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‘High-Normal’ Blood Pressure in Young Adults Spells Risk of Heart Failure in Later Life

Mild elevations in blood pressure considered to be in the upper range of normal during young adulthood can lead to subclinical heart damage by middle age — a condition that sets the stage for full-blown heart failure, according to findings of a federally funded study led by scientists at Johns Hopkins.

 A report on the findings of the multicenter study that followed 2,500 men and women over a period of 25 years is published online June 22 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Persistently elevated blood pressure, or hypertension, is one that tops 140/90, a reading that measures the force of pressure in the heart as it contracts (top number) and as it relaxes between contractions (bottom number). Hypertension has been long implicated as a risk factor in a range of cardiovascular diseases. But the new study suggest that pressure just below that threshold — or high normal pressure — begins to fuel heart damage in people as young as 20 and can lead to changes in heart muscle function in as little as 25 years.

Investigators say their findings of abnormalities in the heart’s capacity to contract and relax are especially troubling because they stemmed from a group of patients, the vast majority of whom had no hypertension. Such abnormalities, the researchers say, are forerunners of two forms of heart failure, a condition marked by the progressive weakening heart muscle and the organ’s gradual loss of blood-pumping ability.

“Our results suggest the heart muscle may be more exquisitely sensitive to the effects of even subtle elevations in blood pressure than we thought,” says principal investigator João Lima, M.D., M.B.A., a professor of medicine and radiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of cardiovascular imaging at its Heart and Vascular Institute.  

The latest clinical guidelines issued by the Joint National Committee in 2014 define hypertension as blood pressure above 140/90, but they call on clinicians and patients to aim for a pressure below 150/90. However, results of the new study suggest that a single cutoff measurement does not apply to all ages, and what constitutes “normal” should probably change with age.

In healthy people, blood pressure tends to rise slightly as they grow old, researchers say, so while 150/90 may be a reasonable target for a 60-year-old, it may be too high for a 28-year-old.

“A number of patients in our study had ‘high-normal’ blood pressure in their 20s and 30s but by the time they were 45, they had the heart function of a 75-year-old even if they never met the clinical definition of hypertension,” Lima says.

The study followed nearly 2,500 men and women ages 18 to 30 from Alabama, California, Illinois and Minnesota, tracking their health over 25 years and over the span of seven clinical visits. The researchers measured each participant’s cumulative blood pressure exposure over time and divided people into groups defined by how high or low their cumulative readings were. Only a small fraction, about 3 percent, had blood pressures that met the definition of hypertension at the beginning of the study. In addition to blood pressure and lifestyle habits, researchers monitored the participants’ cholesterol, blood sugar and body mass, all known to affect heart health. The investigators eliminated the influence of these factors from their analysis.

At the end of the 25-year period that ended in 2011, participants underwent standard ultrasound heart imaging to assess how well their hearts were pumping and a more sophisticated ultrasound that visualized how the heart behaved during contraction and relaxation.

A handful of people, 135 of the 2,479, had evidence of clinical heart failure on simple ultrasound, but overall, mildly elevated pressure produced no appreciable effects on the heart’s pumping ability as measured by standard echocardiogram. However, once researchers shifted their focus from how well the heart was pumping to how well it handled pressure during contraction and relaxation, stark differences emerged.

Compared with people with the lowest diastolic pressure — the bottom number in a reading — those with highest diastolic pressure were 70 percent more likely to show signs of abnormal relaxation, a harbinger of a particularly pernicious, treatment-resistant form of heart failure in which the muscle contracts normally but is incapable of relaxing.

Those with persistent elevations in their top readings, or systolic blood pressure, were 46 percent more likely have abnormal contraction, which typically leads to a form of heart failure marked by the organ’s inability to contract and pump out blood.

Systolic pressure signals the pressure in the arteries during contraction as the heart pumps out blood. The bottom number, or diastolic pressure, indicates the pressure during relaxation, or between contractions.

“Our results suggest that ‘high-normal’ blood pressure may be too high and far from normal for some people,” says lead author Satoru Kishi, M.D., a cardiologist at Mitsui Memorial Hospital in Tokyo who worked on the study as a research fellow at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “A concerning number of young adults with pressures in the high-normal range develop insipient heart dysfunction in middle age.”

Heart failure caused by high blood pressure is a common but highly preventable condition with the use of lifestyle changes, diet and, if needed, medication. The results of the study highlight an opportunity to intervene and halt damage, the research team says.

“Our findings speak to the importance of regular blood pressure checks that begin early in life,” Lima says. “People with borderline pressures require frequent follow-ups to ensure they get treatment as soon as hypertension is diagnosed.”

Researchers say their study is ongoing and will follow participants for several more years, tracking how many progress to overt heart failure. The disease affects more 23 million people worldwide, but public health experts believe the number will rise precipitously over the next few decades as more people live into old age. 

The work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute under grant numbers HHSN268201300025C, HHSN268201300026C, HHSN268201300027C, HHSN268201300028C, HHSN268201300029C and HHSN268200900041C; and by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging under grant number AG0005.

Other Johns Hopkins researchers on the study included Bharath Venkatesh, Andre Almeida, Eui-Young Choi and Ola Gjesdal.

The other institutions involved in the study were Hospital Vall d’Hebron in Spain, Northwestern University, University of Minnesota and Alfred DuPont Hospital for Children in Delaware.

 

Blood pressure: what is your target?

Many of us have had our blood pressure measured at the doctor but don’t really understand why it’s important. Find out why (and how) your doctor measures your blood pressure, what’s normal and what’s not, and what to do if you have high blood pressure.

How is blood pressure measured?

Blood pressure is measured using an instrument called a sphygmomanometer. It consists of an inflatable cuff, an inflating bulb, and a gauge to show the blood pressure.

The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm, and inflated to a pressure which temporarily stops the blood from flowing through the brachial artery – the main blood vessel in your arm. At this point, the doctor will not be able to feel a pulse in the arm. The cuff pressure is then raised slightly above this point, and then slowly lowered.

As the pressure is lowered, your doctor will listen through a stethoscope for the sound of blood starting to pulse through the brachial artery again. The pressure reading on the sphygmomanometer when the sound of blood is first heard pulsing through the artery is known as the systolic pressure. As the doctor continues to lower the pressure in the cuff, the sounds will disappear. Usually, the point at which the sounds disappear is known as the diastolic pressure.

The systolic reading (the first number of the 2) indicates the pressure of blood within your arteries during a contraction of the left ventricle of the heart. The diastolic reading (the second number) indicates the pressure within the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), for example 120/80 mmHg (known as 120 over 80).

What is normal blood pressure?

According to the Heart Foundation of Australia, as a general guide:

  • blood pressure below 120/80 mmHg can be classified as ‘optimal‘;
  • blood pressure between 120/80 and 129/84 mmHg is ‘normal‘; and
  • blood pressure between 130/85 and 139/89 mmHg is classified as ‘high-normal‘.

A person is defined by the Heart Foundation as having high blood pressure (hypertension) if they:

  • have a systolic pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg; and/or
  • a diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90 mmHg.

High blood pressure is further classified as mild, moderate or severe as the pressure increases above this level.

Blood pressure categories – Australia
Blood pressure category Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg)
Optimal Less than 120 and Less than 80
Normal 120-129 and/or 80-84
High-normal 130-139 and/or 85-89
Mild hypertension 140-159 and/or 90-99
Moderate hypertension 160-179 and/or 100-109
Severe hypertension More than or equal to 180 and/or More than or equal to 110
Isolated systolic hypertension More than 140 and Less than 90

Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is not as easy to define as it is usually relative to a person’s normal blood pressure reading, and varies between different people. It generally refers to a blood pressure below an average of about 90/60 mmHg.

Getting an accurate reading

According to the Heart Foundation, the diagnosis of high blood pressure should be based on multiple blood pressure measurements taken on separate occasions.

It is recommended that you do not smoke or drink caffeine-containing drinks for 2 hours before having your blood pressure monitored, as this can cause an increase in your readings.

Self-monitoring of blood pressure in your own environment (home blood pressure monitoring) or ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure is also used to help diagnose high blood pressure.

For ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, you wear a portable automatic blood pressure machine for 24 hours while going about your usual daily routine. The portable monitor will measure your blood pressure multiple times during the 24 hours. Your doctor will ask you to record your activities over the 24 hours, plus any symptoms you experience (and when they occur).  Variations in blood pressure are normal and may occur depending on where and when the blood pressure is taken.

Some people who have raised blood pressure readings taken at the doctor’s surgery actually have acceptable levels outside the surgery, when under normal stress levels. This is known as ‘white-coat’ hypertension.

There are also people with ‘reverse white-coat’ hypertension (also known as masked hypertension), who have normal blood pressure when measured in the clinic but high ambulatory blood pressure readings (those recorded during normal daily activities).

Keeping on target

Your target blood pressure may vary according to whether you have other conditions that can increase your risk of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease or conditions that have been caused by high blood pressure.

Raised blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the higher your blood pressure, the greater your chance of having heart disease or stroke. For this reason it is important that you have your blood pressure monitored regularly, and that you always take any high blood pressure treatments that have been recommended, including medicines that have been prescribed.

Hypertension can also be controlled to a large extent by lifestyle measures such as:

  • losing excess weight;
  • undertaking regular physical activity;
  • quitting smoking; and
  • changing your diet (reducing your alcohol and salt intake, and following a healthy eating plan).

These steps can help to lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.

1. Heart Foundation. Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults, 2016. https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/images/uploads/publications/PRO-167_Hypertension-guideline-2016_WEB.pdf (accessed Feb 2017).

2. Hypertension (published November 2012). In: eTG complete. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited; 2016 Nov. http://online.tg.org.au/complete/ (accessed Feb 2017).

3. National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance. Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk; 2012. https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/images/uploads/publications/Absolute-CVD-Risk-Full-Guidelines.pdf (accessed Feb 2017).

My Blood Pressure is 106/59

Blood pressure 106/59 – what does it mean?

Your blood pressure reading of 106/59 indicates Hypotension. This means your blood pressure is lower than the usual with values at a systolic (upper) value under 105 mmHg and a diastolic (lower) value of under 60 mmHg.

However, in most cases this is no reason to be concerned. If your blood pressure is only slightly under said values and there are no health impairments a hypotense blood pressure might be alright.

By the way: Your systolic value of 106 mmHg is better than your diastolic value and would classify as Ideal. But if you are getting two different types of classification for your blood pressure it is correct to choose the one that is considered worse.

What you should know about a blood pressure of 106/59

Low blood pressure rarely causes any severe symptoms, but some patients experience debilitating side effects. The recommended blood pressure reading for healthy adults is 90 (systolic) over 60 mm Hg (diastolic). Your blood pressure of 106/59 is below the recommended range and considered low blood pressure. Fainting episodes and dizzy spells are two common symptoms associated with dangerously low blood pressure or BP. This condition is known as hypotension and can have life-threatening consequences if left unchecked. Several health-related conditions and life events can cause BP levels to drop. In some cases, an underlying medical condition, surgical disorders, or dehydration might be responsible.

Symptoms:

  • Fatigue
  • Poor concentration
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Fainting

If a patient experiences extreme hypotension, it can trigger symptoms such as palpitations, confusion, pale skin, and breathing difficulty. It is wise to seek medical attention if this happens because it can result in shock.

How to raise blood pressure quickly?

  1. Increase aggregate sodium intake. Table salt has a balanced amount of sodium content, which can help boost BP levels instantaneously. However, patients should consult their physician before adding more salt to the diet. High salt consumption can sometimes be dangerous and life-threatening.
  2. Eat wholesome, well-balanced meals to maintain a healthy diet. Sometimes low BP is triggered by poor eating habits and nutrient deficiencies. A lack of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B- 12 is a leading cause of anemia. If the body is not making an adequate volume of blood, it could lower pressure levels.
  3. Drink more water. Mild dehydration can lower blood pressure activity, which causes hypotension in extreme cases. Sometimes, sickness involving frequent vomiting, diarrhea, excess sweating, and fever may result in dehydration. In such circumstances, an adequate intake of water to rehydrate the body is necessary. For long-term benefits, those affected must maintain a healthy water drinking habit to stabilize low BP levels.

What are some healthy lifestyle changes to improve low blood pressure long-term?

Controlling low blood pressure naturally can sometimes be challenging, but equally doable with the right self-intervention measures. Numerous studies say regular exercise can have positive effects on cardiovascular health, which in turn can balance low blood pressure. However, individuals should avoid exercising in extreme heat and outdoors, especially during the summer months. Researchers also advise against prolonged rest and spending long hours in the steam room, sauna, or hot tub. Also, compression socks can improve blood flow throughout the body and boost blood pressure levels.

Hypertension: the silent killer

Have you ever wondered why the doctor takes your blood pressure and what it all means? Your blood pressure gives your doctor valuable information about the state of your cardiovascular system which is vital to keeping you healthy.

What is hypertension?

If your blood pressure is too low (known as hypotension), you may feel dizzy and even pass out. If it’s too high (known as hypertension) over a long period of time it can put undue stress on your heart and blood vessels and ultimately result in a heart attack or a stroke.

Hypertension is not a new disease, however our ability to treat and control it is relatively new. Today, 108 million Americans have hypertension. Of that group, 82 million people do not have their hypertension under control. Some of these people do not even know they are hypertensive, while others choose to ignore this dangerous, silent, and even painless (until it’s too late) condition. A disturbing third group is receiving treatment inadequate to control the disease.

 

Understanding the numbers behind your health

After getting your blood pressure taken you’ll see or be told two different numbers. Systolic pressure (the first number) is the pressure during cardiac contraction. Diastolic pressure (the second) is the pressure measured when your heart is at rest, in between beats (contractions).

When is your blood pressure too high? In short, that number is different for everyone.  Blood pressure varies depending on your age, physical state (at exercise or rest), and even your position (standing versus lying down). But we do know that there is a direct relationship between blood pressure and life expectancy.

 

Let’s go through a few examples

The lower your blood pressure (down to about 100/60 — below which it would be hard to stand up), the longer your life. If your blood pressure is 200/110, it’s too high. If you have blood pressure that high and are experiencing chest pain, a headache, shortness of breath or blood in the urine, take an ambulance to the ER immediately. You are experiencing a hypertensive crisis! 

But what about a blood pressure of 140/90, previously regarded as the “cutoff” for the diagnosis of hypertension? Doctors are beginning to realize that even much of the middle ground, between this number and 120/70 (so-called “normal” or “ideal” blood pressure) results in cardiovascular damage over long periods of time.

 

So what should you do?

Have your blood pressure measured periodically and record the numbers to see trends. Avoid salt and salty foods (ex., pickles, chips — check food labels). Make sure to keep your weight within the normal range. Talk to your doctor about treatment when needed and the effectiveness of treatment once it begins.

Don’t wait to get more information about symptoms or advice on what you should do. If your employer or school provides you with First Stop Health telemedicine, our doctors are here for you to answer any and all medical questions.

When Is Blood Pressure Too Low

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 75 million adults in the U.S. have high blood pressure. That amounts to one in every three adults. And according to the American Diabetes Association, two out of three people who have diabetes also have high blood pressure. So, understandably, a lot of attention is focused on helping people lower their blood pressure to a safe level. But what if you have blood pressure that’s too low? What does it mean? And what should you do?

Low blood pressure, defined
We’ve all had our blood pressure checked at the doctor’s office numerous times. The nurse or medical assistant wraps a cuff around your upper arm, pumps it up, and, as it is deflating, listens with a stethoscope. What he or she is listening for is, first, the sound when blood starts flowing as the cuff is released — that’s the systolic, or top number — and then the last sound that’s heard before blood flow returns to normal — that’s the diastolic, or bottom number. An “ideal” blood pressure reading is under 120/80 mmHg. For most people who have diabetes, the goal is less than 140/90 mmHg.

All well and good, but what about low blood pressure? Low blood pressure is also called “hypotension.” Hypotension, according to the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, is “abnormally low blood pressure,” and, in general, is a blood pressure that is below 90/60 mm Hg.

Why is low blood pressure a concern?
With all the concern around high blood pressure, or hypertension, it almost seems like the lower your blood pressure, the better. After all, high blood pressure isn’t called the “silent killer” for nothing. It’s a leading risk factor for heart attack and stroke, and can also cause kidney disease, blindness, and dementia.

Low blood pressure, however, has its own set of medical concerns. It can lead to dizziness or fainting, increasing the chances of falling and injuring oneself. And too low of a blood pressure may deprive the body of enough oxygen, leading to possible damage to the heart, brain, and kidneys.

What causes blood pressure to be too low?
Some people naturally have blood pressure that can seem to be on the low side. Unless these people have symptoms, a “low” blood pressure is normal for them. But others may have low pressure due to a number of factors, including:

Heart disease: Heart valve problems, a low heart rate, heart failure, and even a heart attack can cause blood pressure to drop, most likely due to the heart’s inability to pump enough blood.

Diabetic neuropathy: People who have diabetes may experience postural hypotension, or low blood pressure occurring when going from sitting or lying down to standing up. This may happen due to a type of nerve damage called autonomic neuropathy.

Neurally mediated hypotension: With this condition, blood pressure drops too low after standing for long periods of time.

Endocrine problems: An underactive thyroid, parathyroid disease, Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency), and low blood sugar can cause hypotension.

Pregnancy: Blood pressure may drop during the first 24 weeks of pregnancy.

Medications: Some medications can cause blood pressure to drop too low, such as diuretics, beta blockers, certain antidepressants, erectile dysfunction drugs, and drugs used for Parkinson’s disease.

Dehydration: When your body loses more water than it takes in, you may become, weak, dizzy, and fatigued. If you go into hypovolemic shock, this means that your blood volume is dangerously low and can cause blood pressure to suddenly drop too low. This may be fatal if not treated promptly.

Blood loss: Losing blood from an injury or from internal bleeding causes a drop in blood volume, and therefore, a drop in blood pressure.

Severe infection: A severe infection can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream (called septicemia). Bacteria produce toxins that affect the blood vessels, which, in turn, can cause blood pressure to drop dangerously low.

Allergic reaction: Also called anaphylactic shock, this may occur when a person has a severe reaction to bee stings, drugs, or certain foods, for example. Trouble breathing, hives, itching, a swollen throat, and a sudden drop in blood pressure can result.

Nutrient deficiencies: Not getting enough vitamin B12 or folate can cause anemia, which, in turn, may lead to low blood pressure.

How do you know if your blood pressure is too low?
If your blood pressure is too low, you’ll very likely know it. Signs and symptoms include:

• Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
• Fainting
• Nausea
• Clammy skin
• Feeling very tired
• Blurry vision
• Confusion

A single episode of low blood pressure generally isn’t cause for alarm. For example, you might get dehydrated when it’s very hot out; drinking fluids will help bring your blood pressure back up to a safe level. However, if you repeatedly have symptoms, it’s time to see your doctor. It helps to keep a record of your symptoms, too, to help your doctor pinpoint the possible cause. And if you don’t have any symptoms and you’re generally in good health, but your blood pressure is on the low side, it’s likely that your “low” blood pressure is simply the right blood pressure for you.

Treating low blood pressure
The treatment of low blood pressure depends on the underlying cause. More urgent medical conditions, such as blood loss, heart attack, infection, or dehydration, need prompt medical attention to resolve the issue. If low blood pressure is due to a medication that you’re taking, your doctor may be able to change your medication to another type. If your thyroid is underperforming, you may need thyroid medication. Drinking more fluids, eating more sodium (yes, more sodium!), wearing compression stockings, and even taking medication, such as fludrocortisone, to boost your blood pressure may all be prescribed.

Other lifestyle changes that may help include drinking more caffeinated beverages, cutting back on alcohol; eating smaller, low-carb meals more often; and moving slowly when going from a lying or sitting position to a standing position.

Talk with your doctor if you think your blood pressure may be too low, or if you have any of the symptoms mentioned above. Treatment is available!

Erin Spineto is an athlete and adventurer with Type 1 diabetes. Bookmark DiabetesSelfManagement.com and tune in tomorrow to learn more about her.

HYPERTENSION (HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE) – Family Doctor

Overview:
  • Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke and heart attacks
  • The risk can be substantially reduced by attention to lifestyle issues
  • Medication has been shown to be safe and effective at reducing complications if pressures remain elevated.
  • Undetected and under-treated hypertension remains unfortunately common.
What is blood pressure?

Everyone has a blood pressure – in fact it is this pressure which makes the blood circulate through the body’s arterial system. Blood pressure fluctuates throughout the course of the day – it goes up during exercise and intense activity and is lower at rest and particularly lower during sleep.

How is it measured?

It is important that you are feeling rested and not rushed or stressed when having your blood pressure recorded.

A cuff is inflated over the arm and blown up; the pressure on the arm blocks the arterial pulse. As the pressure is let down, jets of blood start getting through the artery (this is heard through the stethoscope).

The point at which these sounds are first heard is called the systolic blood pressure and is the reading on the top. The pressure is recorded in millimetres of mercury as this is what is in the column that measures the pressure reading.

As the pressure in the cuff goes lower, the pulsing sounds get fainter and fade away; the point at which they fade away totally is known as the diastolic blood pressure and is the bottom reading.

Both the top and bottom readings are important in determining the risks of high blood pressure.

For example a pressure of 120/80 means the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic is 80.

It is important that the correct sized cuff is used – if you have a bigger arm a larger cuff is needed, otherwise a reading may be falsely too high.

Because blood pressure varies so much, it is important to have it checked several times. If the pressure is high, it should be rechecked several times over a period of time.

If it is very high (e.g. 180/110), it should be checked sooner (within days or weeks), but if it is only just above normal (e.g. 145/95), it is fine to check it in a few months.

Automated home blood pressure machines are also increasingly used. If these are used it is important that they are reliable and accurate (your doctor may be able to guide you).

Increasingly, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be used to gain a better picture of what a blood pressure is actually doing. A cuff is worn for 24 hours and a series of recordings is made, including during sleep. It is particularly useful in cases where blood pressure is very labile (up and down) and where it is in a borderline category (where treatment decisions may be more difficult).

It may also be useful to help establish which patients may just be getting an “alarm response” (pressure goes up when being measured).

High blood pressure should not be diagnosed until there have been consistent high measurements on several occasions.

What is normal?

Levels around 130/80 and below are absolutely fine. Doctors are generally concerned when levels are consistently greater than 140/90, as this is the level above which blood pressure starts significantly contributing to the long term risk of increased cardiovascular problems (strokes and heart attacks).

Depending on the exact classification used, pressures around 140-150/90-100 would be called mild hypertension. Pressures around 150-170/100-110 would be called moderate, and pressures higher, e.g. 200/120 would be considered fairly severe.

In reality blood pressure is a continuum, and it is sometimes difficult to be categorical about exactly what category a person is in. The higher the pressure is, the greater the risk that it will lead to further problems.

Causes of high blood pressure

The exact cause of most (90-95%) cases of high blood pressure remains unclear. It is probably caused by a mixture of lifestyle and dietary factors in people who have a genetic tendency.

In a smaller group of patients, a single underlying condition may be responsible – this is more likely to be the case in a young person with very high blood pressure and none of the usual lifestyle risk factors. Such cases are referred to as secondary hypertension. They can usually be identified by careful examination and additional tests if indicated.

Important factors in Essential Hypertension

The following factors all play a role in essential hypertension and correcting them as far as possible, plays a very important role in the lifestyle treatment of high blood pressure.

Genetic Factors

The tendency to high blood pressure runs in families. If you have a parent with high blood pressure, it is important to make lifestyle changes from a young age and have your blood pressure checked regularly every few years. Often it may only start increasing from middle age onwards.

African Americans seem particularly prone to hypertension and its effects.

Diet

This is probably one of the main areas where lifestyle changes can be most effective and lead to substantial improvements in blood pressure levels.

Obesity

There is no doubt that being overweight may bring on hypertension. The exact mechanism is unclear but may involve increased peripheral resistance and metabolic changes.

Salt

A high salt diet may increase the tendency to hypertension in some people – this is thought to be a factor in approximately 40% of people with hypertension. The exact mechanism is unclear.

Potassium

There is some evidence suggesting that a high dietary potassium intake will reduce the risk of hypertension. Fruit tends to have high potassium content and is the best source of dietary potassium.

Calcium

A good calcium intake has been linked to hypertension and recent research has showed a high calcium diet (low fat dairy food) may help reduce high blood pressure.

The renin-angiotensin system

It is thought that abnormalities in the hormonal system in the kidney may lead to the production of chemicals (angiotensin) which brings on hypertension.

The exact mechanism remains unclear as does its importance in individual patients.

Alcohol

Excess alcohol (e.g. greater than 2-3 drinks a day) is a very important factor in many cases of high blood pressure. The exact mechanism by which alcohol increases blood pressure is uncertain, but it is believed to be a major factor in a substantial portion people with essential hypertension. It also leads to difficulty controlling it and resistance to the effects of medication.

Very modest drinking (1-2 drinks a day) may be beneficial for the heart – the key is the amount that is drunk!

Secondary Hypertension

This includes specific medical conditions which lead to hypertension as a result of the underlying illness/condition and include the following. Secondary causes account for only about 5% of cases of hypertension, but they are worth considering as they may be cured by treating the underlying cause. A secondary cause may be more likely in a young person with very high blood pressure.

Kidney problems

Conditions which damage the kidneys, such as previous infection/reflux, polycystic kidneys may lead to hypertension.

Increasingly, renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the kidney artery) is being recognised as an important cause of hypertension.

Hormonal syndromes

Hyperthyroidism – an overactive thyroid gland may cause raised blood pressure.

Phaeochromocytoma – this is a very rare problem, where adrenaline-like chemicals are secreted by a tumour in the adrenal gland; some cases are associated with headache, sweating and palpitations.

Hyperaldosteronism – this results from the secretion of a chemical called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. A clue to this condition may be a low potassium level in the blood.

Cushing’s syndrome – this is from a variety of conditions which result in an increased production of cortisol (a steroid, either from tumours or problems in the adrenal gland). Features include truncal obesity, striae (stretch marks in skin), hirsuitism (excess hair).

Sleep apnoea

This is characterised by loud snoring, which may be followed by apnoea (no breathing) and then gasping or snorting. The changes and stress this puts on the body may lead to high blood pressure. Daytime sleepiness may be a feature and morning headaches.

Special sleep studies (a polysomnograph) is needed to diagnose it.

Medications and drugs

Several medications may cause or aggravate hypertension including:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
  • Decongestants
  • Steroids
  • Illegal drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines may cause dramatic increases in blood pressure.
Why is high blood pressure so important?

Although high blood pressure usually causes no symptoms at all, it acts as a major cardiovascular risk factor over time. Having high blood pressure substantially increases the risk of having a stroke or heart attack in the future.

As a high proportion of people will eventually suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease, it is an important public health issue to try and reduce the risk of this.

The actual risk of an actual problem occurring in a younger person is usually small, but if blood pressure remains elevated, it will continue increasing the risk of future events such as heart attacks and strokes.

The risk associated with high blood pressure increases with age and is further increased in the presence of other risk factors such as smoking, high cholesterol and diabetes.

The following specific conditions are specifically related to high blood pressure:

Coronary heart disease

Hypertension is an important risk factor for heart attacks. Having high blood pressure may double the risk of a heart attack. The risk of heart attacks is further increased if other risk factors are present. Treating high blood pressure reduces the risk of heart attacks substantially (approximately 20 %). This risk is further reduced if other risk factors are also treated.

The reasons that treating high blood pressure does not lead to as great a reduction of heart attacks and stroke, are not well understood.

In patients who have already had a heart attack, it is vitally important to gain good control of blood pressure to try and help reduce the risk of further problems.

Congestive heart failure

Many elderly people develop congestive heart failure – this may be as a result of heart attacks damaging the heart muscle, or as a result of years of uncontrolled hypertension placing undue stress on the heart muscle.

Stroke

Hypertension is a major risk factor for all types of stroke, and effectively treating it can reduce the risk by approximately 30-40 percent.

Kidney problems

Hypertension may lead to kidney damage. If there is already a kidney problem (e.g. due to diabetes), hypertension will accelerate the damage.

In the presence of kidney failure or even mild kidney impairment, it is vitally important to control hypertension, to minimise ongoing kidney damage.

Eyes

The small vessels at the back of the eyeball can sometimes be damaged by raised blood pressure leading to visual problems.

What symptoms does high blood pressure cause?

The vast majority of people with hypertension have no symptoms at all and in fact would have no idea at all that their blood pressure was raised, unless it was measured. This is why it is sometimes referred to as the “silent killer”.

Feelings of tension and stress are not automatically linked to high blood pressure and many people with high blood pressure are in fact perfectly calm and relaxed.

This is why some people may find it difficult to accept that there may be a potential problem, as they feel absolutely normal.

Very rarely a condition called malignant hypertension is associated with extremely high pressures and headache may be a feature of this.

For the vast majority of people with high blood pressure, headaches are not a feature of the condition.

However, a painful headache (like anything painful) may cause a slight increase in blood pressure.

Often the symptoms are of complications of the long term effects of hypertension e.g. angina, strokes and heart failure.

Examination

Examination is usually geared towards confirming the blood pressure on several occasions. The heart and general circulation needs to be examined well and signs of rare conditions will usually be checked for by doctors. This is especially so in cases of very high blood pressure in young patients, who will be more likely to have an underlying cause (secondary hypertension).

Investigations and tests

These are important to check for other risk factors such as diabetes (sugar) and high cholesterol (lipids).

Other blood tests are needed to exclude kidney problems and other hormonal problems mentioned.

Urine tests – testing of the urine is needed to exclude an underlying kidney problem.

An ECG (electrocardiogram) and chest X-ray are often ordered as part of diagnosing an enlarged heart or other underlying heart problems.

An echocardiogram (echo) is a useful test to tell accurately whether the heart muscle is enlarged or thickened (this may indicate a need for specific or more urgent treatment).

Treatment
Overview:

The aim of treatment is not just to simply lower blood pressure, but to actually substantially reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes and other circulation problems and make the person live a longer healthier life. If the best results are to be achieved, it is vital that all the vascular risk factors are treated e.g. lowering cholesterol and giving up smoking will add a substantial further benefit to any blood pressure treatment.

In general, lifestyle measures should be tried first before considering medication. For example a young person (say around 40) with mild hypertension (of around 143/92) and no other risk factor would be advised to vigorously try lifestyle changes for possibly up to a year, before considering medication.

If there were other problems such as a previous heart attack, diabetes or very high cholesterol, a move to medication would likely be advised earlier.

Regardless of whether medication is tried either initially or later, lifestyle changes have a great impact and should be continued.

Lifestyle

Stopping smoking. This is probably the most important, as smoking is such a powerful vascular risk factor (for both heart attack and stroke) and greatly increases the risks associated with high blood pressure.

Diet.The key issue is to have a healthy low fat diet which results in a gradual weight loss. The help of a dietician should not be underestimated to help with a programme and support to achieve this. A very high proportion (over 50 %) of overweight patients may be able to control blood pressure with weight loss alone. As a general rule of thumb, each pound of weight loss can result in a 1mm Hg reduction of blood pressure. This means many overweight people could avoid the need for medication altogether by achieving a modest weight loss of 10-15 pounds.

Achieving as close to possible a normal weight is highly desirable.

Sodium. Very low salt diets are not very well tolerated, but it is wise to have moderate salt restriction. For example do not add a lot of salt and avoid very salty foods. Most dietary sodium comes from meats (including poultry and fish), grains and dairy foods, so being overly restrictive could have adverse effects on overall nutritional needs and is probably not necessary.

Potassium – in practice this means eating plenty of fruit (aim for five pieces per day and vegetables).

Exercise – regular exercise has been shown to lower blood pressure and will also help with weight loss. If you are not used to exercise, it is best to start gradually and increase slowly. Exercise can be gentle and yet still beneficial – aim for the equivalent of 30-45 minutes per day on most or all days of the week.

It is wise to be evaluated carefully if there are risk factors before undertaking any vigorous programme of exercise, particularly if you are over the age of 40. An exercise test may be advised as a precaution in some cases.

Medication

If blood pressure levels remain elevated despite lifestyle changes, medication may be needed and discussed with your doctor. There is pretty unanimous agreement amongst doctors that drugs should be used if blood pressure is severely elevated e.g. 160/100 at age 20, 160/110 at age 50.

In fact there is good evidence that treating even mild hypertension with medication is beneficial e.g.160/95 at age 50 is effective in reducing complications like stroke.

In patients at greater risk because of other risk factors, medication may be started at relatively lower levels e.g. 140/90.

Such patients may include those with diabetes, previous heart attack or stroke, high cholesterol and heart failure: In such patients, the baseline risk of further problems is much higher, so treatment is relatively more beneficial.

It has been shown that it is beneficial to treat isolated systolic hypertension (e.g.165/85), where only the top level is elevated.

Trials have also confirmed that it is beneficial to treat hypertension in older people as well. In fact it may be particularly beneficial as the risk of problems increases with age.

The aim of medication is to reduce blood pressure with minimal side effects and inconvenience. All medications may take a month or two to exert their full effect, so most doctors will “start low” and “go slow” until the desired blood pressure level is reached.

There are a number of suitable and effective medications for safely lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of complications.

The most studied over many trials include thiazide diuretics and B-blockers, which have been convincingly shown to reduce complications.

Unless there is a reason not to, most doctors will choose one of these when starting therapy.

Other classes of medications which have been shown to safely and effectively lower blood pressure include ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and alpha blockers.

All these medications have pros and cons and need to be chosen for their potential benefits in a given patient.

Often a second or even occasionally a third medication may be required to achieve adequate control.

Thiazide diuretics

Includes drugs such as bendrofluazide and cyclopenthiazide. These are a particularly good choice in the elderly or in the presence of mild heart failure.

They may occasionally raise sugar levels or precipitate gout. These side effects are rare at low doses which have been found to be particularly effective.

Beta-Blockers (B-adrenoreceptor blockers)

These include drugs such as propanolol atenolol, metoprolol, celiprolol and pindolol.

These are effective drugs which have been well researched. They should not be given to patients with asthma as they may aggravate it.

They are particularly useful in patients with angina or patients who have had a previous heart attack (they have been shown to improve survival in these patients).

Ace Inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors)

These include drugs such as captopril, enalapril and quinapril. They have been shown to safely and effectively to lower blood pressure with minimal side effects. Care is needed to check kidney function while taking them, especially when starting or altering the dosage. They may cause an irritating cough in a small percentage of patients.

These drugs may be particularly useful in diabetic patients, particularly where there is associated kidney damage and proteinuria (protein in urine).

They are also particularly useful after a heart attack where there has been significant muscle damage.

They are also useful for the treatment of heart failure and are the treatment of choice if there is significant heart failure associated with hypertension.

Calcium antagonists

These include drugs such as such as verapamil and nifedipine. They are generally not used as a first line treatment, but they have a useful role in certain patients (e.g. angina) and where other medications are not tolerated.

Alpha Adrenergic blockers

Includes drugs such as prazosin. These are used less nowadays, but may continue to have a role in certain patients.

Other drugs used to reduce risks

Recent studies have indicated that it may be beneficial to add low-dose aspirin to treatment of hypertension (once the blood pressure is controlled). There may be reasons why some patients cannot take aspirin (e.g. previous ulcer), so patients should always discuss this with their doctors.

Goals of treatment

To reduce the risk of complications, it is wise to aim for levels below 140/90. It may take some time to achieve this. Unfortunately a high percentage of people taking medication do not achieve these goals, so it is important to have regular checks and adjustments in treatment until the goal is reached. This will require ongoing lifestyle changes and possibly trying several different medications or combinations. This is because sometimes the different classes of medication work better for some people than others.

There is some evidence that pressure does not need to be lowered too much below 140/85 – the exception to this is in the presence of diabetes, where the aim should be 130/80.

It is very important to have frank and honest discussions with your doctor about compliance (taking medication), alcohol intake and side effects as these are major issues which may prevent patients achieving good blood pressure levels.

Future trends

Fundamental research is continuing into the causes of high blood pressure and research and development of effective treatments.

However, it is worth remembering that the situation could be greatly improved by applying more effectively what we already know.

A very high proportion of people with hypertension are not even detected (35%). Of those who are detected, only half are taking medication and 80% of those may still have blood pressures over 140/90.

T

 

Low Blood Pressure in Pregnancy – Reasons, Signs & Treatment

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Blood pressure measures the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries when the heart pumps. The connection between low blood pressure and pregnancy is that the blood vessels in the circulation system dilate due to hormonal changes in your body, which may lead to low blood pressure.

What is Low Blood Pressure?

Your blood pressure is considered low if it reflects a reading of 90 mmHg/ 60 mmHg or less. A normal blood pressure is a reading of 120 mmHg/ 80 mmHg.

When Does a Pregnant Woman Have Low Blood Pressure?

Your blood pressure may start falling in early pregnancy and might touch its lowest around the middle of the second trimester. The readings of blood pressure are important, as they can indicate yours and your baby’s health. Low BP is commonly reported among pregnant women, and it may remain on the lower side till 24 weeks of gestation.

Types of Temporary Low Blood Pressure

There are typically two types of low blood pressure. Let’s understand each of them.

Your blood pressure may remain low for a brief period after you get up from a sitting or sleeping position. The condition, also known as orthostatic hypotension, is a result of sitting or lying down for a long period of time. The blood reaches the brain a little late when you suddenly change your position.

If you are sleeping or resting on your back, then the pressure is forced on the major blood vessels like vena cava, aorta and others, causing a drop in blood pressure. This hypotension happens because of the expanding uterus, which may lead to dizziness around the second and third trimester.

Causes of Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

Some reasons that could be the cause of low blood pressure in pregnancy are mentioned below:

  • One of the reasons behind low blood pressure in the first trimester could be hormonal changes that cause dilation of blood vessels.
  • Dehydration lowers blood pressure due to rapid loss of water, and can cause dizziness.
  • The enlargement of the uterus creates pressure on the blood vessels and may cause hypotension. Supine hypotension is mostly experienced in pregnancy when you lie down on your back.
  • Postural hypotension is caused by the accumulation of blood in the legs, which affects the blood flow to the brain. It usually happens while rising from a sitting position or lying position.
  • Anaemia and hypoglycemia (a condition that causes low blood sugar levels) can also be the reason for low BP during pregnancy.
  • If you have any heart-related conditions, they could also cause a significant dip in your blood pressure levels.

Other factors include deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The foetus absorbs nutrients from the mother. Hence, the mother is prone to anaemia if there is less intake of vitamins or folic acid, as this deficiency can slow down blood circulation and cause poor blood pressure.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Breathing problems, chest pains, vomiting or an increase in pulse rate.
  • Dizziness and episodes of fainting because of low blood pressure.
  • Light headedness and blurred vision when suddenly changing from a reclining or sitting position.
  • Excessive thirst and difficulty concentrating, due to anaemia.
  • Severe pelvic pain along with a lowered BP. This can indicate a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, which could be very dangerous.
  • Pale, clammy and cold skin, besides feeling fatigued or weak.

Some of the symptoms mentioned above might subside after you rest or have enough water to drink. Make sure you discuss it with a doctor, as it could be a sign of health problems that have not yet been detected.

Diagnosis of Low BP When Pregnant

The condition can be easily diagnosed with the help of a device used to measure blood pressure. For this, an expandable cuff will be put around your arm and a pressure-measuring gauge will be used to calculate the blood pressure.

Risks of Low Blood Pressure In Pregnant Women

While low blood pressure does not pose as much risk as high blood pressure, it still remains a cause for concern during pregnancy. Watch out for the below risks if you have been diagnosed with low blood pressure.

  • Dizziness due to low blood pressure may raise the chances of fainting, falling and hurting yourself and the unborn baby.
  • If there is a drastic fall in blood pressure, it can reduce the oxygen supply to your body, thus, impeding your body’s crucial functions. It could be risky for your baby in case there is less supply of oxygen, causing significant damage to the baby’s heart and brain.

How to Treat Low Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

Here are some facts and remedies for the treatment of low blood pressure during pregnancy.

Treatment

There is no treatment prescribed for low blood pressure at the time of pregnancy. Even medications are not suggested during pregnancy, unless the symptoms are serious or there are chances of complications. However, the issue can be controlled with simple changes in lifestyle like exercising to promote blood flow, being careful while getting up after sitting or lying down, and stretching your ankles and feet before you stand up. It is noticed that the blood pressure starts rising on its own in the last trimester.

Self-Help Remedies

You can try some of the home remedies for low blood pressure during pregnancy mentioned below.

1. Salt Water

It is usually recommended for patients with low blood pressure, as the sodium content in salt increases blood pressure. However, don’t consume too much salt water, as it can prove to be detrimental to your health. Simply add half a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water and drink it or you can also take oral rehydration solution.

2. Raisins

The best remedy is to eat raisins – a traditional but excellent way to treat hypotension. Soak some raisins in water overnight and consume them in the morning, on an empty stomach. You can also have the water in which the raisins were soaked. Follow this for a few weeks or even a month.                                                                                                                                                             

3. Basil

Basil contains nutrients like Vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and pantothenic acid, which are good for low blood pressure. Moreover, it also helps to ease stress. You can extract the juice from basil leaves, add a teaspoon of honey, and consume this on an empty stomach, daily. You can also simply eat the basil leaves, if you like the taste, every morning.

4. Beetroot Juice

You can drink a cup of beetroot juice on a daily basis, for about one week.

5. Ginger

Ginger is effective in dealing with low and high blood pressures because it contains certain compounds and antioxidants along with chemicals such as shogaol, gingerol and zingerone, which can avert variations in the blood pressure levels.

6. Aniseed

It contains potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc and magnesium, which increase the iron and potassium levels that may help in raising blood pressure. You can simply add the herb while cooking your food.

7. Lemon Juice

Another excellent home remedy is lemon juice, especially if low BP is caused due to dehydration. The lemon juice can help in providing energy and enhancing the function of liver, along with aiding digestion.

8. Fresh Carrot Juice

Fresh carrot juice can help in improving blood circulation, and hence, maintain blood pressure levels. You can consume fresh carrot juice along with honey, every morning.

9. Almond Paste and Milk

It is the most commonly prescribed remedy. This combination may work on the adrenal glands that can stabilise the blood pressure. Soak five or six almonds overnight, peel the skin and grind to a smooth paste. Add the almond paste to boiled milk and stir it well. Consume a cup of almond milk to improve blood pressure levels.

Besides these home remedies, you should drink plenty of fluids to keep the condition under control. It is best to consult your doctor before you opt for any home remedies.

Will Low BP in Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

Although some studies suggest that the condition of low BP during pregnancy may cause problems such as low birth weight and stillbirth, other researches have revealed that such issues are accompanied by certain other factors, and are not just a result of low BP.

Tips on Dealing With Dizziness Due to Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

One of the main symptoms of low blood pressure is dizziness and feeling faint. This can harm you or your baby’s health, if you faint and fall. These are some ways to manage dizziness caused by low blood pressure in pregnancy.

1. Don’t stand for a long period of time. Take short intervals and sit down, especially while doing any housework such as cooking, laundry, or cleaning.

2. Avoid taking very hot baths or showers, as the hot water further dilates blood vessels, lowering blood pressure and making you feel faint.

3. Stay hydrated by regularly sipping on water throughout the day to keep your mind active and fresh.

4. Avoid changing your position too quickly, as you may feel faint. Get down or sit up slowly to give your body some time to adjust to the change in position.

5. Wear loose clothing, which makes you feel more free than constricted. This will help ease any feelings of lightheadedness.

6. Sleep in the left lateral position, as it increases blood circulation to the baby and also prevents Supine Hypotension Syndrome in the mother.

When to Seek a Doctor’s Help?

During pregnancy, low blood pressure can lead to serious symptoms like a severe headache, blurring, weakness, numbness in one side of the body, and shortness of breath. Consult your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above.

With the above-mentioned home remedies and proper consultation of your doctor, you can control low BP during pregnancy.

References & Resources: 1. MedicalNewsToday 2. Healthline

Also Read: High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) during Pregnancy

90,000 What does blood pressure mean 100 to 60 mm Hg. and what if it fell?

Every second person experienced a decrease in blood pressure. More often, a similar phenomenon occurs in adolescents and during pregnancy, but there are exceptions. Do I need to panic if the pressure is 100 to 60 – what does this mean and in what cases is it worth seeing a doctor?

Qualified doctors will help you answer these questions.

Blood pressure: concept, norm

One of the most important indicators is blood pressure.But in modern medicine, only one type of it is most often measured – blood pressure, or blood pressure. According to its indicators, one can judge the state of the vessels and the general health of the patient.

To determine blood pressure, doctors record 2 types of it:

  • systolic – the upper value showing the pressure level during the contraction of the heart muscle;
  • diastolic – the lower indicator, indicating the state of the vessels during relaxation of the heart.

There are no strict guidelines for blood pressure.However, 120/80 indicators are recognized as the benchmark for people over 17 years old. But this is just a convention. So, many doctors consider a pressure of 100 to 60 acceptable, provided that the subject feels normal, vigorous and active. Such indicators can also be a symptom of serious pathologies that require immediate medical attention.

Read about the variety of blood pressure and pulse monitors here.

What does it mean if blood pressure dropped to 100 by 60 mm Hg.Art.?

A decrease in indicators to such a level in most cases is considered a variant of the norm. After all, the pulse pressure is within acceptable limits. But for some patients, these numbers are abnormal. Therefore, if suddenly there was a decrease in values ​​and a pressure of 100 to 60, what should be done to ask the doctor. In this case, it is worth considering the presence of dangerous factors that can provoke hypotension:

  • dehydration;
  • inflammation of internal organs;
  • various ailments of the cardiovascular profile;
  • previous head injury;
  • pregnancy;
  • sepsis;
  • serious allergic reaction;
  • blood diseases;
  • violations of vascular elasticity;
  • 90,013 bleeding.

Be careful: lowering blood pressure during pregnancy is especially dangerous! Therefore, if the expectant mother has a pressure of 100 to 60, what does this mean – the doctor should find out! After all, such indicators indicate a deterioration in blood circulation, which can lead to hypoxia and miscarriage.

In some situations, a decrease in indicators was provoked by relatively safe reasons:

  • heredity;
  • 90,013 adolescence;

    90,013 stressful situations;

  • lack of a balanced work and rest regime;
  • acclimatization;
  • alcohol consumption;
  • 90 013 taking certain medications (antidepressants, diuretics, drugs for hypertension, etc.)etc.)

  • active sports.

If the pressure is 100 to 60, it is better to focus on the accompanying symptoms. Hypotension is often accompanied by weakness, nausea (up to vomiting), headache, fainting. Such signs require the attention of doctors, especially if you have previously been injured.

Note: if the pressure is 100 to 60 – what is it – will help to understand the pulse. After all, heart rate (HR) is considered an important diagnostic sign for hypotension.

If the pulse is normal

Lack of compensation for low blood pressure by increased work of the heart usually occurs during the period of active growth in adolescents, during acclimatization, or in persons for whom hypotension is a natural state. But there are also exceptions.

Normal adult pulse ranges from 60–90 beats per minute. A decrease or increase in performance can both indicate the presence of problems, and be the result of stress, overwork, etc.Therefore, if the pressure is 100 to 60 at a pulse of 60, what this means is a moot point. In most cases, such indicators are the norm. But if you do not feel well, you should see a doctor.

Heart palpitations

Many people mistakenly believe that tachycardia with a decrease in blood pressure is a pathology. But it is not always the case. In most cases, an increase in heart rate is normal. For example, during pregnancy, an accelerated heartbeat is a consequence of an increase in blood volume, etc.But if the pressure is 100 to 60, the pulse is 100, what does this mean – the accompanying symptoms will help to understand:

  • nausea and vomiting – typical for heat strokes, overheating;
  • fever is a sign of an inflammatory process;
  • severe headache – may indicate hemorrhage;
  • weakness, fainting – profuse blood loss, shock.

If during pregnancy the pressure is 100 to 60, the pulse is 100, only a qualified doctor can determine what to do.It is possible to determine the severity of the condition of the expectant mother by the intensity of signs of toxicosis. If his symptoms worsen (severe vomiting, the appearance of edema in the upper parts of the body, photopsia, etc.), you should undergo additional examination!

Do not focus only on blood pressure and heart rate indicators: it is important to take into account additional symptoms. If your health has noticeably deteriorated, and low blood pressure is not the norm, it is better to consult a doctor.

Is this condition dangerous?

If the blood pressure is 100 to 60, what this means should be found out, taking into account the person’s well-being.Modern doctors recognize that such indicators are not critical and in most cases are considered the norm.

But to assess the patient’s status, it is important to take into account not only the current values, but also such moments:

  1. Results of previous surveys. If earlier blood pressure was 120 to 80, and then suddenly dropped, it is worth conducting additional research.
  2. The presence of concomitant symptoms. If the patient complains of nausea, fever, frequent fainting, dizziness, migraine or feeling unwell, you should make sure that there are no serious health problems.
  3. A detailed analysis of the circumstances of the drop in indicators: the presence of injuries, taking medications, stressful situations, travel – everything is important for the diagnosis.

If you feel unwell and your blood pressure suddenly drops to 100 to 60, the doctor will determine what to do. After all, abrupt deviations from the norm are a dangerous sign that requires the attention of professionals.

What to do, how to raise?

If the decrease in blood pressure occurred sharply, provoked by trauma, or is accompanied by such severe symptoms as severe migraine, loss of consciousness, impaired coordination of movements, pain in the heart, you should immediately consult a doctor.When the signs of malaise are insignificant or absent altogether, it is worth taking the following measures:

  • drink a cup of green tea or coffee;
  • eat bread with honey, lightly sprinkled with cinnamon;
  • take a contrast shower;
  • perform breathing exercises;
  • in the cold season, it is permissible to dissolve a pinch of salt;
  • in the heat it is worth drinking clean water, since a decrease in indicators may be caused by dehydration;
  • take specialized medications (Strofantin, Norepinephrine, etc.)but only if approved by your doctor.

Be careful: do not take pharmacy drugs without permission.

Useful video

Interesting information about self-massage with hypotension can be found in the following video:

Conclusion

  1. When the pressure is 100 to 60, how to raise – the doctor will determine!
  2. If a decrease in blood pressure is not accompanied by dangerous symptoms and causes only mild discomfort, then you can use the means at hand.
  3. If an attack was preceded by an injury or your health has deteriorated sharply – consult a doctor. After all, such symptoms may indicate dangerous pathologies that require urgent medical attention.

Material provided

cardiolog.online

Low blood pressure during pregnancy: what to do

Low blood pressure during pregnancy: Pixabay

During pregnancy, many women have low blood pressure.Some immediately run to the doctor, while others do not pay attention to it at all. Is it worth grabbing the pills or can you brew tea and let the whole world wait?

Causes of low blood pressure during pregnancy and what is its danger

During pregnancy, changes occur throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system. A decrease in pressure in the early stages is considered normal, since body weight increases, uteroplacental blood circulation is turned on, and the volume of circulating blood increases.

All the efforts of the body are aimed at providing the fetus with nutrients. The article by the scientist Victoria Ilei and her co-authors is devoted to the influence of body weight on pressure.

Why does blood pressure decrease during pregnancy?

Many factors affect the vessels:

Read also

What increases the pressure at home

  • Change in hormonal levels;
  • CNS tone change;
  • increased pressure in the abdominal cavity;
  • change in the position of the heart;
  • increase in heart rate;
  • Increase in the height of the diaphragm.

The body is gradually adapting to new conditions, therefore, with a slight decrease in pressure, do not sound the alarm. For the first trimester, hypotension is considered a natural phenomenon. Changes in the work of the heart during this period are minimal. But the hormones progesterone and estrogen are already released and contribute to vasodilation, so the pressure decreases.

If at the same time the woman feels good, then there is no reason for concern. If, at 4-12 weeks of pregnancy, the state of health worsens, toxicosis appears, then low blood pressure against the background of these symptoms can be dangerous.Low blood pressure is considered to be less than 90/60. In hypertensive patients, these indicators may be slightly higher, therefore, it is worth focusing on individual characteristics.

Read also

Bloating during pregnancy: what to do?

Hypotension in early pregnancy can occur not only for natural reasons, but also due to a number of disorders such as:

  • infections;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • Disruption of the thyroid gland;
  • increased blood glucose levels;
  • dehydration;
  • large blood loss;
  • severe stress.

What is the danger of low blood pressure during pregnancy?

Low blood pressure during pregnancy: Adobe Stock

The danger of low blood pressure during early pregnancy is poor circulation in the placenta and fetus. If the fetus does not receive the required amount of oxygen and nutrients, then it cannot develop normally. There is a weight deficit and developmental delay, which can result in disorders in the development of the skeleton, brain, and internal organs.

In the first trimester, blood vessels and internal organs begin to form in the fetus.By the end of the 12th week, the fetus weighs 9–15 g and can already move its fingers, open its mouth, and reflexes are formed. Therefore, it is very important that the supply of oxygen and nutrients is uninterrupted and sufficient in the early stages. This is reported by MD Melissa Konrad Stöppler.

Read also

How to increase hemoglobin in pregnant women

Uteroplacental circulation is formed in the second trimester. This period is characterized by the maximum decrease in pressure, since the resistance of the vessels to the blood flow decreases.If all other indicators remain normal, then these changes do not cause discomfort and do not cause concern.

In the third trimester, blood pressure readings gradually return to normal. The volume of circulating blood reaches a maximum and stops, the fundus of the uterus begins to fall, and the height of the diaphragm decreases. Thanks to this, the state of the body is normalized.

The greatest load on the cardiovascular system is observed at 28–32 weeks of gestation.During this period, you need to be especially careful about your condition and well-being, especially those women who have been diagnosed with diseases of the cardiovascular system.

How to increase blood pressure during pregnancy?

Read also

One breast is larger than the other: reasons for what to do

If the pressure readings change by no more than 10%, medications are not required. In the early stages, when the body begins to rebuild, it is important to establish the correct daily routine.This is especially important for hypotensive patients. You need to sleep at least 8 hours and go to bed at 22 hours. At this time, hormones that normalize metabolism are most actively produced. Fractional nutrition, green tea, exercise – all this will help you feel better.

Morning exercises for pregnant women: Pixabay

Morning exercises for pregnant women can consist of a few simple exercises:

  1. Put your palms together in front of your face, raise your elbows. Squeeze your palms hard enough to feel the muscles in your arms and back.Fix the position for 10-15 seconds, then relax and repeat the exercise.
  2. Stand with your back to the wall, stand on tiptoe and stand for 30 seconds. Then gently lower yourself onto your foot.
  3. Stand with your back to a chair, stool or sofa and begin to squat. Stop without sitting on a chair – in an intermediate position. Hold on for 30 seconds and return to starting position.

Read also

18 weeks pregnant: development and size of the fetus, what happens in the woman’s body

Moderate exercise is especially beneficial in the first trimester.Exercise improves blood circulation, the blood is oxygenated, circulates faster and delivers all the necessary nutrients to the fetus. How to control the condition of a pregnant woman in the early stages, tells an article in the magazine WebMD.

It is necessary to consult a doctor if the following symptoms appear:

  • dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • headaches;
  • darkening in the eyes;
  • tinnitus;
  • fast fatigue;
  • shortness of breath;
  • decrease in body temperature.

These symptoms can lead to medication. Most often, doctors recommend drinking a course of ascorbic acid, which promotes vascular elasticity, or prescribes drugs with caffeine. Headache pills can be used as adjuncts. But only the doctor decides if you need special drugs.

Read also

Temperature during early pregnancy

How to raise low blood pressure during pregnancy? Correct diet and some foods will help increase blood pressure during pregnancy:

  • salt;
  • honey;
  • coffee, green tea, cocoa;
  • pomegranate juice;
  • dark chocolate;
  • dried fruits.

Eating iodized salt and salty foods constricts blood vessels, leading to increased blood pressure, according to the WHO article. In addition, salt makes you feel thirsty, you want to drink more. A large amount of fluid leads to an increase in blood volume, normalizes its circulation.

In case of a sharp drop in pressure, you must lie down or sit with your head bent to your knees. This position will provide blood flow to the brain and help improve well-being. Then you need to drink a glass of water or sweet tea.When the attack has passed, be sure to see your doctor and tell him about your symptoms.

Read also

How to measure blood pressure correctly

A slight decrease in pressure in pregnant women is considered normal, but if the indicators have dropped significantly, you need to seek medical help. Urgent help is needed in case of dizziness and fainting, and in other cases, you can do with vitamins and adjusting the diet.

Attention! The material is for informational purposes only.You should not resort to the treatments described in it without first consulting your doctor.

Sources:

  1. Healthy Eating. Review // World Health Organization. – 2018 .– August 31. – Access mode: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/healthy-diet
  2. First Trimester of Pregnancy. Review // WebMD. – Access mode: https://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/first-trimester-of-pregnancy#1
  3. Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD.Facts you should know about pregnancy week to week // MedicineNet. – 2021 .– 5 December. – Access mode: https://www.medicinenet.com/pregnancy/article.htm
  4. Victoria Elay. A review of blood pressure measurement in obese pregnant women // PubMed. – 2018 .– 22 april. – Access mode: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29954650/

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Can the test fail to show pregnancy, if there is one

Original article: https: // www.nur.kz/family/beauty/1777136-nizkoe-davlenie-pri-beremennosti-na-rannih-srokah-cto-delat/

90,000 Pressure control during pregnancy

Read in this article:

  1. Why does the pressure change in pregnant women?

  2. Change in pressure by trimester

  3. Normal pressure in pregnant women Increased pressure in pregnant women

  4. Reduced pressure in pregnant women

  5. Pressure control is the key to the health of mom and baby

Blood pressure is one of the key indicators of the functioning of the human circulatory system.During pregnancy, the load on the body increases, the heart and blood vessels also respond to these changes. Regular measurement of pressure in pregnant women allows you to monitor the work of the cardiovascular system, and sometimes prevent the development of dangerous complications.

Why do pregnant women change their blood pressure?

The body has to adapt to a special condition – pregnancy. A woman’s body weight gradually increases, additional blood circulation is connected between the uterus and the placenta.The functioning of the heart and blood vessels at this time is influenced by:

  • Hormonal changes;

  • An increasing volume of blood circulating in the body;

  • Increased tone of the central nervous system;

  • Changing the position of the diaphragm, which rises up;

  • Increased pressure inside the abdominal cavity;

  • Displacement of the heart in the chest;

  • Increased heart rate.

The body directs all its efforts to improve blood flow in the placenta, in the uterus, because it is necessary to provide the developing fetus with oxygen and nutrients. Under these circumstances, blood pressure changes.

Pressure change by trimester

Pressure indicators, its changes are determined by the gestational age. The entire period of pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, and in each there are certain changes in blood pressure:

  • In the early stages, the heart and blood vessels work as usual.But already from the first weeks of pregnancy, the female body actively produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which contribute to vasodilation. Because of this, the pressure decreases slightly;

  • In the second trimester, the pressure level decreases even more. This is due to the formation of a new circle of blood circulation between the placenta and the uterus. A decrease in indicators also provokes a decrease in vascular resistance;

  • In the third trimester, the volume of blood circulating in the body becomes maximum.Blood pressure gradually rises. Closer to childbirth, the volume of blood ceases to increase, the fundus of the uterus and the diaphragm descend. As a result, the pressure in pregnant women in late stages returns to the normal level that a woman is accustomed to.

The periods from 4 to 12 weeks are considered especially dangerous, when a drop in pressure in combination with toxicosis can significantly worsen the well-being of the expectant mother, as well as from 28 to 32 weeks, when the load on the vessels and the heart becomes maximum.But regular blood pressure measurement should not be neglected at any period of pregnancy, especially if a woman has pathologies of the cardiovascular system or has a predisposition to them.

Normal blood pressure in pregnant women

Pressure rates in pregnant women also depend on the trimester. In general, 120-130 / 80-85 is considered the optimal indicator. The upper permissible limit is 130-139 mm Hg. for systolic and 85-89 mm Hg. for diastolic pressure. A pressure exceeding 140/90 is considered elevated.

For trimesters, the table of normal values ​​looks like this:

Pressure rate

Index

First trimester

110-120 / 70-80

Second trimester

Not higher than 130/85

Third trimester

140/90 to 100/60

It is important to take into account that each organism is individual, and each woman’s normal pressure is different.That is why blood pressure indicators should be compared not only with the norms, but also with the pressure usual for oneself, at which a woman feels well.

Increased pressure in pregnant women

Increased pressure while carrying a baby is dangerous for both mother and baby. In such a situation, the vessels narrow, the blood supply to the vital organs, including the placenta, is disrupted. Deficiency of oxygen, essential nutrients creates the risk of complications, fetal growth retardation, placental abruption.

An increase in blood pressure is called arterial hypertension, but such a diagnosis is made only with a constant or regular increase in the indicator. A single increase in pressure is a reason for monitoring indicators more closely, but not a reason for such a diagnosis.

The reasons for the increase in pressure during pregnancy are:

  • More active blood circulation while maintaining its previous volume – at a later date, this condition indicates the preparation of the body for childbirth;

  • Hypertension – women with chronic hypertension have a particularly high risk of problems with pressure during pregnancy;

  • Gestosis is a malfunction of the capillaries, internal organs, which manifests itself in the appearance of severe edema and protein in the urine;

  • Concomitant diseases, for example, diabetes or pathology of the kidneys, thyroid gland, adrenal gland tumor;

  • Hormonal imbalance.

The increase in pressure is usually accompanied by dizziness, headache and tinnitus, palpitations, and nosebleeds may appear. This condition is very dangerous, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor, and if there is a significant deterioration in health, call an ambulance.

Decreased blood pressure in pregnant women

A slight decrease in pressure during early pregnancy is a variant of the norm.However, if the indicators decrease significantly, it can be dangerous for both the mother and the child.

Low blood pressure can be a symptom of the development of serious diseases, from stomach ulcers to adrenal insufficiency. Hypotension is especially dangerous due to impaired blood circulation in the placenta. This complicates the supply of oxygen, nutrients to the fetus, hypoxia, missed pregnancies and the risk of premature termination of pregnancy.

The pressure index during pregnancy may decrease due to:

  • Constant stress;

  • Dehydration of the body;

  • Infectious diseases;

  • Hormonal adjustment;

  • Sedentary lifestyle;

  • Severe blood loss;

  • Malfunctions of blood vessels, heart.

In this case, a woman feels weak and drowsy, gets tired quickly, dizziness, darkening in the eyes and fainting are possible. Self-medication in such cases is unacceptable, you must definitely visit a doctor.

How to measure blood pressure during pregnancy

The blood pressure measurement takes only a few minutes, but it helps prevent very serious health problems. Modern automatic blood pressure monitors do almost everything themselves, you need to use them regularly and follow some rules:

  • Perform measurements at the same time of the day so that the indicators do not change under the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal background, biological rhythms of the body;

  • Do not measure the pressure immediately after the load, including a walk – in this state, the pressure may temporarily increase, there is nothing to worry about;

  • Do not take measurements less than an hour after eating – against the background of the vigorous activity of the digestive system, the volume of blood is redistributed, so the result will be biased;

  • Measure the pressure in a sitting position, with the hand on the tabletop, the muscles are relaxed;

  • Do not move, do not speak during the measurement.

Do not measure pressure in a state of intense excitement. First you need to calm down, lie down for a few minutes. The repeated measurement is carried out not earlier than after 10 minutes, if necessary.

Pressure control is the key to the health of mother and child

Often times, pressure issues don’t show up until the situation becomes truly threatening. Sometimes pregnant women write off the deterioration of well-being for their “interesting position” and hormonal changes, fatigue.But pressure surges during such a period can have quite serious causes and dangerous consequences.

The sooner such prerequisites are identified, the easier it will be to normalize the state of health. That is why pregnant women are advised to regularly monitor their blood pressure, especially since it is very easy to do this with modern home blood pressure monitors.

The “age of the heart” of Russians has been determined – CON-MED.RU

More than 100 thousand people took part in the online test “Measure the age of your heart!”

The average Russian has a discrepancy in the “age of the heart” with biological age is more than 4 years

72% of participants do not know their cholesterol levels, and 58% do not know their blood sugar and blood pressure levels

68% do not exercise, and 72% walk less than the recommended rate of 10,00 steps per day.

The results of the online test “Measure the age of your heart!” diseases of the circulatory system. For 4 months, more than 106,000 people (70% of women, 30% of men) aged 21 to 89 from 83 regions of Russia took part in the test.The average biological age of the project participants was 42 years, and according to the results of the test, the average “age of the heart” was 46 years.

The online test was created by expert cardiologists specifically in order to calculate the age of a person’s heart in a few minutes, assess the health status, lifestyle and give personal recommendations, following which everyone can reduce their heart rate. At the same time, the “age of the heart” is a conditional parameter that makes it possible to assess the state of the human cardiovascular system.A discrepancy with biological age by more than 3 years may indicate the presence of at least 3 risk factors, which leads to an increase in the total cardiac risk. This tendency is especially evident in older age groups: for 60+ participants, the difference in biological age from the test results is 6 years.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed the availability of preventive measures and the population’s commitment to healthy lifestyles. It is important to remember, however, that despite the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide.During the period of self-isolation and quarantine restrictions, innovative approaches to the implementation of cardiovascular prevention measures were needed. Therefore, the launch of the project “Measure the age of your heart”, during which it was possible to remotely identify risk factors and further reduce the cardiological risk, was especially relevant “, – said the President of the Russian Society of Cardiology, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Shlyakhto Evgeny Vladimirovich.

The results of the study showed that the majority of Russians are careless about checking key body indicators that directly affect the possibility of CVD: 72% of participants do not know their cholesterol level, and 58% do not know their blood sugar level and 18% blood pressure (BP) level.In addition, an unfavorable situation is observed with the physical activity of Russians: 68% do not go in for sports, and 72% admitted that they pass less than the recommended norm – 10 00 steps per day.

In addition, major risk factors such as high blood pressure and glucose levels, obesity and smoking are much more common in men than in women. They can be the reason for the greater discrepancy between the age in the passport and the age of the heart – by 4.8 years for men and by 3.9 years for women.

“In just 4 months, over 100,000 people took our online test because it’s easy and fun. Everyone received a recommendation on what to do to reduce their CVD risks, which means that our task of promoting a healthy lifestyle and prevention is being solved. We will continue the project in order to expand our coverage and help people think about a responsible approach to their health, ”commented Irina Lavrova, Director of Communications and Relations with Government and Public Organizations, , on the project idea.

The project was initiated by the Russian Society of Cardiology and Bayer. The reason for launching the project was alarming statistics: according to Rosstat data for 2019, circulatory system diseases account for about 46.8% of all deaths [1].

Link to the online test “Measure the age of your heart!”: Https://www.heartbeatrussia.ru/ru/heartbeat/ssz/

If you have any questions, please contact the following contacts:

Katerina Umnova, +7 (925) 407-72-05

Email: ku @ pr-consulta.ru

Information about the social and educational program “Pulse of Life”

“Pulse of Life” is an all-Russian social and educational program, the purpose of which is to develop preventive medicine and increase the level of knowledge of the population about the risks associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The project was launched in 2013 at the initiative of the international concern Bayer with the support of the National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.During the implementation of the project, various information and educational activities were carried out, as well as a series of screening events in various regions of the Russian Federation. As a result of the actions, more than 6,000 people received individual recommendations for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Information and educational materials developed within the program “Pulse of Life. Children “, posted on the website: http://www.heartbeatrussia.ru/ru/heartbeat/for-school/

Information about Bayer

Bayer is a global life sciences technology concern for healthcare and nutrition.The company’s products and services are designed to help people cope with the major problems of our time caused by the growth and aging of the world population. At the same time, the group seeks to increase its profitability and efficiency through innovation and development. As Bayer is committed to sustainability, the Bayer brand is associated with responsibility, reliability and quality around the world. In fiscal 2019, the group employed approximately 104,000 people and achieved sales of 43.5 billion euros.Capital expenditures were € 2.9 billion, research and development costs € 5.3 billion. More information is available at www.bayer.com.

Certificate of the Russian Cardiological Society (RKO)

The all-Russian public organization “Russian Cardiological Society” (RSC) brings together healthcare professionals engaged in research, pedagogical and practical work in the field of cardiology and related disciplines, as well as specialists involved in the development of new medical equipment, medicines for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients cardiovascular diseases, developing the fundamental and applied foundations of ecological, including radiological, cardiology.More detailed information is available on the website www.scardio.ru.


[1] https://rosstat.gov.ru/search?q=%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81% D1% 82% D1% 8C

90,000 norms, reasons and signs of an increase – ISIDA Clinic Kiev, Ukraine

Herman Elena Borisovna

Therapist

21 November 2016

Changes associated with pregnancy affect the whole body.The cardiovascular system is no exception. What happens to blood pressure and how can it be controlled?

During pregnancy, new requirements are imposed on the cardiovascular system associated with changes in the body of the expectant mother: the body weight of the woman, uterus and placenta increases, the fetus grows, and additional uteroplacental circulation is activated. The vessels during pregnancy are influenced by many factors: changes in the hormonal background and tone of the central nervous system, an increase in the volume of circulating blood, an increase in the height of the diaphragm, an increase in pressure inside the abdominal cavity.In addition, the position of the heart in the chest changes and the frequency of its contractions increases. All efforts of the body are aimed at improving blood circulation in the uterus and placenta in order to provide the developing fetus with nutrients and oxygen. It is not surprising that in the context of a global restructuring of the body, blood pressure readings change.

First trimester

Although this period passes without significant changes in the work of the cardiovascular system, the hormones progesterone and estrogen promote vasodilation from the first weeks of pregnancy.As a result, the pressure tends to decrease.

Special attention! The period from the 4th to the 12th week can become critical if the expectant mother is actively showing early toxicosis. A drop in blood pressure, along with a deterioration in overall well-being, can cause discomfort.

Second trimester

This period is accompanied by a maximum decrease in blood pressure associated with a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, the formation of the uteroplacental circle of blood circulation.Low blood pressure readings at this time are quite natural and normally do not cause any inconvenience.

Third trimester

By 30 weeks, the volume of circulating blood reaches its maximum, and blood pressure gradually rises, most often without crossing the normal range. In the future, the increase in the volume of circulating blood is suspended, the bottom of the uterus is slightly lowered, the height of the diaphragm is reduced, and the expectant mother becomes easier. Blood pressure levels off and returns to the levels that were before pregnancy.

Special attention! From the 28th to the 32nd week, a woman’s cardiovascular system has a maximum load, therefore, during this period, the well-being of pregnant women with diseases of the cardiovascular system may deteriorate.

Childbirth

The cardiovascular system mobilizes all its reserves to ensure labor, improve blood circulation in the mother-placenta-fetus system and allow mother and baby to successfully overcome this period.

Special attention! In response to physical stress and pain, heart rate and blood pressure increase. In addition, it increases reflexively due to compression of the aorta and the inferior vena cava behind the uterus.

If the expectant mother is hypotonic , even lower blood pressure values ​​can be predicted in the I-II trimesters. Weakness and drowsiness are characteristic of all pregnant women, but in hypotonic patients the symptoms are more pronounced.

What to do? Adhere to the drinking regimen prescribed by the doctor, sleep – at least 8 hours a day.Moreover, it is better to fall asleep no later than 22.00, since from this time hormones are produced that protect the body from stress and normalize metabolism. You should also eat fractionally, walk in the fresh air, do exercises. Tea – black or green will help to cheer up. If a woman tolerates low blood pressure well, there is no need to use drugs. But in any case, the condition of the pregnant woman should be monitored by a doctor.

If the expectant mother is hypertensive , this disease can seriously affect pregnancy and fetal development.Hypertension can cause a delay in the intrauterine development of a baby, complications in childbirth or the birth of a low birth weight baby, since the fetus does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients.

What to do? Stress should be avoided, table salt should be abandoned – it retains fluid and increases vascular tone. And also exclude spicy dishes, strong tea and coffee from the diet. In general, hypertension requires daily medication, and many of them are contraindicated during the period of bearing a child, therefore, not only with the onset of pregnancy, but also at the planning stage, it is important to discuss with the doctor the possibility of replacing drugs with those that will not harm the unborn baby.

Expert Elena GERMAN, physician at ISIDA clinic

It happens that during pregnancy a condition that is dangerous for the mother and baby develops – preeclampsia, or late gestosis. Its symptoms are high blood pressure, increasing edema, protein in the urine. Preeclampsia can be a separate disease or develop against a background of preexisting hypertension. Therefore, for any symptoms associated with increased pressure – headache, dizziness, flies before the eyes, darkening in the eyes, tinnitus – you should consult a doctor.

90,000 Low blood pressure: normal or sick? | Healthy life | Health

We often attribute constant weakness to overwork, a frantic pace of life, stress. In fact, everything is somewhat more complicated. If, of course, the blood pressure is abnormally low, not from case to case, but constantly: that is, the upper (systolic) is below 95 mm Hg, the lower (diastolic) is 65 mm. As a rule, it is a disease of young women: from 20 to 40 years old.

Normal or sick?

But after all, some women have a pressure of 90/60 and they feel great at the same time, but it will rise to normal, even if you call an ambulance, many can object.And they will be partly right. In this case, we are talking about the so-called physiological hypotension, that is, about the individual characteristics of the organism.

Occasionally, an attack of hypotension can occur in a perfectly healthy person, if, for example, he overdid it with training in the fitness room or found himself in a hot climate, dramatically changing his habit, going, say, to rest in the tropics in winter.

Sometimes the pressure drops sharply and the pulse slows down after a long stay on the legs, when moving from a horizontal position to a vertical one, especially in the morning.This type of hypotension, when the body’s compensatory-adaptive reactions do not work, is called orthostatic.

Primary, secondary …

But arterial hypotension can also be a disease. Distinguish between its primary and secondary forms. The primary one is associated with a functional disorder of the cardiovascular system (caused by a special form of neurosis). As a result, the regulation of vascular tone is disrupted – the pressure decreases. Sometimes the cause of hypotension may be a lack of vitamins B, E and C.

Secondary hypotension is not an independent disease, but a companion of the main one. It can develop with infectious and chronic diseases: tonsillitis, problems of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs.

What the doctor ordered

In the treatment of primary hypotension, drugs containing codeine, as well as herbal preparations (from ginseng, aralia, leuzea, etc.) are used, which increase the general tone. When treating a secondary – the main “blow” should come to the main disease, as a rule, if it is possible to cure it (or bring it into a state of long-term remission), the pressure is normalized.For example, thyroid hormones are prescribed if the thyroid gland is inadequate. With hypotension associated with foci of chronic infection (tonsillitis, foci of infection in the abdominal organs, etc.), antibacterial drugs are used.

The most effective remedy for arterial hypotension is the “training” of blood vessels. It can and should be done at home. These procedures include a contrast shower, dousing with cold water, bath or sauna, massage and hydromassage.But here, as in everything else, a sense of proportion and the ability to listen to your body is very important for hypotonic patients. Temperature changes should not be too sharp, and “acquaintance” with bath procedures should be started gradually, avoiding everything that causes unpleasant sensations.

In the evening, carry out the following procedure: fill the bathtub 20 cm with water (temperature 10–18 ° C). Walk along the bottom of the tub for 1-3 minutes, raising your feet sharply above the surface of the water. Then wipe your feet dry, put on your woolen socks and walk vigorously around the room until your feet are warm, and only then go to bed.

Good sleep is important for vascular health. Hypotensive patients need to sleep at least 9-10 hours, especially in cold and chilly weather, which has a bad effect on blood vessels. And if you have trouble sleeping, be sure to consult with a neurologist.

Test Yourself

The main symptoms of hypotension are:

► weakness and fatigue, drowsiness;

► irritability, acute reaction to bright light and loud sounds;

► hypersensitivity to heat and cold;

► chilliness of palms and feet;

► dizziness, headache, staggering when moving;

► menstrual irregularities.

Important

Many hypotonic people know for themselves the “ability” to faint in the most “inappropriate” place, at the most “inappropriate” hour. And they don’t even suggest that fainting can be prevented. Firstly, it never comes suddenly, there are always its harbingers: the heart suddenly begins to beat faster, the headache grows, the eyes darken, a feeling of nausea comes …

In such a situation, try to sit down as quickly as possible (do not hesitate to ask to give you a seat in a crowded, stuffy subway car!), Lower your head below your knees, breathe evenly, but not deeply.If you are at home, lie down immediately with a high pillow under your feet. And take your time to get up when you feel better. Relax for at least half an hour.

It is necessary to be able to provide competent assistance even if hypotonic fainting occurs before your eyes. In this case, you need:

In the metro, in transport

Sit down the victim (if possible, lay him on his back and slightly raise his legs), unbutton the collar of his clothes, wave a rolled newspaper or magazine in front of his face.If you have a bottle of mineral water at hand, sprinkle it on your face and gently pat it on your cheeks. In the metro, at the next stop, get out of the stuffy carriage onto the platform and call the station attendant, ask him for ammonia (there is a first-aid kit at every station).

Houses

Put to bed, bring a cotton swab moistened with ammonia or table vinegar to your nose. Place a large pillow and a heating pad under your feet. After the fainting has passed, give the sick person a cup of strong, sweet, hot tea or coffee.

Continued: Low pressure, what to do →

Why there is low upper pressure

Author: iforget • Date of publication: 03.07.2018

Blood pressure indicator 120 to 80 mm Hg. indicates a healthy work of the heart and blood vessels. Such numbers are considered the norm for a middle-aged person. Tonometer with results of pressure 110 to 60 mm Hg. shows a decrease in the upper and lower numbers. Finding out the apparent reasons for the decrease in pressure will help a person determine the need for a cardiologist diagnosis.The article will acquaint the reader with the main causes of low systolic blood pressure.

Systolic and diastolic pressure

The upper (systolic) pressure is an indicator characterizing the blood pressure on the vessels at the time of contraction of the heart muscle, and the lower (diastolic) pressure – during its relaxation. The upper value depends on the strength of myocardial contraction and is proportional to the number of heartbeats.

Two indicators are equally important for the health of the cardiovascular system; a difference of 40-60 mm Hg is allowed between them.Art. Pressure 110 by 60 mm Hg. is within the limits of what is permissible and is considered normal for a particular person in whom such numbers are constant and do not cause unpleasant symptoms. The deviation of the diastolic and systolic indices by 10-15 units is within the normal range.

Symptoms of a low upper rate

Hypotension is genetically predisposed in 10% of the population. A pressure of 110 to 70 for a particular person is an indicator of the norm at which he does not experience unpleasant symptoms.To accurately establish the reduced numbers, it is important to know the indicators of your normal pressure. Changes caused by the influence of external or internal factors are accompanied by:

  • headache;
  • Frequent fatigue;
  • susceptibility to depression;
  • insomnia;
  • nervousness;
  • apathy.

Reduction of the upper figure to 40-60 mm Hg. Art. can be very dangerous and cause fainting.Prolonged unconsciousness can cause death.

Causes not related to diseases

A lowered upper reading is the most common pathology. The reasons for the decrease in upper pressure are sometimes related to the person’s lifestyle:

  • constant overwork of the body;
  • systematic stress;
  • sleep deprivation;
  • first trimester of pregnancy;
  • sudden changes in weather;
  • moving to other climatic conditions;
  • excessive physical activity of workers and athletes.

These factors are the reason for a one-time and periodic failure of pressure, which does not depend on disturbances in the functioning of internal organs. This pressure is restored by normalizing the work and rest regime of a person.

Causes caused by health problems

The systolic index can be reduced by:

  1. Heart failure.
  2. Hormonal disruptions.
  3. Vegetovascular dystonia.
  4. Tachycardia.
  5. Depression.
  6. Arrhythmia.
  7. Diseases of the thyroid gland.
  8. Diabetes mellitus.

In such a situation, it will be possible to restore the blood pressure indicator only after the root cause of hypertension has been treated. The presence of a specific disease is determined by a specialist after carrying out diagnostic measures.

Normalization of indicators

With constant pressure drops, it is necessary to consult a cardiologist or general practitioner for general diagnostics.Most often, treatment is based on prophylactic methods and is rarely supplemented with drug therapy. Help to normalize low blood pressure:

  • caffeine;
  • strong tea;
  • contrast shower;
  • healthy sleep;
  • proper nutrition;
  • morning exercises.

The following drugs are effective:

  • Citramon;
  • “Heptamil”;
  • “Regulton”.

The use of any pills to increase blood pressure should only be done after consultation with the attending cardiologist.

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