Blood pressure stage 2 hypertension: Facts About Hypertension | cdc.gov
Facts About Hypertension | cdc.gov
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Arteries carry blood from your heart to other parts of your body.
Blood pressure normally rises and falls throughout the day, but it can damage your heart and cause health problems if it stays high for a long time. Hypertension, also called high blood pressure, is blood pressure that is higher than normal.
Facts About Hypertension in the United States
In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association published new guidelines for hypertension management and defined high hypertension as a blood pressure at or above 130/80 mmHg. Stage 2 hypertension is defined as a blood pressure at or above 140/90 mmHg. 1
|Blood Pressure Category
|Systolic Blood Pressure
|Diastolic Blood Pressure
- Having hypertension puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the United States. 2
- In 2021, hypertension was a primary or contributing cause of 691,095 deaths in the United States.2
- Nearly half of adults have hypertension (48.1%, 119.9 million), defined as a systolic blood pressure greater than 130 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure greater than 80 mmHg or are taking medication for hypertension.3
- About 1 in 4 adults with hypertension have their hypertension under control (22.5%, 27.0 million).3
- About half of adults (45%) with uncontrolled hypertension have a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher. This includes 37 million U.S. adults. 3
- About 34 million adults who are recommended to take medication may need it to be prescribed and to start taking it. Almost two out of three of this group (19 million) have a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher.3
- High blood pressure costs the United States about $131 billion each year, averaged over 12 years from 2003 to 2014. 4
Rates of High Blood Pressure Control Vary by Sex and Race
Uncontrolled high blood pressure is common; however, certain groups of people are more likely to have control over their high blood pressure than others.
- A greater percentage of men (50%) have high blood pressure than women (44%).3
- High blood pressure is more common in non-Hispanic black adults (56%) than in non-Hispanic white adults (48%), non-Hispanic Asian adults (46%), or Hispanic adults (39%).3
- Among those recommended to take blood pressure medication, blood pressure control is higher among non-Hispanic white adults (32%) than in non-Hispanic black adults (25%), non-Hispanic Asian adults (19%), or Hispanic adults (25%).3
Rates of High Blood Pressure Vary by Geography
High blood pressure is more common in some areas of the United States than in others. Below is a map showing the self-reported rate of hypertension by county. However, this map likely underreports the true effect of hypertension in each state, because about 1 in 5 adults with high blood pressure is unaware of it and would not report having it.5
The map shows that concentrations of counties with the highest hypertension prevalence – meaning the top quintile – are located primarily in Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maine, and Michigan. Pockets of high-rate counties also were found in Florida, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Missouri.
Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke
CDC’s Public Health Efforts Related to High Blood Pressure
- Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke – State Programs (State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases)
- Million Hearts®
Learn More About Hypertension
For more information about high blood pressure, visit the following websites:
- Medline Plus
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- American Heart Association
- Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Collins KJ, Dennison C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults. Hypertension. 2018;71(19):e13–115.
- National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death 2018–2021 on CDC WONDER Database. Accessed February 2, 2023.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension Cascade: Hypertension Prevalence, Treatment and Control Estimates Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 Years and Older Applying the Criteria from the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association’s 2017 Hypertension Guideline—NHANES 2017–2020. Atlanta, GA: May 12, 2023. Accessed July 6, 2023.
- Kirkland EB, Heincelman M, Bishu KG, et. al. Trends in healthcare expenditures among US adults with hypertension: national estimates, 2003-2014. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7:e008731.
- Farley TA, Dalal MA, Mostashari F, Frieden TR. Deaths preventable in the U.S. by improvements in the use of clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(6):600–609.
Understanding Blood Pressure Readings | American Heart Association
What do your blood pressure numbers mean?
The only way to know if you have high blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is to have your blood pressure tested. Understanding your results is key to controlling high blood pressure.
Healthy and unhealthy blood pressure ranges
Learn what is considered normal, as recommended by the American Heart Association.
|BLOOD PRESSURE CATEGORY
|SYSTOLIC mm Hg (upper number)
|DIASTOLIC mm Hg (lower number)
|LESS THAN 120
|LESS THAN 80
|120 – 129
|LESS THAN 80
|HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HYPERTENSION) STAGE 1
|130 – 139
|80 – 89
|HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HYPERTENSION) STAGE 2
|140 OR HIGHER
|90 OR HIGHER
|HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS (consult your doctor immediately)
|HIGHER THAN 180
|HIGHER THAN 120
Note: A diagnosis of high blood pressure must be confirmed with a medical professional. A health care professional should also evaluate any unusually low blood pressure readings.
Download this chart: English Jpeg | English PDF | Spanish Jpeg | Spanish PDF | Traditional Chinese Jpeg | Traditional Chinese (PDF)
Blood pressure categories
The five blood pressure ranges as recognized by the American Heart Association are:
Blood pressure numbers of less than 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) are considered within the normal range. If your results fall into this category, stick with heart-healthy habits like following a balanced diet and getting regular exercise.
Elevated blood pressure is when readings consistently range from 120-129 systolic and less than 80 mm Hg diastolic. People with elevated blood pressure are likely to develop high blood pressure unless steps are taken to control the condition.
Hypertension Stage 1
Hypertension Stage 1 is when blood pressure consistently ranges from 130 to 139 systolic or 80 to 89 mm Hg diastolic. At this stage of high blood pressure, health care professionals are likely to prescribe lifestyle changes and may consider adding blood pressure medication based on your risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, or ASCVD, such as heart attack or stroke.
Hypertension Stage 2
Hypertension Stage 2 is when blood pressure consistently is 140/90 mm Hg or higher. At this stage of high blood pressure, health care professionals are likely to prescribe a combination of blood pressure medications and lifestyle changes.
This stage of high blood pressure requires medical attention. If your blood pressure readings suddenly exceed 180/120 mm Hg, wait five minutes and then test your blood pressure again. If your readings are still unusually high, contact your health care professional immediately. You could be experiencing a hypertensive crisis.
If your blood pressure is higher than 180/120 mm Hg or you are experiencing signs of possible organ damage such as chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness/weakness, change in vision or difficulty speaking, do not wait to see if your pressure comes down on its own. Call 911.
Your blood pressure numbers and what they mean
Your blood pressure is recorded as two numbers:
- Systolic blood pressure (the first number) – indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls when the heart contracts.
- Diastolic blood pressure (the second number) – indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart muscle is resting between contractions.
Which number is more important?
Typically, more attention is given to systolic blood pressure (the first number) as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease for people over 50. In most people, systolic blood pressure rises steadily with age due to the increasing stiffness of large arteries, long-term buildup of plaque and an increased incidence of cardiac and vascular disease.
However, either an elevated systolic or an elevated diastolic blood pressure reading may be used to make a diagnosis of high blood pressure.
Written by American Heart Association editorial staff and reviewed by science and medicine advisors. See our editorial policies and staff.
Last Reviewed: May 30, 2023
Low Blood Pressure – When Blood Pressure Is Too Low
Blood Pressure Versus Heart Rate (Pulse)
Blood Pressure Fact Sheets
Hypertension: stages 1 and 2 and risk 3
- 1 Hypertension: stages, risks and home treatment
- 1.1 Hypertension: what it is
- 1.1.1 Definition
9 0005 1. 1.2 Causes
- 1.1.3 Symptoms
- 1.1.4 Treatment
- 1.1.5 Risk 3
- 1.1 Hypertension: what it is
- 1.2 Definition and summary of essential hypertension
- 1.2.1 Definition:
900 05 1.2.2 Feature:
- 1.3.1 Stages
- 1.3.2 Risk Stage 1
- 1.4.1 What is stage 1 hypertension ?
- 1.4.2 What are the symptoms of stage 1 hypertension?
- 1.4.3 How is stage 1 hypertension defined?
- 1.4.4 What are the possible consequences of not treating stage 1 hypertension?
- 1.5 Hypertension stage 1 stage 2 risk 3: Description stage 2
- 1.5.1 What is stage 2 hypertension?
- 1.5.2 Symptoms of hypertension stage 2
- 1.5.3 Treatment of hypertension stage 2
- 1.5.4 Prognosis of hypertension stage 2
- 1.6 Risk of developing stage 3 hypertension
- 1. 7.1 Increased blood pressure
- 1.7.2 Headache and dizziness
- 1.7.3 Feeling of pulsation in the head and neck
- 1.7.4 Shortness of breath and feeling tired
- 1.7.5 Palpitations and possible heart rhythm disturbances
90 005 1.7 Symptoms of hypertension
- 1.9.1 Sleep and memory disorders
- 1.9.2 Headache and dizziness
- 1.9.3 Vision and tinnitus
90 005 1.9.4 Enhanced blood pressure
- 1.10.1 Drug therapy
- 1.10.2 Life style and diet
- 1.10.3 Blood pressure control
- 220.127.116.11 What is hypertension?
- 18.104.22.168 What are the symptoms of hypertension stage 2 risk 3?
- 22.214.171.124 How is hypertension diagnosed?
- 126.96.36.199 What are the causes of hypertension?
- 1. 12.0.5 How is hypertension stage 1 risk 3 treated?
- 188.8.131.52 What are the consequences of stage 2 risk 3 hypertension?
- 1.14.1 Principles of drug treatment
- 1.14.2 Prescribing and monitoring drug treatment
Learn all about hypertension stage 1 and 2 and the risk 3. What are the symptoms, causes and treatment? Read on our website!
Hypertension is a common disease among the inhabitants of the country. It can lead to serious complications if you do not consult a doctor in time. The main cause of this disease is an increase in blood pressure, which can disrupt the function of the heart and blood vessels.
Hypertension refers to chronic diseases and is classified into several degrees depending on the level of increase in blood pressure. In modern medicine, there are three degrees of hypertension and several stages of risk.
In this article, we will look at the first and second stages of hypertension, as well as the third stage of risk, to help people who have experienced this disease better understand its features and take the right measures to treat and prevent possible complications.
Hypertension: what it is
Essential hypertension (arterial hypertension) is a chronic disease in which blood pressure is constantly elevated to a level above 140/90 mmHg. Art.
In the early stages, the disease may be asymptomatic, but later on, headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, blurred vision, fatigue and neuralgia may occur.
Treatment for hypertension includes medication, regular monitoring of blood pressure, and lifestyle changes that include proper nutrition, moderate physical activity, and stress avoidance.
Hypertension stage 1 or stage 2 risk 3 means that the patient has a high risk of complications associated with the disease, such as heart attack, stroke, and organ damage.
Definition and brief characteristics of hypertension
Hypertension (AH) is a chronic disease characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) above normal. In most cases, patients do not pay attention to the increasing pressure, but over time this leads to serious complications.
As a rule, hypertension lasts for a long time, without symptoms or little noticeable symptoms, but gradually and steadily increases the level of blood pressure. According to the modern classification, hypertension can be divided into several stages depending on the height of pressure and the presence of complications. The stages of hypertension are determined on the basis of an analysis of the level of blood pressure and additional studies, such as measuring glucose and cholesterol in the blood, ECG and ultrasound examination of organs.
- Stage 1: BP 140-159 / 90-99 mmHg without complications.
- Stage 2: BP 160-179 / 100-109 mmHg with complications.
- Stage 3: BP from 180 / 110 mmHg. with serious complications.
Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, circulatory disorders in the kidneys and eyes, vascular dysfunction and aneurysms. Fortunately, hypertension can be successfully managed with modern medications, a healthy lifestyle, and BP control.
Stages and risk of developing hypertension
Hypertension is a disease that develops in stages. There are several stages of hypertension. At the first stage, blood pressure rises to a value of 140/90 mm Hg. In the second stage, the pressure is above 160/100 mm Hg. At the third stage, the pressure reaches 180/110 mm Hg. At each subsequent stage of hypertension, the risk of serious complications increases.
One of the indicators of hypertension is the risk of developing cardiovascular complications. The risk depends on several factors – the stage of hypertension, age, the presence of other diseases, lifestyle and heredity.
In the first stage of hypertension, the risk of complications is minimal, in the second stage the risk increases, and in the third stage it increases significantly. The risk of complications also increases in the presence of factors such as smoking, malnutrition, prolonged exposure to stressful situations, and heredity.
It is important to remember that hypertension requires constant monitoring and treatment, even if the risk of complications is currently low. Irregular treatment can lead to the development of serious complications that can be life threatening.
Stage 1 hypertension Stage 2 risk 3: Stage 1 description
What is stage 1 hypertension?
Stage 1 hypertension is the initial stage of high blood pressure when the values do not exceed 140/90 mmHg. But even at this stage, changes in the body are already taking place, which in the long run can lead to serious health problems.
What are the symptoms of stage 1 hypertension?
At this stage of hypertension, there may be no symptoms, but sometimes patients may complain of: headaches, fatigue, dizziness, palpitations and sleep disturbances.
How is stage 1 hypertension defined?
Repeat blood pressure measurements over several weeks are used to diagnose stage 1 hypertension. Normal blood pressure is repeated twice at different times of the day while monitoring pressure throughout the day. A slight increase in blood cholesterol levels may also be found.
What are the possible consequences of not treating stage 1 hypertension?
Although symptoms may be mild at this stage, if left untreated, complications can result, such as damage to organs, including the heart, brain, and kidneys. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat stage 1 hypertension in a timely manner to prevent serious consequences.
Hypertension stage 1 stage 2 risk 3: Description stage 2
What is stage 2 hypertension?
Stage 2 hypertension is a serious disease in which blood pressure rises to 160-179 mmHg. (systolic) and / or up to 100-109 mm Hg. (diastolic). At the same time, the work of many body systems is disrupted, and the risk of complications increases.
Symptoms of hypertension stage 2
Symptoms of hypertension stage 2 can manifest themselves in a variety of ways. These may include headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, decreased performance, poor sleep, and visual disturbances. Some people may not experience any symptoms but still have high blood pressure.
Treatment of stage 2 hypertension
Treatment of stage 2 hypertension should begin with lifestyle and dietary changes. Patients should stop smoking, drinking large doses of alcohol, begin to engage in physical activity, and control their weight. In addition, drug therapy may be prescribed – drugs that lower blood pressure and protect against complications. Treatment should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor who determines an individual approach and chooses the most effective methods.
Prognosis of stage 2 hypertension
The prognosis of stage 2 hypertension depends on many factors – the magnitude of pressure, the presence of concomitant diseases, the age and lifestyle of the patient. If the disease is detected at an early stage, and the patient follows the recommendations of the doctor, then the prognosis may be favorable. However, without control and proper treatment, stage 2 hypertension can lead to serious complications such as heart attack, stroke, and problems with the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Stage 3 hypertension risk
Hypertension is a chronic disease that can lead to serious health consequences such as stroke, heart attack and kidney disease. With the development of hypertension, three stages of the disease often occur, and the risk of developing stage 3 hypertension is the most dangerous.
The risk of developing stage 3 hypertension increases with delayed treatment or ignoring the initial symptoms of the disease, such as headache, palpitations, fatigue. This is due to the fact that stage 3 is characterized by an increasing dysfunction of the heart, blood vessels and kidneys, which leads to irreversible consequences for the body.
It is important to remember that the risk of developing stage 3 hypertension can be reduced with regular monitoring of blood pressure, proper treatment, healthy lifestyle and habit changes that can lead to high blood pressure.
- Reduced dietary intake of salt and animal fats;
- Increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and green foods;
- Smoking cessation;
- Moderate physical activity;
- Timely treatment of other diseases that contribute to the development of hypertension (diabetes, obesity, metabolic disorders).
Thus, the risk of developing stage 3 hypertension can be reduced with improved blood pressure control, timely medical attention, proper treatment, and changing habits that promote a healthy lifestyle.
Symptoms of hypertension
High blood pressure
The most important symptom of hypertension is constantly high blood pressure. It can be detected by measuring pressure with a tonometer and must be controlled.
Headache and dizziness
One of the most common symptoms of hypertension is headache, which can occur in the back of the head, as well as in the forehead and temples. Dizziness is also common, especially when changing body position or after physical exertion.
Pulsating sensation in the head and neck
Pulsating sensation in the head and neck is possible, which can also become symptoms of hypertension. The sensation of pulsation may be due to an overreaction to an increase in blood pressure.
Shortness of breath and feeling tired
Hypertension can cause shortness of breath, which manifests itself during physical exertion or even at rest. It is also possible to feel tired and weak, which can be caused by a decrease in the quality of sleep or a metabolic disorder.
Palpitations and possible heart rhythm disturbances
Possible heart palpitations and also heart rhythm disturbances such as extrasystoles and atrial fibrillation. They can be caused by excessive excitations of the nervous system or myocardial ischemia.
How to determine the presence of hypertension?
Hypertension is common among people over 40 years of age. Signs of hypertension can vary, so it is important to know which symptoms may indicate the development of this disease.
- Constant increase in blood pressure. Here it is important to know your blood pressure standards and monitor its performance.
- Headaches, often localized in the occipital region.
- Dizziness, feeling of weakness and fatigue.
- Pain in the heart (chest), interruptions in the heart.
- Edema of the lower extremities, morning swelling of the face.
If you suspect that you have hypertension, be sure to consult your doctor. It is important to remember that early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension helps to avoid serious complications of the disease and maintain health.
In addition to a visit to the doctor, blood pressure measurements at home with a tonometer and monitoring of diet and lifestyle can be signs of hypertension. It is important to give up bad habits, monitor weight and physical activity, and maintain a healthy daily routine.
Manifestation of hypertension stage 1 or 2 risk 3: main symptoms
Sleep and memory disorders
One of the first symptoms of hypertension is sleep disturbance, which can manifest itself as insomnia or drowsiness during the day. There may also be problems with memory, concentration and orientation in space.
Headache and dizziness
Patients with hypertension may often complain of headache, which can be severe and prolonged. Dizziness may also be present, especially with changes in body position.
Vision and tinnitus
Hypertensive patients may experience visual disturbances such as dilated pupils, diplopia or redness of the eyeballs. Often, patients also complain of tinnitus, which occurs due to circulatory disorders in the vessels of the brain.
High blood pressure
And, of course, one of the main symptoms of hypertension is a constant increase in blood pressure, which can reach very high levels. This symptom requires immediate intervention and treatment.
If you experience any of these symptoms, please see your doctor. Hypertension is not able to be cured by itself and requires complex treatment and constant monitoring by specialists.
Treatment of hypertension
There are many drugs for the treatment of hypertension, but the choice of a particular drug depends on the degree of hypertension, the presence of comorbidities and the individual patient. Usually, one drug is given to start treatment and then others are added as needed. Treatment should only be carried out under the supervision of a physician, as too high a dosage can be harmful to health.
Drugs used in hypertension may include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium antagonists, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors, and others.
Life style and diet
In addition to drug therapy, it is important to take care of your overall health. It is necessary to monitor your weight, do not smoke, limit alcohol consumption and exercise regularly. In addition, you should monitor your diet: eat less salt, limit the intake of fatty and fried foods, increase the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains in the diet.
In addition, it is recommended to include in the diet foods that help lower blood pressure, such as watermelons, cherries, low-sugar chocolate, nuts and some spices.
Blood pressure monitoring
To control your blood pressure, it is recommended that you measure your blood pressure regularly at home and record the results. This will help to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and take timely measures in case of deterioration. It is also important to regularly visit a doctor and undergo the necessary examinations.
In hypertension stage 1 and 2, risk 3, it is important not to delay treatment, as this can lead to serious consequences. With the right drug therapy and lifestyle changes, most patients successfully control their condition.
What is hypertension?
Hypertension is a disorder of blood pressure, in which it is elevated for a long time. This is due to disorders of the heart and blood vessels.
What are the symptoms of hypertension stage 2 risk 3?
Symptoms of stage 2 risk 3 hypertension may include headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, palpitations, sweating, headache, fatigue. However, in many cases this stage of the disease is asymptomatic.
How is hypertension diagnosed?
Blood pressure must be measured to diagnose hypertension. Additional tests, such as ECG, echocardiography, blood and urine tests, may be done to confirm the diagnosis.
What are the causes of hypertension?
Hypertension can be associated with many factors, such as heredity, age, bad habits, poor diet, lack of physical activity, metabolic disorders, etc.
How is stage 1 risk 3 hypertension treated?
The treatment of hypertension includes lifestyle changes (elimination of bad habits, proper nutrition, physical activity), the use of drugs to reduce pressure and control its indicators. Regular blood pressure monitoring is also recommended.
What are the consequences of hypertension stage 2 risk 3?
Consequences of hypertension stage 2 risk 3 may include serious disorders of the heart and blood vessels, heart attack, stroke, kidney damage, etc. Therefore, it is important to start treatment and control blood pressure in a timely manner.
Non-drug treatments for hypertension
Proper nutrition is one of the key methods of non-drug therapy for hypertension. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, fish, low-fat meats, low-fat dairy products are recommended. It is important to reduce your intake of salt, fatty meats, sugar, and foods high in cholesterol. In addition, potassium-rich foods such as beans, nuts, potatoes, and bananas are helpful.
Regular exercise such as walking, swimming, cycling, yoga helps improve circulation, reduce weight and lower blood pressure. Before starting classes, it is recommended to consult a doctor and start with a gradual increase in load.
Quit bad habits
Some bad habits, such as drinking alcohol and smoking, can increase your risk of developing hypertension and make it more difficult. Therefore, it is recommended to abandon these habits and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Stress can lead to high blood pressure, so it is important to learn how to control your emotional state. To do this, you can use various methods, such as meditation, yoga, deep breathing, massage and other relaxation techniques.
Drug treatment of hypertension stage 1 stage 2 risk 3
Principles of drug treatment
Treatment of hypertension stage 1 stage 2 risk 3 is a long process and includes medication, diet, regular physical activity and control of blood pressure.
The main principle of drug treatment is to reduce blood pressure to target values: less than 130/80 mm Hg. Art. for many patients and less than 120/70 mm Hg. Art. for some.
Various classes of antihypertensive drugs are used to treat hypertension stage 1 stage 2 risk 3: thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, AT1 receptor blockers, and others. The choice of drugs depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and concomitant diseases.
Prescribing and monitoring drug treatment
Drug treatment is prescribed by a doctor and selected individually for each patient. When prescribing medicines, the doctor takes into account age, gender, weight, the presence of concomitant diseases and other factors.
Monitoring the effectiveness of drug treatment is carried out by regularly measuring the patient’s blood pressure, as well as analyzing adverse effects and changes in health status.
It is important to remember that discontinuation of the medication may have the opposite effect and worsen the patient’s health. You should always strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations and do not change the dosage or regimen of medication on your own.
degrees and symptoms to be aware of
Hypertension is often asymptomatic and is detected already in the second stage, when the blood vessels, heart and kidneys are affected. How to recognize it in time and what to do in case of sudden anxiety conditions – read our article.
What can be the pressure in hypertension
Arterial hypertension is diagnosed with a persistent rise in systolic pressure above 139 mm Hg. column or persistent rise in diastolic pressure above 89 mm. rt. Art. If at rest such numbers are registered twice or more, this is a clear symptom of the disease and a reason to contact a cardiologist.
There are three degrees of hypertension – depending on the level of blood pressure:
In the first degree, it is possible to reduce pressure without medication, if you consult a doctor in time and change your lifestyle.
With the second degree of arterial hypertension, lifestyle correction and prescription of drugs are mandatory. At pressures above 160/100 mm Hg. Art. blood vessels, heart and kidneys work at maximum load – this is fraught with hypertensive crises, heart and kidney failure.
Pressure above 180/110 mm Hg. Art. – a direct risk of heart attack and stroke, with this degree of the disease, combination therapy with several drugs is prescribed.
How to suspect hypertension
To detect the symptoms of the disease in time, people over 40 years old, as well as everyone who suffers from chronic heart disease, are advised to measure their blood pressure daily, at least once a day. You need to do this at the same time of the day, being in a calm state. After physical, emotional stress, smoking and drinking coffee, at least half an hour should pass. In the cold season, before measuring pressure, you need to stay 10 minutes in a warm room.
According to the recommendation of the European Society for Arterial Hypertension, at a doctor’s appointment, blood pressure should be measured three times, with an interval of 1-2 minutes. This helps to reveal the hidden course of the disease or to determine “white coat hypertension” – an unreasonable increase in pressure in a hospital setting.
When pressure must be measured
Sudden palpitations at rest (in the absence of exercise, stress and negative thoughts).
Continuous arrhythmia (heart rhythm failure).
Shortness of breath.
Prolonged pain in the chest (particularly in front of the breastbone), which is aggravated by physical exertion.
Buzzing in the ears and head, especially when combined with sensation of pain in the pinna.
Panic attack – a state of inexplicable panic for no apparent reason, often accompanied by arrhythmia, palpitations, a feeling of heat, chills, or their alternate change, may be a sign of a hypertensive crisis.
Combination of any of these symptoms with dizziness or epistaxis.
The listed signs can indicate hypertension at any age, as well as a hidden increase in pressure.
Arterial hypertension – signs and symptoms emergency
Chest pain, especially burning, pressing or dagger, and also radiating to the shoulder or jaw, is a possible sign that there is not enough oxygen supplied to the heart and part of the heart muscle may die, causing a heart attack.
Numbness of limbs or loss of their mobility (complete or partial).
Loss of visual fields, disruption of coherent speech, facial asymmetry is one of the main signs of a stroke.
Loss of orientation in space or sudden memory lapses – both can be a sign of insufficient blood supply to the brain, which also leads to a stroke.
For any of these symptoms, you need to call an ambulance
Things to do before the doctor arrives:
to provide the patient with immobility, if possible, calm emotionally;
help to assume a comfortable posture – for example, half-sitting or with a raised head;
open a window, ventilate the room for fresh air access – stuffiness is harmful due to lack of oxygen.