Blood clot in back of calf symptoms: Deep vein thrombosis – Symptoms and causes
Post-Thrombotic Syndrome | Cedars-Sinai
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What is post-thrombotic syndrome?
Post-thrombotic syndrome is a
condition that can happen to people who have had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the
leg. The condition can cause chronic pain, swelling, and other symptoms in your leg.
It may develop in the weeks or months following a DVT.
Veins are the blood vessels that
bring oxygen-poor blood and waste products back to the heart. Arteries are the blood
vessels that bring oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the body. A DVT is a blood
clot that forms in a vein deep inside the body. In most cases, this clot forms
inside 1 of the deep veins of the thigh or lower leg.
The veins in your legs have tiny
valves that help keep blood moving back up toward the heart. But a DVT may damage
or more of these valves. This causes them to weaken or become leaky. When this
happens, blood starts to pool in your legs.
DVT is a common condition,
especially in people over age 65. Post-thrombotic syndrome affects a large number
people who have had DVT. It can happen in men and women of any age.
What causes post-thrombotic syndrome?
A variety of conditions can
increase your chance of getting a DVT, such as:
- Recent surgery, which decreases
your mobility and increases inflammation in the body, which can lead to
- Medical conditions that limit your
mobility, such as an injury or stroke
- Long periods of travel, which
limit your mobility
- Injury to a deep vein
- Inherited blood disorders that
- Cancer treatment
Who is at risk for post-thrombotic syndrome?
Certain factors may increase
your risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, such as:
- Being very overweight
- Having a DVT that causes
- Getting a thrombosis above the
knee instead of below it
- Having more than 1 DVT
- Having increased pressure in the
veins in your legs
- Not taking blood thinners after
What are the symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome?
In some cases, post-thrombotic
syndrome causes only a few mild symptoms. In other cases, it can cause severe
symptoms. The symptoms occur in the same leg that had the DVT, and can include:
- A feeling of heaviness in the
- Itching, tingling, or cramping in
- Leg pain that’s worse with
standing, better after resting or raising your leg
- Widening of leg veins
- Swelling in your leg
- Darkening or redness of the skin
around your leg
How is post-thrombotic syndrome diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will
ask about your medical history, including if you have had a DVT. They will ask about
your symptoms and give you a physical exam. This will include a careful exam of your
leg. You may also need some tests, such as:
Ultrasound. This is done to look for problems with the leg
This is done to check for clotting problems with your
Healthcare providers often use
something called a Villalta score to assess post-thrombotic syndrome. This scale
rates the severity of your symptoms and signs. A score higher than 15 means that you
have severe post-thrombotic syndrome.
How is post-thrombotic syndrome treated?
Compression therapy is the main
treatment for post-thrombotic syndrome. This helps to increase the blood flow in
your veins, and decrease your symptoms.
You may be given
prescription-grade compression stockings. These apply more pressure than the type
you can buy over-the-counter. These are worn during the day, on the leg that had the
DVT. You also may also be given an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device.
This device applies pressure on the veins of your leg.
Proper skin care is also
essential. Your healthcare provider may advise that you use a product to lubricate
your skin, such as petroleum jelly. Barrier creams that contain zinc oxide can also
be helpful. In some cases, you may need a steroid cream or ointment to treat your
skin. If you develop leg sores (ulcers), they may need special treatment.
In some cases, your provider may
advise surgery. This can be done to remove a blockage in a major vein. It can also
be done to repair the valves in your leg veins.
Living with post-thrombotic syndrome
Symptoms often improve with
treatment, but your symptoms may not all go away. It may help if you:
- Ask your provider about exercise
- Walk every day to increase calf
muscle strength and general health
- Do daily ankle flexing
exercises to strengthen calf muscles
- Raise (elevate) your legs several
times a day and whenever you are at rest
- Pay careful attention to dry,
itching skin and any skin changes. Ask your provider what types of
skin moisturizers to use.
What are possible complications of post-thrombotic
Post-thrombotic syndrome can
cause leg sores (ulcers). If so, you will need to have wound care. Aspirin and a
medicine called pentoxifylline may help aid ulcer healing. If an ulcer becomes
infected, you may need antibiotics. Severe ulcers that don’t get better with
medicines and wound care therapy may need surgery to remove the damaged tissue.
What can I do to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome?
You can reduce your risk of
post-thrombotic syndrome by lowering your risk of DVT. Not moving or walking for
long periods of time raises your risk of DVT. If you are immobile due to a medical
condition or surgery, your healthcare provider will advise you how to prevent DVT.
This may include:
- Taking blood-thinning medicine,
such as warfarin
- Using prescription-grade
- Using a compression device
- Moving and walking as soon as you
Treating DVT right away is the
best way to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. Take blood-thinner medicine exactly
prescribed. Don’t miss any follow-up tests to check your blood levels of the
medicine. Use your compression devices exactly as prescribed.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider
right away or get medical care right away if you have:
- An ulcer or a warm, painful area
on your leg
- Symptoms of infection of an ulcer
on your leg (heat, redness, warmth, fluid leakage, or a fever)
- Symptoms of DVT, such as leg
swelling, pain, or warmth
Key points about post-thrombotic syndrome
- Post-thrombotic syndrome is a
condition that can happen to people who have had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of
- It can cause chronic pain,
swelling, and other symptoms in your leg. It may develop in the weeks or months
following a DVT.
- Certain medical conditions
increase your chance of getting a DVT.
- Compression therapy is the main
treatment for post-thrombotic syndrome. You might also need medicines, topical
creams, or surgery.
- Post-thrombotic syndrome may cause
skin ulcers that need special therapy.
Tips to help you get the most
from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and
what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down
questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you
ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name
of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down
any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or
treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side
effects are and when they should be reported.
- Ask if your condition can be
treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is
recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not
take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up
appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your
provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Deepak Sudheendra MD
Medical Reviewer: Rita Sather RN
Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
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How Can I Tell the Difference?
Leg pain is something we often shrug off as little or nothing to worry about. Those who participate regularly in sports and physical activities might pick up knocks, bruises and small or nagging injuries, or get a case of leg cramp after rushing through a warm-up. For contact sports in particular, discomfort, to an extent, comes with the territory.
But on rarer occasions, leg pain and swelling can be an indication of something exponentially more serious.
National Thrombosis Week takes place each year in May. Run by charity Thrombosis UK, the intended outcomes of the scheme are to help promote understanding and awareness of thrombosis, supply those affected by the condition with the insight and support they require, and ultimately lessen the impact of thrombosis on public health.
To mark the occasion and do our bit, in this article we’ll be discussing deep vein thrombosis in more detail; more specifically, what does DVT look and feel like and how do you tell it apart from cramp or a muscle injury?
- What is a blood clot?
- When is a blood clot dangerous?
- Are DVTs a serious health risk?
- Signs and symptoms of a blood clot
- How is a blood clot different to a leg cramp?
- How a blood clot is diagnosed
- The causes of blood clots
- Treatment for blood clots
What is a blood clot?
Clotting is a crucial function of the body. Whenever we sustain a cut or laceration, blood needs to be able to form a solid congealed lump (such as a scab) in order to prevent further blood loss (also known as haemorrhaging).
When the skin breaks or a blood vessel breaks, chemicals in the body signal platelets into action. Platelets adhere to the cell surfaces around the affected region and to each other, becoming solid to effectively stop the gap, so that no more blood escapes. Platelets then emit a chemical transmitter which draws in more platelets, so that the stop can become larger.
Clotting proteins also communicate with these chemicals and another reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of fibrin lines, an element which becomes intertwined with platelets to develop a trapping layer for other platelets (causing the clot to grow even more).
Once the clot has reached a sufficient size, balancing proteins are released which stop it from growing any further. After the tissue in the affected area has healed, the lines of fibrin disintegrate, and the blood refills platelets stores.
How does a blood clot become harmful?
However, the above instance isn’t the only one in which clots can form.
Sometimes when poor blood flow leads to slowing down of blood or an accumulation of it in one area (such as in an artery or a vein), platelets in the blood will come into contact with each other and start to knit together. This can trigger a clot, known also as a thrombosis.
Those with high cholesterol are at risk of harmful clots too, as ruptures in cholesterol deposits in the arteries can also initiate the clotting process. If you don’t know your cholesterol level, you can find out by using a home cholesterol test kit. The rapid result can let you know if you need to take action.
When do blood clots pose a serious health risk?
A blood clot in a leg (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) becomes potentially life-threatening when it moves or a piece of it breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to the arteries near the heart and lungs.
This is referred to as a pulmonary embolism (or PE). Roughly ten percent of those with DVT will go on to develop this condition, which can happen immediately, or some time after. Heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and breathing problems are some of the issues that can result from PE, so noticing blood clots and taking action as soon as possible is vital.
What are the signs of a blood clot in the leg?
One aspect of a blood clot in a leg which makes a diagnosis troublesome is that it doesn’t always cause symptoms; it is thought that only fifty percent of cases will show visible signs.
Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg:
In cases where symptoms are present, those with DVT in a leg may notice:
- skin which is warm to the touch in the affected area
- swelling or pain in the affected calf muscle or area. The pain will usually get worse over time and does not come and go, like the feeling of a pulled muscle might
- a red or raw tender area of skin, often below the back of the knee
- veins that feel hard or swollen when you touch them
The above will usually occur in just one leg, but it is possible to get DVT in both legs at the same time. These symptoms can also occur in the stomach area or arm if that is where the clot is located.
A pulmonary embolism, which untreated DVT can lead to, may produce:
- stabbing chest pain
- bloody cough
- and an increased heart rate.
How is a blood clot different to a pulled muscle or cramp?
While a blood clot will require medical attention, a bout of cramp often won’t. Furthermore, a pulled muscle will require care to alleviate pain and symptoms, but it will often not be considered a medical emergency (unless there has been suspected joint damage, a tissue tear or a break).
It can nevertheless be easy to confuse a blood clot with cramp or a pulled muscle, as the symptoms can be fairly similar.
There are however a few ways in which they might potentially differ:
- cramp will often occur in both legs or at least in more than one area; as opposed to a blood clot, symptoms of which will most typically be concentrated in one leg, often the calf muscle
- cramp and pulled muscles will cause pain but not necessarily hot skin or redness in the affected area
- whereas cramp can be ‘walked off’ and thus go away, pain caused by a blood clot is more likely to persist
- bending the foot at the ankle, so that the toes point upwards, will cause or intensify pain in the calf muscle if a blood clot is present.
Those who are unsure should certainly have their symptoms examined by a doctor to rule out DVT as soon as possible.
How do you know if you have a blood clot?
For a diagnosis to be made a doctor will perform a physical examination. If they suspect a blood clot is present, they may refer a patient for an ultrasound scan for confirmation.
What causes blood clots in the leg?
With blood clots, there isn’t always a definitive cause.
Certain health factors do however increase an individual’s risk of a blood clot developing.
As mentioned above, remaining immobile for long periods may cause blood to pool in one place and encourage platelets to form a clot. This means that:
- those travelling on long-haul flights
- and those staying in hospital
can be more susceptible.
Some medical conditions can cause the blood to clot more readily in some patients. These include:
- heart and lung diseases
- Hughes syndrome
- and cancer.
Pregnant women are also more at risk. During pregnancy, the body prepares to limit the amount of blood it expects to lose during childbirth, and is much quicker to initiate the clotting process as a result.
Oestrogen contained in combined hormonal birth control and menopause treatments can increase the likelihood of clotting too.
How is DVT treated?
Most cases of DVT can be treated with anticoagulant medicines, which are known more widely as ‘blood-thinners’.
This term isn’t technically correct: anticoagulants don’t reduce the consistency of the blood. However these treatments do alter the chemical composition of blood so that it does not clot quite so readily.
This helps to reduce the likelihood of subsequent clots and stops those already present from becoming larger.
Typically, heparin will be issued upon positive diagnosis of DVT as it begins to function right away, and will be applied by a doctor or nurse via injection. Those undertaking this method of treatment will usually be admitted to hospital and have their condition kept under surveillance.
Following this, warfarin tablets may be given as a maintenance treatment. The hospital will undertake regular blood tests at first to determine the appropriate dose.
Other measures, such as compression stockings and elevating the leg while sitting, are often advised in addition to the above medications, as they can help to reduce the chances of further episodes.
If you suspect you may have a blood clot, you should contact your doctor or your nearest hospital immediately. If you have persistent calf pain and a DVT has been ruled out then you may wish to seek medical attention for treatment such as physiotherapy.
You can find out more about National Thrombosis Week over at Thrombosis UK.
Symptoms of Blood Clot in Leg • MyHeart
A blood clot in the leg is commonly known as a DVT, short for a deep venous thrombosis. In this article we will discuss symptoms of blood clot in leg. Common symptoms of a blood clot in your leg include leg pain, leg swelling, tenderness in the leg and leg cramping, although it is not necessary to have all of these symptoms.
Symptoms of Blood Clot in Leg – Swelling
Blood clot in right leg.
A leg DVT is a blood clot that forms in the veins of the leg. Symptoms of blood clot in leg occur because the blood clot blocks the blood flow in the vein in which it forms. Usually blood flows through the veins on its way back to the heart. When there is a clot, the blood can’t get past the clot on its way back to the heart and so there is a backlog of blood and congestion in the leg that leads to swelling. When clinically examining a patient we look for a calf that has become a few cm bigger than the other calf when measured around it.
Leg Pain and Tenderness
As we stated before, the blood clot that forms in the leg leads to a congestion of blood that can now no longer pass on its way back to the heart through the usual channels particularly if the deeper and larger veins are blocked. The congestion of blood and the swelling basically mean that the pressure in the veins is higher and that is exerted on the tissue compartments within the leg. This is why symptoms of blood clot in leg include leg pain and tenderness.
For the same reason that leg pain and tenderness are symptoms of blood clot in leg, cramping can occur. This is due to the higher than usual pressures caused in the compartments of the leg by the blockage caused by the blood clot.
Worse With Movement
The symptoms of blood clot in leg can of course occur at rest but are typically worse with movement. Many patients report an increase in leg pain, cramping and tenderness with movement such as extending the leg or walking. Some people describe it as a deep muscle ache.
Prominent Veins on Leg Surface
The congestion caused by the blockage in the vein from a blood clot causes blood to back up not only in the deep veins of the leg, but also in the smaller surface veins that drain in to them. This can lead to prominence of veins on the surface of the leg.
Passing Out, Shortness of Breath and Chest Pain
Blood clots in the leg can possibly detach and travel up to the lung where the clot is trapped and known as a pulmonary embolism. Although this article is about symptoms of blood clot in leg, it’s important to know the symptoms of a pulmonary embolism lung clot as this starts with a clot in the leg. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath and even passing out. Of course it’s very worrying if symptoms of blood clot in leg are combined with symptoms of a pulmonary embolism as that makes both diagnoses much more likely.
Symptoms of Blood Clot in Leg – Who’s at Risk?
Symptoms of blood clot in the leg do not necessarily mean there is a blood clot in the leg however in patients with a high likelihood of having a blood clot due to the presence of risk factors, then symptoms need to be taken even more seriously.
Strong risk factors include leg fractures, surgery, spinal injuries and major trauma. Other risk factors include cancer and cancer treatment, hormone therapy and use of oral contraceptives, strokes resulting in immobilization and pregnancy. Less strong, but still established risk factors include morbid obesity, older age, and travel requiring immobility for at least 8 hours.
Blood Clot In Leg – Making a Diagnosis With an Ultrasound Scan
Blood clot seen on ultrasound in the femoral vein.
When there are symptoms of blood clot in leg, its important to make a diagnosis. Once the signs and symptoms are suggestive of a blood clot in the leg the test of choice is an ultrasound scan of the legs to look for the presence of clot.
Blood Clot In Leg – Blood Test
When patients present with possible symptoms of blood clot in leg a blood test known as the D-dimer test may be useful. In patients with a high likelihood of having a blood clot in their leg this test is not done and we generally proceed straight to the ultrasound scan of the leg. In patients who are low likelihood of having a blood clot in their leg, the D-dimer blood test is done and, if negative, it rules out a clot with good accuracy.
Why It’s Important to Know
It’s very important to be aware of symptoms of blood clot in leg. This way medical attention can be obtained and a diagnosis made. Also the appropriate treatment can be started to improve patient outcomes and underlying causes for the clot in the leg can be found, which includes blood thinners. Its important to be aware of symptoms of blood clot in leg to treat and prevent recurrence of clots in the leg to prevent dangerous outcomes such as development of a pulmonary embolism lung clot that can be a potentially life threatening complication.
Is your leg pain normal, or is it a blood clot?
Self Care, Leg
According to the American Society of Hematology, each year in the United States, approximately 900,000 people experience deep vein thrombosis or blood clots.
Know what to look for and avoid serious complications.
The first sign of a blood clot is mild pain. As the pain intensifies, the skin near the blood clot may become red and very warm to the touch. Since blood clots restrict blood flow, the pain often limits a person’s ability to move.
Most blood clots occur in the veins in the legs, but they can develop in arteries and other parts of the body, too.
Blood clots are serious.
If the blood clot breaks loose and travels through the veins or arteries to the heart, lungs, or brain, it could cause a heart attack, pulmonary embolism, stroke, or even death.
How do blood clots form?
In healthy people, blood clots form naturally after an injury or surgery. The platelets and plasma in the blood combine to start the clotting process. The first job of these cells is to build a dam to stop the blood, which prevents people from bleeding to death after a minor cut or scratch. The second job of this group of cells is to create a scab to protect the skin from infection while the body heals.
This is the body’s normal response to injury. As the tissues heal, the scab dissolves and is absorbed back into the body.
But blood clots that develop in the veins and arteries can be dangerous.
When circulation inside the blood vessels slows because of injury or other constricting conditions, the blood thickens. Platelets and plasma bond blood cells together and create the clot.
Blood clots that form for no apparent reason are the most dangerous.
Both arterial and venous clots can cause dangerous health complications if the clot travels.
A major cause of arterial blood clots is arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. When plaque-build-up on the arterial wall ruptures, platelets and plasma rush in to repair the damage and create a blood clot. If the clot breaks free and travels to the lungs or the brain, it can have fatal consequences.
Deep vein thrombosis or DVT blood clots occur in the arms and legs but are more common in the latter.
People experiencing DVT blood clots will feel increasing levels of pain. The skin around the area will become warm and sensitive to touch. The skin may have a reddened appearance as the body works to get rid of the clot. If blood flow is restricted, people often feel pain when they move the affected area, Anyone suffering these symptoms should call 9-1-1 and seek immediate treatment.
Are you at risk for a DVT blood clot?
Several conditions increase the likelihood of deep vein thrombosis.
• Obesity slows blood flow, which creates the potential for blood clots.
• Sitting in one position for two or three hours or more while traveling in a car or plane hinders muscle movement and restricts proper circulation.
• Smoking decreases the oxygen in the blood and blood flow.
• Trauma or surgery can cause immobilization and stress the circulatory system, which heightens the risk.
• Age increases the risk, especially for people over 60 years of age.
• Diabetes damages nerves and interferes with circulation.
• Cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases increase the risk of circulation issues.
• Pregnancy, birth-control pills, and other hormonal treatments can impact the body’s clotting response.
Some research suggests endurance athletes may also have an increased risk of life-threatening blood clots because of injury, dehydration, and travel. The signs of a blood clot mimic the symptoms of many sports-related muscle injuries. Athletes may ignore a blood clot thinking it is an injury that will heal with time.
Can you prevent blood clots?
Yes. Many blood clots are preventable.
Prevent arterial blood clots by watching your diet, monitoring your blood pressure, and taking action to keep your cholesterol numbers in check. Work with your healthcare provider to determine the best prevention plan for your health. You can reduce your risk of clots in your veins by making lifestyle changes.
• If you smoke, stop.
• If you’re overweight, lose weight by eating nutrition-rich foods and exercising to burn excess calories.
• Avoid long periods of immobility. If you’re traveling by car, stop often. If you’re flying, stand up and walk around every hour or two.
• If you have diabetes or a chronic inflammatory disease, be vigilant, and maintain your health. Ask your healthcare provider for specific ways you can avoid blood clots.
How are blood clots treated?
If you receive a DVT blood clot diagnosis, your healthcare provider may refer you to a hematologist, a physician specialized in the treatment of blood-related conditions.
After your diagnosis, your healthcare team will determine which treatment is the most effective for your condition. Your treatment plan will be based on your current health, any underlying conditions, and the location of the blood clot.
Medication is an effective treatment for some types of blood clots.
Anticoagulants, like warfarin or heparin, prevent blood clots from forming.
Thrombolytics dissolve blood clots that have formed and are causing problems.
Catheter-directed thrombolysis. Other blood clots require more intervention. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is a procedure that inserts a catheter into the vein to deliver clot-dissolving medication directly to the clot.
Surgery. Clots located in critical areas or those that don’t respond well to medication or other minimally invasive techniques may require surgical removal.
What if I have leg pain, but I’m not sure if it is a blood clot?
Blood clots that cause symptoms are serious and need immediate medical attention. If you have pain in your legs or arms accompanied by redness and swelling that seems to get worse, contact your healthcare provider or visit an urgent care facility for treatment.
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Board Certified Vascular and Endovascular Surgeons
The primary veins in your body work to return blood from your extremities back to your heart and lungs. The circulation of blood throughout your body delivers essential nutrients and ensures vital functions. That’s why it’s so important for your circulation to continue unimpeded.
Blood clots that form in your veins can block the healthy flow of blood back from your extremities. We call a blood clot in one of your primary veins deep vein thrombosis (DVT). You’re most likely to develop DVT in your legs, but the condition can appear in your arms as well.
DVT carries potentially fatal risks and should be medically evaluated by a professional as soon as possible. If you’re concerned about a potential DVT, the experienced care team at Total Vascular Care led by vascular and endovascular surgeon Enrico Ascher, MD, are here to help. Here’s what Dr. Ascher wants his new and existing patients in Brooklyn, New York, to know about the symptoms and risks of DVT.
The first symptom of a DVT to watch out for is pain. DVT pain often initially presents as a cramping sensation in your calf. If your DVT is located in your leg, you may also notice that your pain levels increase when you stand up or move around.
As your blood circulation stagnates due to a DVT, you may notice swelling in the affected arm or leg. More rarely, multiple limbs can become affected by swelling, not just the limb immediately impacted by the DVT.
A DVT can also cause discoloration in the affected limb. A DVT can at times make your extremity appear red or blue, due to the accumulation of uncirculated blood in the limb.
4. Tenderness or warmth
As your limb struggles to cope with reduced or blocked blood flow, you may start to experience tenderness or a feeling of unusual warmth in the affected area.
Even if you don’t have any of these symptoms, you could still be at risk of developing a DVT. Almost half of all patients with DVT don’t show any symptoms. Regular medical checkups can help to catch an asymptomatic DVT. If you have an elevated risk of DVT, talk to Dr. Ascher about ways to screen for this condition.
If you suspect you might have DVT, get Dr. Ascher’s opinion of your circulatory and vascular health. He can help you prevent the serious complications of DVT, including a potential pulmonary embolism, a clot breaking away from its blockage position to travel to your heart and lungs, that could prove fatal. If you have symptoms of a pulmonary embolism, seek emergency medical care right away.
To get started diagnosing and treating your potential DVT, contact Total Vascular Care today. You can book your consultation appointment with Dr. Ascher by calling over the phone, or with the online tool.
5 Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis
A deep vein thrombosis (often called a DVT for short) is a blood clot that forms in one of the deep veins in the body. More often than not, the clot forms in a leg. If it dislodges, it can move to the lungs where it can cause serious problems or even death. Here are 5 common symptoms that can help you identify a DVT so that you can get medical attention.
DVTs often cause pain in the affected leg. The pain usually starts in the calf and feels a lot like a muscle cramp. Soreness or a burning sensation in the affected leg may follow the course of the vein. Unexplained pain in the foot or ankle as well as a warm feeling in the area near to the clot are less common symptoms. The pain may be worse with activity and get better with rest (http://www.healthline.com/health/deep-venous-thrombosis#Symptoms3).
Swelling is a very common symptom of a deep vein thrombosis. The swelling always occurs below the clot, so it usually affects the calf, ankle, and foot. Most people note that one calf is larger than the other (http://www.medicinenet.com/deep_vein_thrombosis/article.htm).
Because the clot is blocking blood flow, it may cause blood to back up into the affected extremity. This will lead to a ruddy or red color of the skin along with small hemorrhages, called petechia. They look like little red or purple dots on the skin.
- Recent Immobility
The number one risk factor for a DVT is immobility. For people who have been bed ridden for several days, have recently had surgery, or have otherwise been immobile (e.g. on a plane or long car ride), the probability that the symptoms above are due to a DVT goes up dramatically (http://reference.medscape.com/calculator/dvt-probability-wells-score). Note that orthopedic surgery (bone surgery) increases the risk of a DVT more than any other type of surgery.
- Superficial Vein Prominence
Because blood flow is being blocked by the clot, blood will look for other ways to get back to the heart. This can sometimes lead to swelling of the superficial veins as blood is forced through them in greater quantities than normal.
Why DVTs Require Medical Attention
DVTs usually do not cause serious morbidity if they remain in the veins of the leg. Unfortunately, DVTs can dislodge and travel to the lungs where they cause a pulmonary embolism. A clot in the lungs prevents the blood from picking up oxygen as it flows through, which forces the heart to compensate by working harder to get blood to the good parts of the lungs. Signs of a pulmonary embolism include
A pulmonary embolism can cause a heart attack or even death, so don’t ignore signs of a DVT. Get it treated before it turns into something more serious. With prompt medical attention, a DVT can be easily addressed so that you never have to worry about a pulmonary embolism.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) | Warnings Signs & Treatment
Though the precise number of Americans with DVT is not known, about 1 in 1,000 people develop a DVT with symptoms each year, according to information provided by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), published by the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
While there are a few risk factors for DVT, having surgery that involves your hips or legs or experiencing an injury to your lower body are two of the most common. This is why most people receive anticoagulants such as warfarin or Xarelto to prevent blood clots after hip replacement or knee replacement surgery.
DVTs usually go unnoticed and dissolve on their own. But blood clots that remain in the vein can cause damage to the blood vessel.
A DVT can block a vein or break free and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
Symptoms and Complications
The symptoms of DVT affect the leg with the blood clot, though some people might not have any symptoms. For those people, complications of DVT might be the first symptoms they experience.
DVT Symptoms include:
- Bulging veins
Discolored, red or tight skin
Edema or swelling
Tenderness and pain
Thickening of veins called “cords”
Warmth in the affected area
IVC Filter Information
Patients with IVC filters have a risk of developing DVT. The risk doubles two years after a filter is placed. Read more.
Complications of DVT
These types of blood clots don’t cause heart attacks or strokes. But DVT can cause long-term health problems including pulmonary embolism, post-thrombotic syndrome and postphlebitic syndrome.
Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
Up to 100,000 people die of DVT or one of its more deadly but rare complications, pulmonary embolism (PE), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A PE occurs when a DVT travels to the lungs and blocks blood flow. The risk is greater if the DVT is in the pelvis or upper part of the leg. A pulmonary embolism requires emergency treatment.
Symptoms of PE include:
- Feeling lightheaded or dizzy
Low blood pressure
Pain in the chest, especially when coughing or breathing in
Shortness of breath that can come on suddenly
Coughing up blood (rare)
Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS)
A lot of people who suffer DVTs recover. But up to half may develop a complication called post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a condition that causes swelling, chronic pain and discomfort, according to Boston Scientific.
These symptoms are caused by damage to the valves in the veins. This causes problems with normal blood flow.
About 20 to 50 percent of people who have DVT may suffer from postphlebitic syndrome. This usually occurs within 1 to 2 years after severe DVT, according to Merck Manual.
Symptoms of postphlebitic syndrome in the legs include:
Feeling of “pins and needles”
Symptoms usually get worse with walking or standing but may feel better with elevating the leg or sitting. These symptoms worsen with standing or walking and are relieved by rest and elevating the leg. Some people may develop a skin rash on the lower legs or ankles.
How Are DVTs Diagnosed?
Health care providers diagnose people with DVT based on symptoms and physical examination. If the provider suspects a DVT, they will order tests. Three of the most common tests are duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and venography.
A duplex ultrasound combines traditional ultrasound technology — using sound waves that echo off the body — with Doppler technology to generate a color image of blood flow. It’s noninvasive, painless and doesn’t require radiation.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
MRIs produce detailed images of structures inside the body, including veins, using magnetic fields. An MRI can take images of both legs at the same time. Like an ultrasound, the test is noninvasive and painless. However, some patients with implanted devices might not be able to do an MRI.
Venography is an invasive procedure that requires an injection of contrast dye into a vein in the foot. After the dye mixes with blood, the health care provider uses an x-ray to observe the blood flow. Because it’s invasive and requires radiation, venography is rarely used.
Causes and Risk Factors
There are several causes and risk factors for developing a DVT, which occurs when blood cells stick together to form a clot. Anything that affects blood circulation can form a clot, including genetics, lack of movement, injury, illness and lifestyle factors.
Some medications may also increase your risk for blood clots. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned that women taking birth control pills containing drospirenone, such as Yaz, may have an increased risk of blood clots.
Causes of blood clots include:
- Being in bed after an injury or fracture without encouraging blood circulation
Being in bed after surgery
Diseases that cause the blood to clot too much
Extended periods of bedrest without much movement
Major operations, particularly surgeries of the hip, leg or abdomen
Serious injuries to blood vessels
Risk factors for DVT include:
- Age, people over 60 have an increased risk
Certain inflammatory diseases
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Frequent travel with long stretches of sitting
Genetics and family history
High levels of cholesterol
History of DVT
Hormonal contraception (Yaz, Nuvaring)
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), hormone treatment for menopause
Severe obesity or being overweight
Deep Vein Thrombosis Treatment
Some people with DVT don’t require treatment. In these cases, a health care provider will monitor the clot to see if it gets any worse or goes away on its own.
Treatment for DVT focuses on stopping the growth of a blood clot, preventing the clot from traveling to the lungs and reducing the chance of a reoccurring clot.
Doctors usually recommend medications as the first line of treatment. Anticoagulants, or blood thinners, help dissolve existing clots and prevent new clots from forming. All blood thinners have a risk of causing internal bleeding.
Older medications like heparin and warfarin require blood tests to get the correct individual dose. Doctors will start with heparin and then follow up with warfarin. These medications require routine tests to monitor levels of anticoagulation and dosing may be adjusted depending on test results. Warfarin also requires dietary changes to make sure it stays effective.
Xarelto vs. Warfarin for DVT
Xarelto and other factor Xa inhibitors are as effective as or better than warfarin for preventing recurrent DVT for three months of short-term therapy.
Newer blood thinners called Factor Xa inhibitors such as Xarelto (rivaroxaban) and Eliquis (apixaban) don’t require blood tests, because they are a one-size-fits-all medication. They don’t require dietary changes to be effective.
In people who are at extremely high risk for PE or extremely large clots, a health care provider may recommend “clot buster” drugs called thrombolytics. These drugs include streptokinase and alteplase. Doctors deliver the drug directly into the clot through a catheter.
Most people do well with anticoagulant therapy and compression or support stockings to improve blood flow and reduce swelling. The compression prevents blood from pooling in the veins and helps circulation.
After surgery, some people may use an external pneumatic compression device to prevent clots. This device resembles a boot. It applies pulses of pressure to the calf and simulates muscles pressure from walking to prevent clots and stimulate blood flow.
Inferior vena cava or vena cava filters are small metal cage-like devices with spidery legs. Surgeons implant these into a vein to act as a trap for blood clots and prevent them from lodging in the heart and lungs.
Rarely, these devices may perforate the vein. Some may break, and the small fragments may lodge in the heart and other organs. Some devices have greater failure rates than others and patients should be aware of the brand their surgeon recommends.
Simple Leg Exercises While Sitting
Raise and lower heels your heels while keeping your toes on the floor
Raise and lower toes while keeping heels on the floor
Tighten and release leg muscles
IVC Filter Information
Although rare, patients with IVC filters may experience serious complications, such as device migration and perforation. Learn more.
How to Prevent DVT
Because DVT can lead to several serious conditions and might not always have symptoms, the best thing for people to do is prevent them. People can prevent DVT by maintaining good cardiovascular health, a healthy body weight and avoiding inactivity.
Tips to prevent DVT include:
- Avoid sitting for too long without moving. Periodically get up at work or at home. Taking short walks or performing activities that contract leg muscles keep the blood flowing back to the heart.
Being overweight or obese increases DVT risk. Make lifestyle changes to lose weight or maintain a healthy body weight. Ask your doctor for a nutritionist or dietician who can help couch you.
Dehydration may increase your risk for blood clots. Make sure you drink plenty of water, especially when sitting for prolonged periods.
If you are bedridden and can’t walk, prevent your blood from pooling and clotting by contracting leg muscles.
If you are bedridden in a hospital, make sure doctors and nurses take steps to prevent clots such as taking medication, wearing compression stockings or using an external pneumatic compression device to massage your calves and keep blood circulating.
If you are taking a long car ride, make sure you take breaks and get out to stretch and walk for a few minutes. If travelling by plane, try to stand up and walk in the aisles or pump your leg muscles.
90,000 Treatment and prevention of white muscle disease in regions deficient in selenium content
Effect of selenium deficiency on organs and tissues of the body
Treatment and prevention
“Treatment and prevention of white muscle
diseases in regions deficient in selenium content “prepared by Professor
Department of Parasitology and Epizootology, Saratov State Agrarian
University named afterN.I. Vavilova, D.V.
Sidorkin V.A., head of the department
pharmacology, ecology and physiology of animals SSAU im. N.I. Vavilova, Doctor of Biological Sciences
Rodionova T.N., employees of NITA-FARM: Ph.D. Ulizko M.A., Ph.D.
The recommendations disclosed
questions of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of white muscle disease. The schemes of drug use are given.
E-selenium, as well as a schematic map of the selenium status of the territory of Russia
(endemic areas).These recommendations will help veterinarians to
to master all aspects of the disease, timely diagnose
and take action to treat and prevent white muscle disease.
and approved by the methodological commission of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine on June 26, 2006 (protocol No. 14) as
guidelines for students on
specialty 310800 – “Veterinary medicine”, students of FPK and veterinary
agriculture in Russia there is no more important task than providing growing
the needs of the country’s population with high-quality livestock products
own production. The solution to this problem involves
improving the organization of receiving, raising and feeding livestock and poultry,
development of on-farm and inter-farm specialization, implementation
intensive methods and progressive in-line technologies of meat production,
milk and other products, improving the veterinary service of animal husbandry.
Development and implementation
effective measures to combat alimentary and endocrine diseases – a condition
increasing the profitability of animal husbandry, improving the biological value
milk, meat, eggs and other products, reducing the infertility of the broodstock.
associated with a deficiency or excess of nutrients and biologically active substances in
animal diets. Endocrine diseases result from dysfunction
endocrine glands.These two groups of diseases have a close
etiopathogenetic connection and proceed with severe metabolic disorders.
Diseases caused by
excess or insufficient energy, protein, mineral or
vitamin nutrition and dysfunction of endocrine organs, are common
quite widely and cause enormous economic damage to the economies of our country.
This is directly related to the type of feeding used and the housing conditions:
in the structure of consumed feed hay, an increase in concentrates, silage
acidic feed, lack of insolation (sunlight) and aeration,
livestock, alimentary and endocrine diseases have a number of features.
Large groups of animals fall ill, diseases occur in a subclinical form.
Often, one disease is complicated by another, while various organs are affected and
system, the pathological process becomes more complicated, and the signs characteristic of
the main, initial disease are erased. Therefore, to improve efficiency
fight against these diseases, it is necessary to carry out the diagnosis especially carefully,
study their cause, and only then treat and prevent.
For early diagnosis
alimentary and endocrine diseases use group methods based on
principles of clinical examination. These methods include analysis of key indicators for
livestock and veterinary medicine, determination of the clinical status of the herd,
laboratory tests of blood, urine, milk, organ health and
tissues, analysis of feeding and keeping animals. Only such a complex of methods
group diagnostics allows timely recognition of diseases,
effective measures to combat them and prevent possible economic losses.
In our country and for
abroad there is a large scientific material and significant practical experience in
etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of alimentary, and
also endocrine diseases of animals.
But the problem of microelementosis
in doing so, insufficient attention is paid. Among the various reasons for this
the position can be distinguished by a lack of understanding by many experts of the importance of adequate
the provision of the body with essential trace elements, as well as significant
difficulties in diagnosing deficits or undersupply
trace elements such as zinc, copper,
chrome and selenium.
diseases in most regions of Russia, the most common is white muscle disease. Our work summarizes
data from domestic and foreign researchers, as well as materials from our own
research on this issue.
White muscle disease –
serious illness of young farm animals, accompanied by
profound disorders of metabolic processes in the body, functional and
morphological changes in the nervous system, muscle tissue (cardiac and
skeletal), liver and other organs.
the disease is observed in calves, lambs, pigs, foals, camels, and
chickens, guinea fowls, turkeys, goslings and ducklings. In young animals of all kinds
In farm animals, white muscle disease appears shortly after
birth – in the first two weeks and the next 2-3 months of life, in young birds
– more often at the age of 2-3 weeks, sometimes 6-10 days. Much less often white muscle
the disease manifests itself at an older age. Deaths from this disease sometimes
reaches 50%.Selenium deficiency is also possible in adult animals, especially
in highly productive, but it proceeds mainly in a latent form. Disease
is massive and causes significant economic damage.
The main cause of the disease
the lack of selenium in feed serves. White muscle disease occurs when
selenium content less than 0.1 mg / kg dry matter of feed.
The disease has
predominantly focal, endemic (enzootic) character.Her
recorded most often on farms with acidic soils, where pastures and hayfields
located in low, floodplain, often flooded places. Endemics
white muscle diseases are also found in the steppe and forest-steppe zones, where the soil
poor in organic matter. Selenium-deficient biogeochemical provinces
most often found in the Non-Black Earth Zone, extending from
the northeastern borders of the United States, across all of Europe (northern Germany, Holland,
Denmark, Poland, through the Baltic countries, Central Russia) to the Urals, then
across the whole of Siberia to the eastern borders of Russia (areas of distribution
podzolic, sod-podzolic and some bog soils).
general regional regularities of selenium biogeochemistry, comparison
selenium concentrations in plants and waters a schematic map of selenium
status of Russia (Ermakov V.V. Biogeochemistry of selenium and its importance in the prevention of
endemic human diseases. // Bulletin of the Department of Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences – No. 1
(22) 2004. – p. 13) – see the 3rd page of the cover.
Onset of the disease in
young animals in the first days or weeks of life indicates a lack of selenium in
the mother’s body during fetal development or latent course of the disease in
adult animals.An aggravating factor in white muscle disease is
lack of vitamin E (tocopherol) in the body, since the biological effect
selenium and tocopherol are interrelated.
Selenium – the most important
irreplaceable element in animal nutrition. It is found in all organs and tissues
organism, participates in many biological processes, has a pronounced
recognized as necessary for a living organism only in 1957. Until the 60s, it was considered a toxic
element, due to its excessive content in soils.However, in the last two
decades on the territory of the Russian Federation there has been an ever wider
distribution of areas with a deficiency of selenium, which is associated with its removal from
soil with harvest. Therefore, livestock specialists should give selenium a special
value, because its deficiency causes enzootics among pigs, ruminants and
necessary for the manifestation of the process of vision, as a photocell of the retina;
is an essential part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase,
participating in the destruction of peroxide compounds formed in the body
(free radicals).It should be borne in mind that peroxides are
toxic substances formed in the cell during metabolism. When
peroxides are not removed from the cell, they destabilize cell membranes, which
leads to dysfunction with subsequent
cell death. Approximately 30-40% of selenium in the body is in the form
In addition, selenium
is an integral part of other selenoproteins, each of which is different
by biological function.The body contains from 30 to 100
selenoproteins, the key of which is selenoprotein W. Loss
selenoprotein W is associated with the development of white muscle disease in sheep, increased
loss of fluid during storage of pork and ascites in broilers. He also
characterized by antioxidant properties. Another selenoprotein is
the structural component of the sperm capsule, i.e. is the main
component of sperm. Selenium prevents myopathies of the stomach and heart,
fibrous degeneration of the pancreas.It is part of the proteins of muscle tissue and that
especially important, myocardial proteins. Therefore, selenium deficiency leads to a weakening
antioxidant status, anticarcinogenic protection, determines
myocardial dystrophy and
important is the relationship between the lack of a trace element with the etiology of viral diseases.
represent the biogeochemical and metabolic relationship between iodine and
selenium. So, endemic goiter is almost impossible to prevent alone
adding iodine to the diet against the background of selenium deficiency.In this case, the deficit
selenium causes a decrease in the synthesis of 5,5′-deiodinase and correction with iodine
turns out to be ineffective
Selenium is part of the enzyme iodothyronine-5-deiodinase, which
controls the formation of triiodothyronine (theroid hormone).
Due to the fact that selenium is required
for the synthesis of iodine-containing thyroid hormones, combating iodine deficiency
impossible against the background of selenium hunger.
selenium are vitamin E and antioxidant santochin.Improves the absorption of selenium and
its excretion from the body is delayed by increased doses of vitamin B 1 .
Selenium antagonists are lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). Selenium itself can serve
antidote for mercury and lead poisoning.
lack of selenium, the need for vitamin E increases, and the deficiency of tocopherol
in the body is accompanied by a greater need for selenium. Under the influence of this
the element slows down the breakdown of vitamin E.
with a lack of this element in the body, carbohydrate, lipid and
fat metabolism, under-oxidized metabolic products accumulate in tissues and organs
(peroxide, etc.), infiltration and degeneration of the liver occurs,
destructive changes in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Muscle damage –
central link in the pathogenesis of selenium deficiency, and especially in
young animals, it also predetermines the course and outcome of the disease. In the liver and kidneys
fatty, carbohydrate and protein dystrophy with disseminated necrosis develops.
In adult animals, selenium deficiency is accompanied by dystrophic
changes in the genitals, liver, kidneys and others, decreased activity
glutathione peroxidase, amylase, increased activity of lactate dehydrogenase,
alanine aminotransferase, an increase in serum coarse proteins –
alpha and beta globulins.
failure, the growth of animals slows down, reproductive function decreases,
there is a retention of the placenta and other postpartum complications.
Effect of selenium deficiency on organs and tissues of the body
System of organs and tissues antioxidant-antiradical-monooxygenase
In animals, selenium deficiency has no characteristic clinical signs.On
the background of selenium deficiency in the body occurs fatty infiltration and degeneration
liver – the zone of hepatic dullness increases, sometimes they reveal
soreness of the liver. Decrease in productivity, milk fat content, increase
cases of detention of the placenta, the service period is lengthened.
the picture of white muscle disease in young animals is very characteristic. More often illness
proceeds acutely and subacutely. There are cases of sudden death of animals, which
associated with damage to the heart muscle.In endemic foci, the disease is often
is seasonal in nature, manifests itself in the winter-spring period and in a lesser
degree – in summer and autumn. Young animals have a disease in the first 20-30 days of life.
proceeds mainly acutely, in older animals – subacute or
chronically. In endemic foci of selenium deficiency,
unviable young growth.
in the acute form, latent disorders develop for a long time. At some point
the rate of development of pathological changes increases sharply, and when
their localization in the heart and other vital organs of animals suddenly
perish.In the acute course of the disease, depression, a decrease in muscle tone,
increasing tachycardia (pulse rate reaches 140-200 per minute), bifurcation
and splitting heart sounds, increased breathing, loss of appetite, loss of strength,
muscle tremors, stagnation. Skeletal muscle involvement in the pathological process
accompanied by lameness, gait becomes tied, difficult, animal
rests on toes or tarsal joints. Subsequently, there may come
paresis of one or two limbs.Sick young animals quickly lose weight and
dies within 5-7 days.
the course of the disease is observed in older young animals. Celebrate
oppression, weakness, weakening and loss of appetite, tousled wool
cover, diarrhea is possible. Heart failure is characterized by
tachycardia, weakening of heart sounds, arrhythmia. Rapid breathing
tense, wheezing is possible due to the development of bronchopneumonia. At that time
body temperature rises to 40.5-41.0 0 C.Animals lie more
reluctantly and with difficulty rise, the gait is wobbly, lameness, muscular
trembling, weakening of muscle tone and paresis. Animals without appropriate treatment
the chronic form shows the same symptoms as in the subacute form. Disease
may be complicated by bronchopneumonia and dyspepsia. Duration of chronic form
– 20-30 days or more, animals die without treatment.
forms of the disease, the selenium content in the blood, liver and other organs decreases and
tissues, its concentration in milk decreases.Normal selenium content in
whole blood of cattle and sheep ranges from 10 to 20 μg / 100 ml.
With white muscle disease of young animals, the content of this element in the blood decreases
up to 1-2 μg / 100 ml.
In addition, in
blood, the content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes decreases, the activity increases
alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, arginase, the activity decreases
glutathione peroxidase. As a result of liver damage, dysproteinemia develops,
the content of albumin rises, positive coloid-sedimentary
changes are in the heart and striated muscles of the anterior and posterior
belts, that is, performing great physical activity. Sometimes amazed
chewing muscles and muscles of the diaphragm. The listed muscles are pale, flaccid,
swollen or atrophied, white, have the appearance of chicken or fish meat.
In the presence of edema of the subcutaneous tissue and intermuscular tissue, the muscles are edematous,
translucent. The lesion can be focal or diffuse.
established on the basis of feed analysis, clinical signs, results
pathologic-morphological studies.Confirm the diagnosis by laboratory
blood tests for selenium content. Diagnosis criteria: low
selenium in feed (below 0.1 mg / kg dry matter), typical clinical
symptoms expressed by pathologic-morphological changes in muscles (atrophy,
dystrophy, necrosis, calcification, etc.) of the liver and other organs. Content
selenium in whole blood of animals with selenium deficiency – below 10
μg / 100 ml, in milk – 4 μg / L. Enzootic ataxia of lambs should be excluded,
which develops with a lack of copper in the body.With this disease
mainly the central nervous system is affected, characteristic changes in
that selenium is one of the important dietary antioxidants. At the same time, it is important
consider the following. First, selenium is an indirect antioxidant,
that is, those of its compounds that come with food are in themselves properties
do not possess antioxidants. Moreover, some of the selenium compounds,
especially in case of their overdose, they can show a prooxidant effect.Active bioantioxidants are only selenoproteins synthesized in
the body. Secondly, a number of selenoenzymes also have other important species
selenium (Se) in the usual diet of animals are various animal products and
vegetable origin. All this selenium is in bivalent
organic form, and selenocysteine predominates in animal products
(Se-Cys), and in plants – selenomethionine (Se-Met).Artificial supply
organism with selenium can also be carried out in the form of inorganic salts:
selenite or sodium selenate. Both organic and inorganic selenium
easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the kinetics of organic and
inorganic selenium in the body varies significantly.
selenitic anions from food are quickly restored under the action of
protein thioredoxin to hydrogen selenide present in physiological
pH values, mainly in the form of hydroselenidanion (HSe-).Necessary
reduced glutathione (GSH) is a cofactor of this process, and
it is assumed that selenodiglutathione is formed as an intermediate
the amount of hydrogen selenide formed joins special
selenium-binding proteins. The capacity of this pool is quite limited. Redundant
amounts of hydrogen selenide slowly undergo enzymatic methylation with
formation, sequentially, methylhydroselenide, dimethylselenide and cation
trimethylselenonium.These selenium compounds are excreted in the urine, and
dimethylselenide – in large quantities with sweat. Strictly defined amount
selenium, which is part of the hydrogen selenium pool, through the selenium phosphate stage
is included in the highly specific synthesis process of the so-called
selenium-specific selenoproteins, including components
vital antioxidant systems and other enzymes. In vertebrates, selenium
is a part of these proteins exclusively in the form of a selenocysteine residue.
the possibilities of utilization of hydrogen selenide in the body are limited in quantitative
relation and when entering the body of excessive amounts of inorganic
selenium, it can accumulate in tissues in the form of free hydroselenide anion.
This form of selenium is extremely toxic!
selenium forms (Se-Met and Se-Cys) are utilized in a different way. In view of the large
the similarity of the physicochemical properties of methionine and selenomethionine Se-Met is capable of
to replace Se-Cys in proteins, including via a methionine-specific mechanism
(the corresponding tRNAmet is “mistaken”, taking its selenium for methionine
analog).The process of incorporation of Se-Met into tissue proteins and release from them during
proteolysis is slow.
assume that when consuming an excess of Se-Met, the value of the last pool
(conservative “depot” of selenium in the body) can be even greater. With
the ability of Se-Met to be deposited in tissue proteins, forming a slightly labile
pool, apparently associated with its much lower toxicity in comparison with
selenite and selenate when taken orally.Data presented
explain the differences in the effectiveness of organic and inorganic selenium for
animals and humans.
physiological intake of selenium with food (0.1-0.3 mg / kg) and normal
sulfur security efficiency of Se-Met, selenite and selenate as sources
for the synthesis of selenium-specific selenoproteins is the same. However, if the level
selenium intake is low (less than 0.05 mg / kg) or the body is poorly supplied
methionine, the effectiveness of inorganic selenium supplementation is higher than that of Se-Met.It should be noted that the toxicity of Se-Met (organic selenium) is much
lower than inorganic, that is, much less danger of overdose.
In addition, retention (retention) of organic selenium in the body, as
generally higher than inorganic. Therefore, most authors recommend
organic form of selenium as preferred for supplying the body with selenium
together with food for preventive purposes.
bioavailable selenium, along with others, are selenium-containing food
yeast.Currently, the domestic industry has mastered them
large-scale production. The relatively low cost makes the yeast
a very promising and attractive food source of organic selenium.
But in practice, the widespread use of yeast as part of products (including
and therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition), and dietary supplements, has certain
restrictions. This is due to potential sensitizing activity
cell membranes. Elimination of selenium deficiency in agricultural
animals is an important task for livestock breeders.
organic selenium compounds are safe from the point of view of toxicity.
When using compound feed, it is rather difficult to dose the intake of selenium for
every animal. Frequent use of higher doses with feed, even organic
forms of selenium leads to selenium toxicosis. Ideal preventive
a means of eliminating selenium deficiency is the introduction of selenium into the soil
in endemic areas. Application of selenium to the soil and the use of organic forms
selenium in its pure form is quite expensive today.Therefore, in our
the use of inorganic forms of selenium is widespread in the country, and, in particular,
sodium selenite. Sodium selenite is used both with feed and as a solution
the use of sodium selenite with food is that with selenium
deficiency decreases appetite. And with a decrease in feed consumption, the
selenium intake. Another disadvantage of using inorganic selenium with
food is its transition to an inaccessible form of elementary
selenium as a result of reaction with
feed components.Rational use of sodium selenite with food is
adding it just before feeding, which complicates the technological
method (for example, in poultry farms) of the use of inorganic selenium most
its use with clean drinking water is justified, since even
sick animals and birds continue to consume water. Moreover, to exclude
reactions of selenite with feed components in the gastrointestinal tract, preferably
ask it one hour before the morning feed.
dosing selenite is best used in the form of injections. For prevention
white muscle disease along with sodium selenite, it is advisable to use vitamin
E (tocopherol), methionine, protein hydrolysates, and when treating sick animals,
in addition to these remedies, cardiac and other symptomatic remedies.
the range of selenium-containing veterinary drugs is very wide, ranging from
sodium selenite powder and ending with complex preparations, which include
injection water-soluble complex E-selenium, produced by NITA-FARM in 1
ml of solution contains: 50 mg of vitamin E and 0.5 mg of selenium in the form of sodium selenite.
E-selenium can be used in both
in the form of injections, and in the form of a solution for drinking.
Vitamin E and
selenium, which are part of the drug, are synergistic, that is, they enhance
antioxidant action of each other. In addition, they promote better absorption of
each other’s body, which is important in relation to selenium.The drug is safe in
application and can be used for productive animals in the recommended
doses without restrictions.
research center NITA-FARM with the participation of veterinary
doctors SPK “Kolkhoz im. Lenin “of the Sivinsky district of the Perm region was
developed and tested in production conditions “Scheme of using the drug E-selenium”, which gave positive
use of the drug E-selenium for the prevention of white muscle disease in young animals
cattle and small ruminants.
On farms where
selenium deficiency is registered, with a preventive purpose the drug
E-selenium needs to be administered cows
intramuscularly: first injection 60 days before calving (dry period) in a dose
15 ml per animal; reapply the drug at intervals of 14 days in the same
the same dose three to four times.
For prevention purposes
white muscle disease, the drug should be used young animals up to three months – at a dose of 1 ml per 20 kg of animal body weight
once every 10-14 days; young animals older than 3 months – in a dose of 1 ml per 50 kg
body weight of the animal once a month.
Doses and frequency of application of the drug E-selenium for
prevention of white muscle disease
ml / 10kg
up to 3 months
over 3 months
Calves, lambs in groups with sick animals
60 days to calving
15 ml per animal
30 days before lambing
Meat and milk from
animals to which the drug was administered can be used without restrictions.
In the prevention system
white muscle disease, the procurement of good-quality feed is of great importance,
their correct storage, adherence to a physiologically grounded structure
rations and feeding norms. It is also advisable to include in the diet of feeding both
pregnant cows and ewes, as well as young animals polymineral feeding,
containing cobalt, copper, sulfur, calcium, table salt and feed yeast.
white muscle disease, should be treated with E-selenium at a dose of 1 ml per 10 kg
body weight of the animal in the amount of 5 injections: the first two injections with an interval of 24 hours, subsequent ones with an interval of 72 hours.White muscle disease
often complicated by cardiovascular diseases, as well as diseases
respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. In view of this, be sure to
symptomatic agents (cardiac, antibiotics,
sulfa drugs, immunostimulants, fortifying agents), in
depending on complications.
Then the drug follows
apply in prophylactic doses.
of the drug E-selenium according to this scheme is permissible only in farms in which
the lack of selenium in the blood of animals is confirmed by clinical and biochemical studies.In farms,
where the selenium content in the blood of animals is within the physiological norm, the use
the drug in the indicated doses is not justified both economically and
therapeutically. Moreover, in regions with high levels of selenium in soils
the use of higher doses of the drug can have a toxic effect.
Scheme of drug use
in industrial poultry
research center NITA-FARM with the participation of veterinary
specialists of JSC “Mikhailovskaya poultry farm” Tatishchevsky district of Saratov
area, a scheme for the use of the drug E-selenium was developed and tested for
treatment and prevention of white muscle disease in the industrial poultry industry.
E-selenium should be used for
prevention and treatment of diseases developing against the background of insufficiency
vitamin E and selenium at:
– disorders of reproduction and development of eggs;
– white muscle disease, traumatic myositis and cardiopathy;
– toxic liver dystrophy;
– growth retardation and insufficient weight gain;
– infectious and invasive diseases;
– preventive vaccinations and deworming;
– poisoning with nitrates, heavy metals and mycotoxins;
– stressful situations;
The dose of the drug is calculated based on
daily water intake, while the required amount of the drug at the beginning
dissolved in a small amount of water, and then the resulting solution is evaporated
through the drinking system.The amount of water is added based on the capabilities of the system
drinking rate and the rate of pumping the solution through the premixers (it is possible to use the drug
undissolved, if required by the technological process).
For poultry, the drug is used with prophylactic
the goal in a dose of 1-2 ml per 1 liter of drunk water. The preparation can be used in chickens,
starting from one day of age. The drug is given in cycles of three consecutive days with
at an interval of 10-14 days, it is recommended to use the drug immediately before
and during stressful situations (vaccinations, diet changes, regrouping and
For medical purposes, as well as
regions with registered selenium deficiency, the dose of the drug may be
increased by 1.5-2 times. Contraindication to the use of the drug is an individual increased
sensitivity of birds to selenium, or excess selenium in the body and
feed (alkaline disease). Meat and eggs from the poultry to which the drug was used can be used without
Scheme of using E-selenium and other drugs
NITA-FARM at the reproduction site in
industrial pig breeding.
One of the indicators for raising pigs is
yield of lean meat per sow per year with optimal consumption
feed and minimal costs. From one sow you need to get 23
a piglet, when fattening, each of which will reach 100 kg in 21 weeks.
Such indicators can be achieved only with
rational use of the parent flock.
The diagram below will help professionals
get 23 piglets per sow
Route of administration
once a quarter
1 ml per 50 kg.m. t. m.
1 ml per 50 kg. m. t. m.
two weeks before insemination
1 ml per 50 kg. m. t. m.
in 30 min.before insemination
5 ml per animal, i.m.
not 20 days of gestation
3 ml per animal,
on the 36th day of gestation
1 ml per 50 kg.m. t. m.
2 weeks before farrowing
5g per animal
2 days before farrowing
1 ml per 10 kg m.T.
2 days before farrowing
1 ml per 10 kg b.w.
immediately after farrowing
5 ml per animal, c.m.
0.5% solution, 200 ml / m 2
Selenium deficiency associated with its low content in
soil, water and feed, leads to the development in farm animals
white muscle disease, decreased productivity and resistance to infectious diseases.
selenium-deficient regions of the drug E-selenium according to the proposed scheme contributes to the normalization of selenium levels in
the body of animals. This allows you to effectively prevent and treat white muscle disease, increase
preservation of young stock, productivity and, as a result, profitability
Effect of E-selenium on the increase in live weight of lambs
In recent years, much attention has been paid to the use of non-traditional feed additives in animal feeding, which activate biochemical reactions by acting on enzyme systems, increasing the digestibility of rations and, accordingly, ensuring high productivity.
E-selenium in the treatment and prevention of selenium deficiency in birds
It is generally known that Selenium (Se) is an indispensable element in the nutrition of animals and birds.It is found in all organs and tissues of the body, participates in many biological processes, and has a pronounced antioxidant of indirect action.
Prevention of infectious diseases in poultry with Enronit OR
The article discusses the prophylactic effect of the oral drug Enronit OR in infectious diseases of poultry.90,000 How is mastitis manifested in a cow and what are the methods of its treatment?
Due to mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), farmers suffer the largest losses in milk yield.
A cow is out of the milk yield list for a long time, and the restoration of its milk yield takes time and costs for medicines.Even after the treatment, milk is not suitable for sale for some time – it contains antibiotics.
The causes of mastitis in most cases, mastitis occurs through the fault of the herder himself – somewhere a mistake was made, for which the animal has to pay. Inflammation, most often, occurs against the background of a drop in immunity. The cow is especially weak after calving, and any provoking factor can be fatal. In 85% of cases, mastitis occurs due to the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the body – streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, etc.etc., through wounds, papillary canals and other organs.
The cause of mastitis may be:
- Containment Breach: Low Temperatures – Inflammation may begin due to hypothermia; inconsistency of the microclimate with sanitary parameters; dampness and cold in the barn, unsanitary conditions;
- violation of milking techniques and rules: failure to comply with hygienic requirements when preparing the udder for milking; the cow is not milked; the mammary glands are not completely emptied – in the residual milk pressing on the parenchyma of the mammary gland, pathogenic bacteria multiply;
- there are more prospects for getting mastitis in an animal that receives poor nutrition, leading to a weakening of the immune system.
- complications after childbirth: delayed afterbirth; endometritis. The presence of injuries, cracked nipples, or insect bites.
- Injury to cows due to conflicts – if animals are walking without a leash.
Complications after treatment – usually caused by tetracycline antibiotics.
Mastitis has many forms and manifestations – the course of the disease can be different. But for any type of disease, there are the same symptoms: The animal is depressed. Appetite disappears.Swelling on the udder. He has a fever. The udder increases in size – all or only some of the lobes. On palpation – soreness. The temperature of the whole body may rise. The consistency of milk has changed. In taste and color, it differs from usual – it often contains blood or pus. Feeling the udder reveals knots and seals. There are forms of mastitis in which the color of the mammary glands changes in an animal – they become spotty. Attentive herders can spot the problem early on, without waiting for the cow’s udder to swell and fever.The risk of the disease increases after calving and at 1-2 months of pregnancy. The following symptoms can signal mastitis: Reddened nipple. At the beginning of milking, there are traces of flakes or curdled balls in the milk. Over time, if the disease is not treated, a viscous secretion is observed from the glands.
For the treatment to be successful, it is important not only to identify mastitis in time, but also to correctly determine its type. This can be done based on the symptoms and test results.
Clinical With the clinical form of mastitis, the udder hardens and swells, it becomes hot at the site of the lesion.Symptoms depend on the severity of the disease: in mild form – there are flakes and lumps in the milk; in moderate form – the udder swells, hardens, reddens and becomes painful; in severe form – intoxication, the condition of the animal is critical.
Subclinical This form of the disease is dangerous with a latent course. It does not go away asymptomatically for a long time. It can be determined by laboratory tests – by counting somatic cells and analyzing microflora.If subclinical mastitis is not detected in time, it will turn into a clinical form.
Chronic As with subclinical mastitis, the form of the disease is latent.
One may not suspect for a long time that the cow is sick. The bacteria that cause the disease are found in the tissues. The chronic form occurs when the cow’s body overcomes short-term inflammation and an apparent recovery occurs. To diagnose chronic mastitis, use: visual assessment of milk – it is watery, with fragments of flakes; tests; by settling method.If the animal does not receive adequate treatment, the disease will periodically worsen.
Catarrhal It usually occurs due to improper milking. Most often only one udder lobe is affected. The infection, penetrating the tissues, affects the milk ducts and mucous membranes. The pathway for bacteria to enter is the nipple. External symptoms: small nodules near the nipple – they appear on the 5th day of illness; in the first days, the animal feels normal, then a high temperature appears; the cow eats poorly, weakens; the milk becomes low-fat and contains flakes.
Purulent Symptoms of a purulent form: Calcifications appear on the udder of the animal. The temperature at the seal site rises. Body temperature is very high – 40-41 degrees. Milk contains pus. Abscess on the udder of a cow With abscess and phlegmon, the prognosis is poor – the animal will not be able to recover. With purulent inflammation of the udder, the following may also occur: Abscess. Ulcers appear on the mammary gland, growing and merging with each other.The cow has a high fever. The disease leads to destructive changes – part of the gland does not function. With reduced immunity, metastases begin. Phlegmon. With this purulent form, a spilled focus of pus appears. The milk expressed from the diseased lobe is gray and contains many clots.
Purulent-catarrhal If pus accumulates in the alveoli and milk ducts, purulent mastitis becomes purulent-catarrhal. It occurs as a result of the vital activity of pyogenic bacteria.Cause of the disease: poor conditions of detention; problems in the reproductive system. After 3-4 days from the onset of the disease, the visible symptoms of the disease disappear. This form of mastitis either passes or becomes chronic.
Serous and acute serous Appears after calving. Only part of the udder becomes inflamed. Symptoms: swelling and redness of the udder; compaction and increased temperature of the inflamed area; liquid milk, with flakes, looks more like water.With a serous form of the disease, the milk becomes bluish.
Fibrous This form occurs most often as a consequence of catarrhal mastitis. Symptoms: hemorrhages are visible in the affected tissues; discharge of pus. Fibrous mastitis often results in gangrene or metastases to other organs. The forecasts are unfavorable. In the fibrous form, the fibrin protein enters the tissues, accumulates in them, this causes impaired blood circulation and even necrosis.
Hemorrhagic Accompanied by thinning of the walls of the vessels of the mammary gland.Blood seeping into tissues and milk ducts clogs them. Typical symptoms: milk has a reddish or pinkish tint; on the skin of the udder – spots of crimson color.
Gangrenous This is the most severe case of mastitis. Its development is preceded by impaired blood circulation. Symptoms: the tissues of the affected lobes become dead, blue-black; a fetid liquid is released from the udder – brown or green, with protein flakes. The most unfavorable prognosis.The animal may die if the infection spreads to other vital organs. Diagnosis The success of a cow’s treatment depends on the timely diagnosis of mastitis. There are three forms of the disease: acute; hidden; chronic. Chronic mastitis is diagnosed in 90% of cases. It can be identified by the quality of the milk – it is watery, lean and patchy.
Veterinarians are responsible for diagnosing mastitis .
Medication Medication is expensive, but in many cases it is the only way to help the animal.When mastitis is usually used: Hormonal drug – oxytocin. To speed up your recovery. The use of this drug is dangerous for pregnant cows – it can provoke premature calving. The medicine is injected subcutaneously – 5 units per 100 kg of body weight. Before injecting the hormone, milk is milked, and then oxytocin is injected into the jugular vein. Antibiotics Before injecting antibiotics, it is important to recognize the type of infection that caused the inflammation – this is done by examining the microflora in the laboratory.Only experts can choose the right medicines, but the owner himself can administer them to the animal. Methods for administering antibiotics: Intramuscular injections. At the beginning of general intoxication, powerful drugs are used – “Bitsilin-5” or “Nitox”. Mastisan is introduced through the catheter. The drugs should be administered for 3-4 days. Intrammar injections – the substance is injected directly into the udder. The medicine is sold in syringes – “Mastisan” Before injection, the udder is completely free of milk. If the case is advanced, the cow is given a combination of drugs.For example, combinations give a good combination: penicillin and streptomycin; streptomycin and erythromycin; neomycin and tetracycline
Prevention To prevent cows from getting sick with mastitis, you must follow the rules for keeping them and milking techniques. The following measures are related to the prevention of mastitis: Animals should be kept in clean and warm rooms. Only specialists should work with cows. This is especially true for milking parlors. Cows should receive quality and nutritious feed.Animals should be supervised by an experienced veterinarian. The condition of the udder must be monitored – to react in time to cuts, wounds, cracks. Extreme care is required from the milking machine operator – if automated milking is used. Rough or unskillful movements can cause illness. Milking should be done regularly – at regular intervals. Before and after milking, it is imperative to massage the udder. Mastitis is a serious disease that, starting almost imperceptibly, can lead to culling of animals.To prevent losses, you need timely diagnosis and prevention, and when a problem arises, the help of a veterinarian.
Lyudmila Simushova Veterinarian of the KGBU HC in Tabunsky district
90,000 How to prevent blood clots during pregnancy
Pregnancy brings more morning sickness and fatigue – this also brings risks
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
, a preventable condition in which blood clots form in the veins.In fact, pregnancy and
The risk comes manually. Pregnant women have five times the risk
deep vein thrombosis
than women who are not pregnant, according to
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Disclaimer The risk remains up to three months after the baby is born.
The reason why male women should be mindful of the link between pregnancy and DVT is that an untreated clot can be potential free and pass through the bloodstream.
“Fear – this will move to the heart or lungs and cause a pulmonary embolus, which can lead to death,” says
Daniel Roshan, MD
, a specialist in maternal maternal medicine and an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the New York Grossman School of Medicine in New York.
Causes of deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy
Why the increased risk of deep vein
when is a woman expecting? “There are many physiological changes during pregnancy,” says
Pamela Berens, MD
, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology with McGover School of Medicine at Knot in Houston.One of these is compression in the pelvis from the baby. “There are also changes in clotting factors in the blood, which begin early in pregnancy and last until the woman is six weeks into the postpartum point,” she added.
Pregnancy hormones play a role. “There are many
Circulation during pregnancy and estrogen increases the risk of a blood clot, says Dr. Roshan.
Women on fertility control pills
which contain estrogens with a similarly increased risk of DVT.Roshan says women with a genetic clotting disorder called thrombophilia are at an even higher risk for deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy.
Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy
Some factors that can further raise your chances of developing deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy:
- Be 35 or older
- Previous blood clot during pregnancy or clots outside of pregnancy
- Genetic predisposition to blood clots
- Numerous births
- Be overweight
- To smoke
- Prolonged immobility such as bed, travel, or recovering from delivery
Some complications associated with pregnancy, such as
or conditions such as diabetes.
Have a cesarean delivery (
) nearly doubles a pregnant woman’s risk of dangerous blood, the CDC reports.
Race can also be a risk factor.
That the overall incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism is 30 to 60 percent higher than in black people than in white people. This explains both men and women.
Significant racial differences exist in heart complications, including blood clots, among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States.According to A.
research published in
Journal of the American Heart Association
in december 2020
In pregnant women, black women have been found to have a higher likelihood of developing blood in the lungs with white women. Black women also had higher rates of heart attack, stroke, and heart muscle and were also more likely to die in hospital.
How to recognize symptoms of DVT during pregnancy
You have enough on your mind without stressing deep vein thrombosis.Thus, instead of worrying, be aware of the symptoms. Most blood clots during pregnancy occur in the legs. “So watch out for tenderness in your calves and thighs, pain in the back of your calf and swelling, especially if it’s more on one side than the other,” Roshan said.
Blood clots during pregnancy that have moved to the heart or lungs can cause chest pain,
, or both. This signals an even more serious situation.
“If you have
See a doctor right away, ”Roshan said. A healthcare professional will be able to easily see if your discomfort is due to a pregnancy blood clot by performing
from the affected area.
If you do have DVT, treatment will be a blood thinner, usually
which is safe during pregnancy. “We treat a clot with a therapeutic dose for a few months and then lower it down to a prophylactic (prophylactic) dose,” he said.
For pregnant women with a previous history of DVT or blood clot during pregnancy, or with genetic thrombophilia, doctors usually prescribe
at the lower preventive dose. “We usually control women
Throughout the pregnancy, because as the pregnancy progresses, they sometimes need higher doses, ”Roshan said. “And for women with a DVT family history, but no personal past history, we sometimes prescribe a child
And tell them especially carefully about the symptoms. “
Prevent pregnancy blood blood
Due to being pregnant or postpartum, expecting women and new moms are at increased risk of DVT, so you cannot eliminate the risk entirely. But there are several steps you can take.
Reduce the risk of blood clots
“If you are overweight and sedentary, it will affect your blood flow and increase your risk of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy,” says Dr. Behrens.”So stay active and maintain a healthy weight.” If you must rest on bed due to injury or complications from your pregnancy, your doctor may prescribe blood tests as a precautionary measure.
Stand up while traveling.
“Flying itself is a risk factor for DVT, so pregnant women who fly are definitely at increased risk,” Bereny said. If you have to fly, get up and move around every hour or two and two ankle exercises while you are sitting.“And do the same if you are taking a long car or a bus ride,” she added.
Wear compression stockings.
Because they help improve circulation and reduce swelling in the legs, compression stockings can help reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy.
Drink plenty of water.
According to Roshan, staying hydrated during pregnancy. The CDC recommends that women drink 10 glasses of liquid every day during pregnancy and 12 to 13 glasses every day while breastfeeding.