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Blood sugar of 139: Blood Sugar Chart | What is Normal Blood Glucose?


Blood Sugar Chart | What is Normal Blood Glucose?

What is Blood Sugar?

Blood sugar, or blood glucose is the main source of sugar found in your blood, and comes from the food you eat. If you are monitoring your blood sugar, it is important to keep these numbers in check according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). 

Your blood sugar needs to be in the right range for you to be healthy. At least some glucose is necessary for your muscle, liver, and some other cells to use as fuel so they can function. A blood sugar chart can help you remember which levels you should opt for.

Too much or too little glucose, though, is dangerous. Too little sugar, or hypoglycemia, can make you weak or even lead to loss of consciousness. On the other hand, hyperglycemia, or too much glucose in your blood, can also become an emergency or lead to larger diabetes complications according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

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Different Levels and What They Mean

The ranges of safe levels of blood glucose depend on factors such as what time of day it is and when you last ate. Safe levels of blood sugar are high enough to supply your organs with the sugar they need, but low enough to prevent symptoms of hyperglycemia or complications of diabetes which follow the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) guides. Dangerous levels of blood glucose are outside of this range.

The target levels can also vary if you have diabetes. For example, if you are diabetic and are monitoring your blood sugar, you might get a reading of 65 mg/dl. That is considered to be mild hypoglycemia, and you would be wise to eat 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates and retest your blood sugar in 15 minutes. 

If you were not diabetic, you probably would not know that your sugar was low because you would not test and because you would not symptoms, and you would not act.

That is fine because your body is capable, under normal circumstances, of raising your blood glucose to healthy levels when needed, even if you have not eaten. It is important to keep them in control to help prevent issues like heart disease or nerve damage.

Looking for the best prediabetes diet? Learn what foods are best to help you manage your prediabetes.


What is the Normal Range for Blood Sugar?

You might want to measure your blood sugar before meals to get a baseline, and then two hours after your meal to measure your “normal blood sugar level”. Your doctor might also suggest measuring blood sugar before bed to be sure you have been eating well throughout the day and can go to sleep with peace of mind.

These are considered within the range of “normal”:

  • Less than 140 mg/dl if you do not have diabetes.
  • Less than 180 mg/dl if you have diabetes.

Levels in the Morning

The best time to check blood sugar levels in the morning is right when you wake up and before you eat anything. This gives you a glimpse of what may be happening overnight, and it gives you a baseline for the day.

These are goal levels, according to The Joslin Diabetes Center:

  • Under 70 mg/dl if you do not have diabetes.
  • 70 to 130 mg/dl if you have diabetes.

The dawn effect can often lead to a high morning measurement in diabetes. This is your body’s tendency to get ready for the day by raising blood sugar by increasing levels of counter-regulatory hormones – the ones that counteract insulin as in normal blood sugar. For people with diabetes, you do not have the capacity to counterbalance this rise in blood sugar, so levels can be dangerously high.

Ways to lower your morning blood sugar value include:

Levels After You’ve Eaten (2 Hours)

Many foods have types of carbohydrates called starches and sugars. When you eat foods with these types of carbohydrates, your body breaks them down into glucose, which is a type of simple sugar, and releases the glucose into your bloodstream. Aside from glucose produced by your liver, food is the main source of plasma glucose.

Two hours after eating, your blood sugar levels rise. They rise more when you eat more carbohydrates, when you do not eat fiber, fat, or protein with your carbs, and when you eat certain types of carbohydrates, such as refined sugars and starches.

These are target values from The Joslin Diabetes Center, which include levels for people with diabetes:

When Measured Goals for Healthy Adults Goals with Diabetes

Before lunch, dinner, or a snack

Less than 110 mg/dl

70-130 mg/dl

2 hours after you eat

Less than 140 mg/dl

Less than 180 mg/dl

Before bedtime

Less than 120 mg/dl

90-150 mg/dl

Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

The NIDDK states that gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that occurs during pregnancy if you were not diabetic before getting pregnant. Healthy blood sugar during pregnancy can help lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later. It can also lower the risk of your baby being born prematurely, at a high birth weight, and having respiratory problems.

Blood sugar and insulin levels during the first trimester of pregnancy tend to be lower than usual, but they rise during the late second and early third trimesters. You can be diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). [7]

These are the steps for the 2-step strategy.

  • Drink a solution with 50 grams (200 calories) of glucose – about the amount in 1 16-oz. bottle of a soft drink.
  • Get your blood drawn after 1 hour. IF the value is high, retest…
  • Fast overnight.
  • Drink a solution with 100 grams (400 calories) of glucose – about the amount in 12 peanut butter cups.
  • Get your blood drawn immediately and after 1, 2, and 3 hours.

Or, your doctor might use the 1-step strategy with a 2-hour OGTT.

  • Fast overnight.
  • Drink a solution with 75 grams of glucose (300 calories – about the amount in 2 cans of soda).
  • Get your blood drawn immediately and after 1 and 2 hours.

These are some values to know from NIDKK related to gestational diabetes and healthy blood sugar in pregnancy.

Time or Situation Blood Sugar Values  
Diagnosis – 1-hour OGTT


Any of the following are indicative of gestational diabetes.

Fasting: 92 mg/dl
1 hour: at least 180 mg/dl
2 hours: at least 153 mg/dl


Diagnosis – 2-hour OGTT


Getting 2 or more of the values shown is indicative of gestational diabetes.

Baseline: at least 95 mg/dl
1 hour: at least 180 mg/dl
2 hours: at least 155 mg/dl
3 hours: at least 140 mg/dl

(Alternative Method)
Baseline: at least 105 mg/dl
1 hour: at least 190 mg/dl
2 hours: at least 165 mg/dl
3 hours: at least 145 mg/dl

Hemoglobin Chart

Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein in your red blood cells, but it is highly relevant to blood sugar levels. Sugar in your blood attaches to hemoglobin, creating what is called glycated hemoglobin, or A1c (or Hba1c). High blood glucose levels lead to more hemoglobin being glycated.

Measuring your A1C is an alternative to measuring fasting blood glucose. Measuring blood glucose directly with a finger prick (glucometer) or a blood draw at your doctor’s office lets you know your blood sugar at that moment, while the A1c value you get provides an estimate of your average blood sugar levels over the past 3 months.

For example, if your A1c value is 7.8 (a reading between 140-199 mg/dl) would be considered high.

Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C or Hba1c) Value Estimated Average Glucose (EAG)

5.6% (Highest “normal” value)

114 mg/dl

5.7% (Prediabetes)

117 mg/dl


126 mg/dl

6.4% (Diabetes)

137 mg/dl

7% (Goal in diabetes)

154 mg/dl


183 mg/dl


212 mg/dl


240 mg/dl


Printable Blood Sugar Chart

A blood sugar chart showing goal values can help you quickly gauge how you are doing with your monitoring. This chart shows what to aim for throughout the day if you have diabetes or not. [9]

Time and Situation Goal for Non-Diabetics Goal for Diabetics

First thing in the morning (fasting
before breakfast)

< 100 mg/dl

70 – 130 mg/dl

Before lunch, dinner, and snacks

< 110 mg/dl

70 – 130 mg/dl

Two hours after starting to eat a meal or snack

< 140 mg/dl

< 180 mg/dl

Before going to bed

< 120 mg/dl

90- 150 mg/dl


You can also click here for a printable blood sugar chart showing target values at different times of the day for diabetics and non-diabetics.

Blood Sugar Level Chart by Age

Blood sugar levels tend to rise with age due to an increase in insulin resistance and decrease in insulin sensitivity. In one study by the National Health Institute (NIH), each extra decade of age was linked to a 2.7 mg/dl increase in fasting glucose, and a 4.5 mg/dl increase in 2-hour post-prandial (post-meal) glucose levels.

How to Reduce Blood Sugar 

You can take steps to reach your blood sugar goals as soon as you find out that it is high. This is how to reduce blood sugar if you have a single high reading that may be dangerous:

  • Ask your doctor what to do if you missed a dose of insulin or another diabetes medication
  • Ask your doctor if your medication types and doses are still appropriate for you
  • Drink water to dilute the sugar
  • Exercise (if safe) for 15 minutes
  • Eat a small protein snack, such as a hard-boiled egg, ½ ounce of peanuts or pistachios or other nuts, ½ cup of beans, or ½ cup of plain yogurt or cottage cheese

If you have chronically high blood sugar in prediabetes or diabetes, you can follow this treatment plan:

  • Exercise regularly, assuming your doctor approves it.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight or obese.
  • Eat a higher proportion of vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, healthy fats, and fruit.
  • Limit sugary foods and beverages, fried foods, refined starches, and processed and fatty red meats.
  • Beware of starchy vegetables such as sweet potatoes, which can spike your blood sugar. Check out our guide of which veggies to avoid!

Glycemic Index Calculator

If you have been tested, then what? A blood sugar level calculator can help you put the results into terms you can understand after you have used a glucose meter. For example, it can convert mg/dl into mmol, or mmol into mg/dl, depending on which value your test results state for glucose levels. A calculator can also change A1C into EAG, or estimated average glucose.

Calculate yours with the American Diabetes Association‘s calculator.

Fasting Blood Glucose Level Test Preparation

What should you do if your doctor orders a fasting blood sugar test? The preparation is the same as when you take a fasting test for cholesterol. First, be sure to find out if you need to schedule an appointment for your test (some people need to; others have providers that do not require an appointment for blood tests). Ask your doctor what time is best to take it.

Then: [11]

  • Schedule your test if necessary.
  • Ask your doctor if you need to change any of the medications you take on the morning of the test.
  • If you normally drink coffee or have caffeine, ask your doctor if that is okay. It may not be, since it affects blood sugar levels.
  • Fast for at least 8 hours before your test. Usually, an overnight fast is most convenient. 
  • You can drink water.


How to Check Your Blood Sugar Levels of Urine at Home

A home urine test can show if you are excreting glucose in your urine. That only happens when blood glucose is high, and not if your values are within a healthy range. The urine test uses a test strip and is simple to do, but is not very precise. 

Blood Glucose Tests

Blood tests are more common urine tests for measuring blood sugar. They are precise, quick, and not overly painful. A blood-testing machine is also called a glucometer. It is not being overly dramatic to say that a good home glucometer can be life-saving if you have diabetes, since monitoring with a blood sugar chart is one of the top strategies for controlling it.

A good home glucometer:

  • Is simple, fast, and accurate.
  • Is easy to set up and use.
  • Pairs with a diabetes smartphone app so you can see your values instantly, track them over time, and get coaching and feedback.

Lark Diabetes Coach comes with a complete home glucometer kit that is shipped to you and is easy to set up. The Lark app walks you through setup and reminds you when to take your blood sugar.

Last updated: December 30th, 2020

What should my blood sugar level be?

Blood glucose levels are the amount of glucose that someone has in their blood at any given time. Having high or low blood sugar levels could indicate an underlying health condition that may require medical attention. Use this overview of normal blood glucose levels to understand what your blood sugar levels mean. 

What are normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals?  

Blood sugar levels can either be normal, high, or low, depending on how much glucose someone has in their bloodstream. Glucose is a simple sugar that’s present in the bloodstream at all times. Normal blood glucose levels can be measured when someone fasts, eats, or after they’ve eaten. A normal blood glucose level for adults, without diabetes, who haven’t eaten for at least eight hours (fasting) is less than 100 mg/dL. A normal blood glucose level for adults, without diabetes, two hours after eating is 90 to 110 mg/dL.   

Many factors affect blood sugar levels throughout the day:

  • Type of food consumed, how much, and when
  • Physical activity
  • Medications
  • Medical conditions
  • Age
  • Stress
  • Dehydration
  • Illness
  • Menstrual periods 
  • Alcohol 

An ideal blood sugar level for anyone without diabetes or prediabetes, regardless of age, in the morning should be less than 100 mg/dL. Remember, blood sugar levels can fluctuate throughout the day as a result of the factors previously mentioned.   

Blood sugar level charts for those with diabetes

Normal blood sugar levels, for those with diabetes, will vary depending on someone’s age and the time of day. Let’s take a look at what blood sugar levels should be, in those with diabetes, based on their age.  

Normal blood sugar levels in children

Fasting 80-180
Before meal 100-180
1-2 hours after eating ~180
Bedtime  110-200

Children under 6 years of age should have blood glucose levels that range from about 80 to 200 mg/dL each day. This range is considered healthy, and the amount of glucose in a child’s body will fluctuate from the time they wake up to after they’ve eaten meals and again before bedtime. For this reason, kids with diabetes or hypoglycemic episodes may have to have their blood sugar levels tested in the middle of the night by their parents. 

Normal blood sugar levels for adolescents

Fasting 80-180
Before meal 90-180
1-2 hours after eating Up to 140
Bedtime  100-180

Kids aged 6 to 12 should have blood sugar levels that range between 80 to 180 mg/dL over the course of a day. Blood sugar levels go up after eating a meal because the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then distributed throughout the bloodstream. To keep a child’s blood sugar from rising too much before bedtime, especially if they have diabetes, try limiting snacks before they go to sleep. 

RELATED: Sleepover tips for children with diabetes

Normal blood sugar levels for teens

Fasting 70-150
Before meal 90-130
1-2 hours after eating Up to 140
Bedtime  90-150

Teenagers should have average blood sugar levels that range between 70 to 150 mg/dL over the course of their day. Teenage years can often be the most difficult for adolescents with diabetes to manage because managing diabetes requires responsibility and behavior control that’s not typical for most teenagers. Teenagers should aim to keep their blood sugar levels between 70 to 150 mg/dL throughout the day by watching what they eat, exercising, and taking their diabetes medications if they have any.    

Normal blood sugar levels for adults

Fasting Less than 100
Before meal 70-130
1-2 hours after eating Less than 180
Bedtime  100-140

Adults who are 20 years or older will have blood sugar levels that range between less than 100-180 mg/dL over the course of a day. When you wake up in the morning, your fasting blood sugar should be at its lowest because you haven’t consumed food for about eight hours. If you’re an adult and struggling with glucose control, your healthcare provider can help you develop a treatment plan to manage your blood sugar better.   

Blood glucose levels outside the ranges listed above are categorized as either high or low blood sugar. Blood sugar levels are considered high if they’re over 130 mg/dL before a meal or 180 mg/dL within one to two hours after a meal. Many people won’t start to experience symptoms from high blood sugar until their levels are at 250 mg/dL or higher. The highest blood sugar level that’s considered safe will depend on the person and whether they have diabetes, but will typically be between 160 to 240 mg/dL. 

Low blood sugar symptoms

Hypoglycemia happens when blood glucose levels drop too low. Low blood sugar can be caused by many things including the two different types of diabetes, certain medications, alcohol, endocrine disorders, eating disorders, pregnancy (gestational diabetes), and disorders of the liver, kidneys, or heart.

Here are some of the most common symptoms that someone with low blood sugar might experience:  

  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Irritability
  • Shakiness
  • Nervousness
  • Anxiety
  • Chills
  • Sweating
  • Clamminess
  • Having a fast heart rate
  • Pale skin
  • Hunger
  • Sleepiness
  • Fainting
  • Tingling lips  

If your blood sugar is low you might start to feel some of the first signs of hypoglycemia like dizziness, lightheadedness, or sweating. The only way to know for sure if your blood sugar is low is to test it with a glucose meter or other glucose monitoring device. 

If you don’t have access to these tools and start to feel the symptoms of low blood sugar, consume 15 grams of carbs or take a quick dissolve glucose tablet to raise your blood sugar levels and avoid further symptoms, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Once your blood sugar is back in its target range, you can have a snack or meal to make sure it doesn’t drop again.    

Here are some other lifestyle and medicinal treatments that can help treat hypoglycemia:

  • Eat a healthy diet full of whole foods that are minimally processed. 
  • Take prediabetes or diabetes medications as recommended by your healthcare provider.  
  • Use a glucagon kit in emergencies. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels quickly.  

High blood sugar symptoms

Hyperglycemia is the medical term for high blood sugar. Hyperglycemia happens when the body doesn’t have enough insulin or when it can’t use insulin correctly. Many things can cause high blood glucose levels like Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, stress, illness, or the dawn phenomenon. If you have hyperglycemia or suspect you may have it, talking with a healthcare provider is always a good idea. A doctor can help you determine what’s causing your high blood sugar levels and lower it to a healthy range.    

Here are some of the most common symptoms that may indicate hyperglycemia: 

  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Headaches
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss  

Untreated hyperglycemia can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is where the body creates waste products called ketones that can build up in the blood and become life-threatening. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include: 

  • Abdominal pain
  • Presence of ketones
  • Vomiting 
  • Exhaustion 
  • Vision loss (in rare cases)  

You should seek immediate medical attention if your blood sugar reaches 400 mg/dL or higher.     

“When patients experience any of these accompanied by elevated blood sugar levels, diabetic patients are advised to go directly to the ER to avoid diabetes-induced coma,” says Vikram Tarugu, MD, a gastroenterologist and the CEO of Detox of South Florida. “Patients who have elevated blood sugar may also present with frothy, ketone-like smelling breath.”

Here are some lifestyle changes and medical treatments that can help treat hyperglycemia:    

  • Eat whole, low sugar foods that are minimally processed to keep the amount of glucose in the body at a lower level. 
  • Only exercise if there are no ketones present in the bloodstream. You can check if you have ketones with a urine test or blood glucose meter. 
  • Drink lots of water to help your body get rid of sugar in your urine.  
  • Adjust your insulin. Your healthcare provider can help you determine the correct insulin dosages when your blood sugar goes up or down.  
  • Take medications as per your healthcare provider’s recommendations. Some of the most commonly prescribed medications for high blood sugar are Metformin HCl, Glipizide, and Glyburide.

When to see a healthcare provider

Getting professional medical advice from a healthcare provider like an endocrinologist is the best way to learn more about whether your blood sugar levels are where they should be. Not getting proper treatment for low or high blood sugar levels can be serious and lead to health complications, especially for those with diabetes. Diabetes complications include nerve damage, kidney disease, heart disease, or heart attacks.  

If you see a healthcare provider about your blood sugar levels, be prepared to answer questions about risk factors like what you eat, how much you exercise, and about your family history. Some healthcare providers may want to take a blood sample to test your blood sugar levels. They may also order an A1C test, which is a blood test that measures blood sugar levels over several months. You may have to fast eight hours beforehand to get accurate test results, so it’s always a good idea to check before your appointment.        

If your blood sugar level goes above 250 mg/dL, you should go to the ER for immediate medical attention, says Dr. Tarugu. Emergency rooms are equipped to handle high blood sugar levels and can administer treatments like insulin therapy and fluid or electrolyte replacement.         

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

According to the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) 2019 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, you have diabetes if your blood glucose after fasting (and before a meal) is 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher; if 2 hours after a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) it is 200 mg/dL or higher; or your A1C is 6.5 or higher. (6)

Hemoglobin A1C Test

The A1C test can be used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes, notes the Cleveland Clinic. (7) “Because it is a measure of the patient’s average blood sugar over the previous three months, it gives much more information than simply getting a few blood sugar readings on the spot, and is useful as an initial baseline as the patient gets treated,” says Rettinger. A 6.5 or higher result on two separate days is in the range of diabetes, while a result of 5.7 to 6.4 is in the prediabetes range.

How often you are tested once you receive a diagnosis depends on a number of factors. Typically, if you have prediabetes, you will be tested once a year. If you have type 2 diabetes, you will often be tested twice a year — though that might go up to four times a year if you use insulin to manage your blood sugar or if you otherwise have trouble stabilizing your blood sugar, notes Mayo Clinic. (8)

Keep in mind that the A1C test is not accurate in people who have anemia. Additionally, people of Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, or African descent may have results that are falsely high or low because they have less common forms (variants) of hemoglobin in their blood, according to the NIDDK. (9)

For instance, people of African descent are more likely than those in other groups to have a hemoglobin variant that carries the sickle cell trait, per the NIDDK. (10) That variant also gives falsely low A1C readings, according to a February 2017 retrospective cohort study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (11)

There are other tests to diagnose diabetes besides A1C. After taking a medical history, which would determine any family incidence of the disease, your doctor may also order the following lab tests to measure your blood glucose levels. A healthcare professional can make a diagnosis based on two abnormal test results from the same blood sample or two separate results from different dates. (6)

The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

This test is conducted in the doctor’s office on blood drawn after an eight-hour fast with no food or drink, except water. The blood is normally drawn in the morning before you have eaten breakfast. According to the American Diabetes Association, your will be diagnosed based on the following: (12)

  • Normal blood sugar: less than 100 mg/dL
  • Prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose): from 100 to 125 mg/dL
  • Diabetes: 126 mg/dL or higher

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

The OGTT test is another diabetes test performed after you haven’t eaten for about eight hours. It allows your doctor to see how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood.

The technician will take a sample of your blood and then give you a prepared sugary drink. You will then have your blood drawn every hour, so that you will end up with blood glucose level results for: (6)

  • Fasting
  • One hour after ingesting the sugary drink
  • Two hours after ingesting the sugary drink
  • (Sometimes) three hours after ingesting the sugary drink

You will be diagnosed based on the following: (12)

  • Normal: blood sugar at two hours after testing is less than 140 mg/dL
  • Prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance): 140 to 199 mg/dL
  • Diabetes: 200 mg/dL or above

The OGTT is also used in screening for pregnant women gestational diabetes, and is usually performed between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. (9)

The OGTT is one of the best detectors of diabetes and prediabetes, but it is given less often in nonpregnant adults because it is more expensive to perform and not as easy to administer as some other tests. (9)

Random Plasma Glucose Test

This test may be done at any time to measure blood sugar levels, usually when you have severe diabetes symptoms. It allows for the identification of high blood levels immediately, but it should not be used as a tool to diagnose diabetes. (12)

Still, it can indicate that you need additional testing or treatment if your blood sugar is at least 200 mg/dL and there are other classic symptoms of high blood sugar, such as:

  • You’re urinating more than usual.
  • You’re drinking more fluid than you normally do.
  • You’ve lost weight when you didn’t mean to.

Any diagnosis is generally confirmed with two results from a fasting plasma glucose test, an oral glucose tolerance test, or an A1C test. (6)

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body’s organs, muscles and nervous system. The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas.

Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. For most individuals, the level of glucose in the blood rises after meals. A normal blood-sugar range after eating is between 135 and 140 milligrams per deciliter.

These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine.

As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals.

When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose. The glucose is then released into the bloodstream.

When there isn’t enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). This process, known as gluconeogenesis, occurs most often during intense exercise and instances of starvation.

While it may seem complicated (and it is), there’s a good reason for your body to keep up this never-ending dance with glucose: Too much or too little glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems.

Too much glucose over an extended time (hyperglycemia) can result in the destruction of nerves, lowered resistance to infection, and heart and kidney disease. On the other hand, not enough glucose in the blood over an extended period (hypoglycemia) can affect brain function, causing fatigue, fainting, irritability and, in some cases, seizures and loss of consciousness. 

Originally published on Live Science.

Blood Sugar

Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS or Fasting Glucose)

A test that measures blood sugar levels. Elevated levels are associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, in which the body cannot properly handle sugar (e.g. obesity).

Goal values:

  • Less than 100 mg/dL = normal
  • Between 110–125 mg/dL = impaired fasting glucose (i.e., prediabetes)
  • Greater than 126 mg/dL on two or more samples = diabetes


This test requires a 12-hour fast. You should wait to eat and/or take a hypoglycemic agent (insulin or oral medication) until after test has been drawn, unless told otherwise.

Eating and digesting foods called carbohydrates forms glucose (blood sugar). Glucose is needed by your body to provide energy to carry out your normal activities. Insulin is needed by the body to allow glucose to go into the cells and be used as energy. Without insulin, the levels of glucose in the blood will rise. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when either the pancreas (an organ in your body) is not able to produce insulin or the pancreas makes insulin, but it does not work as it should. Fasting blood sugar is a part of diabetic evaluation and management. An FBS greater than 126 mg/dL on more than one occasion usually indicates diabetes.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin or Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C)

Reflects average blood sugar levels over the preceding 90-day period. Elevated levels are associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of a cardiac event. A diabetic person’s risk for heart attack is the same as a non-diabetic person, who has experienced one heart attack, having a second heart attack. Aggressive global preventive risk reduction efforts, such as lower LDL targets, diet, exercise and blood pressure control, are recommended.

Goal values (per American Diabetes Association guidelines):

  • A range of 5.7-6.4 percent indicates an increased risk for development of diabetes (i.e., prediabetes), and lifestyle interventions may be beneficial.
  • A value equal or greater than 6.5 percent is considered diabetic.


This test may be measured any time of the day without fasting.

Glycosylated hemoglobin is blood glucose attached to hemoglobin (a component of blood). This test is often called the “diabetic report card.” It reflects the average blood sugar for the two to three month period before the test.

To calculate the average blood glucose level from the HbA1C:

HbA1C level x (multiplied by) 33.3 – 86 = average blood glucose level for the past 90 days. HbA1C can be helpful to track diabetic control over time.

High blood sugar levels in the morning: Causes, testing, and treatment

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A person usually has slightly higher blood sugar — or glucose — levels in the morning. But, in some people with diabetes, these levels are significantly high.

Diabetes can cause persistent symptoms that get worse over time, due to these blood sugar spikes.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, healthy blood sugar levels are:

  • from 80–130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) just before eating
  • below 180 mg/dl 2 hours after eating

In addition, they note that:

  • A low blood sugar level is under 70 mg/dl.
  • A high blood sugar level is over 180 mg/dl.

There are two main causes of high blood sugar in the morning: the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect.

This article explores these causes, including what they can mean for a person’s health and when to see a doctor.

Share on PinterestHigh blood sugar in the morning can be a problem, but treatment can help to reduce this risk.

The dawn phenomenon relates to natural body changes that occur during the sleep cycle.

In the morning, everyone experiences a slight rise in blood glucose levels. A person without diabetes will not experience effects, as their body can adjust. For a person with diabetes, however, this rise can be significant, and it may need treatment.

Usually, the body has little need for insulin during sleep, and it produces less of this hormone. Toward the morning, the body starts to release stored glucose, or sugar, to provide energy for the coming day.

At the same time, the body is producing glucagon, another hormone, which can lead to a further rise in blood sugar.

In addition, it produces cortisol, a growth hormone, which acts in the opposite way to insulin.

This happens just as nighttime levels of insulin are starting to taper off.

The reduction in insulin and rise in glucagon and cortisol levels cause blood sugar to spike in the morning.

People without diabetes produce additional insulin at this time to counter the effect, but diabetes prevents the body from doing this.

According to the American Diabetes Association, the dawn phenomenon happens between 5:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m.

The causes can differ, depending on whether a person has type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

In people with type 1 diabetes: A release of growth hormone during the night probably triggers the dawn phenomenon, according to research. Growth hormones counter the effects of insulin, and levels of insulin that a person restored during the evening are now decreasing.

In people with type 2 diabetes: The cause of the dawn phenomenon is likely the body’s inability to produce insulin.

Some people experience an extended dawn phenomenon, which lasts until midmorning. This can happen if a person has too many carbohydrates in their breakfast, or it may result from an extended release of growth hormone, which can occur in people with diabetes.

The overall effects of the dawn phenomenon vary — no two people respond to it in the same way.

The symptoms often appear in the early stages of diabetes, and they can persist and get worse over time.

One study suggests that the dawn phenomenon affects around 54 percent of people with type 1 diabetes and 55 percent of those with type 2, but other findings appear to contradict these.

Among people with type 1 diabetes, the phenomenon may be more likely to occur in children and teens, compared with adults.

Is oatmeal a good breakfast choice for people with diabetes? Click here to find out more.

Share on PinterestPeople with diabetes may have a noticeable rise in blood sugar early in the morning.

Some scientists believe that there is another cause of high blood sugar in the morning: the Somogyi effect, or rebound hyperglycemia.

The theory is that blood sugar levels rise in response to a bout of hypoglycemia. Not all experts agree about this, however.

The Somogyi effect is named after the researcher Michael Somogyi, who discovered it.

Possible reasons for the effect are:

  • Too much insulin or not enough food before bed: During the night, a person’s blood sugar level may drop too low. The body responds by releasing hormones to raise this level.
  • A low insulin dose in the evening: If a person takes too little insulin at night, they may have high blood sugar in the morning.

The dawn phenomenon is more common than the Somogyi effect, according to a study published in 2011.

While the dawn phenomenon occurs naturally, the Somogyi effect usually results from poor diabetes management.

The doctor usually starts by asking a person to wear a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) overnight for several nights in a row.

If they do not have access to a CGM, the doctor may ask the person to test their blood sugar levels at certain times throughout the night.

Blood glucose testing kits are available for purchase online.

Share on PinterestAdjusting the insulin dose might help to control high morning blood sugar.

Treatment largely depends on how high insulin levels rise.

The main way to treat early morning high glucose is to adjust the dosage and timing of insulin, and possibly the way that a person takes it.

Insulin appears to be the most effective way to manage blood sugar levels, but each person’s treatment plan will be different. The doctor may recommend using an insulin pump to deliver the necessary doses over time.

Research also indicates that the following lifestyle changes can help:

  • exercising in the evening
  • increasing the proportion of protein to carbohydrates in the evening meal
  • eating breakfast every day

Some of these methods can treat the Somogyi effect as well, but the doctor may recommend a different dosage and timing, depending on how glucose levels change.

Using a CGM can help the doctor determine the best approach.

Anyone who experiences high blood sugar levels in the morning should speak to a healthcare provider, who will identify an effective way to manage these levels.

If a person does not receive appropriate treatment, the dawn phenomenon can increase the risk of:

It is important for a person with diabetes to be aware that their blood sugar levels may rise in the morning and to receive treatment if this occurs.

If high glucose levels persist and get worse, complications can arise. For example, in people with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance will increase and the disease will progress more rapidly.

Are you on the road to a diabetes diagnosis?

A higher-than-normal blood sugar level puts you at risk for developing diabetes and heart disease.

If you’re hoping to avoid heart disease, you probably pay close attention to your blood cholesterol levels. But you also should keep an eye on your blood sugar, because an elevated blood sugar level is an early warning sign of diabetes, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

A fasting blood sugar level of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) means you may have a common precursor to diabetes, called prediabetes. (Normal blood sugar values range from 70 to 99 mg/dL.) An estimated one in three American adults has prediabetes, although most of them don’t know it.

“If you have prediabetes, that’s a signal to start trying to lose weight, as most people with prediabetes are overweight,” says Harvard Medical School associate professor Dr. Om Ganda, medical director of the Lipid Clinic at the Joslin Diabetes Center. Excess weight, especially fat around your belly, is a telltale sign of insulin resistance—the condition that sets the stage for prediabetes, says Dr. Ganda (see “How diabetes develops”).

How diabetes develops

Diabetes is a disease dominated by problems related to insulin, the hormone made by the pancreas that enables cells throughout the body to absorb glucose (sugar) for energy. The most common form, type 2 diabetes, happens when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas stops making enough insulin.

The root cause of insulin resistance isn’t fully understood, but too much body fat and not enough exercise are thought to play major roles. Research shows that belly fat makes hormones and other substances that trigger chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. And numerous studies have linked physical inactivity to insulin resistance.

If you have insulin resistance, your muscle, fat, and liver cells can’t easily absorb glucose from your blood, so your blood sugar levels rise. In response, your pancreas tries to keep up with the demand by churning out more insulin. But over time, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas falter. This leads to prediabetes and eventually diabetes.

The power of prevention

The high prevalence of adult obesity in America, which is now around 35%, is largely to blame for the prediabetes epidemic, says Dr. Ganda. But if your blood sugar is on the high side, you don’t need to make drastic changes to see improvements. The Diabetes Prevention Program, a landmark study published 15 years ago, showed that cutting out 150 calories per day and walking briskly for 30 minutes, five days a week, cut the risk of developing diabetes by more than half (58%). You should also avoid refined carbohydrates, such as white rice, foods made with white flour, and sugary treats like desserts and sodas. Losing weight is ideal but not absolutely mandatory.

“I tell my patients, don’t be disheartened if you don’t lose weight,” says Dr. Ganda. If you keep exercising regularly, even if your weight doesn’t change, your body composition will change. Losing fat and gaining muscle will improve your response to insulin, as will the exercise itself. “Think of doing exercise as having a little bit of extra insulin on board,” he says.

Screening advice

Starting around middle age, all adults should be screened for diabetes. If you get periodic check-ups with a primary care provider, you’ll probably have your fasting blood sugar measured as part of a routine blood test. If you have a blood glucose value of 100 to 125 mg/dL (or, alternatively, a measurement of HbA1c of 5.7 to 6.4), your doctor will likely repeat the test in a few weeks. If the results come back the same and you’re diagnosed with prediabetes, double down your efforts to avoid progressing to diabetes. Not only does diabetes heighten your risk of heart disease and stroke, it can also harm your kidneys, nerves, and eyes.

Healthy diet and exercise habits should also improve your blood pressure and cholesterol values. If your fasting blood sugar values meet the criteria for full-blown diabetes (126 mg/dL or higher), national guidelines suggest you take a statin drug, even if your cholesterol is not elevated.

What about reports that taking statins might increase a person’s risk of diabetes? It’s true that a number of studies have shown a modest increase in new cases of diabetes after people start taking a statin, Dr. Ganda says. However, those people may have already been destined to develop diabetes anyway, based on shared lifestyle or genetic risk factors. And over all, the benefits of taking a statin outweigh the risk of diabetes. “Preventing cardiovascular disease is a lot more important than preventing diabetes,” says Dr. Ganda.

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90,000 Blood sugar – how and when to measure?

Elevated blood sugar – why, how and when to measure blood sugar?

Regulation of blood sugar

is one of the fundamental foundations of our health. If it is violated, the development of chronic diseases is only a matter of time. It turns out that measuring blood sugar is a powerful tool for monitoring health problems that everyone should use at least from time to time.

Dysregulation of blood sugar levels (dysglycemia) underlies diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

At the same time, it can be difficult to understand that sugar regulation is impaired – even under the close supervision of doctors. The reason is that modern medicine in its dimensions, as a rule, looks for pathology and is not concerned with optimal health indicators.

My article on the three tests required to measure blood sugar

It turns out that when our indicators are far from optimal for health, but by medical standards are not yet in the intervals of prediabetes or diabetes, we are usually not warned about this.

That is, prediabetes or diabetes can fall on a person almost like snow on his head, as if there is no interval between optimal blood sugar and prediabetes.

Meanwhile, dysregulation of blood sugar is a long process that usually takes years. And just until this process has passed into a stage that is recognized by medicine as a pathology, it is easiest to reverse it and prevent the disease.

Disadvantages of traditional sugar level analyzes

Modern medicine is guided by the results of measuring fasting blood sugar, as well as a glucose tolerance test.As part of this test, the person is asked to drink a solution containing 75 grams of pure glucose!

A results are interpreted as shown on the plate:

Test type Healthy person Prediabetes Diabetes
Fasting 3.9-5 mmol / liter (70-99 mg / dl) 5.6-6.9 mmol / liter 100-125 mg / dl) 7 mmol / L (126 mg / dL and above)
Tolerance test (1 hour later) below 11.1 mmol / L (200 mg / dL)
Tolerance test (2 hours later) below 7.8 mmol / L (140 mg / dL)

Experts point out that this test is unrealistic. In ordinary life, it is impossible to eat or drink 75 grams of pure glucose in one sitting (in carbonated drinks, it is mixed with fructose, whose effect on blood sugar is different from glucose).

In addition, it is simply dangerous for people, even with slight dysregulation of blood sugar levels. As you can see from the table, it is normal for the blood sugar level to rise to 11.1 mmol / L in response to this solution!

At the same time, physiologically, a blood sugar level of 7.8 mmol / L and above leads to the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin. This is a process that, over time, can lead, among other things, to the development of type 1 diabetes.

Fasting glucose measurement is not a reliable marker for predicting diabetes risks. Thus, both tests do not provide enough information to draw correct conclusions about the state of the blood sugar regulation system.

Start your journey to improve your well-being and quality of life today – join the free email training “5 Steps to Optimal Blood Sugar Regulation”!

Optimal blood sugar: how and when to measure

According to leading experts, including Chris Kresser, Dr. Mercola, Rob Wolfe, it is important in measuring blood sugar to identify the length of time during which a person’s blood sugar remains dangerously high.And regular measurement with the help of a glucometer will help in this.

In order to identify how optimal your blood sugar regulation is, you should be guided by narrower intervals – which characterize healthy people, and are not on the border with pathology.

To do this, you need to measure the blood sugar level several times: on an empty stomach, after a meal containing digestible carbohydrates, and within 3 hours after a meal – the time during which in healthy people the sugar level should return to the baseline measurement on an empty stomach.

For the reliability of the readings, the measurements should be recorded for at least 2-3 days, since all glucometers may have an error.

  1. In the morning on an empty stomach – at least 12 hours after dinner (you need to measure soon after you wake up, before that you can drink water, but not eat, drink coffee or exercise)
  2. One hour after eating. Eat breakfast and do not eat anything for the next 3 hours.
  3. 2 hours after eating.
  4. 3 hours after eating.

And here are the indicators that are considered optimal for health. They should be guided by them for the interpretation of measurements. These are the indicators at which the risks of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are minimal.

When Optimum performance
Fasting 3.9 – 4.77 (70-86)
One hour after eating below 7.77 (139)
2 hours after eating below 6.66 (119)
3 hours after eating returns to fasting measurement

These intervals may be less relevant in ketosis or when following a low-carb diet. Both nutritional formats can lead to a certain degree of insulin resistance – since the body’s energy needs are provided not by glucose, but by fatty acids.

Founder of the Institute of Functional Medicine Chris Kresser advises in such situations to add 10 mg / dL to the measurement and use higher values ​​for interpretation.

For this reason, many experts recommend coming out of ketosis regularly for those who are not contraindicated to maintain insulin sensitivity.

Several other metrics are worth measuring to more fully assess blood sugar regulation, especially if there are measurement questions or complicating factors such as ketosis.

Auxiliary measurements

  • Fasting insulin is a measurement that has a high predictive power for the risks of diabetes and related pathologies. May be elevated even if fasting blood sugar is in a more or less acceptable range.
  • Glycated hemoglobin HbA1C shows the average blood sugar over the past approximately 90 days. The optimal indicator is 4.6 – 5.3%.
  • Fructosamine is another marker that measures the volume of glycated protein.It is used to confirm elevated glycated hemoglobin values, which can be elevated in situations where hemoglobin lives longer than the average 90 days (for example, on a low-carb diet).

Blood sugar is the basis of your health, energy and mood. Optimize your blood sugar and your lifestyle with the Optimal Blood Sugar 4 Week Online Program

What to do in case of non-optimal performance

As I said above, the sooner you take measures to optimize blood sugar levels, the lower the risks of developing serious diseases and avoiding medical pathologies.

For most people, the first step in restoring normal blood sugar regulation is to reduce the intake of digestible carbohydrates (that is, sugar).

Sometimes it is necessary to temporarily reduce the consumption or remove from the diet not only the isolated sugar (sugar itself, white flour), but also whole foods containing it – fruits, cereals and root vegetables.

Replacing carbohydrates is worth healthy fats, the use of which will also allow the body to adapt to burning fats for energy production, the benefits of which I wrote here.

It is also important to support the recovery process with nutritiously rich foods such as herbs, vegetables, fermented foods, and micronutrients that are important for carbohydrate metabolism. Among them are magnesium, chromium, B vitamins, alpha lipoic acid.

Chronic stress, hidden infections, parasites, and inflammation can also be the cause of impaired regulation of blood sugar levels (I wrote more about this here). An indirect indication that these factors are involved is the ineffectiveness of dietary changes to restore regulation.

Have you examined your sugar level?

3 super effects of regulated blood sugar

90,000 British strain of coronavirus was found in three more countries in a week

© Amarjeet Kumar Singh / ANADOLU AGENCY / Anadolu Agency via AFP / EastNews

The total number of countries where this strain was detected has reached 139. It is more infectious, according to the World Health Organization ( WHO). The situation in India is of particular concern to WHO.

It is noted that the second wave of morbidity in the country is much faster than the first. The new strains are characterized by “a higher rate of spread than other varieties circulating in India.” This suggests its potentially higher infectivity, TASS reported on Wednesday, April 28. Among other possible factors for the current rapid increase in the incidence in India, WHO names problems associated with the implementation of sanitary measures, as well as the holding of large public gatherings, including cultural and religious.

The WHO Emergency Committee had previously called on the world’s states to expand scientific research on the genomic sequence of mutating pathogens of the disease caused by the coronavirus. In addition, WHO encouraged the sharing of available information with other countries.

Earlier, “Profile” wrote that the people of India were urged not to panic because of the record level of the spread of coronavirus in the country, the huge number of victims of COVID-19. The Ministry of Health noted that the panic will only worsen the situation.The ministry also urged residents of the country to wear masks even at home. They cited data according to which one person with a coronavirus infection can infect 406 others in 30 days.

It was also reported that the number of COVID-19 cases in the United States has dropped significantly in recent months. American leader Joe Biden called it a tremendous progress. He noted that the United States plans in the future to provide other interested countries not only with the coronavirus vaccines themselves, but also with the technology for their production.Biden called such aid “hope and expectation” to states in need, answering questions from reporters at the White House.

What is diabetes mellitus

What is diabetes mellitus

What is diabetes mellitus
Diabetes is a disease that causes high blood sugar (glucose) levels.

Why is blood sugar needed and where does it come from?
First, sugar enters the bloodstream from food; secondly – from the sugar reserves, which are contained in the liver.Glucose is the main source of nutrition for all cells (the smallest building blocks of the body). Inside the cell, glucose is converted into energy, which allows the cells to work, and, accordingly, the whole body (just as a car cannot drive without gasoline, so a cell cannot work without fuel, which is sugar for it). However, glucose can penetrate into the cell only with the help of insulin.

What is insulin and where is it produced?
Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas (beta cells).Beta cells register an increase in blood sugar and respond by sending a certain amount of insulin into the bloodstream, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.

What causes type 2 diabetes?
1. Obesity is the main reason for the development of type 2 diabetes (about 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight)
2. Heredity (if one parent is sick, then the likelihood of developing diabetes is about 40%, if both parents are 75%)

What happens with type 2 diabetes?
In this disease, the pancreas produces insulin, but it is either insufficient or it does not work well (in most cases, this is due to an excess of adipose tissue in the body, which interferes with the action of insulin, while the insulin content in the blood can significantly exceed the norm).As a result, a large amount of sugar accumulates in the blood and its level rises.

Who has type 2 diabetes?
Previously, it was believed that this type of diabetes mainly affects people over 40-45 years old. However, in recent years, type 2 diabetes mellitus has noticeably “younger”, which is associated with a high prevalence of obesity, incl. and in young people

How is diabetes mellitus diagnosed
Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed when fasting blood sugar (glycemia) is more than 6.1 mmol / L (fasting glycemia refers to the blood glucose level measured in the morning before breakfast after preliminary fasting for 8 hours).
Also, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can be established after the detection of glycemia more than 11.1 mmol / l at any time of the day.
Occasionally, an oral glucose tolerance test is done to clarify the diagnosis.
(In the morning on an empty stomach, blood is taken for sugar, after which the patient drinks 75 grams of glucose and after 2 hours the blood sugar level is re-examined). If the glycemic level is more than 11.1 mmol / L, repeated measurement is used to establish the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

What is the difference between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus?
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops producing insulin.The disease occurs at a young age (usually before the age of 40). For these patients, the only treatment is lifelong insulin

How is type 2 diabetes treated?
1. Diet
2. Exercise
3. Sugar-lowering tablets
4. Sometimes, insulin is prescribed

Why do you need to control your blood sugar?
Regular monitoring of sugar levels is the key to successful treatment and prevention of complications of diabetes !!!
It is important to know that periodic testing of blood sugar in the clinic is not sufficient for good control.It is imperative to regularly measure your blood sugar yourself.

How often should measurements be taken?
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving antidiabetic pills should take several measurements per week (at different times of the day). Once every 2 weeks, it is advisable to test blood sugar 4-6 times a day (throughout the day: before meals and 2 hours after meals).

What are blood sugar targets?
These are the sugar levels you should aim for to avoid complications:
• Fasting (before meals) 3.3-6.0 mmol / l
• 2 hours after meals up to 7.8 mmol / l

What is hypoglycemia?
This is a condition in which the blood sugar drops below 3.3 mmol / L. At the same time, you may feel tremors, chills, sweating, hunger, irritability, headache, pallor, palpitations.

What to do in case of hypoglycemia?
You need to eat 4 lumps of sugar or drink 1 small packet of juice (200 ml). Do not use chocolate, sweets, confectionery, bread and fruits to relieve hypoglycemia – they slowly increase blood sugar !!!

How to eat properly with type 2 diabetes?
• Food should contain a sufficient amount of carbohydrates (about 60%), i.e.because they are the main source of nutrition for the cells of the body. Carbohydrates include: bread, potatoes, pasta, buckwheat, rice, oatmeal and other grains, as well as fruits and vegetables. It is important to understand that although these foods increase blood sugar, they do it slowly!
• Exclude fast-digesting carbohydrates (honey, jam, juices, sugary drinks, sugar, sweets), because they raise blood sugar very quickly!
• Weight loss is an integral part of diabetes care. To this end, it is necessary to limit the amount of fat in food as much as possible to 15%.Fats do not increase sugar, they lead to weight gain !!! Fatty foods include: caviar, fatty fish (salmon, salmon, carp, sturgeon, herring) and any fatty meat, canned food in oil, all sausages, sausages and small sausages, lard, cheese with a fat content of more than 40%, seeds and nuts, fatty dairy products, mayonnaise). It is important to know that both butter and all types of vegetable oil are fats and contribute to weight gain, therefore, it is necessary to limit any of its types!
• The daily diet should contain about 30% protein (low-fat fish (perch, cod, icefish), lean meat and poultry; dairy products with a fat content of less than 1.five%; cheese with a fat content <30%). Proteins do not increase blood sugar !!!!

Tips for reducing calorie intake
• Do not fry! Use other cooking methods: baking, boiling, steaming, on a grill, over an open fire
• When cooking meat, poultry, remove the skin and remove all visible fat before cooking
spices, mustard, vinegar, lemon juice) instead of oil and mayonnaise
• Start your meal with a glass of mineral water and vegetable salad, ie.about. You will be able to “trick” the stomach and the satiety process will occur faster
• Try to eat in small portions 4-6 times a day

Is it possible to drink alcoholic beverages in case of diabetes mellitus?
1. Alcohol lowers blood sugar and can lead to the development of hypoglycemia (lowering sugar below 3.3 mmol / l), therefore, you should always eat (bread, potatoes, cereals, pasta, fruits) before consuming it. Remember that in the case of alcohol consumption, the symptoms of hypoglycemia may be “blurred”
2.Drinking alcohol should be moderate !!! (no more than 1 glass of dry wine (or brut) or 50 g of strong alcoholic drink per evening)
3. Eliminate sugary alcoholic beverages
4. Remember that drinking alcohol (especially in large quantities) while being treated with certain drugs to reduce sugar is unsafe (e.g. metformna)

What is glucose-lowering therapy?
Anti-hypoglycemic therapy refers to the various drugs prescribed in diabetes mellitus to lower blood sugar levels.What kind of pills to prescribe to the patient is decided in each case individually by the doctor.

• Regular exercise is extremely beneficial for all patients with diabetes mellitus. they lower blood sugar, help reduce weight, reduce the risk of complications
• Exercise should be tailored to your age, diabetes complications and comorbid conditions
• Moderate exercise, such as walking instead of driving, is recommended for most patients , climbing stairs instead of an elevator
• Remember to exercise regularly (daily walks for 30 minutes, swimming for 1 hour 3 times a week).
• Exercise is not recommended with blood sugar levels above 13-15 mmol / L – this can lead to an additional increase in blood sugar
• In the absence of serious complications and concomitant diseases, patients with type 2 diabetes can participate in any sports
• Necessary remember that during physical exertion, as well as within a few hours after it, sugar can decrease, therefore, in order to prevent hypoglycemia, it is necessary to refuel before and after exercise (for example, with fruits).
• If the intensity of exercise is high (jogging, aerobics, etc.), it is better to drink sugary water during exercise. Before and after exercise, be sure to check your sugar level !!!

90,000 5 foods not to eat during stress

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Bread and pasta

In a stressful state, give up bread and pasta, because they contain refined carbohydrates.Not only are they high in calories, they also increase blood sugar. And fluctuations in this indicator can cause irritability and anxiety. It is better to give preference to buckwheat or chickpeas, because they are rich in fiber, and it is useful for the body in difficult periods.


Many people believe that alcohol helps to relax and calm down, but not everyone agrees with this statement. Scientists say that drinking alcohol alters the level of serotonin in the brain, which is bad for the emotional state.


This invigorating drink raises your heart rate and blood pressure, so you shouldn’t expect a relaxing and calming effect from coffee. Even people in a completely calm state can experience increased arousal after a drink, not to mention those who were already irritated.

Dairy products

Researchers believe that “milk” provokes stress for the body. Not all people digest these foods equally well.Therefore, if you are feeling irritated or anxious, it is better to avoid your favorite yogurt or cheese.

Wheat bran

This product contains a high level of phytic acid, which prevents the absorption of many useful substances, in particular zinc, which has a calming effect on our body.



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Blood test for sugar, the norm of blood glucose levels in women, men by age | Blood sugar table, high sugar, diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia

Blood sugar

When we talk about sugar in the blood, we mean the level of glucose – the main source of energy, which ensures the normal functioning of organs and muscles.

The concentration of glucose deviates from the norm in the presence of certain hormones in the body. Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is responsible for the decrease. And an increase in glucose levels can be triggered by several active substances: glucagon, adrenaline, norepinephrine, cortisol and corticosterone.

Such deviations cause certain pathological conditions, which are discussed below.

Symptoms of high sugar

High blood sugar can be recognized by the following symptoms:

90 160 90 105 thirst and dry mouth;

  • constant feeling of hunger;
  • slow wound healing.
  • Subsequent increase in sugar content leads to hyperglycemic coma, ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma.

    Symptoms of low sugar

    With low sugar, the patient has the following problems:

    • weakness and trembling hands;
    • nausea and dizziness;
    • increased sweating;
    • irritability;
    • constant hunger.

    The lower the index, the higher the risk of developing hypoglycemic coma.

    Blood sugar test: norms

    If the patient has the above symptoms, the doctor gives a referral for a blood sugar test. The norm when taken from a finger on an empty stomach is from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l, and after a meal – 5.6-6.6 mmol / l. If the second indicator is reached when the biomaterial is taken on an empty stomach, then insulin sensitivity is impaired.

    Indicator 6.7 mmol / l after fasting analysis indicates hyperglycemia – increased blood sugar. If the symptom manifests itself chronically, then there is a high probability that the patient has diabetes.Hyperglycemia may be a sign:

    • endocrine diseases;
    • disorders of the liver and hypothalamus;
    • development of inflammatory processes.

    A mark below 3.3 mmol / L, on the contrary, is a signal of the development of hypoglycemia – a decrease in glucose levels, which can lead to seizures, headaches, disorders of the pancreas, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands.

    An analysis to determine blood sugar helps to detect existing pathologies.

    How to prepare?

    Preparation methods differ depending on the type of analysis:

    • Glucose tolerance test. Provides insight into how the body responds to a sugar load. Before the analysis, you need to drink a sweet drink;
    • Glycated hemoglobin assay. Determines the average sugar level over several months. Doesn’t require any special training;
    • Determination of plasma glucose levels. For rent in the morning on an empty stomach. 8 hours before the procedure, you must not eat or drink anything other than water.

    Where to do it?

    You can take a blood sugar test at the Unimed multidisciplinary clinic in Izhevsk. To consult and ask questions, call one of the phones listed in the “Contacts” section. The administrator will guide you on prices and appoint a time to visit.