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Black spots inside the mouth: The request could not be satisfied


small black spot on cheek

This condition is not harmful, and it does not require treatment. Black spots inside the cheek can have several causes, such as blisters or hyperpigmentation. Revenge bedtime procrastination: A plight of our times? Other causes, such as mouth cancer, will require medical treatment. If the mark is inside your cheek, it’s unlikely anyone will see it. Smoking can cause smoker’s melanosis. This small collection of blood would form a ‘blood blister’ under the lining of the cheek, which would appear to you as a small black dot. … Melanoma usually accounts for 0.5% of all oral cancers. There is no pain in the cheek but have pain in the side bottom teeths in the left side. See a doctor who can help. They are usually harmless. I’m a teenager and I get spots quite frequently, but recently one has come up that is flat, not raised, it doesn’t hurt, can’t feel it at all, and it’s blacky/purple in colour. © YYYY Colgate-Palmolive Company. For this reason, it’s always worth seeing your dentist if you notice an abnormal spot in your mouth that doesn’t go away, bleeds or grows larger. Black Spot Inside Cheek: Causes and What Needs to Be Treated The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases note that Addison’s disease can cause the development of darker areas on the skin and inside the mouth. How to cure black spots on the face due to acne, pimples, sun exposure on Legs, hands, neck etc. Some dark spots are sun spots, senile lentigo, age spots or liver spots. Show it to a Dr: Any black spot that is changing in color or growing in size needs to be checked by a medical or a dental professional (in your case). The good news is that a dark spot inside your cheek is probably harmless. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare genetic condition that causes dark freckles to appear around the face and inside the mouth. One possible explanation that comes to mind is that this black spot may represent a blood blister. Looking in the mirror and seeing a black spot inside the cheek can be alarming, but is it something serious? Have questions about your smile? Some common skin diseases that may cause black spots include chicken pox, eczema, psoriasis, and many more. How to Clear Cheek Acne. It is an infection of…, Blood blisters can appear in the mouth as a result of injury, oral herpes, stress, and oral cancer. For example, the inner lining of your cheek may just be patchily pigmented. This is a condition wherein brown or black pigmentation develops inside the mouth and throat. Consider these possible causes and see your dentist for a definitive diagnosis. A healthcare professional may also recommend radiation therapy. But if you want to attempt to get rid of them, Dr. Schlessinger recommends choosing products with alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs)—like glycolic or … Find Primary care doctors near you. As well as brushing your teeth twice a day and flossing once a day, regularly check inside your mouth to make sure your gums and the lining of your cheeks look healthy. These include cortisol and aldosterone. Many causes of black spots inside the cheek, such as amalgam tattoos, are harmless. Maintaining a good oral health routine can reduce your fears about a black spot inside your cheek. Dark spots on the skin are usually the result of hyperpigmentation. All rights reserved. These marks can appear when a dentist places or removes a filling and tiny metal fragments fall between the teeth. Health-Cares.net reports they’re most common in people older than 55 and can occur almost anywhere on the body, especially areas that have seen a lot of sun or suffered from sunburns 1. Called polyps to develop throughout the gastrointestinal tract aka pigmentations, occur when a patch… Also be swelling, if you think small black spot on cheek spot inside the cheek but have pain in mouth! 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Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) | Boston Children’s Hospital

What is Peutz-Jeghers syndrome?

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a hereditary condition that causes multiple polyps (abnormal growths) called hamartomas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Hamartomas can be found anywhere from the stomach to the rectum, but they are mostly found in the small intestine.

Children with PJS may have dark-blue or black spots (called pigmentation) on the lips and inside the mouth. These spots are less frequently found on the hands and feet.

PJS occurs in approximately 1 in 150,000 people and affects both males and females equally.

What causes PJS?

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is usually caused by a mutation of the serine threonine kinase (STK11) gene, also called the LKB1 gene. This alteration in the gene mutation can be passed down from a parent, or it can be a new mutation in the STK11/LKB1 gene.

What are the symptoms of PJS?

Children may begin to experience symptoms of PJS during the first 10 to 15 years of life. Abnormal symptoms that may develop include:

  • abdominal pain
  • rectal bleeding
  • diarrhea
  • anemia

Individuals with PJS have an increased risk of developing GI and non-GI related cancers during adulthood.

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers

  • small intestine
  • stomach
  • large intestine

Non-gastrointestinal cancers

  • breast
  • pancreas
  • ovary
  • lung
  • uterus

The greatest threat in PJS is GI cancer and breast cancer. Dark-blue or black spots on the skin are a common sign of PJS (found in more than 95 percent of children) and can be seen within the first two years of birth, long before polyps are found. These spots may be found on several areas of the body:

  • lips
  • inside the mouth (buccal mucosa)
  • hands
  • feet

It is possible for the pigmentation to fade as the child grows into an adult.

How we care for PJS

The Boston Children’s Hospital Polyposis Program provides a full spectrum of care for children with PJS, from the diagnosis to the treatment to follow-up care. Our clinicians use advanced endoscopic techniques tailored for each child.

We bring together specialists from multiple disciplines including Gastroenterology, Genetics and Radiology. In addition, we collaborate with cancer experts from Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center.

Black gums | Why do I have dark spots on my gum tissue?

Are you noticing black spots on your gums? Your eyes aren’t deceiving you. There are various reasons why your gums may have black spots or appear black in color. The key to treating this issue is finding out what is responsible for the different color. Occasionally black gums can be a cosmetic issue when they show in your smile. There are different options available when it comes to correcting this problem.

What can cause black gums?

One of the main questions your dentist will ask you is whether or not your black gums have always been dark in color, or if this is a recent development. If you have dark or pigmented areas in your mouth, it doesn’t always mean they aren’t healthy or that they require treatment.  

1)  Melanin

Your black gums may be caused by melanin. Different amounts of melanin can affect not only the color of our skin tone, but also the color of the soft tissues in your mouth. If your darkened gums are simply due to melanin then there is no treatment necessary, unless of course, you’d like to do so for cosmetic reasons. 

2)  Dental trauma

Bruising can affect all areas of the body, including the gums. If you have experienced a recent dental trauma then bruising may be a side effect that just needs time to heal. After mouth trauma, watch the area to see if it is getting worse or not healing then it is time to see your dentist.

3)  Medications

Have you recently started a new medication? Medications can have all sorts of side effects, including darkening of the gums. If you think your medication may be responsible for the changes in your mouth then it is good to mention this to your doctor. A different medication may be prescribed. 

4)  Oral hazards of smoking

A condition called smoker’s melanosis can also be responsible for dark gums. An ingredient in cigarettes called nicotine contributes to this issue. Research has shown that quitting smoking can possibly reverse the darkened areas.

5)  A failing old crown

The cement that seals the margin of a crown can wash out after 15 years. The open margin will collect debris and turn dark. this darkness can make the gum line appear darker or black.

Amalgam tattoos can cause black spots on gums

Silver fillings or amalgam is not used in the United States as much as it used to. Now it is used in circumstances where isolation of the cavity is difficult. Amalgam tattoos occur when silver filling material is incorporated into healthy gum tissue and oxidizes into a deep blue black colored area.

Dark or black gums can also be a sign of a more serious condition. 

Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease can affect the color of the skin, as well as the color of the oral mucosa and gingiva. This is because Addison’s disease affects the production of certain hormones, specifically the hormones released from your adrenal glands. Hyperpigmentation can occur which causes dermal and mucosal pigments to change and dark patches to appear. 

Peutz Jeghers syndrome

While uncommon, Peutz Jeghers syndrome is a genetic disorder that can affect the pigmentation of gum tissue. Dark spots begin to appear on the face, as well as inside the mouth. This is typically diagnosed in early childhood when dark freckles first begin to erupt around the eyes, nose and lips. 


Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, also known as ANUG, may also be responsible for your dark or black spots that can appear on your gums. ANUG is an infection that appears suddenly without warning. 

Bleeding gums may be one of the first signs that something is amiss. The tissue between the teeth may also appear red and inflamed. Dental pain may also be a side effect of this condition. 

Poor oral hygiene can be responsible for ANUG and smoking can also be a factor. Compromised immune systems may also factor in to your risk of developing ANUG. If you think you may have ANUG it is important to see your dentist as soon as possible. Early treatment is key to protecting your oral health and preventing the infection from getting worse.

Advanced stages of periodontal disease

Once gum disease has progressed you may begin to notice dark spots appearing on your upper and lower gums. If the periodontal disease has reached this point you may also be experiencing issues with your teeth. The bone and soft tissue begin to weaken and you are more susceptible to losing teeth. Trench mouth is a particular version of periodontal disease.

Oral cancer

The sudden onset of dark or black spots on your gums may also be due to a more severe underlying condition such as oral cancer. Oral cancer, also known as malignant melanoma, can cause dark patches to appear in the mouth. 

Other symptoms can include cracked or bleeding mucosa. The use of tobacco products can increase your risk of oral cancer. If oral cancer is a suspected you may need to undergo a biopsy to confirm or rule out cancer. Early identification of cancer is important to protecting your health. The main goal is to remove the cancer before it has a chance to spread elsewhere. 

What are some ways to treat black gums?

Once  the cause of your darkened gums has been determined, multiple methods are available to remove the dark spots on your gum and to restore the pink gum.

Laser Tissue Bleaching

Laser bleaching is a far less intrusive procedure. There are no incisions necessary and recovery time is quick. Most patients only need one treatment and are thrilled with their results. 

Prior to the procedure local anesthesia is applied to make patients more comfortable. Then the laser is used to lighten the tissue to the desired color. For the most part, laser bleaching is a painless procedure that provides great results. 

Scalpel surgery

Depending on the diagnosis, the best treatment may be removal of the gum tissue. This may be necessary with cancer or severe cases of infection. Prior to the procedure you will be given anesthesia. The affected tissue will be removed with a scalpel and then covered or bandaged to allow for proper healing. 

How can I find out more information about the black spots on my gums?

When it comes to any changes on your body, whether it be a mole or the color of your gum tissue, it is in your best interest to see a doctor. You could possibly identify a potential issue in its early stages. Early treatment of any issue will help to provide the best possible outcome.  

Contact our office today at (847) 234-0517 to schedule a consultation. Dr. Fondriest is a highly knowledgeable dentist who will guide you accordingly. He will examine your mouth and ask questions regarding your medical history. From there, Dr. Fondriest can work with you to create a plan of action. 

We look forward to your visit and helping you obtain your dental goals.


It’s hard to ignore a change on your lip, whether it’s your first glance in the mirror after you wake up or while you’re brushing your teeth. Your lips say a lot about your health; if you notice a bump, spot or dot on them it may be a reason to see your doctor. Or, it may be nothing to worry about.

“If you’ve got a sudden spot on or around your lips there could be a number of causes, some more serious than others,” said Geisinger dermatologist Paul Long, MD.

Here’s what it could be:

Cold sore

A cold sore is an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). These often-painful blisters are typically caused by HSV 1, but can sometimes be caused by HSV 2. About 90 percent of all people get at least one cold sore in their life; many times this happens as a child. Then, they develop antibodies and never experience a second one. Cold sores typically last seven to 10 days, during which the sore forms a blister, the blister breaks and oozes, crusts over and sloughs away.

Cold sores are most contagious when blistering and oozing; however, the virus can be transmitted even when not blistering by sharing a utensil, razor or towel, or by kissing someone. HSV 1 causes most cold sores; however, HSV2, also known as genital herpes, causes a smaller percentage of cold sores.

“Cold sores are typically nothing to worry about, unless your immune system is weakened by a disease,” said Dr. Long.

Skin cancer

A discolored or dark spot on your lip may be skin cancer. Skin cancer on the lip is common but often overlooked; when people apply sunscreen to their face and body, they typically don’t consider also using a lip balm with SPF in it. Both basal and squamous cell carcinoma, the two most common types of skin cancer, could be found on the lip.

If you notice a red or dark sore or bump on your lip, you should see your doctor. 

“Since spots on your lips are highly visible, they’re more likely to be found early,” said Dr. Long. “They can be treated with surgery, radiation or by freezing the cancer off.”

Allergic reaction

If your lip swells suddenly, it could be an allergic reaction. Coming in contact with certain foods, pet dander, lipstick or chapstick or any other allergen could cause your lip to become inflamed and swollen. In many cases, the swelling will disappear after a short time.

However, in the case of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis, you may experience other symptoms. If your mouth or face also begins to swell, you experience hives or itchy eyes and face or you have swallowing or breathing problems, get immediate medical attention.

“With anaphylaxis, your heart rate can increase while your blood pressure drops, which can cause shock and even death if you don’t get medical help immediately,” said Dr. Long.

Farmer’s lip

If your lips are often dry or you have a scaly spot on your lower lip, you could have actinic cheilitis, or farmer’s lip. This patch of dry, inflamed skin resulting from long-term exposure to the sun can sometimes evolve into cancer. Your doctor will want to monitor this spot for any changes in its color or shape.

Venous lake

Older people may experience a dark spot on the lip called a venous lake, which is purple or dark blue spot commonly found on lips and ears caused by dilated blood vessels. Though they may resemble melanoma, venous lakes do not evolve into cancer, and are generally not life threatening. They are, however, unsightly. Some people opt to have them surgically removed.

Doctors don’t know why venous lakes occur, but they may be caused by sun exposure.

“If you notice a change in your lips and are unsure what’s causing it, it’s best to see your doctor,” said Dr. Long. “Treating changes early, no matter the cause, gives you the best chance of effective treatment.”

Geisinger dermatologist Paul Long, MD, sees patients at 1155 E. Mountain Blvd., Wilkes-Barre. To schedule an appointment with Dr. Long or another Geisinger dermatologist, please call 800-275-6401 or visit Geisinger.org.

Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment


What is leukoplakia?

Leukoplakia is a condition in which one or more white patches or spots (lesions) forms inside the mouth.

Leukoplakia is different from other causes of white patches such as thrush or lichen planus because it can eventually develop into oral cancer. Within 15 years, about 3% to 17.5% of people with leukoplakia will develop squamous cell carcinoma, a common type of skin cancer.

The likelihood of developing cancer from leukoplakia depends on the size, shape, and appearance of abnormal cells.

What are the types of leukoplakia?

There are two main types of leukoplakia:

  • Homogenous: A mostly white, evenly colored thin patch that may have a smooth, wrinkled, or ridged surface that is consistent throughout.
  • Non-homogenous: A mainly white or white-and-red, irregularly shaped patch that may be flat, nodular (having protrusions), or verrucous (elevated). Additional sub-classifications, such as ulcerated and nodular (speckled), may also be made, and can help predict the likelihood that a patch will become cancerous.

Non-homogenous leukoplakia is seven times more likely to become cancerous than the homogenous type.

Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) (also called florid papillomatosis) is a rare but especially aggressive form of oral leukoplakia. Studies show it is strongly associated with the presence of Epstein-Barr virus, a type of herpes virus. Nearly all cases will eventually become cancerous at a number of different sites. PVL is usually diagnosed late in the development of leukoplakia, as it takes time to spread to multiple sites. It also has a high rate of recurrence.

There is also a condition called oral hairy leukoplakia, which also happens as a result of having the Epstein-Barr virus, which stays in your body throughout your life. People with weak immune systems, like people with HIV/AIDS, can develop oral hairy leukoplakia. This condition looks like its name—white hairy patches, often with folds so it looks like hair is growing out of the folds. These spots mostly happen on the tongue, but might be found in other parts of the mouth. Oral hairy leukoplakia doesn’t become cancer, but if you have it, you will probably want to talk to your provider about checking for HIV/AIDS.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the causes of leukoplakia?

Leukoplakia is often associated with the following:

  • Heavy smoking.
  • Use of chewing tobacco or snuff
  • Chewing areca nut (also known as betel nut), which grows in the tropics of Asia, the Pacific, and parts of east Africa.
  • Heavy use of alcohol (although not all studies show this link).

Some cases of leukoplakia have no known cause (this is called idiopathic leukoplakia).

Most cases occur in men who are between the ages of 50 and 70. Fewer than 1% of cases are in patients under the age of 30.

What are the symptoms of leukoplakia?

The symptoms of leukoplakia are one or more white patches on the surface of the tongue, underneath the tongue, or on the insides of the cheeks. The patches cannot be rubbed off and cannot be traced to any other cause. No pain or other symptoms are present.

Some research has shown that patches on the floor of the mouth and the underside or sides of the tongue are more likely to be cancerous. However, not all studies agree that location is an important factor. The size of a patch has no link to whether it may become cancerous.

Factors that are strong indicators of leukoplakia transforming to cancer include the appearance of:

  • Nodules.
  • White or red masses with a pebbled appearance.
  • Ulceration.
  • Increased firmness.
  • Bleeding.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is leukoplakia diagnosed?

Since the white patches of leukoplakia do not cause symptoms, they are often first noticed by healthcare providers during a routine examination.

Before a diagnosis of leukoplakia is made, other possible causes of the white patches are investigated. These could include friction inside the mouth (caused by something such as dentures), repeated biting of the cheek, fungal infection or lichen planus,

If no cause is found and the white patches are not gone after two to four weeks, a biopsy (tissue sample) is taken and sent to the laboratory for examination.

If the biopsy still does not show a clear diagnosis, the white patch may be confirmed as leukoplakia, meaning that it has the potential to become cancerous. (If cancer cells are actually found, this means a diagnosis of cancer, not of leukoplakia.)

Management and Treatment

How is leukoplakia treated?

The main goal of treating leukoplakia is to prevent it from becoming cancer. However, treatment is a challenge and results are often mixed. Treatment may remove the lesions, but a fair number of them return.

Medical management:

  • Stop using tobacco and alcohol.
  • Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
  • Retinoids (vitamin A-based treatments used to treat acne and psoriasis) taken by mouth may help reduce lesions, but relapses and side effects are common.
  • Oral (by mouth) Vitamin A and beta-carotene supplements can help clear the white patches, but they will appear again once the person stops taking the supplements.
  • Isotretinoin supplements have been found to be more effective than beta-carotene in preventing cancerous changes.

Surgical management:

  • Removing lesions with surgery. However, there is still a 10% to 20% chance that the lesions will return, and a 3% to 12% chance of developing cancer in the treated areas.
  • Removal of lesions by laser.
  • Photodynamic therapy (use of light-activated cancer drugs).
  • Cryotherapy (use of freezing to remove lesions).
  • Electrocauterization (use of an electrically heated needle or other instrument to remove lesions).

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients who have leukoplakia?

Anyone who has leukoplakia should follow up with a doctor every three to six months, with biopsies as needed, to watch for possible changes in the condition.

Even if patches are surgically removed, an examination every six to 12 months is recommended, because leukoplakia frequently returns. Treatment sites that remain free of abnormalities for three years may not need to be observed any more.

If leukoplakia returns after treatment, you should continue to have follow-up examinations for as long as your healthcare provider recommends.

Floor of Mouth Cancer | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?

What is floor of mouth cancer?

The floor of mouth is a horseshoe-shaped area under the tongue, between the sides of the lower jawbone (the mandible). When a malignant tumor grows in this area, it is called floor of mouth cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that 28,000 people in the United States develop oral or throat cancer each year and 7,000 die from it. Cancer of the floor of mouth accounts for 28-35 percent of all mouth cancers.

What are the causes and risk factors for floor of mouth cancer?

Men are diagnosed with floor of mouth cancer three to four times more often than women.

The most significant risk factors for floor of mouth cancer are tobacco and alcohol use. Smokeless tobacco (including snuff and betel nut) is more of a risk for this cancer than cigarettes because the plug of tobacco is pressed again the skin in the mouth.

Other potential causes include people with certain infections or decreased immunity, such as:

  • People exposed to the human papilloma virus, especially strains 16 and 18
  • Organ transplant recipients
  • People with human immunodeficiency virus disease

What are the symptoms of floor of mouth cancer?

Cancer of the floor of mouth often looks like an ulcer and is painless. Sometimes people mistake this for a canker sore (aphthous ulcer). Often, by the time a patient sees a doctor for a diagnosis, the tumor has grown into the neck.

Other symptoms of floor of mouth cancer may include:

  • A sore in the mouth that continues to grow
  • Mouth pain
  • Dentures that no longer fit
  • White, red or dark patches inside the mouth
  • Difficulty moving the jaw
  • Jaw pain or swelling
  • Numb mouth
  • Severe ear pain but the eardrum is normal
  • Lumps in the neck
  • Loose teeth or pain around the teeth

How is floor of mouth cancer diagnosed?

A doctor uses a tongue depressor to move the tongue and look at the floor of mouth. The inside of the mouth and cheeks are examined to check the location and size of the tumor. Examination of the ears, nose, throat and neck help determine if the tumor has spread.

The doctor may also order tests, including:

  • Blood tests.
  • X-rays to determine if the tumor has spread to the lung.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy. A thin needle is placed in the mouth. The cells are aspirated (suctioned) and then examined under a microscope to determine if the lump is cancerous.

Imaging studies to determine if the tumor has invaded nearby tissues or other organs of the body. These may include:

  • Orthopantomography (Panorex). This is a panoramic X-ray of the jaw. It shows a view from ear-to-ear and helps determine if a tumor has grown into the jawbone.
  • Computerized tomography scan. A computer is linked to an X-ray machine which creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the mouth and neck. A dye may be injected into a vein or a pill swallowed to help highlight the organs or tissue on the X-ray. This procedure may also be referred to as computerized axial tomography.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging. This machine uses a magnet, radio waves and a computer to create detailed pictures of the area inside the mouth and neck. This procedure may also be referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. During a PET scan, a small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The scanner creates computerized pictures of the areas inside the body. Cancer cells absorb more radioactive glucose than normal cells so the tumor is highlighted on the pictures.

How is floor of mouth cancer treated?

Early-stage floor of mouth cancer is often treated with surgery or radiation. Advanced cancer cases usually require a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.


Early-stage floor of the mouth cancer is often treated with surgery only. Advanced cancer usually requires a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

To adequately remove a tumor from the floor of the mouth, 1½ centimeters (three-fourths of an inch) of normal tissue should surround the tumor. The surgeon can remove all the tissue up to the bone if the tumor is not attached to bone. If the tumor is attached to the jawbone, the surgeon might need to remove a portion of the bone. Reconstructive surgery can replace the part of the jaw that is removed.

If the lymph nodes in the neck are affected, the nodes may have to be removed.


Medical oncologists administer chemotherapy if cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other organs. The medicine circulates in the blood and disrupts the growth of the cancer cells. Chemotherapy medications are taken by mouth or given through a vein over a period of several months.

Chemotherapy is not curative for this type of tumor, but when combined with surgery it is helpful in controlling the tumor. Chemotherapy is prescribed:

  • After surgery to decrease the risk of the cancer returning
  • To slow the growth of a tumor and control symptoms when the cancer cannot be cured (palliative treatment)

Key points

  • The floor of mouth is a horseshoe-shaped area under the tongue, between the sides of the lower jawbone (the mandible). Cancer of the floor of mouth accounts for 28-35 percent of all mouth cancers.
  • Men are diagnosed with floor of mouth cancer three to four times more often than women.
  • The most significant risk factors for floor of mouth cancer are tobacco and alcohol use.
  • The condition can be treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

Not what you’re looking for?

Inner Cheek Cancer (Buccal Mucosa Cancer)

Inner cheek cancer (also called buccal mucosa cancer) is a type of head and neck cancer that begins when the cells that make up the inner cheek grow out of control and form lesions or tumors. Buccal mucosa is another name for the inside lining of the cheeks.

These cancers usually occur in the thin, flat cells called squamous cells that line the buccal mucosa and other parts of the mouth. Inner cheek cancer is classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer on the outer cheeks is considered skin cancer. Find in-depth information about skin cancer.

Mouth Cancer Doctors, Surgeons & Experts

Meet Memorial Sloan Kettering’s renowned team of doctors specializing in mouth cancers.

Learn more

Using tobacco products and regularly drinking too much alcohol can increase your chances for developing cancer in the inner cheek. Dentists are typically the first to notice signs of inner cheek cancer, often during a routine dental exam.

Signs of inner cheek cancer may include the following:

  • white, red, or dark patches in the mouth

  • a lump in your mouth

  • mouth pain or numbness

  • soreness or a feeling that something is caught in your throat

  • difficulty moving your jaw

  • severe ear pain

  • hoarseness

  • loose teeth or pain around your teeth

  • dentures that no longer fit

  • jaw pain or swelling

Inner Cheek Cancer Treatment

Inner cheek cancer is highly curable when diagnosed early. Treatment often involves surgery performed by a head and neck cancer surgeon.

The goals of the treatment of inner cheek cancer are to:

  • cure the cancer

  • preserve your appearance and the functions of your mouth

  • prevent the cancer from coming back

The extent and depth of the cancer guides your plan of care. If the cancer is more advanced, radiation, chemotherapy, or both may be used to shrink the tumor before or after surgery to reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. For some people, radiation may be the only treatment needed.

Mouth Cancer Treatment

MSK’s experts are among the most experienced in the nation at treating cancers that arise in the mouth. Learn about our approach to care.

90,000 British Dentists: Black Charcoal Pastes Do Not Whiten Teeth

Photo Credit, Getty Images

Activated charcoal toothpastes advertised as whitening can actually harm tooth enamel and promote tooth decay – said in a report published in the British Dental Journal.

The claim that they can whiten, according to British dentists, is groundless and is nothing more than a marketing gimmick.

In addition, the increasingly popular charcoal pastes often do not contain fluoride, which helps protect teeth.

The constant use of such pastes can do more harm than good, doctors warn and advise patients who want to whiten their teeth, first of all, consult a dentist.

According to experts, the best thing for teeth is pastes with fluoride compounds.

Charcoal was first used as a means for oral hygiene in ancient Greece – to remove stains on teeth and eliminate unpleasant odor caused by sore gums.

The Celebrity Hundred Dollar Smile Effect

One of the authors of the new study, Dr. Joseph Greenwall-Cohen from the Department of Dentistry at the University of Manchester, points out that in Britain recently, pastes and powders with activated charcoal began to be sold everywhere, in all major chain pharmacies and supermarkets – after celebrities started talking about their use.

However, according to him, they do not give the effect that is stated on the packaging.This conclusion follows from a 2017 study in the United States of 50 similar products.

Some charcoal toothpastes and powders were said to be “antibacterial” or “antifungal,” “whitening,” and “decay-fighting”.

Photo by Getty Images

An American study of these products also said that people are starting to use these pastes all the time because they think they have found a quick and affordable option for teeth whitening.

However, brushing too vigorously can wear down the enamel and increase the sensitivity of the teeth, and the fact that these products are free of fluoride means that teeth receive little or no protection against caries.

“Don’t believe the hype!”

“When charcoal paste is used by people with fillings, it can get stuck there and difficult to remove. Charcoal particles can also get stuck in the gums and cause irritation,” explains Dr. Greenwall-Cohen.

He also notes that black pastes and powders are more abrasive than white, which in itself is a threat to enamel and gums.

Black pastes usually contain powdered activated carbon, which in turn can be made from such materials as nutshells, coconut scales, bamboo, peat, as well as wood and charcoal.

“Charcoal pastes are not a lifesaver for those looking for a snow-white smile, and may even be harmful,” says Professor Damien Walmsy of the British Dental Association.“So don’t believe this hype. Anyone who is concerned about stains on teeth or discoloration that does not disappear with a change in diet or improved oral hygiene should see a dentist. ”

Lentigo is a skin defect that is manifested by the appearance of dark spots with a diameter of less than 1 cm on the gums, lips, nose, and ears. These spots are nothing more than an accumulation of melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment melanin) at the junction of the epidermis and dermis.The causes of the phenomenon have not been established, but the hereditary factor of its development has already been confirmed.

Lentigines are more susceptible to dogs than cats. Cats tend to carry orange, cream or tortoiseshell coats.

Lentigo simplex in cats is considered a congenital cosmetic defect. Most often it manifests itself in cats up to a year.

Lesions begin to appear on the lips as small patches that increase in size and become more numerous over time.One or more lesions are usually found. But there are also cases of generalized lesions in cats (lentigo profus)

In some breeds of dogs, in particular pugs, cases of a hereditary form of lentigo, called “profuse lentigo”, are recorded. This is a genetic disorder. Miniature schnauzers can also be predisposed to this condition. In pugs, spots initially appear at the age of 1-4 years. The lesions at first appear as separate, slightly raised above the rest of the skin, spots that are not itchy and do not cause disturbance to the animal.They are found on the legs and trunk. Over time, the spots can grow up to 1 cm and merge with each other. In the future, the intensity of the staining weakens.

Despite the fact that lentigo does not pose a threat to the health and life of the animal, it is necessary to exclude other skin diseases that may manifest as hyperpigmentation:

  • Spots can form against the background of an inflammatory process of various etiology.
  • In places of mechanical friction, when a bacterial, viral, fungal component or parasites are attached.In this case, the color of the coat changes, becomes dull.
  • In other cases, hyperpigmentation is associated with foci of alopecia (alopecia). In these areas, the skin may become darker.
  • Animals, like humans, have papillomavirus skin lesions. In the initial stages, they can be disguised as hyperpigmentation. The course of the disease is unpredictable. Education can disappear on its own without a trace, or it can develop into a malignant tumor.

If in doubt about the health of your pet, it is best to visit a veterinary dermatologist.In controversial cases, the doctor will take a biopsy (tissue sample) from the pathological focus to clarify the diagnosis.

Health to you and your pets!
Department of Dermatology IEC “PiK”

Black teeth – why teeth turn black and what to do

The color of healthy teeth is light, so any dark spots on them immediately attract attention and spoil the aesthetics of a smile. And sometimes the color changes are so strong that, looking in the mirror, we see black teeth.Why this happens and what to do if the teeth have darkened – we will tell in this article.

Why are teeth black

Normally, the color of the teeth can be milky, creamy or yellowish – everything is individual and depends not on the enamel, which is almost transparent, but on the dentin that shines through it. The lighter the dentin, the whiter your smile appears. And its color cannot change dramatically – it almost always happens gradually.

If you begin to notice black spots or dots on your teeth, remember: you may have recently neglected brushing your teeth and at the same time in your diet there were drinks or foods high in dark colors.They could change the color of the plaque. Or you have been taking medications for a long time, the side effects of which could lead to darkening of your teeth. No? Then you need to come to the dentist, because the cause of black teeth in adults can be:

  • Tooth injury. Due to a strong blow, the pulp vessels are ruptured and injured – so a “bruise” may appear, due to which the tooth will subsequently turn black.
  • Removal of the nerve. Sometimes the doctor, saving your tooth, is forced to remove the nerve and clear the channels from the infection.If the dentist fills them with colored material or does not completely remove the affected tissue, the color of the tooth may change.
  • Caries. Black spots on the teeth are one of the signs of caries. By destroying enamel, dentine or pulp tissue, bacteria release gases and acids. They not only affect the tooth, but also stain the carious cavity black so that we notice it even through a thick layer of enamel.
  • Bad seal. If an air gap remains between the filling and the tooth, then very soon it will be colonized by bacteria.Gradually, they penetrate under the filling, and caries appears there. And he, as we already know, changes the color of the tooth.
  • Bad habits. Another reason for black teeth is smoking and coffee mania. Because of them, hard and soft deposits on the teeth are stained in dark colors.

A black tooth is not an indication for extraction, so the dentist’s task is to find out the cause of the discoloration and help correct the situation.

Why teeth blacken in children

Adults, as a rule, react ambiguously to black teeth in children.Some people perceive such a color change as a sign of caries and do not consider it necessary to go to the dentist. They are simply convinced that it is not necessary to treat milk teeth. Others are sincerely surprised that the child’s teeth have turned black, they are trying to find the reason for this and come to the pediatric dentist for an answer. Of course, we support the opinion of concerned parents, because the health of permanent teeth completely depends on the condition of milk teeth.

So why are the teeth black? If almost at the very gums you notice black lines on the child’s teeth, then they may be caused by Priestley’s plaque.It appears due to age-related changes in the digestive system. Once this process is complete, such plaque usually simply disappears. However, you must come to the dentist for an examination.

But the main reason for black plaque or dots on the teeth is the consumption of a large amount of sweet and starchy foods. Together with poor hygiene – and children rarely brush their teeth well – poor nutrition becomes a catalyst for the appearance of a dense microbial film (common pigmented plaque) and caries.Therefore, it is very important for parents to monitor not only the hygiene of the child, but also his nutrition.

However, children may have black teeth not only because of Priestley’s plaque, poor hygiene and an abundance of sweets. Here are some more reasons for the color change:

  • caries
  • problems with the gastrointestinal tract
  • calcium deficiency
  • genetic predisposition

If a child has black milk teeth, dark spots, spots or plaque appear on them, be sure to visit a pediatric dentist.It is very important to find out the reason for the changes and restore the healthy color to the smile.

Black teeth: what to do

The fight to restore healthy color to teeth must begin with a visit to the dentist. All you need to do is honestly tell how long ago you noticed the changes and what preceded them. You may have fallen and hit your face. Maybe the tooth hurts or you have been treating it not so long ago. And do not forget about your habits: everything is important for the doctor. After finding out for sure why the teeth have darkened, the dentist will offer effective solutions depending on the situation.

  • If you have black front teeth because you bruised them, the dentist will carefully remove all damaged tissue, process the canals and fill them with material that does not stain. And in order to restore healthy color to the teeth, he will offer to install veneers or to do intracanal whitening.
  • Poor hygiene caused dark spots and spots? Then the dentist will do a comprehensive professional oral and dental hygiene in order to remove all pigmented plaque and stones, as well as teach you how to properly brush your teeth.
  • If the teeth are blackened due to caries or a poorly installed filling, the dentist will remove it and all affected tissues, restore the tooth with a composite or ceramic filling, and strengthen the enamel with remotherapy or fluoridation.
  • Have your teeth turned black from food coloring? The dentist will easily restore their healthy color with the help of occupational hygiene and whitening, and will also recommend you special pastes and a “white” diet.

Black teeth always spoil the aesthetics of a smile.In order for your teeth to always maintain a healthy color, it is important to clean them correctly, monitor nutrition and regularly visit the dentist – once every six months for occupational hygiene and for a preventive consultation. After removing plaque, the doctor will be able to carefully examine each tooth from all sides and will certainly notice any changes.

90,000 Dental caries: types, symptoms, treatment.

Caries is a process that leads to cavities in the teeth. This happens when bacteria in the mouth release acid that eats away at the enamel and inside of the teeth.If left untreated, tooth decay can cause pain, infections, and tooth loss.

You can easily prevent tooth decay with regular brushing and flossing by visiting your dentist for professional dental cleaning and check-ups, avoiding foods high in sugar.

What causes tooth decay?

The combination of bacteria and food debris causes tooth decay. A sticky substance on teeth, called plaque, contains bacteria and forms on teeth and gums. The bacteria feed on the sugar in the food you eat and produce acid.The acid begins to destroy teeth within 20 minutes after eating.

Causes of caries

You are more exposed to dental caries if:

  • You don’t brush your teeth twice a day, in the morning and before bed.
  • You don’t floss every day.
  • You eat foods that contain a lot of sugar. The longer the sugary food stays on the teeth, the more bacteria feed and produce acid. Sweet foods like raisins, sugar, cake, cookies, caramel and toffee cause the most damage.

Lack of fluoride in public water supplies makes caries more likely.

You can pass bacteria that cause tooth decay to your child. This happens when you share spoons, forks, or utensils with children. Saliva on dishes contains bacteria. Sometimes, kissing can also transmit saliva and bacteria. You can help prevent decay of your child’s teeth by making sure your family practices good dental health habits.

Caries symptoms

Tooth decay usually does not cause symptoms until you have a cavity or an infected tooth.

When this occurs, symptoms include:

  • Toothache, which is the most common symptom. Infection or irritation of the pulp usually causes pain;
  • Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth;
  • White, gray, brown or black spots on teeth;
  • Leaking or crumbling filling;
  • A fractured tooth or a tooth that is sensitive to pressure.

The pain can get worse if you:

  • Eat sweets;
  • Eat hot or cold foods and drinks, acidic liquids such as citrus drinks;
  • Chew gum;
  • Breathe with open mouth in cold air.

Severe caries can lead to pus-filled sacs (abscesses) that form in the bone at the base of the tooth. Abscess symptoms include:

  • Fever;
  • Swollen glands;
  • Swelling of the jaw;
  • Deep, throbbing pain.

Types of caries

  • Cracks and cavities that form on the chewing and biting surfaces of the back teeth;
  • Cavities of smooth surfaces that form on the lateral parts of the tooth, including between the teeth;
  • Root cavity that forms at the root and may extend below the gum line.Root decay is less common than caries in other parts of the tooth. But rotting of the root most likely damages the pulp of the tooth;
  • Recurrent and secondary caries that form where you already have caries.

Untreated tooth decay causes more serious problems and can lead to gum disease.
Your saliva helps prevent tooth decay. It reduces acid damage to teeth by washing away the sticky sugary foods that bacteria feed on. The minerals in saliva also help to repair the tooth.

When to see the dentist?

You must make an appointment with the dentist if:

  • You have not been to the dentist for 6-12 months;
  • You have a toothache. Sometimes the pain goes away after a while, but tooth decay will continue to develop. A persistent toothache means you have severe tooth decay and may lose a tooth;
  • Swelling of the gums near the diseased tooth. This could mean that there is a serious tooth decay or abscess.

Expectant management is not suitable for toothache. If you ignore tooth decay after the pain goes away, the tooth can be seriously damaged.

Your dentist will best be able to assess your pain and caries. If you have severe tooth decay, he will be able to refer you to a specialist such as:

  • Endodont, who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cellulose problems;
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgeon who specializes in tooth extraction and other oral operations.
Caries treatment

You can take steps to treat tooth decay at home to reduce the pain and swelling of your face and jaw caused by tooth decay.

Use ice on the outside of your cheek. Don’t use heat.

Use pain relievers that include:

  • Aspirin. Do not give aspirin to people younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome;
  • Paracetamol;
  • Ibuprofen;
  • Naproxen.


Your dentist may prescribe chlorhexidine gluconate, a prescription mouthwash, to reduce the bacteria that cause tooth decay. They will also be able to recommend or prescribe other types of fluoride treatments, such as fluoride mouthwash, toothpaste, or supplements.

Over-the-counter medicines can also reduce pain and swelling in your face and jaw caused by tooth decay. These include paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin.Do not give aspirin to people younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.


You may need surgery if tooth decay has damaged the cellulose of the tooth.

Choice of surgery

  • Removal of a rotten tooth;
  • Root canal treatment, the dentist removes the pulp from the center of the tooth and fills the pulp cavity with a filling.

Things to think about

After the tooth is removed, the dentist will replace it with a bridge or implant.If the tooth is severely damaged, it may be easier to remove the tooth than to perform root canal treatment. If you are undergoing root canal treatment, you may need a dental crown.

If you have certain heart problems, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics before dental surgery. Surgery can cause infection. Antibiotics reduce your risk of getting an infection in your heart called endocarditis.

What is Priestley’s plaque and how to remove it? Author Irina Borovkova

The appearance of black spots on a baby’s milk teeth can scare many parents.Children’s dentist Irina Borovkova told more about this phenomenon, what parents need to know and how to remove darkening.

What is Priestley’s plaque in children?

Black plaque on teeth is a non-carious problem in children. It is a bacterial film that looks like dark, brown or even black spots on the teeth, which are located along the edge of the tooth or at the gum. Plaque formation can be quite sudden, and vice versa, it can gradually form for a long time.It happens that plaque covers a large area of ​​the tooth, making the smile unaesthetic, however, in its essence, it does not cause direct harm.

Black plaque on the teeth of a child at 2 years old

The danger of this type of plaque in children is that in its appearance it is easy to confuse it with caries. If you notice any darkening, stains or a dark border on your baby’s teeth, contact your child’s dentist right away. Only a specialist can correctly identify the problem and take the necessary measures to preserve the teeth.

Reasons for the appearance of black plaque in children

The main reason today is the microflora of the oral cavity and the activity of special bacteria. They are responsible for the intense dark color of dental plaque.

For a long time, there was an opinion that the appearance of dark plaque on the teeth in children is directly related to the work of the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of dysbiosis. To date, this theory has never been proven. The task of the doctor is to determine the possible cause of the increased activity of bacteria in the mouth, therefore, additional diagnostics of related specialists may be prescribed, possibly tests or cultures from the oral cavity.

How to remove black plaque from teeth?

It is impossible to remove Priestley’s plaque from a child with an ordinary brush at home. Therefore, it is important to contact your dentist in time for help. Treating young children is not an easy task for parents. Children under 3 years old find it difficult to sit in a chair for a long time or immediately tune in to treatment. Fortunately, removing Priestley’s plaque is painless for a child with the help of professional cleaning.

The dentist selects the method of plaque removal, depending on the density of the deposits.These can be special silicone brushes and cleaning compounds, or the use of the air flow method, where powder, water and air are combined, which effectively remove darkening and polish the tooth surface. Many people underestimate the importance and benefits of polishing teeth, although it is on a smooth surface that new plaque accumulates least of all.

This is how teeth look after removing black plaque with air flow

Methods of prevention

Parents should remember that even after professional cleaning of plaque, teeth need further, no less thorough care at home.

  1. Teach your child to brush their teeth on their own and control the process. The quality of home hygiene is the direct responsibility of the parents;
  2. Select oral care products based on the recommendations of your dentist. The brush and toothpaste should be appropriate for the child’s age;
  3. Maintain a healthy and healthy diet, and limit the use of unhealthy, sugary foods. It is useful for children to gnaw hard: raw apples, carrots.Such food contributes to the mechanical cleaning of teeth from plaque, massages the gums, and active chewing stimulates the growth of the jaws.

How to remove tartar and plaque from teeth
Pulpitis in children: what is important for parents to know
Modern methods of dental treatment in children


Borovkova Irina Vladimirovna

pediatricians, therapy, orthopedic dentistry

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90,000 Why do black spots appear on the skin of a dog?

Why do black spots appear on the skin of a dog?

The owner of a pet may be very worried that black marks of various shapes and sizes have appeared on the dog’s skin.These can be small black dots resembling comedones in humans, located on the face, abdomen or body, dark spots all over the body, scaly marks on the skin under the coat, and much more.

Reasons for the formation of dark marks

The appearance of various marks and marks on the dog’s skin can be caused by the following conditions and diseases:

  1. Lentigo. Traces of this disease are found on the belly and paws of the animal, less often found on other parts of the body.Lentigo is a cosmetic skin defect; there is no effective treatment.

  2. Dermatophytosis. These are fungal infections that appear on the dog’s body with spots of various shapes and sizes. Most often they form dark spots on the skin of a dog, located on the face, neck, paws and in the anal region. They are mainly characterized by the appearance of flaky, inflamed, crusty or weeping marks, characterized by severe itching. The dog actively combes the painful areas, spreading the infection throughout the body and introducing additional various bacteria, which further exacerbates the situation.

  3. Acute weeping dermatitis. Appears when the dog strongly scratches the skin and introduces bacterial microflora into the wounds. Scratching causes severe itching, the dog itches and further spreads the infection. Because of this, dark spots appear in the groin and other areas, covered with a crust from constant injury. Also, pus accumulates on the comb and the ichor can flow.

  4. Dark spots on the dog’s belly may be comedones.These are the openings of the sebaceous glands, enlarged and clogged with sebaceous plugs, or inflamed hair follicles. An outwardly harmless skin condition is the result of serious endocrine problems in the body or a secondary symptom of demodicosis. In miniature schnauzers, the primary comedones – black dots on the back – are a cosmetic defect that does not require treatment, which is genetically characteristic of this breed.

  5. Black spots on the skin of a pet can be a manifestation of allergies – to food, cosmetics, drugs and much more.

  6. Demodectic mange covers the paws of the animal with a reddish rash similar to scabies. This microscopic mite can provoke severe itching and scratching, in the place of which dark spots appear, covered with a dry flaky crust.

  7. Seborrhea. With this disease, dark marks appear on the skin, the coat deteriorates, tarnishes, falls off, breaks and falls out. Scales and dandruff form on the skin, accompanied by skin irritation and itching.

  8. Hormonal disorders. They are usually accompanied by increased oily skin, unpleasant odors from the animal, spots on the skin and itching, and baldness.

Since the reasons for the appearance of black marks on the skin of a dog are many, and they are all different, the most important action of the owner of the animal is to visit the veterinary clinic to establish the correct diagnosis.

Treatment of diseases

In order to know what to do if various spots appear on the dog’s skin, it is necessary to undergo a full examination by a veterinarian.Only an accurate diagnosis can become the basis for treatment, since various diseases require specialized therapy.

The appearance of lichens and other forms of dermatophytosis will require the use of complex measures. The dog will need to be bathed using special shampoos that cleanse the skin from flaking and relieve inflammation, as well as apply medicinal antifungal drugs as prescribed by the doctor.

Dark spots in the groin, or comedones, indicate disorders of the endocrine system, therefore, to get rid of them, you need to cure the underlying disease.This condition is especially susceptible to “bald” dog breeds, as well as miniature schnauzers, dachshunds, poodles, Samoyed dogs and adorable Japanese Akita Inu.

If the dark spots on the dog’s belly are not associated with disease, but are only a cosmetic defect, it is not necessary to treat them. However, you can remove blackheads on the back or in other areas with the help of special shampoos for animals containing the active ingredient – benzoyl peroxide. They perfectly cleanse the skin, eliminate the blockage of the sebaceous glands and the increased oiliness of the skin.

Treatment of infected skin areas is carried out with antibiotics. Only a doctor should prescribe such funds, since drugs for humans are not always allowed to be used for animals, and the dosage is selected individually according to the weight and age of the dog.

In the presence of demodicosis, the owners will have to pay special attention to the condition of the animal, because it is a very contagious disease. To prevent the tick from spreading throughout the body, you need to quickly identify the pathogen. In a veterinary clinic, a scraping will be taken from the dog, and if demodex is found, a special complex treatment will be prescribed.It will be necessary to carry out external treatments of the skin with special drugs for demodicosis, give the dog antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antihistamines and other drugs.

When detecting skin problems from itching, specialized shampoos for dogs help well. When used in combination with other therapies and proper nutrition, the health of the pet improves rapidly.

90,000 Why plaque forms on teeth: causes, prevention

Soft deposits on the teeth can be easily removed with high-quality cleaning.If you ignore them, tartar will appear, which will lead to injury to the gums, a change in the structure of the enamel, and the development of caries. So that you can avoid such problems, we talked in detail about why plaque forms on the teeth, how to prevent the development of complications, and remove soft and hard deposits.


  1. How does plaque build up?
  2. What are the stages of formation?
  3. How to remove plaque from teeth at home?
  4. How to remove plaque in dentistry?
  5. Word to Doctor

How does plaque form?

Soft deposits constantly appear on the teeth of every person.This natural process occurs due to the huge amount of bacteria on the mucous membranes that remain in the mouth even after hygiene procedures.

There is a pellicle (structureless film) on the surface of each tooth. Microbes are constantly attached to it, which leads to the formation of a soft porous plaque.

Carrying out high-quality cleaning will help to easily remove soft deposits, but its absence will lead to the formation of tartar. It is solid deposits that cause tissue inflammation, gum injury, periodontitis and other diseases.To remove tartar, you will have to seek help from dentistry, as home cleaning is not enough.

To better understand why plaque forms on the teeth, you need to disassemble the main reasons for its appearance:

  • Missing or improper cleaning of the oral cavity.
  • The predominance of soft foods in the diet, due to which the teeth are not cleaned naturally.
  • Abnormal position of the teeth.
  • Altered saliva mineral composition or acidity due to metabolic problems.
  • Taking medications for a long time.

The most common reason why plaque builds up on teeth is a lack of thorough brushing, replacing the standard procedure with chewing gum. Eating colored foods and drinks results in pigmented plaque, which means teeth turn yellow and brown or black spots appear.

What are the stages of plaque formation?

You don’t have to give up your favorite foods and drinks to avoid the formation of tartar or tooth decay.Keeping the number of pathogenic microorganisms in the norm allows a thorough hygienic cleaning of the oral cavity, the use of floss and rinse after meals. A neglect of teeth and traditional hygiene procedures will trigger the process of the formation of hard deposits.

The plaque itself is formed in three stages, depending on the number of hours passed since the last brushing:

  1. First 4 hours. A favorable environment is gradually created for the growth of bacteria, after which they begin to spread.
  2. Next 4-7 hours. The number of bacteria increases 10 times, and their fixation on the surface leads to the formation of soft plaque. The predominance of streptococci and lactobacilli causes deterioration of enamel, increases the risk of caries.
  3. After 6-7 hours. Plaque becomes visible and the constant exposure to saliva and microbes hardens soft deposits. Gradually, the harmless soft plaque is mineralized and turns into stone.

In the early stages, plaque does not have a serious effect on the body, and it can be removed by simply brushing your teeth, using a rinse aid, and dental floss. Gradually, microorganisms will begin to secrete acids, which will lead to the destruction of the enamel, infections will begin to penetrate into the structure of the tooth, which will cause caries.

When dental plaque hardens and hardens, there is a high likelihood of inflammation of the gums, bleeding. Periodontal disease can cause premature tooth loss.And we must not forget about the constant bad breath (halitosis), which creates difficulties when communicating with other people.

How to remove plaque from teeth at home?

Soft white dental deposits do not destroy the enamel. To remove them, it is enough to thoroughly clean the teeth, especially in the interdental spaces. You can clean hard-to-reach areas with dental floss.

Many people are interested in how to remove yellow plaque on the teeth, which can ruin even the most beautiful smile.Such deposits have a loose structure and can be easily removed. Regular brushing with a stiff bristled brush and whitening toothpaste is enough to return the sparkling whiteness. Dental deposits of a yellowish tint are the most benign.

The opinion that yellow plaque on the teeth cannot be removed is erroneous, since it can be removed with home remedies:

  • Thorough brushing of teeth in the morning and in the evening. We recommend using medicated toothpastes with a high fluoride content.They cannot be used constantly, one month course is enough.
  • Cleaning after every meal. There is no point in trying to remove old plaque while ignoring new plaque removal. After each meal, use rinse aid or regular water for rinsing, floss – to remove food debris.

It is easy to find folk remedies for removing plaque on the Internet. We advise you to abandon serious experiments, because there is a risk of independently destroying the enamel and getting burned.If you have already decided to use these methods, first consult your doctor.

How to remove plaque in dentistry?

In each case, the complexity of removing yellow plaque is different. In addition, there are brown and black shades that arise from regular smoking, consumption of large amounts of unhealthy foods and drinks.

If the cause of the appearance of plaque on the teeth is not in problems with the internal organs, professional oral hygiene will come to the rescue.