Blood in congestion: What your mucus can tell you about your health
What your mucus can tell you about your health
Do you make a habit of checking out your snot after you blow your nose?
Most people don’t. I admit, it sounds pretty gross. But if you’re feeling ill, your mucus could give you a clue about what’s going on.
First of all, why do we even have nasal mucus? It helps trap dirt and bacteria and keeps your nasal passages moisturized.
Normal mucus is clear to white. When it starts to look yellow or green, it’s because you have a virus, bacterial infection or allergy.
You really can’t tell whether it’s a virus, bacteria or allergy that’s causing the color change. But the color indicates your body is fighting off an intruder.
If your mucus is tinged red or brown, it’s blood (if it’s black, it’s likely dust or dirt). Blood in your mucus could result from frequent nose blowing or breathing very dry air. If you’re seeing a lot of blood in your mucus, however, tell your doctor.
Stuffy sinuses are uncomfortable. And if they’re not cared for, infections can grow in the mucus-clogged nasal passages.
On its website, Harvard Medical School lists some excellent ways to alleviate sinus congestion and help prevent sinusitis:
- Run water through your nasal passages daily. Run water gently into the nasal passages to help clear excess mucus and moisten membranes. Good times to do it are in the morning and at night, when you brush your teeth. During the day, use nasal saline spray to moisten nasal passages.
- Drink more water. Good hydration helps keep the mucus thin and loose. Have a bottle of water at your desk at work, or put a glass near the kitchen sink to remind you to drink water throughout the day.
- Breathe in steam. Linger in a hot shower. Or bring water to a boil, and pour it into a pan; place a towel over your head, and carefully bend over the pan to inhale the steam. To avoid burns, keep your distance at first and move in gradually to a comfortable space.
- Get a humidifier. A humidifier in your home (in particular, by your bed) and where you work can help prevent nasal passages from drying out. Keep humidifiers clean and free of bacteria and mold.
- Prop up your head. Mucus pools in your sinuses at night when your head is down, so have your head propped up with pillows or a wedge during sleep.
- Be gentle with your nose. Blow your nose gently, one nostril at a time. Forceful blowing can irritate the nasal passages and propel bacteria-laden mucus back up into your sinuses.
Finding a new family doctor can be downright daunting. We can help. Choose the primary care or family doctor for you.
Got a stuffy nose, sinus infection or flu? Our Walk-In Clinics can help you feel better, no appointment needed.
Coughing up blood – Mayo Clinic
Coughing up blood can be caused by a variety of lung conditions. The blood may be bright red or pink and frothy, or it may be mixed with mucus.
Also known as hemoptysis (he-MOP-tih-sis), coughing up blood, even in small amounts, can be alarming. However, producing a little blood-tinged sputum isn’t uncommon and usually isn’t serious.
Call 911 or seek emergency care if you’re coughing up blood in large quantities or at frequent intervals.
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April 07, 2018
- Weinberger SE. Etiology and evaluation of hemoptysis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/ home. Accessed March 6, 2015.
- Ferri FF. Hemoptysis. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015:543. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 6, 2015.
- Kapur S, et al. Hemoptysis and thoracic fungal infections. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2010;90:985.
- AskMayoExpert. Hemoptysis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
Causes, Tests & Diagnosis, Treatment
What is coughing up blood?
Coughing up blood (also called hemoptysis) refers to coughing or spitting up of blood or bloody mucus from your respiratory tract (lungs and throat). It’s a common condition that can have many causes. Some of these conditions can be very serious.
Coughing up blood isn’t the same as vomiting blood. Blood that’s coughed up often looks bubbly and is mixed with mucus. It can be red or rust colored and is usually in small amounts. Vomiting blood refers to large quantities of blood being expelled from your mouth.
What causes coughing up blood?
Causes of coughing up blood range from mild to serious. Bronchitis is the most common, and least serious, cause of coughing up blood.
Other causes may include:
- Blood clot in the lung
- Pulmonary aspiration (breathing blood into the lungs).
- Lung cancer.
- Excessive, violent coughing that irritates your throat.
- Using blood thinners.
- Pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in your lungs).
- Complications from lupus.
- Congestive heart failure.
- Irritation from a bronchoscopy biopsy.
- Bronchiectasis (a condition that causes of enlargement of the arteries in your lungs).
- Cystic fibrosis.
- Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels in your lung).
- Injury to the arteries of your lungs.
Care and Treatment
How is the cause of coughing up blood diagnosed?
Since coughing up blood can range from mild to serious, it’s important to diagnose the underlying cause of your symptoms so that you can be properly treated.
Your healthcare provider will begin an exam by asking how much blood you have been coughing up, for how long and how much is mixed with mucus.
The following tests may be done:
- A computed tomography (CT) chest scan.
- Chest X-ray to look for tumors or fluid in the lungs.
- Lung scan.
- Lung biopsy.
- Bronchoscopy (a flexible tube inserted through the nose or mouth) to check if the airways are clear.
- Blood count.
- A sputum culture of your lung excretions to look for infection.
- Blood clotting test.
- Pulmonary arteriography to see how blood flows through your lungs.
How is coughing up blood treated?
Treatment for coughing up blood varies. Mild and temporary coughing up of blood can be treated by cough suppressants. However, if your coughing up of blood continues or worsens you should seek medical care.
Once the cause of coughing up blood is determined, your physician will talk with you about the best treatment plan that will address both your symptoms and the underlying condition. First, they may seek to stop the bleeding by embolizing (blocking) a bleeding artery or through a bronchoscopy.
Surgery and cancer treatment may be required if it is discovered your condition is caused by a tumor. Antibiotics may be prescribed for pneumonia or tuberculosis. Steroids may be used to treat inflammation causing the bleeding.
When to Call the Doctor
What should I do if I am coughing up blood?
Coughing up blood can be the sign of a serious medical condition.
If you’re coughing up small amounts of blood for longer than a week, talk to your healthcare provider. They’ll determine the cause of your hemoptysis.
Seek immediate attention if you are coughing up more than a few teaspoons of blood or your cough is accompanied by the following:
- Chest pain.
- Blood in your urine or stools.
- Dizziness or light-headedness.
- Shortness of breath.
- Rapid or severe weight loss.
Here’s the Reason Why There’s Blood in Your Boogers
Getting out of bed on frigid winter mornings is bad enough without having to deal with a bloody nose on top of it. But with all the harsh breathing we’re doing during the day in the dry cold air and our tendency to crank up the heat at night, it’s a pretty common issue.
“Bloody mucus and nose bleeds during the winter are a direct result of the weather,” says Roheen Raithatha, M.D., an ear, nose, and throat specialist in New York. “The drier, colder air can cause cracks in the mucus membranes of the nose, which can lead to exposed blood vessels that can then bleed.”
At the same time, the winter air is the culprit behind a crusty nose, too. When those super-dry boogers come out, they can cause tears in your already delicate nostrils. The more you blow to get the snot out, the more likely you are to rupture those teeny blood vessels: the perfect recipe for a bloody, sensitive schnoz.
Unfortunately, those of us with existing nasal, sinus, or allergy issues are more prone to cases of bloody boogers in the winter, says Raithatha. “The nasal linings are already inflamed at baseline, and thus, the nose doesn’t humidify and moisturize air as well,” he says.
So other than pack up and move to the hot, humid tropics, what can you do about it? Moisturize, moisturize, moisturize. Start with the air you’re breathing all night and get a humidifier. If that’s not enough, Raithatha recommends trying a saline spray or ointment like Vaseline twice a day to help prevent those delicate mucous membranes from drying out.
If you still find yourself getting blindsided by bloody noses in the winter, use a decongestant spray like Afrin or Neosynephrine. Pro tip: Contrary to popular belief, you actually shouldn’t tilt your head back when you’re using one, as that will cause you to start swallowing the blood.
If the bleeding is persistent, see your doc. In some cases, they’ll actually cauterize the blood vessels in your nose to prevent the problem from getting out of hand.
Macaela Mackenzie is a freelance journalist specializing in health, culture, and tech, and she regularly contributes to outlets like Prevention, Women’s Health, Shape, Allure, Men’s Health, the John Hopkins Health Review, and more.
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The Truth About Nasal Congestion
Given the number of tissues you go through when you’re sick, you might assume nasal congestion is caused by excess mucus. However, there’s more to the story. Nasal congestion is often a result of inflammation. When you’re sick, the blood vessels lining the nasal cavity become swollen and inflamed. This can cause nasal congestion.
Causes of Nasal Inflammation
Nasal inflammation is often caused by the body’s response to what it identifies as a foreign agent. For example, when the body recognizes a foreign presence it considers dangerous (such as a cold virus), it springs into action, it springs into action. Cells begin to message one another to increase blood flow to the site of concern, carrying cells with the ability to attack an invader. These cells secrete substances to fight the attack, causing inflammation.
“when the body recognizes a foreign presence it considers dangerous (such as a cold virus), it springs into action”
As a result, the blood vessels in the tissues lining your nose and sinuses literally swell up due to inflammation. Inflammation in the nose and sinuses, like that which occurs anywhere else in the body, is part of a healthy body’s immune efforts, and not the work of harmful pathogens or an infection.
That being said, many of the threats the body reacts to may be harmless. For instance, many of the viruses that cause common cold syndrome would cause little harm if left alone. However, our bodies have been engineered to remain on high alert at all times. That’s one reason nasal congestion is so common—because it’s a defense against a host of things the body considers dangerous.
Treating Nasal Congestion
While your body is busy fighting the virus that caused your nasal congestion, decongestants focus on treating the swollen tissue or inflammation to help combat nasal congestion, helping you feel better.
When Should You Worry About a Nosebleed?
Nosebleeds. Everyone has had one. While they are often frightening, they are rarely anything more than a nuisance.
What Causes a Nosebleed?
When the membranes lining the inside of the nose dry out and become irritated, the blood vessels break, causing a nosebleed. These are more common in the winter months, when the air is cold and dry. Other factors that may contribute to nosebleeds include:
- Sinus infections
- Nose picking
- Blowing the nose too hard
- Frequent sneezing
- Overuse of nasal sprays
- Foreign objects in the nose
- Trauma to the nose
There are two types of nosebleeds, anterior and posterior. Anterior nosebleeds are the most common and are caused by bleeding in the front part of the nose. The bleeding from a posterior nosebleed comes from an artery in the back portion of the nose.
If nosebleeds are chronic or occur frequently, they may be the result of high blood pressure or other vascular diseases or, in rare cases, a serious medical condition like a tumor.
What Are the Symptoms of a Nosebleed?
Bleeding from only one nostril is the most common symptom of a nosebleed. Usually a nosebleed from both nostrils is due to a heavy flow from one nostril; the blood has just backed up and overflown into the other. If blood drips down the back of the throat into the stomach you may spit up or vomit blood. Excessive blood loss can cause a feeling of dizziness, light-headedness and fainting.
How Do You Treat a Nosebleed?
More often than not, a nosebleed can be easily controlled at home. Sit up straight, lean your head forward and pinch the nostrils together with your thumb and index finger for 10 minutes. Try not to swallow any blood as it may cause you to vomit. Once the bleeding has stopped, try not to blow your nose for the next 24 hours and avoid dry air.
If this home remedy does not stop the bleeding, you will have to visit your Carlsbad doctor. If the bleeding is coming from a blood vessel at the front of the nose, your doctor can easily seal up the opening with silver nitrate in a process called cauterizing. If the blood vessel is further back, nasal packing may be needed. This involves packing the nasal cavity with gauze, which puts pressure on the vessel and will stop the bleeding. The packing is left in place for 24 to 72 hours.
If the bleeding is coming from the back of the nose (a posterior nosebleed) a special type of packing is needed. You may need to be hospitalized and will be given a sedative and pain medication. The packing is left in place for 48 to 72 hours. If the bleeding still does not stop, surgery may be needed.
For those who are prone to nosebleeds, your Carlsbad otolaryngologist recommends taking steps to prevent them. Keep the nasal lining moist with a light coating of petroleum jelly several times a day, or use a saline nasal spray. Run a humidifier, especially if you live in a dry climate. Quit smoking; this causes dryness and irritation.
For more information, contact your Carlsbad doctor today.
Venous Congestion – an overview
Anatomic Overview of the Venous and Lymphatic Systems Related to Stroke Hand Edema and Its Etiology
The venous congestion and limb dependency theory is most relevant to the treatment techniques this chapter will present. Thus, it is important to take an anatomic look at the vascular system, which consists of both arterial and venous structures and the lymphatics. Both vascular structures, the venule and lymphatic capillaries, remove excess fluid from the interstitium and can be simultaneously activated in specific instances. Yet depending on the type of edema, in certain instances, each system must activate in its own unique way in order to reduce edema. Both the venous and lymphatic systems neurologically are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.17,35 However, both systems rely on the muscle motor pump to remove tissue fluid from the interstitium.17,35 Thus, with total or partial lack of motor function to an arm post stroke, swelling occurs.
Venous and lymphatic absorption of tissue fluid occurs on the microcirculation level. In the interstitium (interstitial spaces), the arterial and venule histologically join in an arc. The initial lymphatic (also called a lymphatic capillary or lymphatic net) is independent from the venule arterial arc; it is a “netlike” structure in the interstitium and is much larger than the venule.17,28 On this microcirculation level, plasma proteins, fluid, electrolytes, nutrients, and a few other elements are excreted from the arteriole, because it has a pressure of 35 mm Hg. 6 These are the substances needed for surrounding cell metabolism. Ninety percent of what remain from the metabolism are small molecules that enter the venule via the processes of osmosis and diffusion.27,28 The remaining 10% of the molecules, such as plasma proteins, are too large to be absorbed by the venule and must be absorbed by the lymphatic capillaries. The artery system via arteriole filtration and diffusion excretes tissue fluid into the interstitium.28 From the interstitium there are two structures, venules and lymphatic capillaries, that join with larger veins and lymphatic structures to bring fluid back to the heart (Fig. 23-2).17
The absorption process by the venule and lymphatic capillaries differ from each other. The wall of a venule is thin and absorbs small molecules via osmosis and diffusion.17 Thus, elevation, light retrograde massage, muscle contraction, and compression will facilitate this absorption.
Lymphatic molecule absorption in the interstitium begins in the one-cell initial lymphatic capillary that, most superficially, is part of a netlike structure located in the dermis layer of tissue. This initial lymphatic capillary is pencil shaped (tube closed on one end) and lined with one layer of overlapping endothelial cells (Fig. 23-3).28 Anatomically, fluid cannot be physically “pushed” into the lymphatic capillaries, nor does it move from the interstitium by osmosis into the lymphatic capillary. Tissue fluid and large molecules can only be absorbed by the lymphatic capillary when changes occur in interstitial fluid pressure or by movement of the elastic anchor filaments that extend from an endothelial cell to connective tissue.28,35 Then the junctions of these overlapping endothelial cells open like a trap door admitting large molecules from the interstitium into the pencil-shaped lymphatic capillary.28,35 These pressure changes occur with movement of skin, light compression, muscle contraction, and respiration.14,28 The elastic anchor filaments extending from connective tissue to the endothelial junctions open the junction flaps when pressure is put on their elastic filaments, such as from fluid congestion in the interstitium.17
Lymphatic absorption is stimulated by respiration. The deepest and largest lymphatic structure is the thoracic duct. It lies anterior to, and parallels, the spinal column running from L2 to T4.56 Changes in thoracic pressure cause a proximal negative pressure vacuum and draws fluid proximally from the periphery. This is also called the pulmonary pump.17 The thoracic duct operates according to hydrodynamic laws.35 Therefore, inhalation and exhalation from diaphragmatic breathing cause changes in the thoracic duct pressure, drawing the lymph within the duct toward the subclavian veins. These pressure changes in the thoracic duct then create a vacuum (suction), pulling lymph from peripheral structures centrally.14,35,36 The result is that fluid from the periphery moves out of the area, and edema is reduced distally in a domino effect. Once the lymph enters the subclavian veins, it then becomes part of the venous system and continues on to lungs, heart, and other parts of the body.
The differences and similarities of the venous and lymphatic system of fluid absorption from the interstitium should be considered when choosing the appropriate edema reduction technique for post-stroke arm and hand edema.
90,000 Thinning Blood
Varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, stroke, angina pectoris, heart attack, vegetative-vascular dystonia, hypertension, atherosclerosis. What do these diseases have in common?
All of them, in one way or another, are associated with increased blood viscosity – thick blood.To get rid of these ailments, the blood must be thinned. So that it flows easily through the vessels, joyfully carries food and oxygen to the organs, and does not push with difficulty, creating congestion, depriving the organs of the necessary nutrition and giving an extra load to the heart.
To lower blood viscosity, doctors prescribe drugs to elderly patients. But there are simpler remedies available and no less effective – these are herbs. To thin the blood in folk medicine, lungwort, peony, wormwood, chicory, hazel, lemon balm, hawthorn, red clover, Caucasian dioscorea, willow bark, sweet clover, acacia, mulberry, etc. are used.
Horse chestnut is one of the most powerful treatments for diseases associated with thickening of the blood. The recipe is very simple. You need to collect its fruits (seeds), break them with a hammer, collect the brown peel. Take 50 g of this peel and pour 0.5 l of vodka. Insist in a dark place for 2 weeks. Strain. Take 2-3 times a day for a teaspoon (mixing with 1/4 cup of warm water) on an empty stomach, food – not earlier than after 30 minutes.
Another recipe. Grate garlic or mince.Fill any jar with the crushed mass by a third of its volume and pour vodka to the top. Insist in a dark place for two weeks, shaking every 2-3 days. Then strain. How much garlic extract turned out, add the same amount of freshly squeezed lemon juice and the same amount of honey. Mix all. Store in a cool, dark place. Drink 1 tbsp. spoon 1 time per day before bedtime.
From food, sea fish, melon, cranberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, apples, cherries, plums, grapefruit, wheat germ, zucchini, cucumbers, red bell peppers, tomatoes, lemon, beets, dark chocolate contribute to blood thinning.
But do not overdo it, so as not to provoke bleeding!
Causes and prevention of thick blood Useful information
Home »Useful information» Thick blood: causes
Thick blood: reasons 12/20/2016 09:20
Blood has two main components: plasma and corpuscles – blood cells. Erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes thicken the blood, and plasma is its liquid part.In medicine, there is no such thing as “thick blood”, scientifically, the ratio of formed elements and plasma is called the “Hematocrit number”.
The main causes of thick blood are:
“Thick blood” cannot fulfill its main functions, namely, to supply useful elements to organs and remove decay products.With a high ratio of formed elements in the blood vessels, congestions are formed, which eventually turn into blood clots. Thrombus formation is the first step to heart disease and stroke. At the same time, the heart experiences high loads, because “Pumping” thick blood is much more difficult.
Thick blood during pregnancy threatens with big problems not only for the woman, but also for the baby. Disruption of blood supply from mother to child leads to blood clots in the uterus, which subsequently result in miscarriage.
To prevent blood density, it is necessary to establish proper nutrition, increase the amount of pure water consumed. The following foods also contribute to “thinning the blood”:
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“The heart needs to be pumped.” Cardio workout: how many times a week and why? | SPORT: Events | SPORT
Perhaps everyone knows about the benefits of cardio, but you need to be able to do cardio exercises without risking. An expert in the direction of group programs of the federal network of fitness clubs X-Fit Alena Gribanova told AiF-Yug about how to properly train the cardiovascular and respiratory system, without harm to health.
What is Cardio?
“Cardio training is the performance of any cardio exercise, during which the heart rate and oxygen consumption increase,” says Alena Gribanova . “Its main goal is to train the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, as well as to increase the anaerobic threshold, decrease the resting heart rate, lose weight and increase immunity.”
This can be aerobics, aquatics, running, cycling, swimming, striding and other types of fitness.However, strength training can also be done in cardio mode. Unlike other workouts, this is a cyclical training, that is, exercises are performed without interruption for a certain time. In strength training, there are phases of rest, repetitions and the number of approaches.
“The main goal of cardio is to lower the resting heart rate, the expert continues. – An untrained heart, even without exertion, will often contract, pumping blood, and the pulse at rest will be, for example, 90 beats per minute. Cardio trains the heart like a muscle, so it won’t have to make fewer contractions without wearing it out. “
How much workout should you do cardio?
Such training is useful and necessary for people of various levels of training, regardless of age, gender. The only thing is that before starting cardio training, you need to consult a doctor, do additional research, such as an EKG under stress. So the doctor will determine the zone of the working pulse, the rate of recovery, and the training process will become as safe and therefore effective as possible.
“It is preferable to do 2-3 times a week, lasting from 20 to 60 minutes, depending on the preparation of the heart and the person’s response to the load.It makes no sense to do less than 20 minutes of cardio. On the other hand, in addition to fat, protein begins to be broken down – a building material for muscles. Therefore, over 60 minutes, muscle mass begins to decrease rapidly. The way out: try to combine cardio with strength ”, – specifies Alena Gribanova .
“Be sure to drink water during your workout,” says the expert. – During the lesson, the body temperature rises, the blood thickens, and accordingly it becomes more difficult for the heart to pump it. Water thinns the blood slightly.If your main goal is weight loss, then sports supplements can be used as an additional aid. For example, isotonic will support the water-salt balance. Indeed, during cardio, profuse sweating occurs. Salts and minerals are removed along with sweat. BCAAs will improve your performance and help maintain muscle mass.
No other workout will help you reach your global goals.
When to train?
“Cardio can be practiced at any time of the day,” says the expert.- The only thing, I do not welcome night training for early risers and early morning fasting cardio for owls. The nervous system after evening workouts is overexcited, and people who are used to getting up early cannot fall asleep for a long time and recover worse. On the other hand, it is evening training that relieves the stress accumulated during the day from owls. ”
Why shouldn’t you do long-term cardio on an empty stomach? To burn fat during exercise, you need a store of glycogen in your body. Where does the body get energy from if there was no breakfast? Therefore, the number of calories on an empty stomach will be burned less.And even after having breakfast, within two hours of recovery, you can lose less weight than if you had eaten. Again, blood sugar levels can drop. This can lead to fainting during intense cardio on an empty stomach.
“Can you do without cardio? – says Alena Gribanova . – To achieve the global goals listed above, cardio is essential. No other training will help you achieve them. To maintain tone and lose weight – you can get by with a decrease in carbohydrates in the diet and functional strength training. “
90,000 Japanese blood – Science – Kommersant
The world’s first artificial blood – a Japanese invention. The first samples of ersatz blood based on perfluorocarbons were synthesized by Japanese scientists in 1965. First, they tested it on monkeys, and in 1972 they began to transfuse it into human volunteers. But American doctors, who transfused Japanese blood to a patient from Minnesota in 1979, took care of promoting their success so diligently that today few people remember the priority of the Japanese, and the USA is considered the place of the first artificial blood transfusion.
Japanese blood called Fluosol was a milky suspension. It was a suspension in physiological solution of blood proteins albumin and perfluorodecalin (in Fluosol-DA) or perfluorotributylamine (in Fluosol-43). Perfluorocarbons, in fact, turned this “milk” into blood. They ensured the transfer of oxygen, that is, they did not let the tissues of the body “suffocate” in case of large blood loss.
Antihypoxic properties and maintaining pressure in blood vessels is the only thing that makes artificial blood similar to real blood.None of the varieties of artificial blood is still capable of performing the other functions of blood (transfer of nutrients, humoral control, thermoregulation, etc.). Artificial blood can replace real blood only temporarily, in extreme situations. But artificial blood is good for everyone, you don’t even need to think about the patient’s blood group and his Rh factor.
In 1979, the Soviet government instructed the Academy of Sciences to create its own artificial blood. It was developed on the basis of perfluorane at the Institute of Biophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Pushchino and in 1983 was ready for clinical trials.The perfluorane suspension had a blue color, and it was called “blue blood”.
But it was more effective than fluosol, but it never made it to the world market. Her readiness coincided in time with the Andropov period of “putting things in order” in the country. Scientists from the IBF, even before clinical trials in 1983, gave two ampoules of perfluorane to save five-year-old Anya Grishina, who was bleeding after an accident. The girl survived, and a case was opened against the scientists in the KGB about “experiments on humans.” In 1985, one of the blue blood developers, Professor Beloyartsev, committed suicide after another search.In the same year, clinical trials of perfluorane were banned. Only in 1999, scientists, including Beloyartsev (posthumously), were awarded the RF Government Prize, but perftoran itself is still produced only in pilot plants in small batches.
90,000 Houses demolished by water created a traffic jam along the Tulun highway
While they talked about digitalization from the high rostrum, the flood in the Irkutsk region showed that there is no smell of it in Russia. The element, according to an old Russian habit, took people by surprise and turned this region into a war zone – there is no bread, water and medicine, cellular communication is down.And after this blow, the refugees will remain – they will wander and wander in the circles of bureaucratic hell.
The flooding in the Irkutsk region began on June 26. The flood happened due to long torrential rains and a rise in the water level in six local rivers – Biryusa, Uda, Ut, Oya, Ikeika and Kirei. As a result, the Taishetsky, Nizhneudinsky, Tulunsky and Chunsky regions were flooded. In 28 settlements, 1.7 thousand houses with a population of 4.2 thousand people were flooded. Five sections of highways went under the water, it was necessary to block the movement of the federal highway R-255 “Siberia”.According to the latest data, 1,317 local residents were evacuated.
As a result of floods, according to the Ministry of Health, more than 630 people were affected, including 57 children. According to the latest data from the Ministry of Emergency Situations, seven people died. The fate of nine more, including one child, remains unknown. And this may not be the final loss figures.
The situation is reminiscent of the military – in the most affected areas there is no bread, water and medicine. Not to mention clothing for people who hastily left their homes.
And the truth is, like in war – many affected people will simply have nowhere to return.The most epic photo from the scene of the tragedy was a congestion of houses demolished by water, which was nailed to a bridge on the federal highway in Tulun.
While from the high tribunes they talk about digitalization and the development of Siberia as an oasis for cryptocurrency mining, which will pour a golden rain on this land, this land goes under water and remains without communication. Smart roads, smart housing and communal services, smart weather sensors, it seems, turned out to be just smart chatter.
It would seem, what have the officials got to do with it – they do not have power over the elements, do they? People have not yet learned how to control the weather and stop heavy rains by decrees and orders of high authorities.
However, as it turned out, residents of the affected areas faced what is called “power paralysis.” The state of emergency in the Irkutsk region was introduced only on June 28. It was already the third day of the flood: at that time, the cities and towns of three local areas were flooded. On June 26, settlements of the Taishet region went under water, in the evening of the same day, the Nizhneudinsky region was flooded, and on June 28, a dam broke in the Tulun region and the streets of the Tulun regional center became rivers.
According to eyewitness accounts , residents of the village of Solyanaya, Taishet district of Priangarye, who were among the first to suffer from the flood, woke up on June 26 from the noise of the water, saw that the suspension bridge had been demolished and everything around was flooded.However, the local administration began to reassure people with the words on duty and absolutely ridiculous in this situation: “Everything is under control.” Although people saw everything with their own eyes and eventually escaped themselves, as best they could, in the local House of Culture, which is located on a hill.
Nobody was going to evacuate local residents – old people, children, pregnant women – from the flooded areas. The representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations who arrived on the call of local residents allegedly stated that they did not have such powers. And … flew back.
Irkutsk Oblast was still “lucky” (if in such cases one can speak of luck at all), which is relatively close to the events, the President of Russia was at the G20 summit in Osaka at that time. Upon returning from the summit, he stopped in Bratsk and held an emergency night meeting on flooding in the Irkutsk region. After the meeting and the instruction of the President to the Minister of Defense, the army joined the flood control. Sergei Shoigu recalled his longest work in the government – the Minister of Emergency Situations.
Of course, neither the governor nor the Ministry of Emergency Situations have their own political resources to involve the army in eliminating the consequences of the flood. But the local authorities and the Ministry of Emergency Situations have the administrative resource to see in time that the flood has already begun and it is time to take emergency measures. There was no reason to wait three days to start moving. In the end, officials are obliged to use weather forecasts and see what is really going on outside the window. It was necessary to use all communication channels to connect the army.
Well, the emergency warning system in Russia, like the annual traditional forecasts of the Ministry of Emergency Situations for possible natural disasters (floods, fires, man-made disasters), remain rather an element of the political PR of our rescue services than actually working tools to prevent the consequences of such incidents.
The situation in the Irkutsk region shows that we have not learned any lessons from the worst flood in the country’s recent history.Seven years ago, on July 6-7, 2012, a flood in the city of Krymsk, Krasnodar Territory, claimed 156 lives. The emergency notification system of the Ministry of Emergency Situations did not work then. According to eyewitnesses, people received SMS warnings with a delay and in a truncated form, the warning in a running line on television turned out to be simply meaningless due to a power outage, and only one of the warning system loudspeakers in Krymsk worked, and already at the height of the flood.Most of the victims then were elderly people who could not get out of the flooded houses at night. Because they were asleep and no one woke them up.
The then governor of the Krasnodar Territory, Alexander Tkachev, became famous for the statement that officials are not obliged to go home and notify people. No resignations followed after that catastrophe – our bosses are not drowning. Moreover, almost three years after the flood, Tkachev was promoted to become Minister of Agriculture, and is now back in his agribusiness.
The Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation after the flood in Krymsk argued that if people were warned at least 10-15 minutes before the start of the flood, there would be fewer victims. Seven years have passed. Our disaster warning systems still do not work or do not work to their full extent: it is one thing to send a storm warning to the residents of Moscow via SMS, and quite another to notify the residents of the Irkutsk region districts.
We have a large country with a complex and diverse nature – since we are so proud of our territory, we must ensure a normal level of control over it.
Including the most remote settlements. Moreover, during natural disasters. Regional emergency departments should have a clear and quick algorithm for making decisions about evacuation. “We have no authority” – definitely not the words that drowning people want to hear from the arrived representatives of the rescue services in the literal sense of the word.
And how in the case of other similar emergencies remains unclear – how many people will wander as refugees? Autumn will come practically in two months – will the clumsy bureaucracy be able to chew so many small tragedies?
Flooding in each specific place in Russia is a natural disaster.Floods in general in our climatic conditions are quite common. And the state at all levels of government should be as prepared as possible for this to happen. In the meantime, there is a feeling that the authorities do not care about people even when they literally need to be saved from inevitable death. Although the state exists to protect people.
Now at least it is necessary to provide payments to all residents of the Irkutsk region who were really affected by the flood (such payments have already begun – the question is whether this money will be enough to restore flooded houses if they turn out to be irrevocably unsuitable for life).Arrange the supply of medicines and drinking water to the affected areas. Restore the broken dams in the shortest possible time. And, most importantly, to create such a mechanism for responding to natural disasters at all levels of government so that no one throughout Russia will have to go through what the residents of several districts of the Irkutsk region have experienced in recent days.
90,000 Pure English menu. Lancashire: shrimp, blood and raisin buns
- Yana Litvinova
- BBC, London
Photo author, Getty Images
Lancashire has access to the sea , therefore, shrimps were included in the traditional menu, albeit in a purely English version.
Lancashire is not so simple. To begin with, it is not really a county, but a palatinate. And the county, and not historical, but ceremonial, it became only in 1974 after the adoption of a special law by the parliament.
The territory of the historic palatinate is much larger than the territory of the administrative county and includes Manchester, Liverpool and even a piece of the Lake District. Unlike a standard county, the palatinate is something like a mini-kingdom: the aristocrat who owns it has, as it were, royal prerogatives and can more or less do whatever he wants in his domain.
But with the Lancaster Palatinate it turned out even more interesting, because the third Duke of Lancaster, aka Heinrich Bolingbroke, usurped power, dismissed, and then starved (as it is believed) his predecessor, Richard II, put on the crown, but from the prerogatives of the duchy did not refuse. As a result, the palatinate passed into the possession of the reigning monarch.
County or Duchy?
Photo author, Getty Images
View of the northeastern part of Lancashire from Pendle Hill
The answer to this question is simple and confusing at the same time, because there are both, but their territories, although they intersect in separate places, they are not at all identical.
The Duchy is the private domain of the British monarch who (or who) has been bearing the title and Duke of Lancaster since Bolingbroke. These estates consist of farmland, various forests, fields and rivers, historical and not too historical buildings.
Its income of approximately £ 20 million per year is paid directly to the Queen. At the same time, she seems to own all this, but on the other hand, she does not seem to be. And all because the Lancaster territories are an integral part of the crown, therefore, the monarch can use the income, but he cannot even touch the main assets with a finger, because they must safely pass to the heir to the throne when his time comes.
Witches, gallows, ghosts
Photo author, Nabokov (talk)
Lancaster castle. There was a gallows in this place, it is called the “Hanging Angle”
The official capital of the county, the city of Lancaster, in the 17th – 18th centuries earned the not too flattering nickname “the city of the hanged”. The court, located at Lancaster Castle, sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the whole country, with the exception of London, but there were significantly more people there.
At the beginning of the 17th century, 12 women were tried there, accused of witchcraft, of whom ten were found guilty and hanged, one died in prison and only one survived.
Photo author, BigMetalFan
Statue of John of Gaunt, 2nd Duke of Lancaster. It was his son who took the crown and life from the rightful king, but he did not refuse the duchy either.
It shouldn’t be surprising that Lancaster Castle is jam-packed with ghosts.Official guides claim that they really do not like to be the last on the shift, the ones who are required to leave and turn off the light. And even skeptical tourists admit that they heard some moaning, footsteps or felt the touch of cold hands on their shoulders.
I was at Lancaster Castle only once. I won’t lie, the ghosts did not pay any attention to me, but the atmosphere in the basement cells is really creepy. This is not an attraction for you, but the most real, albeit former, prison, from where the overwhelming majority of prisoners went only to the gallows.
Okay, let’s not talk about gloomy anymore and move on to cooking. In the end, you and I are quite alive, therefore, we are ready to eat and cook.
And we will start with …
Shrimp in a pot
Photo author, MarkGillow
Tasty, but you can get stuck if the chef used traditional salted butter
This is a purely Lancashire invention, which is very loved by the creator of the fearless and unkillable agent 007 Ian Fleming.However, he ate it mostly in London in traditional restaurants.
Unfortunately, my first acquaintance with this delicacy was somewhat unfortunate, because its creator used salted butter. As a result, I got the impression that I was trying to eat pure salt with a shrimp flavor.
But if you take ordinary butter, it turns out very tasty.
Photo author, william lowis
Morecambe Bay. The place, by the way, is dangerous, with quicksand and fast tides.In order to wander around it, you should take with you a special person who knows the whole area well.
- 100 g unsalted (!!!) butter.
- A little cayenne pepper (whatever you want, you can put paprika instead).
- Freshly grated nutmeg (exactly how much to rub it, I won’t tell you, try it yourself, just do not forget that it is very fragrant, and if you do not keep it in check, the first violin will play).
- 350 ready-made and peeled shrimps (you do not need king prawns for this at all, every shrimp trifle goes into this dish).
- Bread, lemon and other bells and whistles
Photo author, Getty Images
People in the bay have settled since ancient times
The process of making takes less than half an hour, but keep in mind that this should be done on the eve of eating.
Melt the butter in a small saucepan over low heat, you want it to turn liquid, but not brown.
Send shrimp, nutmeg and cayenne pepper to the same place, mix well, and let it begin to gurgle slightly.
Now remove the shrimps with a slotted spoon, put them in pots, bowls or any portioned forms and “smart” properly, that is, compress. Of course, you don’t need to crush them, but the packaging should be tight.
Let them cool and refrigerate for 10-15 minutes to return the oil to a solid state.
Author of the photo, Getty Images
Caption to the photo,
Of course, the most “correct” shrimp will be in such shops at fishing boats. But if the chef used traditional salted butter, I cannot guarantee the pleasure.
The final touch – remove the tamped and frozen shrimp from the refrigerator and pour the remaining oil on top, which should completely cover them, and return to the refrigerator until the next day.
And that’s all. How you eat them is up to you. You can do it on a toasted piece of dude bread, you can do it on a simple bun, or just with a salad – complete freedom of action. But don’t forget that this is a common dish for poor seafood fishermen from Morecambe Bay, so the simpler the better.
Butter cake. He’s a Catholic pie. He’s a Friday pie
Photo author, Getty Images
Caption to photo,
Potatoes in the British Isles have taken root well, spread quickly and thoroughly penetrated the national cuisine
As you probably already guessed, this is a vegetarian pie, therefore English Catholics (if they managed to survive, keep their heads on their shoulders and return to a relatively normal life) could eat it on Fridays when good Catholics were not supposed to eat meat.
By and large, this is the most ordinary pie with potatoes in shortcrust pastry, so I will not bore you with details. For Lancashire authenticity, the potatoes should be diced and steamed, and the onions should be half-rings and simmered in butter until they turn clear but not brown. The filling is not mixed, but laid out in layers – first potatoes, then onions, and on top of it – pieces of butter.
Photo author, Getty Images
Lancashire potato pie should be quite tall.I would still choose dill as an accompanying fragrant herb.
In my opinion, it should be eaten with pickled or sauerkraut. Well, you don’t need to teach anyone this.
Having a snack of shrimp in butter, which can theoretically be spread on a butter pie with potatoes, let’s move on to the next culinary achievement of the English north …
Black pudding, or blood sausage
Photo author, J Shepherd
Black as a firebrand, as said
I certainly understand why the black pudding was invented.If a not too rich family slaughtered a pig, then it made sense to use everything that was contained in it, including blood. That being said, I have no idea where you will get it if you don’t have your own pig farm.
I myself was not worthy to try it, but one of my daughters took a chance. The child heroically chewed about a third of the portion, then pushed the plate aside and guiltily said that it was, of course, interesting (in English, “interesting” means that it’s actually horror and horror, but I don’t want to offend those who are did), but too weird.
I’ll give you a recipe just in case, and you can decide what to do with it.
Photo author, Getty Images
Traditional black pudding should be shaped like a horseshoe. By the way, don’t you think that he is somehow rumpled in this picture?
- 2 liters of fresh pig blood.
- 500 g of pork fat (subcutaneous fat), a little tired, only to make the surface slightly transparent.
- 250 g onion, chop finely, cook in the same way as bacon.
- 2 with top tablespoons of oatmeal, drenched in water in the evening.
- 1 heaped teaspoon of ground white pepper.
- 1 teaspoon of top salt.
- 1 top teaspoon of spices (coriander, ginger, cumin).
- 500 ml double fat cream.
Photo author, Getty Images
At home, if you do not have a special machine, the pudding mixture is poured in the most direct way through the funnel.
But this is just the beginning, because food alone is not enough to make black pudding, you also need specific kitchen utensils :
- 1 large saucepan.
- Beef casings to be stuffed with minced meat. They say that they should be soaked in cold water in the evening. I can neither say nor advise anything, dare and take risks yourself.
- Large tray.
And also: a long rubberized apron, rubber gloves, a mop, a bucket of water, liquid soap, a face mask, goggles. You can immediately get into the chemical protection overalls, because the slightest carelessness – and your kitchen will resemble the banquet hall of Count Dracula after a particularly violent orgy.
Okay, let’s assume that you are already fully armed. What to do next?
Photo author, Getty Images
A sight, of course, something else. But to be afraid of blood – do not cook pudding!
First, strain the pork blood through a sieve directly into a large saucepan to remove any clots.Put bacon and onion there and mix well. Now add the oatmeal that has swollen overnight (the water must, of course, be drained), pepper, salt, spices and cream.
Arm yourself with a large ladle and stir until the solid fractions are completely and evenly distributed in the bloody mass. You can simultaneously mutter incantations in an incomprehensible language and occasionally laugh ominously.
Now take the guts. Tie one end tightly with string, leaving a rather long tail. Pull the other end onto the funnel, and slowly, carefully, pour the blood mixture with a ladle.
Photo author, Getty Images
Idyllic Lancashire village. But, for sure, somewhere here they regularly make black pudding …
The author of the recipe warns that this part of the operation will be quite “dirty”, so it is best to do it all over that large tray.
You don’t need to be too zealous with the filling either, because the pudding tends to expand during the manufacturing process, so leave about 5-7 centimeters empty on top.
If the funnel gets clogged, punch the mash with a Chinese chopstick or a knitting needle (not for blood sausage, but for approximately such purposes I have a special set of wooden knitting needles of different thicknesses. Knitting with them is terribly inconvenient, but for the kitchen they are simply irreplaceable , and they cost a penny).
Now tie the other end of the filled intestine (or rather, perhaps, to say – filled intestine) with the same string (I told you to leave the “tail”) so that you get the English letter U.
Photo author, Getty Images
Another picture from rural life: a mill, a man, a dog and a goose. The pig has apparently already been made into black pudding.
Finale: we take that very large saucepan, pour water into it (no need to salt), bring to a boil and reduce the heat to complete minimum. And that’s where we put our blood bundles carefully and neatly.
The doneness must be checked by piercing the sausages with a needle. If not red, but brown liquid flows from their insides, it means that they are ready.They say that this takes about twenty minutes. All, take out, cool, cut, serve.
Or just buy some blood sausage if you like it!
Lancashire meat in a pot
Photo author, Getty Images
Lancashire meat in a pot. Tasty, although not too fast, but practically no work.
This is the most famous recipe from this part of England. I have already told you how to cook it, so I will not repeat myself.If interested, take a look here.
I can only say that such dishes are indispensable for a gluttonous family and a working woman, because they cook, albeit for a long time, but extremely simple, and after the initial laying of food, nothing else needs to be done.
So let’s look at a pure Lancashire dessert …
Photo author, Getty Images
Eccles Buns. Of course, in order to eat them, you have to love raisins.
Eccles was once an independent city, but now it has become part of Greater Manchester, which, however, did not affect the name of these buns.
Traditionally they were served and eaten with Lancashire cheese. It all depends on your personal tastes, because cheese with sweet dough is not for everyone, but, for example, I really like it. As I write this, a piece of cheese and a handful of raisins are jumping in front of my eyes!
Pulling myself together with difficulty, I continue:
For the dough, you will need (this is a quick puff pastry.This time it will not be possible to replace it with a purchased one, the taste and consistency will be different):
- 75 g of butter, or margarine.
- 110 g flour.
- A pinch of salt.
- Cold water (I won’t say how much, according to the circumstances).
- 25 g oil.
- 60 g brown (unrefined) sugar.
- 75 g raisins.
- 25 g orange and lemon peel candied fruits.
- Zest of one orange.
- Half teaspoon cinnamon, a pinch of nutmeg (optional).
Photo author, Getty Images
Traditionally, Eccles buns should be round, but do as you like
Proceed as follows:
For this test, the butter should not just be cold, but frozen to the state of the cement block. Therefore, from the very beginning, weigh the required amount, wrap it in foil and send it to the freezer for 45 minutes.Rub faster, as your warm hands can make the process a little more difficult.
According to the rules further, you should by no means start mixing it with your hands, but with a flat and wide knife, so that all the oil shavings are covered with flour from all sides. Add a little water and continue your knife efforts until a clay-like ball forms.
Photo author, Parrot of Doom
Eccles town hall. Once it was an independent city, but now it is part of Manchester.However, he kept the town hall.
Water can be added several times, but only slightly. Try not to overdo it with it, otherwise you will not understand this test later.
The end result can be rolled into a ball-shaped ball with your hands, wrapped in plastic and put in the refrigerator for half an hour.
While the dough is cooling, add the filling. It takes longer to write about it than to do it, because all you have to do is melt the butter, put all the rest of the filling in there, and let the mixture cool.
Photo author, Getty Images
Mills in England have not grinded anything for a long time, but they perfectly perform a decorative function
In all honesty, it is not at all necessary to make ecclesi buns of the traditional round shape. It’s not too difficult, though.
- Roll out the dough and cut it more or less into squares with a side of 8-10 centimeters.
- Place a spoonful of filling in the center, pinch the edges. Special aesthetics are not required here, the main thing is that the dough sticks together and does not try to unfold.
- Next, turn the bun over with the “seam” down and with your hands give it a relatively round shape. Make a couple of cuts at the top with a sharp knife, brush with egg white and sprinkle with sugar.
- Stove somewhere at 200 degrees for about 15 minutes. Cool on a wire rack and eat for your own pleasure. It seems to be nothing special, but it turns out delicious! Yes, yes, but if you also put cheese on top …
Photo author, Pjposullivan
Stonyhurst College.Tolkien’s son studied here, and he himself was inspired by the surrounding landscapes.
Lancashire is home to both the largest and the smallest city in England. What about London, you ask? This is a town, not a city with a cathedral.
The largest British crab was caught in Lancashire in 2013. The length of the legs of this overgrowth reached 1 meter 43 centimeters. I don’t know who and when ate it, maybe they let him grow further.
It is also said that Stonehurst College and the surrounding Ribble Valley served as the prototype for Middle-earth from The Lord of the Rings.Tolkien’s son studied there, whom he repeatedly visited.
Congestion on the road – from a congestion in the head …
I drew a diagram – and draw yourself in the traffic police!
Moreover, the rule is as simple as a police whistle: if the drivers involved in the accident found out which of them was wrong and did not find the victims, they can draw a diagram of the incident and come to the nearest traffic police post or unit. And there, “without leaving the cash register,” immediately get all the documents about the incident.Whoever used this right, provided by clause 2.6 of the Road Traffic Regulations, knows: damn convenient!
In a city where traffic is paralyzed primarily by minor accidents, this procedure is salvation for everyone. For the small ones are the overwhelming majority, and the traffic cops are a chronic minority. And the servicemen are not particularly in a hurry to return to the place, if the blood is not spilled.
So the drivers are setting the police waiting time records. So far, no one has broken the record – twenty-two half-conscious hours.
But here’s the bad luck: as the survey showed, only every twentieth driver knows about his legal right to save a lot of precious time – to come to the police station and voluntarily surrender.
So, maybe the wise traffic police officers are able to instruct the lost on the true, that is, leading straight to their unit, the path?
This is what we undertook to check …
The uninvited guest is worse …
So, on April 9, 14.30 Moscow time.
The voice of the duty officer of the 6th DPS special battalion on the special highway wheezes in the telephone receiver:
– How can you help?
“I hit the car here in the parking lot,” our experiment attendant nervously informs. – Do we expect an inspector or can we drive up to you?
There is a mute pause on the phone. Then an explosion is heard:
– How is it ?! You will leave the accident scene! And you can’t leave the scene of the accident! There will be a fine … Up to deprivation!
– But there are no victims, – the conditionally involved in the accident resists.
– No! That is, if the damage is up to 25 or 20 thousand – I don’t remember exactly, then it is possible … But this is not possible. You must stay where you are …
There is nowhere to go: the volunteer stays where he is, hoping that another unit will be more fortunate.
The duty unit of another unit – a separate battalion of traffic police of the Internal Affairs Directorate of the North-Eastern Administrative District – responded at 15.38. Her employee listens to our short story about the scratch and politely asks:
– Do you need an inspector?
– Yes, but we wanted to drive up to you and arrange everything right at your place.
The handset freezes briefly. Then he revives with indignation:
– Who does that ?! You can not leave the place of the accident …
– But the second participant admits his guilt and offers to go to you. We have already drawn a diagram.
– No, – the policeman decisively cuts off. – Do not leave the accident site in any case!
Do not leave! All that remains is to stand and call …
At 16.03 we disturb the duty unit of the 4th DPS special battalion on the special highway with our call.Here is a brief statement of the request:
– We need to issue an accident. The damage is minor … We would have driven up to you …
The inspector thinks about it. He hardly manages to digest such arrogant arrogance of the caller. Restraining emotions, he exhorts:
– You can’t come to us. And from the scene of the accident – it is also impossible …
On that day, out of the many divisions of the metropolitan traffic police, which we begged to give us the opportunity to act in strict accordance with the law, our noble intentions were not assessed in one …
From road accidents to traffic police – how from love to hate …
Okay – the traffic police would simply be delusional: they say, they haven’t read the rules, we don’t know such a norm …
Not a big deal! We will arrive – we will poke our noses into the rules of every servant.
Here is a big trouble: even a driver who is well aware of his right to issue documents on the incident directly in the unit will simply be afraid to pay a visit to the police. For they are firmly convinced: the voluntary confession of all the participants in the accident is leaving the scene, fraught with deprivation of the right to drive or arrest for up to 15 days!
And for such a “flight” they can easily concoct a whole business!
And go and prove to them that leaving the scene of an accident is not the case when the drivers came to the traffic police and announced the accident, but quite the opposite – when they silently, cowardly, treacherously, in order to avoid responsibility, rushed off in an unknown direction …
Eh, it’s a pity that the police stubbornness, similar to the stubbornness of a three-year-old kid who refuses to write only in a pot, prevents the introduction of this simple and absolutely legal mechanism for reporting incidents.