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Bloated and vomiting: What Is Ovarian Cancer? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention


What Is Ovarian Cancer? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Ovarian cancer treatment almost always starts with surgery. Most women who are diagnosed with ovarian cancer will have an operation to remove the tumor, or at least as much of it as possible.

If the cancer is diagnosed early (as is the case for only 2 women in 10), the operation may be limited to removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, a procedure called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, as well as the uterus (a hysterectomy). Depending on the cancer and the stage, some women who want to preserve their fertility may be able to keep one ovary and fallopian tube, and their uterus.

More extensive surgery may be necessary for cancers that have spread, assuming the patient is healthy enough to withstand it.

Surgery is important for staging the cancer — determining how advanced it is in order to settle on the best treatment and make a prognosis.

Medication Options

Post-surgery, many patients are treated with numerous rounds of chemotherapy, which involves administering drugs (typically two used in combination) that kill cancer cells. Sometimes patients will receive chemotherapy before and after surgery, to first shrink the tumor before it is surgically removed. Except for early-stage cancers, chemotherapy is almost always part of the treatment plan.

For advanced ovarian cancers, doctors may also turn to targeted therapy. This type of next-generation medication works by homing in on specific characteristics of cancer cells, disrupting their inner workings and causing them to die, while sparing healthy cells.

For instance, the targeted drug Avastin (bevacizumab) attacks cancer by targeting a protein in malignant cells that enables them to form new blood vessels they need to grow. (8)

Alternative and Complementary Therapies

Some women with ovarian cancer turn to alternative therapies to ease their symptoms and side effects.

Common therapies include:

Always talk to your doctor before trying an alternative treatment.

Additionally, patients with ovarian cancer may benefit from palliative care. This approach can provide relief from the physical and emotional impacts of cancer. Palliative care can be given along with standard cancer treatments. When combined with appropriate therapies, people who choose palliative care may feel better and live longer. (9,10)

Learn More About Treatment for Ovarian Cancer: Medication, Alternative and Complementary Therapies, Surgery Options, and More

Prevention of Ovarian Cancer

Scientists continue to look for ways to reduce a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer.

For now, they have identified two protective factors:

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding Women who become pregnant before age 26 and carry to term are at lower risk, with each subsequent full-term pregnancy diminishing the risk further. Breastfeeding has an effect too, perhaps because it prevents ovulation. The risk for cell mutation, which can lead to cancer, is greater the more you ovulate. (11,12)
  • Birth control Women who have used oral contraceptives are at lower risk. So are women who’ve had a tubal ligation (had their fallopian tubes tied) or used an intrauterine device (IUD) for a short time. Women who’ve had a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) also see their ovarian cancer risk drop by a third. (4)

7 signs and symptoms not to ignore

7 signs and symptoms not to ignore

Take note of important signs and symptoms — from unexplained weight loss to sudden flashes of light — and know when to seek medical care.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Chest pain, sudden loss of vision or speech, and severe abdominal pain require immediate medical attention — but what about more subtle signs and symptoms? It can be tough to know what to do. Here’s a list of seven signs and symptoms that merit attention.

1. Unexplained weight loss

Losing weight without trying might sound like a dream come true, but in reality it can signal a health problem. If you don’t have a body mass index of 30 or higher (obesity) and you’ve lost more than 10 pounds (4. 5 kilograms), or more than 5 percent of your body weight, during the past six to 12 months consult your doctor.

An unexplained drop in weight could be caused by various conditions — including overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), diabetes, depression, liver disease, cancer or disorders that interfere with how your body absorbs nutrients (malabsorption disorders).

2. Persistent or high fever

A fever isn’t necessarily a cause for alarm. Fever seems to play a key role in fighting infection. Persistent fever can signal a hidden infection, which could be anything from a urinary tract infection to tuberculosis. In some cases, cancerous (malignant) conditions — such as lymphomas — cause prolonged or persistent fevers, as can some medications.

Call your doctor if your temperature is 103 F (39.4 C) or higher or you’ve had a fever for more than three days.

3. Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath could signal an underlying health problem. Very strenuous exercise, extreme temperatures, massive obesity and high altitude all can cause shortness of breath. Outside of these examples, shortness of breath is likely a sign of a medical problem. If you have unexplained shortness of breath, especially if it comes on suddenly and is severe, seek emergency medical care.

Causes for breathlessness might include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, a blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism), as well as other heart and lung problems. Difficulty breathing can also occur with a panic attack — a sudden episode of intense anxiety that triggers severe physical reactions when there is no real danger or apparent cause.

4. Unexplained changes in bowel habits

What’s considered normal for bowel movements varies widely. Consult your doctor if you notice unusual or unexplained changes in what’s normal for you, such as:

  • Bloody, black or tarry-colored stools
  • Persistent diarrhea or constipation
  • Unexplained urges to have a bowel movement

Changes in bowel habits could signal a bacterial infection — such as campylobacter or salmonella infection — or a viral or parasitic infection. Other possible causes include irritable bowel disease and colon cancer.

5. Confusion or personality changes

Seek medical attention if you have sudden:

  • Poor thinking skills
  • Difficulty focusing, sustaining or shifting attention
  • Behavior changes

These changes could be caused by many problems, including infection, poor nutrition, mental health conditions or medications.

6. Feeling full after eating very little

If you consistently feel full sooner than normal or after eating less than usual, get checked by your doctor. This feeling, known as early satiety, also might be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating or weight loss. If so, be sure to tell your doctor about these signs and symptoms as well.

Possible causes of early satiety include gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly known as GERD, and peptic ulcers. In some cases, a more serious problem — such as pancreatic cancer — could be a factor.

7. Flashes of light

Bright spots or flashes of light sometimes indicate a migraine. In other cases, sudden flashes of light could signal retinal detachment. Immediate medical care can help prevent permanent vision loss.

April 02, 2020

Show references

  1. Unintentional weight loss. National Health Service. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/unexpected-weight-loss/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  2. Goldman L, et al., eds. Nutritional assessment. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  3. Fever. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/biology-of-infectious-disease/fever. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  4. Goldman L, et al., eds. Approach to fever or suspected infection in the normal host. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  5. Fever. American College of Emergency Physicians. http://www.emergencycareforyou.org/Content.aspx?id=242. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  6. Dyspnea. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/symptoms-of-pulmonary-disorders/dyspnea. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  7. Mockel M, et al. Chief complaints in medical emergencies: Do they relate to underlying disease and outcome? The Charité´ Emergency Medicine Study (CHARITEM). European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2013;20:103.
  8. Shortness of breath symptoms, causes and risk factors. American Lung Association. http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/shortness-of-breath/shortness-breath-symptoms-risks.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  9. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gastrointestinal-bleeding. Accessed Feb.21, 2017.
  10. Diarrhea. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/diarrhea. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  11. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ibd/. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  12. Constipation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/constipation. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  13. Overview of GI symptoms. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/symptoms-of-gi-disorders/overview-of-gi-symptoms. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  14. Francis J, et al. Diagnosis of delirium and confusional states. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  15. Feldman M, et al. Dyspepsia. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  16. What you need to know about cancer of the pancreas. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-pancreas. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  17. Flashes of light. American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/symptoms/flashes-of-light. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.

See more In-depth


Stomach bloating: Bloating accompanied with pain, nausea or weight loss could be serious

Stomach bloating is a sensation when the belly swells up and is often accompanied by a feeling of pain and gas. Most of the time the sensation eases after a few hours but sometimes this uncomfortable feeling can persist and negatively affects a person’s life. According to Healthline, sometimes bloating can signal something more sinister.

When bloating is accompanied with nausea

Nausea is a symptom which occurs when the stomach feels queasy and unsettled.

Many factors could contribute to this feeling including some medical conditions.

Health experts advise to be on alert when your bloating is followed by nausea as it could signal serious medical conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis, gastrointestinal blockage, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis.

READ MORE: Type 2 diabetes: The seed oil shown to enhance insulin response and control blood sugar

When bloating is accompanied with severe pain

Severe abdominal pain with bloating may be a sign of a bowel obstruction from scar tissue or a tumour pressing down on the bowel.

Immediate medical attention is strongly advised if these two sensations occur as bowel perforation can be fatal.

Obstructions in the bowel can be painful due to the bowel above the blocked area being stretched out as it fills with food and digestive juices.

This pain has been described as an intense, shooting pain and can occur in waves as the contents tries to push its way through the obstructed area.


When bloating is accompanied with weight loss

If your constant bloating accompanies unexpected weight loss, this is one of the main warning signs for a serious condition.

Weight loss can be caused by tumours which press on the intestines, making a person feel full even after just a small meal.

Ascites is a serious medical condition which has symptoms of bloating and weight loss.

Ascites is an abnormal build-up of fluid in the abdomen or pelvis and is usually caused by liver disease, although cancer can also be a culprit to this condition.

The combination of bloating and jaundice can be a sign of cancer which has spread to the liver.

If your bloating isn’t caused by anything serious, think about cutting out fizzy drinks and foods which may cause wind.

The NHS states: “Most of us have experienced the feeling of being bloated, when the tummy is stretched, puffy and uncomfortable.

“It often happens after a big weekend or over a festive season.

“But if you are experiencing persistent bloating, it may be caused by a digestive problem or issues with your diet.”

It’s important to listen to your body as it often gives many warning signs that something is not quite right.

Stopping eating when you have had enough food is one of the most basic things a person can do to help avoid bloating.

Being vigilant with what foods trigger different outcomes will also help you avoid the bloat.

If your bloating is causing other serious side effects, it’s imperative to speak with your GP about the possible cause. 

Diverticulitis: Signs, Symptoms, and Complications

In many cases, diverticula cause no symptoms but occasionally they can become infected and/or inflamed, which is a condition called diverticulitis.

The most common symptom of diverticulitis is stomach pain (usually on the left side), but it can also cause a change in bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea), fever, and nausea or vomiting.

Luckily, even with symptoms, the majority of cases of diverticulitis are not complicated and can be treated at home. However, according to a 2010 study around 27 percent of the time there can be complications that require hospitalization.

© Verywell, 2018 

Frequent Symptoms

The abdominal pain is the most common symptom of diverticulitis and it is usually constant and goes on for several days.

In most cases, the diverticula form in the last part of the large intestine, which is called the sigmoid colon. It is located on the left side of the abdomen, which is why diverticulitis may lead to feeling discomfort or pain primarily on that side.

However, in a minority of cases, some people may have pain on the right or on both sides of the abdomen if there are diverticula in other parts of the colon.

Other common symptoms can include:

  • chills
  • constipation
  • cramping
  • bloating
  • diarrhea (occasionally)
  • gas
  • fever
  • lack of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Rare Symptoms

Bleeding with diverticulitis isn’t common but can occur in some cases. If there are complications from the diverticulitis, such as a fistula, abscess, or bowel perforation, there can be other symptoms caused by those conditions. Symptoms of diverticulitis that are less common can include:

  • bladder irritation or urinary symptoms
  • blood in the stool
  • rectal bleeding


While they are not common, there are several different complications that may occur along with diverticulitis.


An abscess is a bacterial infection that causes a pocket of blood and pus to form. Abscesses associated with diverticulitis may cause fever and abdominal pain. They are treated with antibiotics and/or drainage.


A fistula is a tunnel that forms in the body and connects either two organs or an organ and the skin. 

Symptoms of a fistula (which depends on location) can include a break in the skin, swelling, pain, passing air while urinating, passing stool through the vagina, a visible skin break, or drainage from the area.

A fistula may be treated with surgery or with the use of a seton, which is a thread that is gradually tightened until the fistula is closed.

Bowel Obstruction

A bowel obstruction is a blockage in the intestine which prevents the passage of stool. When diverticulitis leads to a bowel obstruction the symptoms can include abdominal pain, distention, and bloating; constipation or diarrhea; thin stools; and nausea and vomiting.

An obstruction might be treated in the hospital through the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube or in some cases may require surgery.


A perforation is a hole in the colon. It is a serious condition that requires treatment immediately in order to prevent complications such as peritonitis, which is a potentially fatal infection.

The symptoms of a perforation can include severe abdominal pain, fever, chills, bleeding from the rectum, and nausea and vomiting.

When to See a Doctor

Diverticulitis can be managed at home, but the symptoms always require a trip to the doctor or the hospital for evaluation and direction for treatment at home or in the hospital.

Abdominal pain should prompt a call to a doctor, but when it is severe and accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, nausea, vomiting, and rectal bleeding it is a reason to go to the emergency department right away or even to call 911.

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In most cases diverticulitis is uncomplicated, but with severe symptoms there is a risk of complications that can be serious and life-threatening. Even if symptoms are thought to be from diverticulitis because it has happened before, calling a doctor is important in order to get the correct treatment and to ensure that more serious problems aren’t going to occur.  

Frequently Asked Questions

What does a diverticulitis attack feel like? 

A diverticulitis attack typically involves abdominal pain on the left side. It may also include a change in bowel habits with either constipation or diarrhea, fever, nausea, or vomiting.

What foods aggravate diverticulitis? 

When you are having a diverticulitis flare-up, it is recommended to avoid high-fiber foods such as whole grains, fruit and vegetable skin, nuts, seeds, beans, and popcorn. 

When should you go to the ER with stomach pain? 

Severe abdominal pain accompanied by fever, nausea, vomiting, or rectal bleeding should be seen immediately.

Dypepsia-What It Is and What to Do About It

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor. org, the AAFP patient education website.

Information from Your Family Doctor


Am Fam Physician. 1999 Oct 15;60(6):1787-1788.

See related article on dyspepsia.

What is dyspepsia?

Dyspepsia is a pain or an uncomfortable feeling in the upper middle part of your stomach. The pain might come and go, but it’s usually there most of the time.

People of any age can get dyspepsia. Both men and women get it. About one of every four persons gets dyspepsia at some time.

What are the signs of dyspepsia?

Here are some of the signs of dyspepsia:

  • A gnawing or burning stomach pain

  • Bloating (a feeling of fullness in your stomach)

  • Heartburn (stomach contents coming back up into your throat)

  • Upset stomach (nausea)

  • Vomiting

  • Burping

If you have these signs, or any kind of stomach pain or discomfort, talk to your family doctor.

What causes dyspepsia?

Often, dyspepsia is caused by a stomach ulcer or acid reflux disease. If you have acid reflux disease, stomach acid backs up into your esophagus. (The esophagus is the tube leading from your mouth to your stomach.) This causes pain in your chest. Your doctor may do some tests to find out if you have an ulcer or acid reflux disease.

If you have dyspepsia, your doctor will ask if you take certain medicines. Some medicines, like anti-inflammatory medicines, can cause dyspepsia.

Rarely, dyspepsia is caused by stomach cancer, so you should take this problem seriously. Sometimes no cause of dyspepsia can be found.

Is dyspepsia a serious condition?

Most often, medicine can take care of this condition.

Sometimes dyspepsia can be the sign of a serious problem—for example, a deep stomach ulcer.

If you have dyspepsia, talk to your family doctor. This is especially important if any one of the following is true for you:

  • You’re over 50 years of age

  • You recently lost weight without trying to

  • You have trouble swallowing

  • You have severe vomiting

  • You have black, tarry bowel movements (this means blood in your stools)

  • You can feel a mass in your stomach area

How is dyspepsia treated?

If you have a stomach ulcer, it can be cured. You may need to take an acid-blocking medicine. If you have an infection in your stomach, you may also need to take an antibiotic.

If your doctor thinks that a medicine you’re taking causes your dyspepsia, you might take another medicine.

A medicine that cuts down on the amount of acid in your stomach might help your pain. This medicine can also help if you have acid reflux disease.

Your doctor might want you to have an endoscopy exam if:

In an endoscopy exam, a small tube with a camera inside it is put into your mouth and down into your stomach. Then your doctor can look inside your stomach to try to find a cause for your pain.

Do the medicines for dyspepsia have side effects?

The medicines for dyspepsia most often have only minor side effects that go away on their own. Some medicines can make your tongue or stools black. Some cause headaches, nausea or diarrhea.

If you have side effects that make it hard for you to take medicine for dyspepsia, talk to your family doctor. Your doctor may have you take a different medicine or may suggest something you can do to make the side effects less bothersome.

Remember to take medicines just the way your doctor tells you. If you need to take an antibiotic, take all of the pills, even when you start feeling better.

Can I do anything else to avoid dyspepsia?

You can do quite a bit to help yourself feel better:

  • If you smoke, stop smoking.

  • If some foods bother your stomach, try to avoid eating them.

  • Try to reduce the stress in your life.

  • If you have acid reflux, don’t eat right before bedtime. Raising the head of your bed with blocks under two legs may also help.

  • Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, don’t take a lot of anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen (brand name: Naprosyn) and ketoprofin (brand name: Orudis). Acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol) is a better choice for pain, because it doesn’t hurt your stomach.

How COVID-19 can mimic gastrointestinal cancer

As more is learned about COVID-19, experts say gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms — such as diarrhea or nausea — can be early warning signs of the virus.

A recent multi-hospital study in the United States showed that two-thirds of patients with COVID-19 experienced some type of stomach or GI symptom. Some early reports from China also indicated that nearly half of COVID-19 patients also had some GI symptoms.

Individuals with gastrointestinal or stomach cancer may not only experience more severe GI symptoms with COVID-19, they may also have difficult ascertaining if their symptoms are due to the cancer or COVID-19. Many people with cancer also experience diarrhea, nausea or vomiting during their cancer treatment.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), symptoms of coronavirus may develop within 2 to 14 days of exposure. Symptoms of COVID-19 may include:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion
  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

It’s worth noting that GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea are so common among people with cancer that many also see a gastroenterologist to help deal with their symptoms.

Additional symptoms of GI cancer include:

  • Feeling full or bloated after eating a small amount of food
  • Bloody stools
  • Stomach pain
  • Changes in bowel movements
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Problems swallowing

While it may be difficult to tell if your GI symptoms are due to cancer or a COVID-19 infection, you should contact your doctor immediately if you are experiencing any symptoms. If you believe you’ve been exposed to someone with COVID-19, be sure to alert your physician so they can properly prepare for your office visit.

Because cancer patients are at higher risk for COVID-19, experts urge them to take extra caution. The CDC recommends frequent hand washing, covering your cough or sneeze, wearing a face mask, routine wiping down of frequently-touched hard surfaces in your home, practicing social distancing and avoiding large crowds to help prevent the spread of the virus.

If you believe you’ve been exposed to the virus, contact your doctor immediately and self-isolate in your home by staying in a separate bedroom if possible.

If you feel ill, Edward-Elmhurst Health offers screening options for COVID-19. Eleanor, your personal virtual assistant, can help you check your symptoms 24/7 and advise you on what to do next. We also offer Video Visits and E-Visits for COVID-19 symptoms.

For COVID-19 updates, please check EEHealth.org/coronavirus.

The information in this article may change at any time due to the changing landscape of this pandemic. Read the latest on COVID-19.

Abdominal Bloating | HealthEngine Blog


Abdominal bloating is felt by patients as a feeling of fullness, tightness or distension in the abdomen. Bloating is different to abdominal swelling, where the abdomen is actually increased in size, although both of these features may be present.
Abdominal bloating is quite common and in the majority of cases will not be caused by anything serious. Excessive gas due to dietary factors, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or difficulty absorbing certain foods are amongst the most common causes. If your abdominal bloating is prolonged, severe, or if you have other worrying symptoms (e.g. diarrhoea, constipation, weight loss or bleeding) it is extrememly important you see your doctor so they can exclude serious conditions (e.g. cancer).

What is abdominal bloating?

Abdominal bloating refers to a sensation of fullness or a sense of abdominal enlargement. It is often due to disturbance in the normal function of the gastrointestinal tract, causing an increase in intestinal gas.
Gas in the intestine is a mixture of numerous different components which can be increased by swallowing too much air, excess production, or impaired absorption due to obstruction. Excess gas causes bloating as well as other gas symptoms such as flatulence or burping.
If the abdomen is visibly distended in association with bloating, it is more likely that there is an organic, rather than functional, cause of the symptom. Bloating is frequently associated with abdominal pain that may be relieved by passing gas or bowel motions.

What causes abdominal bloating?

Abdominal bloating may be a feature of a number of disorders, the majority of which are not serious and result from changes in gastrointestinal function. Possible common causes are:


Your body takes a long time to break down and expel fat from the body. Too much fat in your diet can cause episodes of bloating. Other foods can cause bloating due to the formation of extra gas. These foods include cabbage, cauliflower, baked beans and salads.

Malabsorption syndromes

A number of disorders exist where the body cannot break down and absorb certain components of food. In these cases, the remaining food products can produce extra gas due to certain chemical reactions, or due to the good bacteria in the bowel trying extra hard to break these foods down. Lactose intolerance, coeliac disease and other food intolerances are examples of disorders that cause bloating by these mechanisms.

Air swallowing

If you swallow large amounts of air, your bowel has trouble absorbing or removing it all from the body fast enough. This means more will stay within the bowel lumen and cause the sensation of a full bowel. Anxiety or nervousness, eating quickly, gulping food or beverages, drinking through straws and chewing gum can all cause you to swallow increased amounts of air.

Irritable bowel syndrome 

Irritable bowel syndrome is a common disorder where patients have alternating episodes of constipation and diarrhoea. Abdominal bloating is one of the key features of this diagnosis.

Partial bowel obstruction

A blockage at some point in the intestines will impair the mechanical transit of food and may lead to bloating.


Constipation is characterised by a reduction in the frequency of bowel motions, and may cause bloating.


Bloating is common in women at the time of menstruation, or as part of a premenstrual stress disorder.

Other causes

Very rarely, your bloating may be due to a more serious condition, so it often pays to discuss your symptoms with a doctor. The following conditions are less common but don’t want to be missed:

  • Ascites: Sometimes you may feel bloated due to the accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity, called ascites. This is often the result of liver disease.
  • Tumours: Very occasionally, you may feel bloated because there is a tumour present within your abdomen, of the ovaries, liver, stomach or elsewhere. The present of a lump or swelling should alert you to the possibility of a tumour or cancer.
  • Infection: Certain parasitic disorders can cause abnormal dilatations of the colon (megacolon) associated with symptoms of bloating.

Assessment of abdominal bloating

If you experience abdominal bloating, it is important to see your doctor to make sure there is nothing serious present. In particular, if you have symptoms of diarrhoea, constipation, weight loss or bleeding from anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (vomiting blood or bloody or dark stools), there is a greater possibility that something more serious is present rather than just a functional problem.
When you see your doctor, you should be prepared to answer detailed questions about:

  • Duration of the bloating
  • Your diet
  • The relationship of the bloating to certain foods
  • If you’re a female, any change in bloating during the menstrual cycle
  • Any other associated symptoms
  • Any past medical history
  • Current medications

Your doctor will then examine you, paying particular attention to palpating your abdomen for any masses or swelling. Your doctor will also tap your belly to identify any fluid present. Listening to bowel sounds can help your doctor determine if there is an obstruction. The doctor may perform a rectal examination if you have other bowel symptoms.
If your bloating is due to a functional problem, such as an inability to tolerate dairy products or wheat, examination is likely to be normal. Your doctor may suggest trials of certain diets to determine if it is a particular food triggering your symptoms.
Investigations are needed in some patients, particularly when the other serious symptoms are present. Your doctor may refer you for the following:

  • Radiography: Plain x-rays of your abdomen can tell if it is blocked in certain places.
  • Ultrasound or CT: May be done if the doctor suspects ascites (fluids) or a mass.
  • Colonoscopy: Involves inserting a long tube (with a light and a camera on the end of it) into the rectum (back passage). The doctor can then look at the inside of the bowels to make sure there are no tumours (e. g. colon cancer).
  • Barium enema 

If a specific cause is suggested (e.g. lactose intolerance), special trial diets or further diagnostic testing (e.g. lactose tolerance test) may be required. Coeliac disease may be diagnosed by a series of blood tests looking for certain antibodies.

Management of abdominal bloating

The treatment of bloating mainly depends on the underlying cause of the symptom. Your doctor would have performed a number of necessary tests to exclude serious problems. Treatment then focuses on a number of diet and lifestyle changes:

  • Avoid carbonated beverages.
  • Avoid chewing gum as this predisposes to air swallowing.
  • Avoid foods that are difficult to digest or that cause increased amounts of gas (e.g. brussel sprouts, cabbage, beans and lentils).
  • Be careful of your sources of fibre. Patients with IBS often need increased amounts of fibre to relieve their symptoms, however, some types of fibre such as psyllium (in Metamucil) can exacerbate bloating. You should discuss your choice of fibre supplements with a pharmacist.
  • Eat small, frequent meals at a reasonable pace (slowly).
  • Drinking fennel tea may help your symptoms.

In some patients, over-the-counter medications such as simethicone, beano and activated charcoal can help gas symptoms. Your doctor may suggest a trial of some of these, but unfortunately they have only modest benefits and do not work in all patients.

More information

For more information on nutrition, including information on types and composition of food, nutrition and people, conditions related to nutrition, and diets and recipes, as well as some useful videos and tools, see Nutrition.



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  2. Glickman R. Abdominal swelling and ascites. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (16th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing; 2006. [Book]
  3. Lehrer JK, Lichtenstein GR. Irritable bowel syndrome [online]. Omaha, NE: WebMD eMedicine; 2005 [cited 25 July 2006]. Available from: URL link
  4. Longmore M, Wilkinson I, Rajagopalan S. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (6th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. [Book]
  5. Abdominal bloating [online]. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health Medline Plus; 2004 [cited 25 July 2006]. Available from: URL link
  6. Szarka L, Levitt M. Belching, bloating and flatulence [online]. Bethesda, MD: American College of Gastroenterology; 2006 [cited 25 July 2006]. Available from: URL link

90,000 new bird cherries, academic, Kaluga, trade union, medical center South-West Administrative District


Gastroenterology is a branch of medicine that studies the causes and mechanisms of development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, develops new methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gastroenterological diseases.
If you are concerned about: pain or discomfort in the abdomen of various localization, bloating, belching, heartburn, bitterness in the mouth, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea or constipation – do not postpone your visit to the gastroenterologist.

In general, the digestive system is very complex and highly vulnerable. Our life is filled with stress, unhealthy diet, bad ecology, fast pace and rush. All this significantly affects the state of the gastrointestinal tract, therefore, the number of patients with gastroenterological diseases is growing. As it was said in one of the ancient Indian treatises, which is dated 1515 – “Know that illnesses come from eating bad food or eating during illness.” Often, ineffective treatment or self-medication contributes to the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

A gastroenterologist diagnoses and treats such diseases as:

  • Gastritis;
  • Pancreatitis;
  • Intestinal dysbiosis;
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease or reflux esophagitis
  • Ulcers of the duodenum and stomach;
  • Colitis;
  • Enteritis, enterocolitis,
  • Cholecystitis, gallstone disease,
  • Hepatosis and hepatitis,
  • Biliary dyskinesia,
  • Irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation.

The most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:

Gastritis – characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa. The general condition of a person worsens, pains, heaviness in the stomach, fatigue, weakness appear. Self-medication in most cases leads to chronicity of the process. Very often gastritis is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Only a properly selected H. pylori therapy gives positive results in curing gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and achieving a stable remission of these diseases for a long time.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease – if you are worried about heartburn, belching or chest pain, you should definitely see a gastroenterologist. You cannot take soda on your own, as its intake leads to a violation of the acid-base balance in the blood. Only a doctor can identify the causes leading to reflux (insufficiency of the sphincter in the region of the esophagus into the stomach (cardia insufficiency), hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm) and choose the right treatment to prevent such serious complications as erosion and ulcer of the esophagus, perforation of the esophagus.

Pancreatitis is a pancreatic disease that requires urgent treatment and consultation with a gastroenterologist. Complications of the disease can be life-threatening or lead to serious consequences, including necrosis of the pancreas and death.
Intestinal dysbiosis is an imbalance in the intestinal microflora. When the “useful” intestinal flora decreases or disappears, as a result, the absorption of nutrients is impaired.Also, dysbiosis is characterized by increased reproduction of “harmful” bacteria in the intestine, which normally should be few, as a result of which there is flatulence (bloating) and diarrhea (diarrhea). This disease occurs very often in both adults and children after taking antibiotics. The disease can be accompanied by: bloating of the intestines, belching, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, skin and allergic manifestations, early aging of the body. Even mildly expressed dysbiosis requires treatment, as it can lead to metabolic and immunological changes in the body.

Peptic ulcer of the duodenum and stomach are chronic diseases prone to relapse. Often the ulcer is accompanied by the appearance of pain in the epigastric region, weakness, and the appearance of “black” stools. During such a period, it is necessary to urgently consult a gastroenterologist and undergo diagnostics, since peptic ulcer disease entails serious complications that can threaten a person’s life – stomach bleeding, perforation of an ulcer.

Colitis – inflammation and damage to the mucous membrane of the large intestine, which usually appears with various infections, unhealthy diet, poisoning, disorders of the immune system.Its symptoms: abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, sometimes accompanied by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stool.

Cholecystitis is characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, which most often occurs as a result of pathogenic bacteria entering it or the development of gallstone disease. Stones in the gallbladder may not make themselves felt for a long time, but with banal infections, injuries or errors in the diet, an inflammatory process occurs in the gallbladder. If untreated, this leads to purulent inflammation of the peritoneum, which requires immediate surgical intervention.If medical care is not provided within a few hours and the operation is performed, serious complications, including death from peritonitis and sepsis, may follow.

Enteritis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, which in its advanced stage threatens with ulceration. In the acute period of the disease, abdominal pain occurs, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, loss of appetite, weakness, and sometimes fever.Often with enteritis, the stomach and colon are involved in the inflammatory process.

Modern diagnostics of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract allows detecting diseases of the digestive system even at the initial stage and includes the following examinations:

Blood tests – complete blood count; biochemical blood test for liver enzymes and samples; indicators of pigment metabolism of bilirubin; pancreatic enzymes; blood test for intestinal infections; Helicobacter; viruses; protozoa and helminthic invasions.

Fecal tests – coprogram, fecal occult blood test, bile pigments; analysis of feces for dysbiosis, intestinal infections, protozoa, worms.
Analysis of urine for bile pigments.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy – endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum – provides complete information about the state of the mucosa and digestive dysfunction in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In addition, during gastroscopy, you can get 100% information about the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a person’s stomach and determine oncological diseases in the early stages.Therefore, gastroscopy is recommended in terms of clinical examination annually (!) To all patients over 45 years old.

Colonoscopy – endoscopic examination of the mucous membrane of all parts of the large intestine. Colonoscopy allows early detection of diverticula, tumors, intestinal inflammation, polyps and their endoscopic removal. Both gastroscopy and colonoscopy can optionally be performed in a “medication” sleep state, i. E. under anesthesia. This allows you to easily and painlessly transfer the procedure.

Ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs – helps the doctor to obtain accurate information about disorders in the structure and function of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas.

Respiratory urease test for Helicobacter Pylori is a method of non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by exhaled air. This method is very easily tolerated by patients, as it is a fast, accurate, safe and painless method, which is allowed even for children and pregnant women.It allows you to determine the effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy for this infection.

Only an experienced gastroenterologist, carefully collecting all complaints, examining you objectively, analyzing your tests and examinations, can create a true picture of the disease, prescribe an effective and modern therapy and save you from suffering.

Symptoms of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract | Family Clinic A-Media

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract , the length of which reaches about seven meters in an adult, are quite common today.Troubles can lie in wait for us in all organs of the digestive system: in the esophagus, stomach, intestines. In order not to miss the moment of the onset of a serious illness and seek medical help in a timely manner, it is necessary to distinguish between symptoms, which may indicate pathology of the gastrointestinal tract .


Pain is one of the main symptoms of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which is of paramount diagnostic value.During the examination, our doctor will analyze the localization and timing of the onset of pain sensations, as well as their intensity, duration and nature. With diseases of the stomach, pains are localized in this organ and can be dull, paroxysmal, cutting or aching. Pain in the stomach usually appears with the following diseases:

  • gastritis – if the acute stage of the disease is characterized, as a rule, by acute, cutting pain, then in the chronic form the pain becomes dull;
  • peritonitis – this pathological condition is characterized by sudden sharp pain that spreads to the entire abdomen, and requires urgent medical attention;
  • gastric ulcer;
  • bacterial and viral infections;
  • food poisoning.

The stomach in our body is very closely connected with the intestines, and therefore these two organs very rarely “get sick” alone. Pain in the intestines may indicate the following pathological conditions:

  • intestinal colic – in this condition, you may experience cramping pains that occur when the muscles of the organ contract. Intestinal colic can occur with food poisoning, enterobiasis, colitis and some other pathologies;
  • parasitic intestinal diseases;
  • enteritis – inflammation of the small intestine;
  • colitis – inflammation of the large intestine;
  • appendicitis;
  • intestinal dysbiosis, in which the normal ratio of beneficial and opportunistic microorganisms is disturbed;
    duodenal ulcer;
  • duodenitis – damage to the mucous membrane of the duodenum;
  • acute intestinal obstruction and stagnation of feces.

If you experience abdominal pain, seek medical attention as soon as possible. In the absence of such an opportunity, you can take pain relievers, but if the pain is very intense, it is better to immediately call an ambulance.


When air comes out of the stomach into the oral cavity, belching occurs. It usually occurs if you absorb food too quickly, as a large volume of air enters the stomach. Belching with an unpleasant rotten smell is usually a sign of intestinal diseases.A similar phenomenon indicates stagnation of food masses in the stomach.

If you feel a sour taste when belching, most likely there are disorders of the digestive ability of the stomach , which is very often characteristic of gastritis and some other pathological conditions.


Bloating and increased gas production (flatulence) are also quite common in gastroenterological diseases. Often flatulence is caused by eating foods that contain fiber, which can cause gas.However, a similar symptom may appear in a number of serious pathologies:

  • pancreatic insufficiency;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • intestinal obstruction, etc.


Heartburn occurs when acidic stomach contents are thrown into the esophagus. Many people have experienced a burning sensation in the stomach at least once. A similar phenomenon says about a violation of acidity in the stomach . So, heartburn is often manifested in gastritis with increased acidity of gastric juice.With a peptic ulcer, heartburn is usually combined with pain in the stomach, which occurs mainly at night.

Nausea and vomiting

Nausea can occur in many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Nausea is often preceded by vomiting , in which the contents of the stomach are involuntarily expelled due to irritation of the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. Most often, this symptom occurs in the following pathological conditions:

As a rule, the composition of the vomit includes gastric juice and food debris.If the vomiting is very strong, then a certain amount of bile from the duodenum enters the stomach, due to which you may feel a bitter taste, and the vomit will acquire a greenish tint. If you start p with blood , or vomit similar to coffee grounds , you should immediately consult a doctor. Be aware of the danger of excessive and prolonged vomiting, which can lead to dehydration, impaired heart and kidney function.

Stool disorders

The main stool disorders include constipation and diarrhea, which are most often found in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, causing slow or accelerated intestinal motility.

Liquid and frequent stools occurs with accelerated peristalsis and may indicate

  • food poisoning,
  • gastritis,
  • intestinal dysbiosis,
  • disorders in the work of the pancreas,
  • fistulas in the stomach and intestines.

The reverse state – constipation – occurs with reduced intestinal motility. Constipation is characteristic of such diseases of the digestive tract as

Bad breath

With some diseases of the digestive system, a specific, rather bad breath may be observed :

  • with intestinal dysbiosis and intestinal obstruction from the mouth; may smell like feces
  • The smell of acetone is typical for diseases of the pancreas;
  • A sour smell is a sign of peptic ulcer, gastritis or esophageal disease.

To determine if you have bad breath, simply bring your hand up to your face, covering both your mouth and nose. Breathe out through your mouth and sniff. As a rule, an unpleasant odor in pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract is quite pronounced, therefore it is not difficult to determine it.

Bad taste in the mouth

A specific taste in the mouth can also be a symptom of diseases of the digestive system:

  • Bitterness in the mouth is usually present in diseases of the intestines and esophagus, in which the motility of these organs and the process of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract are disturbed;
  • A sour taste can be felt in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease with high acidity;
  • With pancreatitis and malfunctioning of the pancreas, a sweet taste may occur in the mouth.

In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract unpleasant odor is always accompanied by other clinical signs. If, in addition to an unpleasant taste, you have no other pathological symptoms, most likely we are talking about dental pathologies or diseases of ENT organs.

If you are concerned about symptoms that clearly indicate diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, we recommend that you do not delay and contact our gastroenterologist for examination.Remember that a disease detected at an early stage can be treated much easier and faster.

Top 5 causes of bloating identified – LIVE24

Information is for informational purposes only, it is necessary to consult a specialist or doctor

Bloating is a rather unpleasant symptom in itself. However, behind it there may be more serious problems that are important to notice in time.

At best, bloating can be the result of dynamic digestive disorders. Officially, such a diagnosis does not exist, however, from fresh fruits and vegetables or nonspecific combinations of foods, sometimes severity, flatulence and even a nagging pain in the abdomen occur. These symptoms usually go away if you lie down quietly for 1 to 2 hours.

Worse if bloating occurs in a person with chronic pancreatitis. This symptom may indicate the onset of an exacerbation.If, in violation of the diet, bloating occurs in combination with pulling pains in the hypochondrium, you should fast for a day. Then, for a week, you need to keep a diet, eating only boiled and steamed food without fat and seasonings. Ideally, you should see a doctor and get tested.

Toxicoinfection, or food poisoning, begins as a dynamic disorder, but very quickly nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe pain and fever up to 38 degrees are added to simple bloating.In this case, do not eat anything, take enterosorbents and drink plenty of fluids.

Also, bloating occurs due to an imbalance of bacteria in the intestine. With improper nutrition, some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and taking antibiotics, dysbiosis occurs, provoking flatulence. To confirm the diagnosis, you need to be tested. Then the doctor will prescribe the necessary drug to restore microflora.

With exacerbation of chronic colitis, bloating also occurs. If the blood supply to the large intestine is disturbed, diet disturbances can provoke this symptom in combination with pulling pain in the abdomen.If the condition persists for several days, an examination by a gastroenterologist or surgeon is required.

Heartburn, burning, nausea, bloating, chest pain, bitterness in the mouth – it’s time to see a gastroenterologist

According to some estimates, more than a quarter of the population of Russia suffers from such diseases as chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer today. If you treat your health carefully, you can identify ailments in the early stages and prevent the transition to more severe and chronic forms, as well as severe complications.

Therapist-gastroenterologist with more than 20 years of experience Robiya Damirovna Arabova answered popular questions.

Read the entire interview here, and we publish the most interesting moments.

1. There are a number of characteristic signs that are quite familiar to many and should alert a person: heartburn, burning, nausea, bloating, chest pain, which usually occurs during or after eating; constant belching with an unpleasant aftertaste, odor uncharacteristic for food, bitterness in the mouth, regular occurrence of bad breath; change in taste, appetite, weight; frequent pain in the upper abdomen; pain in the right hypochondrium and lower abdomen; pain in the abdomen of any location.

2. With gastroenterological diseases, peeling, dry skin, various types of rash may appear. It is important to pay attention to skin discoloration.

3. A characteristic feature is swallowing disorder, pain when swallowing, frequent tonsillitis. Often, with persistent tonsillitis, patients are observed only by an ENT doctor, and the reason lies in disorders of the digestive system.

4. It is necessary to emphasize a sharp decrease or increase in weight. Dramatic weight loss often indicates the oncological nature of diseases of the digestive organs, the presence of intestinal parasites, and a malfunction of the pancreas.

5. In most developed countries, preventive diagnostics of oncological diseases is practiced. In cases where a person’s relatives in one of the lines fell ill with cancer, he is examined annually in order to timely identify the disease at an early stage or prevent its occurrence.

Make an appointment with Robiya Damirovna Arabova:

1) on the website of the medical center through the registration form or with the help of an online consultant;

2) by phone (4012) 33-44-55;

3) in Viber, Telegram, WhatsApp messengers: 8909 777-800-9.

There are contraindications, specialist advice is needed.


Indigestion | Motelegaz® Forte

Views: 355

Date of last update: 08.06.2021

Average Read Time: 5 minutes

In developed countries, up to 30-40% of the total population belongs to the category of people who complain of heartburn, pain and bloating in the abdomen, as well as other symptoms of abnormal stomach function.The results of the study, according to N. Y. Talley (1999), confirm this: every fourth person suffers from one or another dyspeptic disorder.

Symptoms of the violation and the reasons for their appearance

Digestive problems can manifest themselves depending on the causes that caused them, and also vary significantly in intensity.

In case of digestive disorders associated with malfunctioning of the stomach, pain often occurs after eating. It can be aching, stabbing, cutting, but most often it is associated precisely with a recent breakfast or lunch.This sign acquires particular evidence and connection with food when consuming spicy, fatty, spicy food. Such a reaction is due to the fact that the listed products impede digestion and disrupt the motility of the stomach and duodenum, which leads to abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea and other equally unpleasant symptoms that are caused by a delay in eating in these parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

Abdominal discomfort

Feeling of discomfort is a symptom that differs, perhaps, in the most diverse manifestations.Among them – a feeling of heaviness and elongation of the walls of the stomach, tension in the upper abdomen, a feeling that the stomach is increasing in size before our eyes. These signs become especially unpleasant when the air that has entered with food is not excreted with belching – the swelling in this case will become obvious and cause severe discomfort. These symptoms are aggravated after eating during any activity that requires physical effort, as well as in the supine position, when a person experiences a subjective feeling of shortness of breath and shortness of breath.

Early saturation

When digestion is impaired, even a small amount of food can make you feel full. This is due to the fact that it does not move to the lower gastrointestinal tract, but continues to remain in the stomach. In some cases, even after a meal, which took place several hours ago, the feeling of fullness may persist. At the same time, bloating is often observed without belching – gases are not able to leave it naturally and cause a feeling of the constant presence of food in it.This situation, which occurs regularly, can lead to persistent appetite disorders, especially in children, whose eating behavior has not yet had time to form in the correct way, and the digestion process itself is still unstable.

Overflow feeling

This symptom most often develops within a few minutes after eating, and in the case of eating sweets and pastries, after a few hours. These sensations are caused by impaired motility of the stomach and duodenum, due to which the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract is difficult and slowed down.If you feel full for a long time, you may develop abdominal pain and bloating, which ends either in the formation of gas in the intestines and their subsequent discharge, or heartburn or nausea, which is often resolved by vomiting.

Most often, this symptom is caused by the consumption of foods that disrupt motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause fermentation and gas formation. These are products containing coarse fiber – cabbage, legumes, brown bread, milk, potatoes, pastries and sweets, which can provoke fermentation processes.The following sequence of events is indicative of gastric dysmotility leading to increased gas production. Some time after the onset of a feeling of nausea and heaviness in the stomach, pain and gas in the abdomen begin to be observed: its apparent increase, a feeling of tension and discomfort in it and the periodic discharge of a large amount of intestinal gases.

Nausea and stomach pain is one of the most common symptoms that one goes to a doctor for.It indicates indigestion – the cause of heartburn, belching, which develop in response to a slow or completely stopped movement of food through the upper gastrointestinal tract. Nausea in this case serves as a kind of defense mechanism that is designed to rid the stomach of the contents that have been in it for too long and thus threaten health. In most cases, it goes away on its own after belching or vomiting. As it becomes clear, the symptoms of indigestion are quite unpleasant and fraught with certain complications.Therefore, the treatment of digestive disorders should be carried out in a timely manner, regardless of how often these problems are disturbed. Discomfort torments, vomiting haunts, stomach ache – all this is unpleasant.

For more information on each of the causes of malfunctioning of the stomach, see the relevant sections of our website.

Be sure to remember: if symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain and others described above develop suddenly, their intensity increases rapidly and you have this condition for the first time, you should consult your doctor as soon as possible.

Heading health: treatment of pancreatitis – Official website of the Administration of St. Petersburg

The diagnosis of “pancreatitis” is not uncommon today. This disease is an inflammation of the pancreas. Often the existing problems with digestion are perceived by us only as simple errors in food, which by themselves must go away. Unfortunately, in practice, everything happens differently. About pancreatitis and how to prevent it this publication.

Why does inflammation occur in pancreatitis?
The functioning of the pancreas can be disrupted by excessively spicy, fatty and fried foods, overeating, acute or chronic alcohol poisoning, as well as neuropsychic overexcitation, which dramatically increases the secretion of pancreatic juice. The attack is caused by the fact that the damaged ducts of the pancreas are not able to drain the juice, and instead of the intestines it enters the tissue of the pancreas, causing its inflammation.Men who are prone to overeating and alcohol abuse, and women during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period are at risk of this disease. In addition, an attack of acute pancreatitis can provoke a peptic ulcer, prolonged use of hormonal drugs. Often acute pancreatitis occurs in diseases of the gallbladder, bile ducts, cholelithiasis, cirrhosis of the liver. Possible causes of an attack of pancreatitis include physical trauma to the abdomen (for example, a shock from a fall).In acute pancreatitis, the patient is hospitalized and stays in the hospital for 3-7 days.

What are the symptoms of pancreatitis?
Symptoms of acute pancreatitis are severe abdominal pain. With this disease, localization of pain is possible in various places of the abdomen: if the head of the pancreas becomes inflamed, then it hurts in the right hypochondrium, if the body of the gland, then in the epigastric region, if the tail, then in the left hypochondrium. But sometimes the pains are of a girdle nature (when the entire pancreas is inflamed).Sometimes the pain radiates to the back and rarely to the sternum and left shoulder blade.

Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are as follows: poor appetite, vomiting, nausea, bloating, belching, increased salivation, various disorders of the digestive tract, pain in the upper abdomen and back (pain localization is similar to the acute form of the disease). From fatty and spicy food or alcohol in a patient with chronic pancreatitis, exacerbations of the course of the disease are possible in the form of burning, often even boring pain.

How to confirm the diagnosis of pancreatitis?
It can be quite difficult to detect pancreatitis: the pancreas is an organ located very deep in the human body, so its disease is very difficult to diagnose. It is possible to establish the presence of chronic pancreatitis in a patient using modern methods: for example, ultrasound, angiography of the vessels of the gland, study of the activity of blood and urine enzymes. It is important to remember that in addition to pancreatic juice, the pancreas also produces insulin – therefore, chronic pancreatitis can cause diabetes.

How is pancreatitis treated?
Acute pancreatitis is treated only in a surgical hospital: the patient is kept on a strict diet, medications are injected intravenously. The critical period (with severe pain) lasts 2-7 days.

In chronic pancreatitis, no-shpa can be used to relieve pain. To suppress increased secretion of the pancreas, phospholugel, almagel are recommended. Sometimes enzyme preparations are prescribed that make up for the lack of pancreatic juice: mezim forte, panzinorm and others.Only an attending physician who is familiar with the peculiarities of the course of the disease can prescribe a specific treatment for chronic pancreatitis.

Obviously, you need to follow a diet for chronic pancreatitis?
This is especially important in chronic pancreatitis. Increase your protein intake and reduce your intake of fats and carbohydrates, in particular sugar. You should give up coarse fiber, exclude fried foods. You should strive to consume more vitamins.It is advisable to set the diet – 5-6 times a day.

An example menu for the day looks like this:
-First breakfast: for the first you can cook meat, for the second – oatmeal with milk, tea.
-Second breakfast: steamed egg white omelet and rosehip broth.
-Lunch: vegetarian soup from chopped vegetables, any boiled meat dish, boiled potatoes as a side dish, dried fruit compote.
– Afternoon snack: calcined cottage cheese, tea with milk.
-Dinner: prepare fish, carrot puree, milk tea.
-For the night: drink a glass of kefir.

In this case, the diet should contain only low-fat varieties of meat and fish in a boiled, preferably chopped form, no fried foods. Dairy products are allowed, but with a minimum percentage of fat. It is recommended to drink only natural juices that do not contain sugar, as well as tea and decoctions of dry fruits. With pancreatitis, the use of spicy food, various preserves, smoked and pickled foods, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, sweets is not allowed.In general, the diet of a patient with pancreatitis should be built from rapidly digesting foods. Such a diet, in combination with appropriate treatment, will accelerate the improvement of the patient’s condition.

Can medicinal herbs be used?
To avoid repeated attacks of the disease, the following fees are used. In chronic pancreatitis, herbal medicine is necessary almost constantly, with one-time exacerbations, as a preventive measure, it is necessary to resort to the help of fees twice a year in courses of 1-2 months:
-With aggravated pancreatitis, you can make the following collection: take in equal parts St. John’s wort, motherwort and immortelle flowers.Two tablespoons of the collection pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, leave for an hour, strain and take 50 g before meals.
-This collection is effective: 3 tablespoons of grass of a string, grass elecampane, leaves of coltsfoot in a ratio of 2: 1: 1, pour 0.5 liters of water, boil for 4 minutes, insist in a sealed container for 2 hours. Take in small sips warm 30 minutes before meals for 20 days.

What else can you recommend to patients?
For the prevention of pancreatitis, doctors recommend mastering the techniques of gentle massage of the pancreas with the help of special movements of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm.They will improve blood circulation in this area and the outflow of digestive juices from the pancreas and liver, reduce inflammation, edema and congestion associated with chronic pancreatitis.

Do the exercises several times a day in any position – sitting, lying or standing. Start with 3-4 repetitions, then gradually increase the load up to 9 times. Monitor your well-being: during gymnastics, you should not experience fatigue and pain.
– Inhale, exhale and hold your breath.During a breathing pause, smoothly, but quite strongly, draw in the abdomen, count to 3, and then relax the abdominal muscles.
– Inhale, exhale and hold your breath. During a breathing pause, inflate your abdomen as much as possible, count to 3, and then relax your abdominal muscles.
– Simultaneously with exhalation, draw in the stomach strongly. Holding your breath for a few seconds, relax your abdominal muscles. Actively inflate the belly while inhaling and pull it in again while exhaling.

90,000 Poisoning in a dog: what to do?

Dog owners mistakenly believe that the main cause of poisoning in dogs is the dog itself, or rather, its indiscriminate food.Indeed, dogs, being unattended by a person, quite often pick up discarded garbage and the remains of dead animals on the street. However, these are far from the only root causes of poisoning. Toxic substances can enter the animal’s body through the air or through the skin. The task of a responsible breeder is not only to prevent such situations, but also to know how to act in such cases.

Severe poisoning in a dog: how a pet can be poisoned

Poisoning in pets can be triggered by 2 factors: food and non food.

Food grade includes:

  • poor-quality feed and some products from the human table,
  • chemicals that a pet can accidentally eat, for example: products for household pests (rats, cockroaches, etc.),
  • poisonous plants, including simple plants treated with pesticide solutions,
  • medicines in the wrong dosage or expired.

Non-food poisoning occurs due to:

  • pet inhalation of toxic substances,
  • an animal bite by a poisonous insect or reptile.

Severe poisoning in a dog: symptoms and signs

Symptoms may vary depending on what triggered the poisoning. So, with food poisoning, the gastrointestinal tract suffers first of all, the dog has vomiting, diarrhea, bloating, in especially severe cases, blood appears in the stool of the animal.

In addition, both with food and non-food poisoning, a dog may experience:

  • weakness, up to loss of consciousness,
  • impaired coordination,
  • labored breathing,
  • convulsions and tremors.

Severe poisoning in a dog: first aid

The main help for a dog in case of poisoning is to immediately contact a veterinary clinic.

We strongly discourage self-medication, but here are some tips on how you can help your pet before seeing your veterinarian.

  1. If a poor-quality product has become the culprit of the poisoning, it must be immediately removed from the animal’s stomach, causing vomiting.A simple solution will help in this: 1 tbsp. the salts are diluted in one glass of warm water.
  2. If the poison has penetrated the skin of the pet, rinse the affected area very thoroughly.
  3. If a dog has inhaled a hazardous substance, provide it with access to fresh air, that is, take it outside.

Important! The sooner the dog is provided with qualified assistance, the more chances that your pet will be healthy, cheerful and cheerful again in the very near future.