About all

Birthmark on forehead: Baby Birthmarks & Rashes – HealthyChildren.org

Содержание

Port Wine Stains and More Types

Birthmarks are colored skin spots that either are present at birth or develop shortly after birth. Birthmarks can be many different colors, including brown, tan, black, pale blue, pink, white, red, or purple. Some birthmarks are only colorations of the surface of the skin; others are raised above the surface of the skin or extend into the tissues under the skin.

What Causes Birthmarks?

The cause of most birthmarks is unknown. Most of them are not inherited. Many folk tales and myths exist about the causes of birthmarks, but none of these stories have been proven to explain the true causes of birthmarks.

Do Birthmarks Need to Be Treated?

Most birthmarks need no treatment. They usually remain stable as a child grows older. However, some areas that can resemble blood vessel tumors — called hemangiomas — may need treatment because of their location. For example, a raised hemangioma near a child’s eye may interfere with their ability to see. In rare cases, birthmarks are associated with other conditions, such as growths in the liver, lungs, stomach, or intestines.

Types of Birthmarks

There are two main categories of birthmarks — vascular (having to do with blood vessels) birthmarks and pigmented birthmarks. Vascular birthmarks are often pink-, purple-, or red-colored skin markings that develop before or shortly after birth. Pigmented birthmarks are skin markings that are present at birth. The marks may range from brown or black to bluish or blue-gray in color.

Learn more about pigmented birthmarks.

Hemangiomas and Your Skin

The hemangioma is a common type of vascular tumor that may occur early in life and resemble a birthmark. It is usually painless and harmless and its cause is not known. Color from the birthmark comes from the extensive development of blood vessels at the site.

Types of hemangiomas and birthmarks include:

  • Strawberry hemangiomas (also called strawberry mark, nevus vascularis, capillary hemangioma, hemangioma simplex) may appear anywhere on the body, but are most common on the face, scalp, back, or chest. They consist of small, closely packed blood vessels. They may be absent at birth, and develop during the first several weeks afterward. They usually grow rapidly, remain a fixed size, and then subside. In most cases, strawberry hemangiomas disappear by the time a child is 10 years old. Some slight discoloration or puckering of the skin may remain at the site of the hemangioma.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas (also called angioma cavernosum or cavernoma) are similar to strawberry hemangiomas but are more deeply situated. They may appear as a red-blue spongy mass of tissue filled with blood. Some of these lesions may disappear on their own — usually as a child approaches school age.
  • Port-wine stains are flat purple-to-red birthmarks made of dilated blood capillaries. These birthmarks occur most often on the face and may vary in size. Port-wine stains often are permanent (unless treated).
  • Salmon patches (also called stork bites) are very common birthmarks and appear on newborn babies. These marks are small blood vessels (capillaries) that are visible through the skin. They are most common on the forehead, eyelids, upper lip, between the eyebrows, and the back of the neck. Often, these marks fade as the infant grows.

 

What Are the Signs of Red Birthmarks?

Signs of red birthmarks include:

  • Skin markings that develop before or shortly after birth
  • Skin markings that resemble blood vessels

How Are Red Birthmarks Diagnosed?

In most cases, a health professional can diagnose a red birthmark based on the appearance of the skin. Deeper birthmarks can be confirmed with tests such as MRI, ultrasound, CT scans, or biopsies.

What Is the Treatment for Hemangiomas and Red Birthmarks?

Many capillary birthmarks such as salmon patches and strawberry hemangiomas are temporary and require no treatment. For permanent lesions, concealing cosmetics may be helpful. Topical timolol, a beta-blocker medication, can be used safely for hemangiomas that are growing. Oral corticosteroids can reduce the size of a hemangioma that is growing rapidly and obstructing vision or vital structures.

A new and very promising treatment for serious hemangiomas is propranalol, a drug usually used for the treatment of high blood pressure.

Port wine stains on the face can be treated at a young age with a pulsed dye laser for best results.

Continued

Other treatments for red birthmarks may include:

  • Cryotherapy (freezing)
  • Laser surgery
  • Surgical removal

In some cases, birthmarks are not treated until a child reaches school age. However, hemangiomas are treated earlier if they compromise vital functions like vision or breathing or make the child self-conscious.

Can Hemangiomas and Red Birthmarks Be Prevented?

Currently, there is no known way to prevent hemangiomas or red birthmarks.

 

Birthmarks in Infants | Johns Hopkins Medicine

A baby’s skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby’s age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health. Some of these differences are just temporary. Others, such as certain birthmarks, may be permanent.

What are birthmarks?

Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are present at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of abnormal pigment cells or blood vessels.

Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are harmless and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined by your child’s health care provider, especially if they are:

  • Located in the middle of the back, along the spine (may be related to spinal cord problems)

  • Large birthmarks on the face, head or neck

  • Interfering with movement of activity, for example a birthmark on the eyelid that may interfere with vision

Some common birthmarks include:  

Birthmark What it looks like
Stork bites, angel kisses, or salmon patches These are small pink or red patches often found on a baby’s eyelids, between the eyes, upper lip, and back of the neck. The “stork bite” name comes from the marks on the back of the neck where, as the myth goes, a stork may have picked up the baby. They are caused by a concentration of immature blood vessels and may be the most visible when the baby is crying. Most of these fade and disappear completely.
Congenital dermal melanocytosis (also known as Mongolian spots) Congenital dermal melanocytosis refers to areas of  blue or purple-colored, typically on the baby’s lower back and buttocks. These can occur in darker-skinned babies of all races. The spots are caused by a concentration of pigmented cells. They usually disappear in the first 4 years of life.
Strawberry hemangioma This is a bright or dark red, raised or swollen, bumpy area that looks like a strawberry. Hemangiomas are formed by a concentration of tiny, immature blood vessels. Most of these occur on the head. They may not appear at birth, but often develop in the first 2 months. Strawberry hemangiomas are more common in premature babies and in girls. These birthmarks often grow in size for several months, and then gradually begin to fade. They may bleed or get infected in rare cases. Nearly all strawberry hemangiomas completely disappear by 9 years of age.
Port-wine stain A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple colored birthmark. These are caused by a concentration of dilated tiny blood vessels called capillaries. They usually occur on the head or neck. They may be small, or they may cover large areas of the body. Port-wine stains do not change color when gently pressed and do not disappear over time. They may become darker and thicker when the child is older or as an adult. Port-wine stains on the face may be associated with more serious problems. Skin-colored cosmetics may be used to cover small port-wine stains. The most effective way of treating port-wine stains is with a special type of laser. This is done when the baby is older by a plastic surgery specialist.
Congenital moles These common moles (less than 3 inches in diameter) occur in about 1 out of every 100 newborns. They increase in size as the child grows, but usually don’t cause any problems. Your child’s health care provider will watch them closely as rarely they can develop into a cancerous mole.

Birthmarks | Pregnancy Birth and Baby

Birthmarks are coloured marks that are visible on the skin. They are often present at birth or develop soon afterwards.

There are several different types of birthmark and some of them are very common.

The 2 main types of birthmark are vascular birthmarks (often red, pink, purple or blue) caused by abnormal blood vessels in or under the skin and pigmented birthmarks (usually brown or tan coloured) caused by clusters of pigment cells.

Vascular birthmarks usually occur in the head and neck area, mainly on the face. However, both types of birthmark can appear anywhere, including inside the body.

Vascular birthmarks

Some of the most common types of vascular birthmarks are described below.

  • Salmon patch (stork mark) — red or pink flat patches that can appear on a baby’s eyelids, neck or forehead at birth. They are the most common type of vascular birthmark and occur in around half of all babies. Most will fade away within a few months but salmon patches on the forehead may take up to 4 or more years to disappear. Patches on the back of the neck often last. They are often more noticeable when a baby cries.
  • Infantile haemangioma — a raised mark on the skin that is usually red and can appear anywhere on the body. These are also known as ‘strawberry birthmarks’. Sometimes they are deeper in the skin, in which case the skin can look blue or purple. Haemangiomas are also common, especially in girls, and affect every 2 to 4 in 100 babies by 6 weeks of age. They increase in size rapidly for the first 6 months but will eventually shrink and usually disappear by around 4 or 5 years of age. Very bulky haemangiomas, those that rapidly increase in size and those that get in the way of vision, breathing or feeding, may need treatment.
  • Port wine stain — red or purple flat marks that affect around 3 in 1000 newborn babies. They can vary in size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres in diameter. Port wine stains often occur on one side of the body and usually appear on the face, chest and back, although they can appear anywhere. Port wine stains tend to be sensitive to hormones and may become more noticeable around puberty, pregnancy and menopause. Most are permanent and may deepen in colour over time.

Pigmented birthmarks

Some of the most common types of pigmented birthmarks are described below.

  • Café-au-lait spots — coffee-coloured skin patches. Many children have 1 or 2 of these, but if more than 6 have developed by the time the child is 5, see your doctor as it could be a sign of neurofibromatosis.
  • Mongolian spots — blue-grey or bruised-looking birthmarks which are present at birth. They are more commonly seen in darker skinned people and usually appear over the lower back or buttocks, but can also appear elsewhere on the body or limbs. They may last for months or years, but usually disappear by the age of 4. They are completely harmless and do not need treatment. They may be mistaken for a bruise.
  • Congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) — also known as ‘congenital moles’. These are relatively large brown or black moles that are present at birth. They are fairly common and are caused by an overgrowth of pigment cells in the skin. Most CMN become proportionally smaller and less obvious with time, although they may darken during puberty or become bumpy or hairy. They can range in size from less than 1.5cm to more than 20cm in diameter. The risk of CMN developing into skin cancer is low, but this risk increases with the size of the CMN.

What causes birthmarks?

It is not understood exactly why birthmarks occur, but they are not usually inherited. Vascular birthmarks are caused by abnormal blood vessels in or under the skin, while pigmented birthmarks are caused by clusters of pigment cells.

It is thought that port wine stains occur because the nerves that control the widening or narrowing of the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) do not function properly, or there are not enough of them. This means that blood is constantly supplied to the skin in that area, which makes it permanently red or purple in colour.

Port wine stains are sometimes related to other conditions, such as Sturge-Weber syndrome and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

Is treatment needed for birthmarks?

Most birthmarks are harmless and do not need to be treated for medical reasons although some people seek treatment for cosmetic reasons. Some types of birthmark will fade over time whereas other types, such as port wine stains, are permanent if they are not treated. In some cases, a birthmark will need to be treated for medical reasons, for example if a haemangioma blocks the airways, affects vision or feeding or becomes ulcerated.

Laser therapy is the best available treatment available for port wine stains. It destroys the blood vessels that make up the birthmark without injuring the skin on top. Many treatment sessions are usually needed and it is not always successful.

When Should Parents Be Concerned?


Choose an AuthorAaron Barber, AT, ATC, PESAbbie Roth, MWCAdam Ostendorf, MDAdriane Baylis, PhD, CCC-SLPAdrienne M. Flood, CPNP-ACAdvanced Healthcare Provider CouncilAila Co, MDAlaina White, AT, ATCAlana Milton, MDAlecia Jayne, AuDAlessandra Gasior, DOAlexandra Funk, PharmD, DABATAlexandra Sankovic, MDAlexis Klenke, RD, LDAlice Bass, CPNP-PCAlison PeggAllie DePoyAllison Rowland, AT, ATCAllison Strouse, MS, AT, ATCAmanda E. Graf, MDAmanda Smith, RN, BSN, CPNAmanda Sonk, LMTAmanda Whitaker, MDAmber Patterson, MDAmberle Prater, PhD, LPCCAmy Coleman, LISWAmy Dunn, MDAmy E. Valasek, MD, MScAmy Fanning, PT, DPTAmy Garee, CPNP-PCAmy Hahn, PhDAmy HessAmy Leber, PhDAmy LeRoy, CCLSAmy Moffett, CPNP-PCAmy Randall-McSorley, MMC, EdD CandidateAnastasia Fischer, MD, FACSMAndala HardyAndrea Brun, CPNP-PCAndrea M. Boerger, MEd, CCC-SLPAndrew AxelsonAndrew Kroger, MD, MPHAndrew SchwadererAngela AbenaimAngela Billingslea, LISW-SAnn Pakalnis, MDAnna Lillis, MD, PhDAnnette Haban-BartzAnnie Drapeau, MDAnnie Temple, MS, CCC-SLP, CLCAnthony Audino, MDAnup D. Patel, MDAri Rabkin, PhDAriana Hoet, PhDArleen KarczewskiAshleigh Kussman, MDAshley EcksteinAshley Kroon Van DiestAshley M. Davidson, AT, ATC, MSAshley Minnick, MSAH, AT, ATCAshley Overall, FNPAshley Parikh, CPNP-PCAshley Parker MSW, LISW-SAshley Parker, LISW-SAshley Tuisku, CTRSAsuncion Mejias, MD, PhDAurelia Wood, MDBecky Corbitt, RNBelinda Mills, MDBenjamin Fields, PhD, MEdBenjamin Kopp, MDBernadette Burke, AT, ATC, MSBeth Martin, RNBeth Villanueva, OTD, OTR/LBethany Uhl, MDBethany Walker, PhDBhuvana Setty, MDBill Kulju, MS, ATBlake SkinnerBonnie Gourley, MSW, LSWBrad Childers, RRT, BSBrandi Cogdill, RN, BSN, CFRN, EMT-PBreanne L. Bowers, PT, DPT, CHT, CFSTBrendan Boyle, MD, MPHBrian Boe, MDBrian K. Kaspar, PhDBrian Kellogg, MDBriana Crowe, PT, DPT, OCSBrigid Pargeon, MS, MT-BCBrittney Hardin, MOT, OTR/LBrooke Sims, LPC, ATR-PCagri Toruner, MDCaitlin TullyCaleb MosleyCallista DammannCami Winkelspecht, PhDCanice Crerand, PhDCara Inglis, PsyDCarl H. Backes, MDCarlo Di Lorenzo, MDCarol Baumhardt, LMTCasey Cottrill, MD, MPHCasey TrimbleCassandra McNabb, RN-BSNCatherine Earlenbaugh, RNCatherine Sinclair, MDCatherine Trimble, NPCatrina Litzenburg, PhDCharae Keys, MSW, LISW-SCharles Elmaraghy, MDChelsie Doster, BSCheryl Boop, MS, OTR/LCheryl G. Baxter, CPNPCheryl Gariepy, MDChet Kaczor, PharmD, MBAChris Smith, RNChristina Ching, MDChristina DayChristine Johnson, MA, CCC-SLPChristine Mansfield, PT, DPT, OCS, ATCChristine PrusaChristopher Goettee, PT, DPT, OCSChristopher Iobst, MDCindy IskeClaire Kopko PT, DPT, OCS, NASM-PESCody Hostutler, PhDConnor McDanel, MSW, LSWCorey Rood, MDCourtney Bishop. PA-CCourtney Hall, CPNP-PCCourtney Porter, RN, MSCurt Daniels, MDCynthia Holland-Hall, MD, MPHDana Lenobel, FNPDana Noffsinger, CPNP-ACDane Snyder, MDDaniel Coury, MDDaniel DaJusta, MDDaniel Herz, MDDanielle Peifer, PT, DPTDavid A Wessells, PT, MHADavid Axelson, MDDavid Stukus, MDDean Lee, MD, PhDDebbie Terry, NPDeborah Hill, LSWDeborah Zerkle, LMTDeena Chisolm, PhDDeipanjan Nandi, MD MScDenis King, MDDenise EllDennis Cunningham, MDDennis McTigue, DDSDiane LangDominique R. Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP, Dipl ABOMDonna TeachDoug WolfDouglas McLaughlin, MDDrew Duerson, MDEdward Oberle, MD, RhMSUSEdward Shepherd, MDEileen Chaves, PhDElise Berlan, MDElise DawkinsElizabeth A. Cannon, LPCCElizabeth Cipollone, LPCC-SElizabeth Zmuda, DOEllyn Hamm, MM, MT-BCEmily A. Stuart, MDEmily Decker, MDEmily GetschmanEmma Wysocki, PharmD, RDNEric Butter, PhDEric Leighton, AT, ATCEric Sribnick, MD, PhDErica Domrose, RD, LDEricca L Lovegrove, RDErika RobertsErin Gates, PT, DPTErin Johnson, M.Ed., C.S.C.S.Erin Shann, BSN, RNErin TebbenFarah W. Brink, MDGail Bagwell, DNP, APRN, CNSGail Swisher, ATGarey Noritz, MDGary A. Smith, MD, DrPHGeri Hewitt, MDGina Hounam, PhDGina McDowellGina MinotGrace Paul, MDGregory D. Pearson, MDGriffin Stout, MDGuliz Erdem, MDHailey Blosser, MA, CCC-SLPHeather Battles, MDHeather ClarkHeather Yardley, PhDHenry SpillerHerman Hundley, MS, AT, ATC, CSCSHiren Patel, MDHoma Amini, DDS, MPH, MSHoward Jacobs, MDHunter Wernick, DOIbrahim Khansa, MDIhuoma Eneli, MDIlana Moss, PhDIlene Crabtree, PTIrene Mikhail, MDIrina Buhimschi, MDIvor Hill, MDJacqueline Wynn, PhD, BCBA-DJacquelyn Doxie King, PhDJaime-Dawn Twanow, MDJames Murakami, MDJames Popp, MDJames Ruda, MDJameson Mattingly, MDJamie Macklin, MDJane AbelJanelle Huefner, MA, CCC-SLPJanice Townsend, DDS, MSJared SylvesterJaysson EicholtzJean Hruschak, MA, CCC/SLPJeff Sydes, CSCSJeffery Auletta, MDJeffrey Bennett, MD, PhDJeffrey Hoffman, MDJeffrey Leonard, MDJen Campbell, PT, MSPTJena HeckJenn Gonya, PhDJennifer Borda, PT, DPTJennifer HofherrJennifer LockerJennifer Reese, PsyDJennifer Smith, MS, RD, CSP, LD, LMTJenny Worthington, PT, DPTJerry R. Mendell, MDJessalyn Mayer, MSOT, OTR/LJessica Bailey, PsyDJessica Bogacik, MS, MT-BCJessica Bowman, MDJessica BrockJessica Bullock, MA/CCC-SLPJessica Buschmann, RDJessica Scherr, PhDJim O’Shea OT, MOT, CHTJoan Fraser, MSW, LISW-SJohn Ackerman, PhDJohn Caballero, PT, DPT, CSCSJohn Kovalchin, MDJonathan D. Thackeray, MDJonathan Finlay, MB, ChB, FRCPJonathan M. Grischkan, MDJonathan Napolitano, MDJoshua Watson, MDJulee Eing, CRA, RT(R)Julia Colman, MOT, OTR/LJulie ApthorpeJulie Leonard, MD, MPHJulie Racine, PhDJulie Samora, MDJustin Indyk, MD, PhDKady LacyKaleigh Hague, MA, MT-BCKaleigh MatesickKamilah Twymon, LPCC-SKara Malone, MDKara Miller, OTR/LKaren Allen, MDKaren Days, MBAKari A. Meeks, OTKari Dubro, MS, RD, LD, CWWSKari Phang, MDKarla Vaz, MDKaryn L. Kassis, MD, MPHKatherine Deans, MDKatherine McCracken, MDKathleen (Katie) RoushKathryn Blocher, CPNP-PCKathryn J. Junge, RN, BSNKatie Brind’Amour, MSKatie Thomas, APRKatrina Hall, MA, CCLSKatrina Ruege, LPCC-SKatya Harfmann, MDKayla Zimpfer, PCCKelley SwopeKelli Dilver, PT, DPTKelly AbramsKelly BooneKelly HustonKelly J. Kelleher, MDKelly McNally, PhDKelly N. Day, CPNP-PCKelly Pack, LISW-SKelly Tanner,PhD, OTR/L, BCPKelly Wesolowski, PsyDKent Williams, MDKevin Bosse, PhDKevin Klingele, MDKim Bjorklund, MDKim Hammersmith, DDS, MPH, MSKimberly Bates, MDKimberly Sisto, PT, DPT, SCSKimberly Van Camp, PT, DPT, SCSKirk SabalkaKris Jatana, MD, FAAPKrista Winner, AuD, CCC-AKristen Armbrust, LISW-SKristen Cannon, MDKristen Martin, OTR/LKristi Roberts, MS MPHKristina Booth, MSN, CFNPKristina Reber, MDKyle DavisLance Governale, MDLara McKenzie, PhD, MALaura Brubaker, BSN, RNLaura DattnerLaurel Biever, LPCLauren Durinka, AuDLauren Garbacz, PhDLauren Justice, OTR/L, MOTLauren Madhoun, MS, CCC-SLPLauryn RozumLee Hlad, DPMLeena Nahata, MDLelia Emery, MT-BCLeslie Appiah, MDLinda Stoverock, DNP, RN NEA-BCLindsay Pietruszewski, PT, DPTLindsay SchwartzLindsey Vater, PsyDLisa GoldenLisa M. Humphrey, MDLogan Blankemeyer, MA, CCC-SLPLori Grisez PT, DPTLorraine Kelley-QuonLouis Bezold, MDLourdes Hill, LPCC-S Luke Tipple, MS, CSCSLynda Wolfe, PhDLyndsey MillerLynn RosenthalLynne Ruess, MDMaggy Rule, MS, AT, ATCMahmoud Kallash, MDManmohan K Kamboj, MDMarc Levitt, MDMarc P. Michalsky, MDMarcel J. Casavant, MDMarci Johnson, LISW-SMarco Corridore, MDMargaret Bassi, OTR/LMaria HaghnazariMaria Vegh, MSN, RN, CPNMarissa Condon, BSN, RNMarissa LarouereMark E. Galantowicz, MDMark Smith, MS RT R (MR), ABMP PhysicistMarnie Wagner, MDMary Ann Abrams, MD, MPHMary Fristad, PhD, ABPPMary Kay SharrettMary Shull, MDMatthew Washam, MD, MPHMeagan Horn, MAMegan Brundrett, MDMegan Dominik, OTR/LMegan FrancisMegan Letson, MD, M.EdMeghan Cass, PT, DPTMeghan Fisher, BSN, RNMeika Eby, MDMelanie Fluellen, LPCCMelanie Luken, LISW-SMelissa McMillen, CTRSMelissa Winterhalter, MDMeredith Merz Lind, MDMichael Flores, PhDMichael T. Brady, MDMike Patrick, MDMindy Deno, PT, DPTMolly Gardner, PhDMonica Ardura, DOMonica EllisMonique Goldschmidt, MDMotao Zhu, MD, MS, PhDNancy AuerNancy Cunningham, PsyDNaomi Kertesz, MDNatalie Powell, LPCC-S, LICDC-CSNatalie Rose, BSN, RNNathalie Maitre, MD, PhDNationwide Children’s HospitalNationwide Children’s Hospital Behavioral Health ExpertsNeetu Bali, MD, MPHNehal Parikh, DO, MSNichole Mayer, OTR/L, MOTNicole Caldwell, MDNicole Dempster, PhDNicole Parente, LSWNicole Powell, PsyD, BCBA-DNkeiruka Orajiaka, MBBSOliver Adunka, MD, FACSOlivia Thomas, MDOmar Khalid, MD, FAAP, FACCOnnalisa Nash, CPNP-PCOula KhouryPaige Duly, CTRSParker Huston, PhDPatrick C. Walz, MDPatrick Queen, BSN, RNPedro Weisleder, MDPeter Minneci, MDPeter White, PhDPreeti Jaggi, MDRachael Morocco-Zanotti, DORachel D’Amico, MDRachel Schrader, CPNP-PCRachel Tyson, LSWRajan Thakkar, MDRaymond Troy, MDRebecca Fisher, PTRebecca Hicks, CCLSRebecca Lewis, AuD, CCC-AReggie Ash Jr.Reno Ravindran, MDRichard Kirschner, MDRichard Wood, MDRobert A. Kowatch, MD, Ph.D.Rochelle Krouse, CTRSRohan Henry, MD, MSRose Ayoob, MDRose Schroedl, PhDRoss Maltz, MDRyan Ingley AT, ATCSamanta Boddapati, PhDSamantha MaloneSammy CygnorSandra C. Kim, MDSara Bentley, MT-BCSara Breidigan, MS, AT, ATCSara N. Smith, MSN, APRNSara O’Rourke, MOT, OTR/L, Clinical LeadSarah A. Denny, MDSarah Cline, CRA, RT(R)Sarah Driesbach, CPN, APNSarah GreenbergSarah Hastie, BSN, RNC-NIC Sarah Keim, PhDSarah MyersSarah O’Brien, MDSarah SaxbeSarah Schmidt, LISW-SSarah ScottSarah TraceySarah VerLee, PhDSasigarn Bowden, MDSatya Gedela, MD, MRCP(UK)Scott Coven, DO, MPHScott Hickey, MDSean EingSean Rose, MDSeth Alpert, MDShana Moore, MA, CCC-AShannon Reinhart, LISW-SShari UncapherSharon Wrona, DNP, PNP, PMHSShawn Pitcher, BS, RD, USAWShawNaye Scott-MillerSheila GilesSimon Lee, MDStacy Whiteside APRN, MS, CPNP-AC/PC, CPONStefanie Bester, MDStefanie Hirota, OTR/LStephanie Burkhardt, MPH, CCRCStephanie CannonStephanie Santoro, MDStephanie Vyrostek BSN, RNStephen Hersey, MDSteve Allen, MDSteven C. Matson, MDSteven Ciciora, MDSteven CuffSuellen Sharp, OTR/L, MOTSusan Colace, MDSusan Creary, MDTabatha BallardTabbetha GrecoTabitha Jones-McKnight, DOTahagod Mohamed, MDTamara MappTammi Young-Saleme, PhDTerry Barber, MDTerry Bravender, MD, MPHTerry Laurila, MS, RPhThomas Pommering, DOThomas SavageTiasha Letostak, PhDTiffanie Ryan, BCBA Tim RobinsonTimothy Cripe, MD, PhDTracey L. Sisk, RN, BSN, MHATracie Rohal RD, LD, CDETracy Mehan, MATravis Gallagher, ATTrevor MillerTyanna Snider, PsyDTyler Congrove, ATVanessa Shanks, MD, FAAPVenkata Rama Jayanthi, MDVidu Garg, MDVidya Raman, MDW. Garrett Hunt, MDWalter Samora, MDWarren D. Lo, MDWendy Anderson, MDWendy Cleveland, MA, LPCC-SWhitney McCormick, CTRSWhitney Raglin Bignall, PhDWilliam Cotton, MDWilliam J. Barson, MDWilliam Ray, PhDWilliam W. Long, MD