosage forms of vitamins. But vitamins treat only vitamin deficiencies – diseases associated with a deficiency of a particular vitamin. There is no evidence that vitamins help treat diseases not associated with vitamin deficiency. Thus, vitamin A supplementation is unlikely to alleviate prostatitis symptoms, and vitamins C and D do not shorten the duration of a cold fever.

      How many vitamins do we need. Vitamin requirements differ among people of different sexes, ages and health conditions.

      Government organizations of different countries establish different daily intake of vitamins for citizens – based on national dietary habits and the peculiarities of the geographic location of the state. I will rely on the methodological recommendations on rational nutrition developed by Rospotrebnadzor. They generally comply with international clinical guidelines developed by the World Health Organization (WHO).

      Rospotrebnadzor guidelines

      WHO guidelines

      Vitamin units. The number of vitamins is usually expressed using three types of units. These are milligrams and micrograms, and for some vitamins – international units (IU or IU in English). Physicians use international units to standardize prescriptions.

      The amount of a substance that makes up one international unit depends on its activity in the body, therefore, each vitamin has its own IU value.For example, 1 IU of vitamin D equals 0.025 mcg, and 1 IU of vitamin C equals 50 mcg.

      In the methodological recommendations of Rospotrebnadzor, daily norms of vitamins are indicated in mg or in μg, and on packages with vitamins, the concentration of a substance in one tablet is often given in IU. Online calculators, for example, the FarmCalc converter, help to convert IU to mg or μg and vice versa.

      Example of calculating ME for effervescent vitamin C from Hemofarm with a concentration of 1000 mg in a tablet

      Vitamin A (beta-carotene and retinol)

      What is it. A fat-soluble vitamin found in nature in two forms. This is beta-carotene – a preparation for vitamin A, which is contained in plants and is converted into it already in the body, and retinol with its compounds: retinal, retinoic acid and retinol esters. These are “ready-to-eat” forms of the vitamin found in animal products and dietary supplements.

      What products contain. Vitamin A is rich in egg yolk, milk, liver, cheese and butter.In the form of beta-carotene, the vitamin is found in spinach, carrots, squash, corn, mango and papaya.

      If you eat a buttered sandwich every day, sometimes make scrambled eggs, and nibble pistachios when meeting with friends – most likely, you are all right with vitamin A

      Daily norms. For retinol and other prepared forms of the vitamin: 900 mcg (3000 IU) for adults and 400-1000 mcg (1300-3300 IU) for children. For beta-carotene: 5 mg, there is no established norm for children. One mcg of vitamin A is equivalent to 6 mcg of beta-carotene.

      900 μg

      adult daily intake of vitamin A

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Retinol is essential for the synthesis of the visual protein rhodopsin. Therefore, a lack of vitamin A leads to vision problems. From xerophthalmia – constant dryness of the surface of the eye to night blindness – when it is difficult to see at dusk. If a person has been starving since childhood, a deficiency of retinols leads to complete blindness.

      It looks like xerophthalmia (18+) Xerophthalmia.On the right cornea of ​​the eye, a keratinous spot is visible, which was formed due to a lack of tears. Source: MSD Physician Handbook

      Retinol is also involved in the division of many cells in the body. Therefore, in children suffering from vitamin A deficiency, the upper layer of the skin thickens – doctors call this hyperkeratosis.

      Due to vitamin deficiency, bones grow and form improperly, the functioning of the immune system is disrupted, so that such children get sick more often and longer than healthy peers.

      Most residents of more or less developed countries do not face severe vitamin A deficiency.Vitamin deficiency occurs mainly in countries with limited resources: for example, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In addition to hungry people, vitamin absorption problems can occur in patients with cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and several other rare diseases.

      This is what hyperkeratosis looks like (18+)

      How do the symptoms of excess appear . Residents of large cities often suffer not from a deficiency, but, on the contrary, from an excess of vitamin A. Poisoning with vitamin A can be acute, chronic and teratogenic – this is the name of poisoning in pregnant women, due to which deformities occur in babies.

      Acute poisoning occurs in people who have taken 660,000 IU of vitamin A at a time. Symptoms are similar to any other poisoning: nausea, vomiting, dizziness and blurred vision.

      Chronic poisoning develops in people who consume 10 times more retinol than the daily norm of 9000 micrograms (30,000 IU) for more than a month, for example, together with supplements. Patients have a violation of the coordination of movements, baldness begins, the level of fat in the blood rises, pain in bones and muscles, visual impairment, liver problems and other symptoms appear.

      If you do not remove excess retinol from the diet, cirrhosis of the liver can develop.

      Long-term intake of vitamin A is dangerous even in dosages of more than 1500 IU per day. An addiction to supplementation can make bones too fragile in old age – especially in older women, who are generally at high risk of osteoporosis. So people who eat liver dishes at least once a week are not recommended to take vitamin A supplements in principle.

      Teratogenic poisoning often occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy, sometimes 10,000 IU is enough for this.As a result, a spontaneous abortion may occur, or the baby is born with a heart defect or other abnormality. Similar cases have been reported in women who drank vitamin A to improve skin health. You can take this vitamin during pregnancy only in one case – if it was prescribed by a doctor.

      Unlike retinol, large amounts of beta-carotene are not dangerous: the synthesis of retinol in the body is well regulated. So the body will not create vitamin A from processed food if it is not needed.However, people who eat a lot of carotene-rich plant foods may have a yellowish skin. This is because the beta-carotene that accumulates in it has a bright orange color. It’s not dangerous, but it looks strange.

      On the left is a palm of a normal color. On the right – the skin is colored due to beta-carotene (18+); On the left – a palm of the usual color. On the right – the skin is colored due to beta-carotene. Source: NEJM Medical Journal

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Doctors prescribe vitamin A to premature babies and patients with cystic fibrosis – usually a vitamin preparation, the dosages of which are several times higher than the recommended daily allowance. In addition, some forms of vitamin A are prescribed to treat skin conditions such as psoriasis or cutaneous hyperpigmentation. The doctor selects the dose individually.

      Pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children are prescribed retinol only if they are fasting. Adults and children who are well-fed do not need additional vitamin A, so there are no additional health benefits to taking in supplements.

      When to take a vitamin test. The doctor determines a deficiency or excess of vitamin according to the results of examination and conversation with the patient, because a blood test for vitamin A can say little about its deficiency or excess. If too much retinol is supplied, the body stores it in the liver, and if too little, it takes it from the liver. And in fact, and in another case, the level of vitamin A in the blood will be normal.

      A doctor will only order blood tests for vitamin A if an additional intake of this vitamin is prescribed.The tests help control the level of retinol in the blood. This is to avoid poisoning.

      Norms of vitamin A content in blood

      Concentration in μmol / L Age in years
      0.7-1.5 1-6
      0.91-1.71 7-12
      0.91-2.51 13-19
      1.05-2.09 Older than 19

      Concentration in μmol / L

      Age in years


      Older than 19

      Which does not match. This information is not available in authoritative international sources – however, studies on mice have shown that the absorption of vitamin A disrupts vitamin E, and vitamin A itself disrupts the absorption of vitamin K. Perhaps because healthy people should not take it, but patients with specific diseases doctors individually warn about medications that can interact with vitamin A. By the way, there are quite a few such drugs – 19 pieces.

      How to take to better assimilate. Healthy people do not need additional vitamin A, and patients need to drink it strictly for medical reasons.

      It is better to be healthy and rich

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      Vitamins of group B

      What is it. Eight water-soluble vitamins that help enzymes work – including those that help extract energy from food.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B1 (thiamin)

      Role in the body. In the body, thiamine works in two forms: one converts carbohydrates into energy, and the second is involved in the propagation of nerve impulses.

      To avoid a lack of vitamin B1, it is enough to eat 2 walnuts once a day

      Daily Value. For adults – 1.5 mg (500 IU), for children – 0.3-1.5 mg (100-500 IU).

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Vitamin B1 deficiency is mainly experienced by adults and children from poor families, whose diet consists mainly of milled rice and other refined grains. In addition, the absorption of thiamine is impaired in some people with genetic diseases and in chronic alcoholics. Sometimes vitamin B1 deficiency develops in people with obesity and with parenteral nutrition – when a seriously ill person is injected with glucose and other nutrients through a vein, with severe type 1 and 2 diabetes. This is because excess blood sugar accelerates the excretion of thiamine in the urine.

      Article about thiamine deficiency in obesity

      Article about thiamine deficiency in diabetes

      With a deficiency of vitamin B1, a disease develops called “beriberi”, which is translated as “weak-weak”. People suffer from severe weakness, and their peripheral nerves are also affected. As a result, patients lose the ability to walk and work with their hands – up to complete paralysis. In some people, swelling and heart problems are added to weakness and movement disorders, ranging from heart failure to heart palpitations – tachycardia.

      Alcoholics add to these symptoms confusion and nystagmus, that is, uncontrolled tremor of the pupil. If not compensated for, this can lead to brain damage and death.

      In some patients with alcoholism, due to a lack of vitamin B1, uncontrolled trembling of the pupils develops – nystagmus. Source: blog Medicalrojak

      How do the symptoms of excess manifest. Vitamin B1 does not accumulate in the body. If you take too much, your body will simply flush it out with your urine, so it’s almost impossible to get poisoned.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Vitamin B1 in large doses is prescribed for beriberi, chronic alcoholism and hereditary diseases.

      When to take a vitamin test. Since treatment with thiamine is harmless, it is prescribed without tests. If the patient feels better, this in itself confirms the diagnosis.

      Norms of content in the blood. Since thiamine is usually not tested, blood levels have not been established either.

      What vitamins can and cannot be combined with. This information is not available in authoritative international sources. Perhaps because healthy people get enough vitamin B1 from food, and there is no need to take it in supplement form.

      How to take to better assimilate. The safest way to get vitamin B1 is to eat well.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

      Role in the body. Riboflavin belongs to the group of flavins – substances that are necessary for chemical reactions in erythrocytes and other cells. Simply put, without riboflavin, we would not be able to breathe and metabolize proteins and carbohydrates. And the vitamin is also necessary for the health of the mucous membranes – for example, in the mouth.

      What products contain. In milk and eggs, meat, fish, liver, cheese, green vegetables, yeast, legumes.

      If you like buckwheat porridge, most likely you do not have a lack of vitamin B2

      Daily norms. For adults – 1.8 mg (720 IU), for children – 0.4-1.8 mg (160-720 IU).

      1.8 mg

      adult daily intake of vitamin B2

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Vitamin B2 deficiency is encountered by people who lack other vitamins from group B. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the symptoms are associated with riboflavin deficiency. Nevertheless, this condition is called ariboflavinosis: the patient looks pale, complains of a sore throat, painful cracks appear in the corners of the mouth and on the lips.The tongue may turn purple. Red itchy patches appear on the eyelids, ears, around the nose, and in the genital area.

      If the deficiency is left untreated, anemia may develop. This is the name of a condition in which the number of red blood cells decreases or the level of hemoglobin in the blood decreases, due to which the organs cease to receive enough oxygen.

      It looks like ariboflavinosis (18+) Due to a deficiency of vitamin B2, ariboflavinosis can develop, one of the signs of which is cracks in the corners of the mouth and on the lips.Source: Institute of child health

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Riboflavin poisoning is impossible, even if taken in very high doses.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Riboflavin injections is prescribed for starving people, patients with anorexia nervosa and people who have impaired absorption of vitamin B2. This happens with celiac disease, short bowel syndrome, cancer, and rare inherited metabolic disorders like Brown’s syndrome.Sometimes additional riboflavin is prescribed for people who avoid dairy products or are taking antiretroviral drugs for HIV infection. In all cases, the doctor selects the dose and form of taking the drug individually.

      Vitamin B2 supplements are optional for healthy people. Nevertheless, according to British and Russian clinical observations, adolescents and young women often do not receive riboflavin from food, so they may benefit from small – 1-2 mg per day (400-800 IU) – additional doses of riboflavin.

      When to take a vitamin test. Vitamin B2 deficiency is usually diagnosed by clinical signs, but sometimes, to clarify the diagnosis, a study is prescribed for the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase, which works in red blood cells. If the enzyme activity increases above 1.4, riboflavin is not enough.

      Norms of content in the blood. The content of vitamin B2 in the blood changes too quickly – as soon as a person eats, the concentration of riboflavin increases.Therefore, they do not take an analysis for it: all the same, according to the results, it is impossible to say whether a person has enough riboflavin or not.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B3 (niacin)

      Role in the body. Participates in the creation and destruction of carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins.

      What products contain. In liver, meat, whole grains and legumes. People who eat well and get more than 100 grams of protein per day are able to synthesize niacin in their own bodies.To synthesize niacin, the body uses the amino acid tryptophan, which it gets from food.

      If you eat cereal with fruit for breakfast, it is likely that vitamin B3 deficiency will never happen.

      Daily norms. We get niacin and tryptophan from all types of protein foods, so the calculation is not based on ME, but the “niacin equivalent”, or NE. One NE equals 1 mg niacin or 60 mg tryptophan. And since different products contain different amounts of this amino acid, special tables have to be used for calculations.

      Tryptophan in food – table

      The daily allowance for adults is 20 mg (20 NE of niacin or 1200 NE of tryptophan), for children – 5-20 mg (5-20 NE of niacin or 300-1200 NE of tryptophan).

      1 NE = 1 mg niacin or 60 mg tryptophan

      How deficiency symptoms appear. People who eat normally do not have vitamin deficiency.

      Acute niacin deficiency causes pellagra – from Italian it is translated as “rough skin”.With this disease, the skin becomes overly sensitive to ultraviolet light, so that pigmentary dermatitis can develop on the face or around the neck – flaky bright red spots, a person suffers from diarrhea and neurological disorders. If pellagra is left untreated, the disease can lead to dementia and be fatal.

      People who are deficient in vitamin B3 often develop pellagra, one of the signs of which is red, flaky hands. Source: MSD Physician Handbook

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. If, in addition to the daily diet, a person receives 10 mg of vitamin B3 per day, he may experience hot flashes – when blood suddenly rushes to the face for several minutes. This is unpleasant, but not harmful to health. But if a person is treated with high doses of vitamin – 1000-3000 mg – nausea, vomiting, itching, urticaria may be added to the hot flashes. Niacin also increases the concentration of uric acid in the blood, so patients with gout should take it under strict medical supervision.

      Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety PDF, 2.80 MB

      The higher the dose of vitamin B3, the more often side effects occur.At dosages of the vitamin over 3000 mg per day, some people develop muscle problems – myopathies, and liver problems – non-infectious hepatitis.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. People whose bodies, for some reason, cannot absorb niacin, face a painful lack of vitamin B3: alcoholics, patients with anorexia nervosa and diseases of the small intestine, as well as those who have developed complications after bariatric surgery to treat obesity.

      Some patients with rare hereditary diseases lose the ability to create niacin from tryptophan. For example, in people with Hartnup’s disease, the absorption of this amino acid from the intestines is impaired, so they have nothing to create vitamin B3 from. For these people, the doctor can prescribe vitamin B3 in supplements, and the dosage for each specific case must be selected individually. At a dosage of 1000-3000 mg per day, niacin reduces the concentration of “harmful” cholesterol in the blood, from which atherosclerotic plaques are formed.However, due to side effects and doubts about the effectiveness of vitamin B3 as a medicine for atherosclerosis, its use was abandoned.

      Most nutritious healthy people do not need additional vitamin B3.

      When to take the analysis. Tests for niacin are usually not required. If it is necessary to assess the level of niacin in the patient’s body, doctors are guided by a urine test, in which the breakdown products of the vitamin can be detected.

      Norms of content in the blood. Since there is no specific test for niacin, there are no standards.

      How to take to better assimilate. Niacin is best obtained from food. This is the safest way. Vitamin products contain relatively little, so even the most fanatical protein food lovers are unlikely to be able to “sort out” vitamin B3 from meat, liver or legumes.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

      Role in the body. Participates in the work of 4% of all enzymes in the body – most of them are involved in the production of energy, but some are responsible for the synthesis of hormones and hemoglobin.

      What products contain. Almost everything: from chicken, beef and egg yolk to potatoes, tomatoes, broccoli and whole grain dishes – but keep in mind that cooking destroys 20 to 80% of this vitamin. The longer the food is cooked and the higher the temperature, the less pantothenic acid in the finished dish.And vitamin B5 is synthesized by beneficial bacteria that live in our intestines.

      A sandwich with lightly salted salmon and avocado is an excellent source of vitamin B5

      Daily norms. For adults – 5 mg, for children – 1.0-5 mg. IU for vitamin B5 is not calculated.

      5 mg

      Adult Daily Value for Vitamin B5

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Vitamin is found in almost any food, so people rarely encounter a shortage of it – this happens only during famine during natural disasters or wars.People with severe exhaustion complain of a burning sensation in their feet. This is due to the fact that with a lack of vitamin B5, neurological disorders develop.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Excess pantothenic acid is excreted from the body along with urine, so it is impossible to poison it.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. The best cure for hunger is enough healthy and varied food. Vitamin B5 supplements or injections are not prescribed for malnourished people.

      When to take a vitamin test. Vitamin B5 test is rarely required. Hunger survivors who are recovering in the hospital are sometimes measured for excess pantothenic acid, which is excreted in the urine. If the urine received per day is less than 1 mg of pantothenic acid, the person is still not getting enough food.

      Norms of content in the blood. Since there is no special blood test for vitamin B5, there are no norms.

      How to take to better assimilate. To get enough vitamin B5, you just need to eat well.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine compounds)

      Role in the body. Provides the work of many enzymes, some of which regulate cell division. Without vitamin B6, we would not be able to develop new red blood cells and immune cells.

      What products contain. Vitamin B6 is actually three substances: pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal.Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine are mainly found in fresh vegetables and nuts. There is a lot of pyridoxal in meat. It should be borne in mind that during cooking and long-term storage, 10-50% of the vitamin is destroyed.

      If you don’t eat meat, you can get the right dose of vitamin B6 from fish, nuts, bananas and avocados.

      Daily Value. For adults – 2 mg, for children – 0.4-2 mg. IU for vitamin B6 is not calculated.

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Vitamin B6 is found in many foods, so a deficiency occurs only with severe protein malnutrition, or if a person, in principle, does not eat fresh vegetables and meat, but eats exclusively store-bought convenience foods.

      Much more often vitamin deficiency occurs due to impaired absorption of food in the intestine, due to the loss of vitamin during hemodialysis, due to severe alcoholism and hereditary disorders of pyridoxine metabolism. Sometimes a deficiency occurs while taking certain drugs that destroy vitamin B6 – these are anticonvulsants, some antibiotics and pain relievers.

      People suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency may develop dandruff on the head and a flaky red rash on the body.Some people experience numbness in their arms and legs and a tingling sensation. With a severe lack of vitamin, the tongue turns red and sore, cracks form in the corners of the mouth. With severe vitamin deficiency, convulsions and anemia develop.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Vitamin B6 can be poisoned only if you take supplements in very high doses for several months or years – 250 mg per day. Symptoms are a bit like a vitamin deficiency: a rash and irritation appear on the skin, a poisoned person complains of dizziness, nausea and tingling in the limbs.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Vitamin B6 supplements are mainly prescribed for people taking medications that deplete the body’s supply of pyridoxine compounds. The dosage is determined by the doctor. For other patients, doctors often recommend adjusting the diet – add more fresh vegetables, fruits and homemade meat products to it.

      When to take a vitamin test. A blood test for pyridoxine exists, but usually it is not necessary: ​​the diagnosis can be made by external signs.

      Norms of content in the blood. For men: 27-75 nmol / l, for women – 26-93 nmol / l.

      How to take to better assimilate. Together with food. There is no need for additional admission in people without diseases.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B7 (biotin)

      Role in the body. The functions of this vitamin are not fully understood. For sure, we only know that biotin helps the enzymes that synthesize glucose and fatty acids in the body work.

      What products contain. Found in many foods, but most of all in liver, egg yolk, soy products and yeast.

      Legumes are an excellent source of vitamin B7 and a worthy alternative to meat in the diet. They make delicious cereals and soups, and they can also be added to salads and dough.

      Daily norms. For adults – 50 mcg, for children – 10-50 mcg. IU for vitamin B6 is not calculated.

      50 μg

      Adult Daily Value for Vitamin B6

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Deficiency is rare. This sometimes happens to people who often eat raw eggs – the egg white contains a substance called avidin, which interferes with the absorption of biotin. In addition, people on parenteral nutrition suffer from a lack of vitamin B7 – that is, those who are fed through a vein, and people who, for some reason, lack biotinidase and some other enzymes – without them biotin cannot be absorbed.

      People suffering from a biotin deficiency develop dermatitis around the eyes, nose and mouth, they suffer from conjunctivitis, weight loss, nausea, muscle pain, hair loss and neurological symptoms, sometimes quite severe – from hallucinations to falling into prolonged sleep.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Biotin is not toxic, so no one has been able to poison it yet. Excess vitamin is excreted from the body along with urine.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Supplemental vitamin B7 tablets are prescribed if a person lacks the enzymes necessary to assimilate biotin. Some cosmetics manufacturers claim that taking biotin supplements improves the health of skin, nails and hair, but there is no scientific evidence for this.

      When to take a vitamin test. Blood tests for biotin are rarely prescribed. They are mainly prescribed to make sure that a person really lacks the enzymes that are required to assimilate this vitamin.

      Norms of content in the blood. For both men and women, the norm of biotin in the blood is the same – 1500 pmol / l.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B9 (folic acid compounds)

      What products contain. Folic acid compounds are abundant in spinach, fruits, legumes, peas, nuts, liver, eggs and milk. Vitamin is absorbed worse from plant products than from animals. And folates are also destroyed during prolonged cooking, so that there is less vitamin B9 in boiled, stewed and canned foods than in raw vegetables.

      It is not necessary to get vitamin B9 from the same foods: today you can focus on green vegetables, and tomorrow – on meat and cheese dishes.

      Daily norms. For adults – 400 mcg, for children – 50-400 mcg. IU for vitamin B9 is not calculated.

      400 μg

      Adult Daily Value for Vitamin B9

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Healthy adults with a varied diet do not develop vitamin B9 deficiency. Alcoholics, people suffering from anorexia, celiac disease usually face a shortage of folic acid compounds – with this disease, gluten absorption is impaired, from inflammatory bowel diseases and rare hereditary pathologies in which folate absorption is impaired.Sometimes a deficiency develops in people taking medications that interfere with the absorption of vitamin B9, such as metformin.

      Vitamin B9 deficiency occurs simultaneously with vitamin B12 deficiency – therefore it can be difficult to distinguish which deficiency caused the symptoms of vitamin deficiency. In people who are faced with a lack of these vitamins, red blood cells are quickly destroyed – because of this, anemia develops over time. Sometimes in patients who are severely deficient in vitamin B9, the skin becomes yellowish: because the liver does not have time to destroy the pigment that enters the bloodstream due to the accelerated destruction of red blood cells.

      In people suffering mainly from a lack of vitamin B9, only anemia develops, and in people who are mainly deficient in vitamin B12, in addition to anemia, neurological disorders can also occur: problems with sensitivity, pain and tingling in the hands and feet, instability when walking …

      A deficiency of folic acid compounds, which is not externally expressed in any way, can develop in people who have a sharp increase in the rate of cell division – and hence the need for a vitamin.These are pregnant and lactating women, people suffering from hemolytic anemia and dermatitis, and patients on hemodialysis. Although there are no symptoms, such a deficiency is harmful, because due to a lack of folate, the normal development of the fetus is disrupted and the symptoms of the underlying disease worsen.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Folic acid compounds are considered non-toxic – in any case, no one has yet reported poisoning even when taking high doses of the vitamin.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. For people with chronic hemolytic anemia and dermatitis, doctors may prescribe a folic acid supplement – up to 1 mg per day.

      Women preparing for pregnancy are advised to eat meat-based foods, fresh vegetables and fruits, and take 400 mcg of folic acid supplements daily until week 12 of pregnancy. If a woman has already had children with congenital diseases of the nervous system, the doctor may prescribe even higher doses – up to 4 mg.

      Until three weeks of age, the human nervous system is like a flat plate of nerve cells.Then it begins to roll up into a tube – this is the same neural tube from which the brain and spinal cord are then formed

      If vitamin B9 is not enough, the neural tube may not close completely, and a gap will remain in it. From such an open tube, the spine is formed incorrectly: the spinal cord can either remain open, or the spinal membranes will protrude through the vertebrae.

      The neural tube closes into a ring 21-28 days after conception. At this time, many mothers do not even know that they are pregnant yet.That is why doctors recommend starting to take vitamin B9 even at the stage of pregnancy planning.

      Spina bifida article from the British Department of Health (NHS)

      But even if a pregnant woman did not take folic acid, the risk of congenital disorders is not so great – especially if the expectant mother ate a lot of salads and other fresh vegetables. In Europe, for every 10,000 newborn babies, there are no more than 10 babies with neural tube defects.

      For healthy people who are well-nourished, taking additional folic acid tablets will not bring much benefit.If anything, studies have found that folate supplements do not protect against coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

      When to take a vitamin test. Doctors order vitamins B9 and B12 tests to determine the cause of the anemia. Other patients are usually diagnosed based on the symptoms of the disease.

      Serum vitamin B9 tests are not prescribed for pregnant women, because it does not allow assessing the amount of folic acid in the body.That is, this analysis does not help to predict whether a child will have problems with the formation of the nervous system.

      Norms of content in the blood. Although the blood test poorly reflects the reserves of vitamin B9 in the body, it is believed that the serum should be at least 7 nmol / L. If less, the doctor may suspect that the anemia is indeed related to a vitamin B9 deficiency.

      What vitamins is combined with. Before being treated with folic acid supplements, it is important to make sure that the person is getting enough vitamin B12 – otherwise the anemia will go away, but the nervous system problems will persist.This is why vitamins B9 and B12 are often prescribed together.

      How to take to better assimilate. Most healthy people have enough folic acid compounds, which they get from food. Women preparing for pregnancy can simply take 400 mcg of the vitamin as a supplement once a day at any time.

      Vitamins of group B

      Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

      Role in the body. Participates in the creation of DNA and RNA, helps enzymes release energy from food, promotes the absorption of folic acid and plays an important role in the division of cells, including blood cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

      What products contain. Most of all cobalamin is found in shellfish and liver, but in general the vitamin is found in many animal products, including meat, dairy products, cheese and eggs. There is no vitamin B12 in plants. The only exception to this is seaweed, but even this contains too little cobalamin to provide a daily requirement.

      Vitamin B12 is an important reason to have a fish day at least once a week. If you are too lazy to cut fish, buy ready-made canned food or preserves from seafood

      Daily allowance. For adults – 3 mcg, for children – 0.3-3.0 mcg. IU for vitamin B12 is not calculated.

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Cobalamin deficiency is rare in healthy adults who eat well. On the other hand, in about 11% of the elderly and in 3% of hospital patients, the level of cobalamin in the blood is low: this leads to weakness and rapid fatigue.

      Severe vitamin B12 deficiencies are experienced by strict vegans who do not take dietary supplements, people with severe bowel disease in which the absorption of the vitamin is impaired – such as Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and complications from bariatric surgery, patients with autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo, and people with rare genetic diseases.Medicines like metformin, which interfere with the absorption of vitamin B9, interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12.

      Vitamin B12 deficiency develops slowly. It is the only water-soluble vitamin, the reserves of which are sufficient for 5-10 years, even after a complete rejection of foods rich in cobalamin. That is why strict vegans who have adopted a similar diet in adulthood do not develop vitamin deficiencies right away. Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children and newborns.However, for vegan mothers who do not take supplemental vitamin B12 supplements, their babies may be born immediately deficient in this vitamin.

      Humans develop B12-deficiency anemia due to cobalamin deficiency. This disease manifests itself in children and adults in different ways.

      In children, it is difficult to suspect anemia, because its symptoms can indicate many other problems: slow weight gain, developmental delay, irritability, muscle weakness.

      In adults, the symptoms of anemia are usually more pronounced: in addition to muscle weakness, they often complain of tingling and sensory disturbances in the limbs, an uneven gait, become irritable and forgetful.Some people develop tongue inflammation – glossitis. This is because the cells of the tongue divide quickly – and they suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency in the first place. If the anemia is severe, the skin may turn yellowish, dizziness and shortness of breath may appear.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Vitamin B12 is considered non-toxic. However, it is still not recommended to use it in high doses, because it can accumulate in the body.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. Mainly for B12-deficiency anemia and diseases associated with impaired vitamin absorption. Sometimes a doctor may prescribe a supplement if they suspect a person may have a deficiency. Patients with mild deficiency are usually prescribed 1000-2000 mcg of vitamin per day. With proven anemia, vitamin injections are prescribed 1-4 times a week. The doctor selects the dose of the vitamin and the time of treatment in each case individually.

      When to take a vitamin test. The analysis is prescribed for suspected B12-deficiency anemia.The examination begins with a general blood test – it allows you to estimate the number and size of red blood cells and to understand whether there is anemia in principle. To clarify its nature, the doctor prescribes a blood test for vitamins B9 and B12.

      Norms of content in the blood. Above 221 pmol / L. Vitamin B12 content of 148-221 pmol / l is a borderline result, which requires retesting. If cobalamin is less than 148 pmol / l, the deficiency is considered proven.

      What vitamins is combined with. With vitamin B9.

      Which does not match. Vitamin C reduces the concentration of vitamin B12 in the blood, so they cannot be taken at the same time.

      How to take to better assimilate. Vitamin B12, which we get from food, is enough for most healthy people. Doses of cobalamin should be taken as directed by your doctor.

      Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

      What is it. A water-soluble vitamin that is essential for the normal functioning of several important enzymes.

      Role in the body. The enzymes with which vitamin C interacts are responsible for the synthesis of some other vitamins, collagen – a protein that literally supports our body, because it consists of connective tissue, norepinephrine and prostaglandins – substances that weaken the inflammatory response in the body.

      What products contain. Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, cabbage, spinach.During cooking, long storage and exposure to light, ascorbic acid is partially destroyed, so that its concentration in food decreases.

      Even if the only vegetable in your diet is potatoes, you are unlikely to develop a vitamin C deficiency. But it is better to eat more varied, including different seasonal vegetables and fruits in the menu

      Daily Value. For adults – 90 mg (1800 IU), for children – 30-90 mg (600-1800 IU).

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Lack of vitamin C is now rare – after all, inexpensive vegetables and fruits are available in supermarkets all year round.But in the old days sailors and polar explorers, in whose diet there was almost no fresh greens, after three months of the lunchtime diet faced a severe deficiency of ascorbic acid – scurvy.

      With scurvy, collagen synthesis is impaired. As a result, the body is literally bursting at the seams: first, painful bruises that look like bruises appear on the skin, then the bruises gradually turn into ulcers. The gums begin to bleed, the teeth become loose and fall out. The person feels severe weakness, he develops severe swelling and pain in the joints.If vitamin C is not returned to the diet, the patient may die.

      Today, scurvy-like symptoms occur in people whose plasma ascorbic acid concentration is less than 11 μmol / L. Most often these are chronic alcoholics, patients with severe malnutrition and diseases in which too much iron accumulates in the body – for example, sickle cell anemia and bone marrow transplantation. Iron overload can cause scurvy, as iron deposits accelerate the breakdown of ascorbic acid.

      What scurvy looks like (18+)

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Vitamin C poisoning is difficult. However, if vitamin supplements are taken in very high doses for several days – more than 2000 mg per day, nausea and diarrhea may occur. Treatment with high doses of the vitamin increases the risk of kidney stones, and in patients with sickle cell disease, megadoses of vitamin C can cause life-threatening arrhythmias.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. For scurvy, doctors prescribe 100 mg of ascorbic acid in supplements to children three times a day for a week, and then once a day until complete recovery. Depending on the severity of the disease, adults are prescribed 300-1000 mg of vitamin C per day for a month.

      Vitamin C supplements are of no benefit to healthy people. There is no evidence that supplemental ascorbic acid is beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease, colds, and cancer.

      When to take a vitamin test. Blood tests are prescribed to monitor the treatment of severe vitamin C deficiency.

      Norms of content in the blood. 34-91 μmol / L.

      What vitamins is combined with. This information is not available in authoritative international sources.

      Which does not match. Vitamin C reduces the concentration of vitamin B12 in the blood, so they cannot be taken at the same time.

      How to take to better assimilate. Most of us get enough vitamin C from vegetables and fruits.Medicinal doses of the vitamin should be taken in accordance with the doctor’s recommendations.

      Vitamin D (calciferol compounds)

      What is it. Fat-soluble vitamin, part of which we get from food, and part of which is synthesized in our skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays.

      Role in the body. Controls calcium metabolism in the body. Bones are built from this mineral, thanks to it muscles contract, nerve impulses are carried out and hormones are released.Therefore, we can say that vitamin D is needed for overall health.

      What products contain. In fatty fish – salmon, herring, sardines and mackerel, red meat, liver, egg yolks.

      Fish, butter, cheese, eggs, and dairy drinks are the best sources of vitamin D. If you don’t like them, eat a tablespoon of fish oil or cod liver oil at least twice a week as a medicine

      Daily Value. Adults and children – 10 mcg (400 IU), people over 60 years old – 15 mcg (600 IU).

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Most of the vitamin D is synthesized in the skin when exposed to sunlight. However, in winter, even healthy adults and children hardly ever get into the sun – and the elderly and people with limited mobility may not get enough vitamin all year round.

      To get enough vitamin D in Russian latitudes, you need to walk outside with your arms and legs open to the sun for 5-15 minutes two to three times a week

      In addition, vitamin D deficiency often affects people who have impaired absorption or synthesis of the vitamin.They are again elderly, patients with gastrointestinal diseases, extensive burns, cystic fibrosis, renal failure and some hereditary diseases. And also people who take medications that suppress intestinal calcium absorption – for example, glucocorticoids.

      If a person lacks vitamin D for a long time, the concentration of calcium in his bones decreases. In adults, this leads to fragility of the bones, and in children – to rickets. With this disease, the bones of children become too soft, so that the legs may bend noticeably.Fortunately, in developed countries, malnutrition-related rickets is almost as rare as scurvy.

      On the left – the legs of a child who receives enough vitamin D. On the right in the illustration and photo – legs of a child with rickets (18+)

      Serious vitamin D deficiencies are rare among people who eat well and are regularly outdoors. However, a small shortage that does not affect a person’s well-being – doctors call this a subclinical deficiency – according to some reports, occurs in almost half of the world’s population.This is bad because long-term subclinical vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis in old age.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Vitamin D can accumulate in the liver and fat cells, so large doses of vitamin D – more than 60,000 IU per day – can be poisoned. An excess of the vitamin dramatically increases the level of free calcium in the blood – this leads to muscle weakness, vomiting and confusion. If you take high doses of vitamin D supplements for a long time, you may experience muscle pain, soften bones, and develop kidney stones.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. B in Russia for the prevention of deficiency is recommended to take supplements with vitamin D. People 18-50 years old – 600-800 IU, over 50 years old – 800-1000 IU, and pregnant and lactating women – 800-1200 IU of vitamin per day …

      Russian clinical guidelines for vitamin DPDF, 1.01 MB

      Patients with diseases in which there is a vitamin deficiency, doctors select the dose individually. It can be both supplements and dosage forms in the form of injections.

      British Vitamin D recommendation

      When to take a vitamin test. Healthy people who plan to take vitamin D for prophylaxis do not need to take tests – the supplement in the recommended doses can be taken anyway. The blood vitamin D test is only done for people who need to monitor treatment with high doses of the vitamin.

      Norms of content in the blood. More than 75 nmol / L.

      What vitamins is combined with. There is no data on this in scientific sources.

      Which does not match. According to experimental data obtained in mice, if several fat-soluble vitamins are taken at the same time, they will compete with each other and are less well absorbed. If we assume that things work the same in humans, then vitamin D should be taken separately from other fat-soluble vitamins.

      How to take to better assimilate. Vitamin D is recommended to be taken daily, with meals or with a fat source such as fish oil.

      Vitamin E (tocopherol)

      What is it. Fat-soluble vitamin that protects cell membranes from destruction.

      Role in the body. Vitamin E absorbs free radicals – reactive oxygen species that are capable of oxidizing fatty acids in cell membranes. This prolongs the life of all cells in the body. In addition, vitamin E prevents platelets from sticking together: it is possible that this mechanism protects blood vessels from thrombosis and suppresses too active cell division.Perhaps this protects us from cancer.

      What products contain. In vegetable oils, meat, eggs and leafy vegetables.

      Spinach salad with any nuts will provide you not only with your dose of vitamin E, but also with most of the other vitamins that we mention in this article

      Daily Values. For adults – 15 mg, for children – 3-15 mg. The IU for different supplements with different vitamin E compounds is calculated differently. For example, the adult dose of d-a tocopherol is 23 IU and dl-a tocopherol is 16 IU.

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Healthy people who have a normal diet do not have a vitamin E deficiency. Occasionally, a deficiency occurs in people on a strict vegan diet – due to the fact that plant foods contain special substances, tocopherols, which interfere with the absorption of vitamin E.

      More often, deficiency occurs in patients with pancreatic disease, cholestatic liver disease, in people with rare hereditary diseases, or in those who have had surgery to remove part of the intestine.In all these conditions, the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins is impaired. In some people, the deficiency of vitamin E does not manifest itself in any way, while in others the sensitivity of the arms and legs is disturbed, the muscles weaken and decrease in volume, and blood cells are prematurely destroyed.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Large doses of vitamin E are toxic. If you take more than 272 mg (400 IU) of tocopherol per day, blood clotting may be impaired and the risk of bleeding-related stroke increases.In addition, there is evidence that due to the intake of large doses of the vitamin, mortality from all causes is increasing.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. There is no evidence that vitamin E supplementation improves the health of children and adults. Moreover, supplementation with dosages over 400 IU should be avoided. Vitamin E is only prescribed for patients with severe pancreatic insufficiency or cholestatic liver disease. The doctor should select the dose.

      When to take a vitamin test. Tests are prescribed for people who are treated with high doses of vitamin E.

      Norms of content in the blood. 14.3-18.5 μmol / L.

      What vitamins is combined with. There is no data on this in scientific sources.

      Which does not match. Studies in mice have shown that vitamin E interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A and K. It is best not to take them together.

      How to take to better assimilate. Healthy people do not need vitamin E supplements, it is better to get vitamin from food.If the supplement is prescribed by a doctor, it should be taken in accordance with his recommendations.

      Vitamin K

      What is it. Fat-soluble vitamin, which is essential for normal blood clotting.

      Role in the body. Activates proteins that are responsible for normal blood clotting, and is involved in bone mineralization.

      What products contain. In spinach and broccoli, vegetable oils and cereals. And yet another form of vitamin K can be synthesized by bacteria living in the intestines – this also provides part of the needs.

      To replenish vitamin K stores in the body, at work, instead of tea and cake, you can sometimes arrange a snack of nuts and seeds. Or add them to cereals and salads

      Daily value. For adults – 120 mcg, for children – 30-120 mcg. IU for vitamin K is not calculated.

      How deficiency symptoms appear. Vitamin K deficiency is rare in healthy adults because it is easy to obtain from food and gut bacteria. Vitamin supplementation may not be enough for long-term hungry people and people with diseases that interfere with the absorption of fats in the intestine, such as celiac disease and short bowel syndrome.And a lack of vitamin K sometimes develops in patients who are treated with antibiotics for a long time – after all, along with the infection, antibiotics kill beneficial intestinal bacteria.

      In adults suffering from vitamin K deficiency, blood clotting is impaired. They have bruises even from the weakest blows, hemorrhages in the mucous membranes often occur, and the blood does not stop for a long time with cuts.

      Unlike adults, newborns and young children are often deficient in vitamin K.Because of this, the child may experience internal bleeding, which can be difficult to notice – this is a life-threatening situation.

      How do the symptoms of excess appear. Cases of vitamin K poisoning are very rare – most often it occurs in newborns who are fed formulas containing the vitamin. In these children, red blood cells begin to break down too quickly – because of this, hemolytic anemia occurs, and the skin becomes yellowish.

      For what diseases supplements are prescribed. The supplement is sometimes prescribed for patients with blood clotting problems and for people diagnosed with vitamin deficiency. In each of these cases, the dosage must be determined by the physician.

      When to take a vitamin test. An analysis for vitamin K is rarely prescribed – mainly when it is necessary to determine the cause of anemia. The level of the vitamin is often determined by indirect signs – by measuring the concentration of blood coagulation factors. In patients with vitamin K deficiency, levels of these factors are often less than half of normal.

      Norms of content in the blood. 0.13-1.88 ng / ml.

      What vitamins is combined with. There is no data on this in scientific sources.

      Which does not match. High doses of vitamins E and A interfere with the absorption of vitamin K, so they cannot be taken together.

      How to take to better assimilate. Healthy people assimilate vitamin K best with food. If the supplement is prescribed by a doctor, it should be taken according to his instructions.

      Vitamin table: the most important

      is contained

      Vitamin Role in the body Where Daily norms What vitamins are combined with What vitamins are not combined with Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people
      A Responsible for visual acuity Egg yolk, milk, liver, cheese, butter Adults: 900 mcg
      Children: 400-1000 mcg
      C E and K No
      B1 Converts carbohydrates into energy Yeast, pork, legumes, whole grains Adults: 1.5 mg
      Children: 0.3-1.5 mg
      B2 Supports many chemical reactions in the body Milk, eggs, fish, liver, cheese, herbs, yeast, legumes Adults: 1.8 mg
      Children: 0.4-1.8 mg
      B3 Provides the exchange of carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins Liver, meat, whole grains, legumes Adults: 20 mg
      Children: 5-20 mg
      B5 Participates in energy production, maintenance of enzymes Almost all products Adults: 5 mg
      Children: 1.0-5 mg
      B6 Regulates cell division Fresh vegetables, nuts, meat Adults: 2 mg
      Children: 0.4-2 mg
      B7 Promotes the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids Liver, egg yolk, soy, yeast Adults: 50 mcg
      Children: 10-50 mcg
      B9 Responsible for the normal development of the fetal nervous system Spinach, fruits, legumes, peas, nuts, liver, eggs, milk Adults: 400 mcg
      Children: 50-400 mcg
      B12 400 mcg per day – for women preparing for pregnancy
      B12 Creates DNA and RNA Shellfish, liver, meat, milk, cheese, eggs Adults: 3 μg
      Children: 0.3-3.0 μg
      B9 No
      C Provides collagen synthesis Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries, spinach Adults: 90 mg
      Children: 30-90 mg
      B12 No
      D Responsible for calcium exchange Fatty fish, red meat, liver, egg yolks Adults and children: 10 mcg
      Over 60 years old – 15 mcg
      A, E, K For the prevention of deficiency:
      For people 18-50 years old – 600-800 IU of vitamin per day
      For people over 50 years old – 800-1000 IU of vitamin per day
      Pregnant and lactating women – 800-1200 IU of vitamin per day
      E Protects cell membranes from destruction Vegetable oil, meat, eggs, leafy vegetables Adults: 15 mg
      Children: 3-15 mg
      A and K No
      K Plays an important role in blood clotting Spinach, broccoli, vegetable oils, cereals Adults: 120 mcg
      Children: 30-120 mcg
      E and A No

      Role in the body

      Responsible for visual acuity


      is contained

      Egg yolk, milk, liver, cheese, butter

      Daily norms

      Adults: 900 mcg
      Children: 400-1000 mcg

      What vitamins are combined with


      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      E and K

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Converts carbohydrates into energy


      is contained

      Yeast, pork, legumes, whole grains

      Daily norms

      Adults: 1.5 mg
      Children: 0.3-1.5 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Supports many chemical reactions in the body


      is contained

      Milk, eggs, fish, liver, cheese, herbs, yeast, legumes

      Daily norms

      Adults: 1.8 mg
      Children: 0.4-1.8 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Provides the exchange of carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins


      is contained

      Liver, meat, whole grains, legumes

      Daily norms

      Adults: 20 mg
      Children: 5-20 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Participates in energy production, maintenance of enzymes


      is contained

      Almost all products

      Daily norms

      Adults: 5 mg
      Children: 1.0-5 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins are not combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Regulates cell division


      is contained

      Fresh vegetables, nuts, meat

      Daily norms

      Adults: 2 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Promotes the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids


      is contained

      Liver, egg yolk, soy, yeast

      Daily norms

      Adults: 50 mcg
      Children: 10-50 mcg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Responsible for the normal development of the fetal nervous system


      is contained

      Spinach, fruits, legumes, peas, nuts, liver, eggs, milk

      Daily norms

      Adults: 400 mcg
      Children: 50-400 mcg

      What vitamins are combined with


      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people

      400 mcg per day – for women preparing for pregnancy

      Role in the body

      Creates DNA and RNA


      is contained

      Shellfish, liver, meat, milk, cheese, eggs

      Daily norms

      Adults: 3 μg
      Children: 0.3-3.0 μg

      What vitamins are combined with


      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Provides collagen synthesis


      is contained

      Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries, spinach

      Daily norms

      Adults: 90 mg
      Children: 30-90 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with


      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Responsible for calcium exchange


      is contained

      Fatty fish, red meat, liver, egg yolks

      Daily norms

      Adults and children: 10 mcg
      Over 60 years old – 15 mcg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins are not combined with

      A, E, K

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people

      For the prevention of deficiency:
      For people 18-50 years old – 600-800 IU of vitamin per day
      For people over 50 years old – 800-1000 IU of vitamin per day
      Pregnant and lactating women – 800-1200 IU of vitamin per day

      Role in the body

      Protects cell membranes from destruction


      is contained

      Vegetable oil, meat, eggs, leafy vegetables

      Daily norms

      Adults: 15 mg
      Children: 3-15 mg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins cannot be combined with

      A and K

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people


      Role in the body

      Plays an important role in blood clotting


      is contained

      Spinach, broccoli, vegetable oils, cereals

      Daily norms

      Adults: 120 mcg
      Children: 30-120 mcg

      What vitamins are combined with

      What vitamins are not combined with

      E and A

      Does it make sense to take in supplements for healthy people



      Biotin, also known as vitamin H (B7) or coenzyme P, is a water-soluble B vitamin.He takes part in the formation of fatty acids and some biologically active substances.

      The functions performed by Biotin in the human body include:

      – regulation of blood sugar and carbohydrate metabolism;

      – control of glucogenesis processes, responsible for the participation of glucose in metabolism;

      – it plays an important role in protein formation and fat burning;

      – very important for the health of hair, nails and skin;

      – necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system;

      – takes part in the synthesis of beneficial intestinal microflora.

      Biotin can be produced by the intestinal microflora, but this is not enough to meet the body’s needs for vitamin H. Therefore, it is necessary to consume foods containing biotin.

      Biotin is found in nuts, boiled eggs, soybeans, liver and kidneys of large domestic animals, yeast, milk. Biotin is rich in spinach, cabbage, red beet, it is also found in mushrooms and porcini mushrooms, strawberry and blueberry leaves, and fruits. Products that interfere with the assimilation of Botin and interfere with its synthesis include raw eggs, antibacterial drugs and alcohol.

      With a lack of biotin in the human body, the level of sugar and cholesterol in the blood rises, anemia develops, weakness, drowsiness, muscle pains, loss of appetite, depression, nausea occur. The obvious signs of vitamin H deficiency in the body are hair loss, dandruff, too oily or excessively dry skin. Cutaneous manifestations of biotin deficiency in children can simulate diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, scabies, shingles, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, and a number of others.

      For the normal functioning of the body, a person needs very little biotin: an adequate level of consumption – 50 mcg; the upper permissible level of consumption is 150 mcg (see table).

      Category Age Daily Biotin Requirement (μg)
      Children under 1 year old 0-0.

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