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Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent your blood from doing its job. They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and a lack of certain nutrients in your diet.

Types of blood disorders include:

  • Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding problems, which affect how your blood clots
  • Anemia, which happens when your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body
  • Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia and myeloma
  • Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.
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CBC Blood Test (Complete Blood Count)

Test Quick Guide

The complete blood count (CBC) is an essential comprehensive blood panel that allows your doctor to evaluate each type of cell in your blood.

The CBC measures the number of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets (PLT). Each of these types of blood cells performs important functions, so determining their levels can provide important health information.

A CBC may be used to help diagnose a range of health conditions and also monitor how the body is affected by different diseases or medical treatments.

About the Test

Purpose of the test

The purpose of a CBC is to give your health care provider details about the state of your health. It is an important medical tool because it uses one sample to analyze the complete spectrum of cells found in the blood as well as some of the characteristics of those cells.

Because it provides information about every type of cell in the blood, the CBC can provide information related to a wide variety of medical problems.

The primary uses for the CBC are diagnosis, monitoring, and screening:

  • Diagnosis is determining the cause of a patient’s symptoms. The CBC can identify many different abnormalities in the blood that can be linked to distinct medical problems. For this reason, the CBC is frequently used as a diagnostic test. In many cases, it can confirm or rule out certain conditions and may be used alongside other tests to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.
  • Monitoring is the process of following a patient’s condition over time. A CBC can be used to monitor patients who have previously been diagnosed with blood cell disorders. It can help see how a person’s condition has responded to treatment and may be used to watch for side effects of some medical treatments.
  • Screening is testing to find health problems before there are any symptoms. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe a CBC as a screening test during routine check-ups.

What does the test measure?

A CBC involves multiple measurements that include the number of blood cells and some of their physical features. A standard CBC includes several elements related to RBCs, WBCs, and PLT that are described in the following sections.

Red blood cell measurements

RBC, also called erythrocytes, carry oxygen from your lungs to the tissues and organs in your body. A CBC test includes several basic measurements of RBCs:

  • RBC count is the total number of RBCs in your blood sample.
  • Hemoglobin measures the amount of this oxygen-carrying protein that is found inside RBCs.
  • Hematocrit measures the proportion of your total blood volume that consists of RBCs.

A CBC also provides details about the physical features of RBC. These are known as RBC indices, of which there are several kinds:

  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBC.
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin inside each RBC.
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculated measurement of how concentrated hemoglobin is within RBC.
  • Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measurement of the variation in the size of your RBC.

The CBC may include the reticulocyte count, the total number of newly released young RBCs in your blood sample. It may also be measured as a percentage.

White blood cell measurements

WBCs, also called leukocytes, are an important part of the body’s immune system.

A standard CBC includes measures of the WBC count, which is the total number of WBCs in a sample of blood.

A common variation of the CBC is the CBC with differential. The WBC differential is a breakdown of the amount of each of five different types of WBCs:

  • Neutrophils: Neutrophils make up the greatest percentage of WBCs and are produced by the bone marrow to fight a diverse array of inflammatory and infectious diseases.
  • Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes such as B-cells and T-cells are found primarily in the lymph system and fight bacteria and other pathogens in the blood.
  • Monocytes: Monocytes work in conjunction with neutrophils to combat infections and other illnesses while removing damaged or dead cells.
  • Eosinophils: Eosinophils are WBCs activated in response to allergies and some types of infections.

Initial blood testing may include a CBC with differential, or this test may be done after an abnormal initial standard CBC. Because each WBC type has a different function, the CBC with differential can be used to identify abnormal levels of specific WBCs, which may offer clues about an underlying health concern.

Platelet measurements

Platelets (PLT), also called thrombocytes, are cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play an essential role in blood clotting. When there is an injury and bleeding begins, PLT help stop bleeding by sticking to the injury site and clumping together to form a temporary plug.

A standard component of the CBC is the PLT count, which is the number of PLT in your blood sample.

In some cases, your doctor may have the laboratory also measure the mean PLT volume (MPV), which determines the average size of PLT.

When should I get a complete blood count?

The CBC is a very common test. You may have a CBC performed when you have a routine health examination, are being diagnosed or assessed for a disease or condition, or when your provider is monitoring the effectiveness of a treatment.

Because blood counts can be affected by a diverse range of health conditions, the CBC may be recommended by your doctor to help identify the cause of many different kinds of symptoms. Your health care provider is in the best position to address whether a CBC is appropriate in your specific situation.

Finding a Complete Blood Count Test

How can I get a complete blood count test?

A CBC requires a needle blood draw and is most commonly conducted by a licensed professional in a health care setting like a hospital or doctor’s office.

Can I take the test at home?

There are few options available for at-home CBC testing. Kits for use at home involve a fingerstick; you prick your finger with a small needle to produce a drop of blood. That blood is applied to a special test paper and is then sent to a lab.

After the lab is done analyzing the blood, it provides results either online or through a smartphone app. Results usually take two to three days after the sample is received.

These at-home tests do not provide a diagnosis or confirm a specific illness or disease. Diagnosis and disease confirmation can only be provided by a doctor. For this reason, it is important to talk to a doctor before and after taking an at-home blood count test.

How much does the test cost?

The cost of a CBC test depends on several factors, including whether or not the patient is paying out of pocket or has health insurance. Because the CBC is common and has many uses, the cost is often covered by insurance. However, there may still be charges for copays and deductibles.

Talk to your doctor or insurance provider for specific details about expected costs for a CBC. If you do not have insurance, a hospital or laboratory administrator may be able to provide information about typical costs for uninsured patients.

Taking a CBC

The CBC is ordered and conducted by a licensed professional. The blood sample is drawn from a vein, usually on the inside of your elbow.

Before the test

Unless specified by your provider, there is no special preparation required before a CBC.

In some instances, a CBC is done along with other blood tests. When you are getting more than one blood test, your provider may ask you to not eat anything for a certain amount of time prior to your test.

If you have questions or concerns about any test preparation, contact your health care provider for specific instructions.

During the test

There are several steps that you can expect during a needle blood draw for a CBC:

  1. An antiseptic alcohol wipe is used to cleanse your arm in the area that the needle will be inserted. This is most often either inside the elbow or at the top of the hand.
  2. To make the vein in your arm more visible and easier to access with a needle, a band called a tourniquet is tied around your upper arm.
  3. A needle is placed in your vein, and a test tube attached to the needle is filled with blood. When the needle is inserted there may be a pinch or a little pain.
  4. After the test tube or vial is filled, the needle is removed, and the test is over.

After the test

After the needle is removed, a bandage will be placed over the puncture site.

Slight bruising is a common side effect after any blood draw while dizziness or lightheadedness are less common. Your provider may have you stay for a few minutes after the blood draw to monitor you until they are sure you are safe to walk and/or drive.

If you notice any other effects or signs of bleeding or infection after your blood draw, it is important to promptly contact your health care provider.

Complete Blood Count Test Results

Receiving test results

Depending on the laboratory equipment that is used, the results from a CBC can be available in a few minutes to a few days after the blood sample arrives at the laboratory. You may receive a copy of your results by mail or through an electronic health portal. Your doctor may also call you to discuss the results or to schedule an appointment to review them together.

Interpreting test results

The results from a CBC test will include separate levels listed for each component of the test including RBC, WBC, and PLT.

For each test component, the report will also show a reference range that defines what the laboratory that performed the test considers normal. These ranges, which can vary from lab to lab, are based on the results of a large sample of healthy people and help your doctor determine typical and atypical blood levels.

It is essential to talk with your doctor about the significance of your CBC test results. Your doctor will review your levels and how they compare to the laboratory’s reference ranges. They may also look at the relationships between your different blood levels and will consider your current symptoms and health history.

The following sections describe some potential causes of high or low levels of RBCs, WBCs, or PLT, but it is important to remember that an abnormal test result is not always a sign of a medical problem. Some healthy people may have blood counts that fall outside the standard reference range.

Red blood cell measurements

RBCs carry oxygen through the body, and the RBC count shows the total number of RBCs found in your blood. Hematocrit and hemoglobin are other related measures.

Anemia is a condition marked by low levels of RBCs. There are many potential causes of abnormally low levels of RBCs, hematocrit, and/or hemoglobin, including:

  • Excessive acute or chronic bleeding
  • Destruction of RBCs, such as in a condition called hemolytic anemia
  • Disorders that affect the bone marrow, which produces new RBCs
  • Nutritional deficiencies such as low iron, folate, or vitamin B12
  • Some types of cancer and cancer treatment
  • Chronic illnesses involving inflammation or disrupted organ function

High levels of RBCs, hematocrit, and/or hemoglobin can also have a number of possible causes. Examples include:

  • Dehydration
  • Heart or lung disease that reduces oxygen levels
  • Certain kinds of kidney diseases
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Polycythemia vera, a rare disease causing overproduction of RBCs

In many cases, the CBC will include a set of measurements known as RBC indices that include the MCV, MCH, and MCHC. These indices can help distinguish between the most likely causes of anemia.

RBC counts are influenced by many different systems of the body, and sometimes abnormal levels are related to more than one factor. Your health care provider is in the best position to explain what the RBC measurements on your CBC mean for your health.

White blood cell counts

WBCs are the main players of the immune system, and the WBC count is the sum total of five different kinds of WBCs; each plays a role in immune function.

A low level of WBCs is known as leukopenia. Some of the possible causes of leukopenia include:

  • Liver damage, including from alcohol abuse
  • Severe infections
  • An enlarged or damaged spleen
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Conditions that disrupt bone marrow function
  • Certain medications, including many chemotherapies for cancer

Having too many WBCs is known as leukocytosis. Excess WBCs may be related to several potential causes:

  • Infections
  • Tissue death from injury, burns, or other physical trauma
  • Allergies and autoimmune conditions
  • Stress
  • Some medications
  • Leukemia and some other cancers

If you have a CBC with WBC differential, your test report will show the specific levels of each kind of WBC. These are known as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Knowing the counts of each type of WBC can provide detailed information to help your doctor interpret the findings of your CBC.

Platelet count

PLT are responsible for clotting the blood. Abnormal PLT function can mean you bleed too easily because your blood doesn’t clot properly, or your blood is prone to excess clotting.

Thrombocytopenia, a low PLT count, puts you at risk of excessive bleeding or bruising. Possible causes of a low PLT count include:

  • Blood disorders that cause PLT destruction
  • Some medications, including many chemotherapies
  • An enlarged spleen
  • Damage to the bone marrow
  • Pregnancy

Having too many PLT is called thrombocytosis, and it is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular complications from blood clots. Abnormally high PLT counts may be caused by several conditions including:

  • Iron deficiency
  • Some cancers
  • Bone marrow dysfunction
  • Recent infection or other tissue trauma

The test may also measure the MPV (the size of your PLT). The MPV level can help your doctor understand how rapidly your body is producing new PLT.

Examples of questions that you can ask your doctor to learn more about your CBC test results include:

  • What does my CBC indicate about my health?
  • Were any results from the test abnormal? If so, which levels were abnormal?
  • Are there any diagnoses to be made based on my CBC results?
  • Will any follow-up tests be needed based on my CBC results?
  • Given my CBC results, is there anything that you would suggest I do to improve my health?
  • Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) Test
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  • Hematrocit Blood Test
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  • White Blood Cell Count (WBC Blood Test)
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  • Platelet Count (PLT) Blood Test
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  • Reticulocyte Count Test
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  • Blood Smear
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  • Iron Test
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  • Hemoglobin Blood Test
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  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Blood Tests
  • Leukemia and Lymphoma Society: Understanding Blood Counts
  • National Library of Medicine: Blood Disorders (Hematological Diseases)
  • National Library of Medicine: Bone Marrow Diseases


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The cost of analyzes is indicated without taking biomaterial


Method of determination
See data sheet

Test material
see description

Synonyms: Complete blood count, CBC. Full blood count, FBC, Complete blood count (CBC) with differential white blood cell count (CBC with diff), Hemogram.

Brief description of the study CBC: complete analysis, leukocyte formula, ESR

See also: Complete analysis – see test No. 5, Leukocyte formula – test No. 119, ESR – test No. 139. performing various functions. It consists of plasma and formed elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

Complete blood count includes the determination of hemoglobin concentration, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, hematocrit and erythrocyte indices (MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC).

The leukocyte formula is the percentage of different types of leukocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils).

CBC is one of the most common laboratory tests used to assess general health.

This analysis plays an important role both in the primary diagnosis of a number of diseases and in the control of their course. This test is used for general assessment of health status, diagnosis, monitoring of the course, evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy for a variety of diseases, including anemia, infections, inflammatory diseases, etc. added anticoagulant into two layers: upper (clear plasma) and lower (settled erythrocytes). With the appearance in the blood plasma of a large number of proteins of the acute phase of inflammation, which include fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, alpha and gamma globulins, etc. , or paraproteins, the repulsive force between the erythrocytes decreases, and the erythrocytes settle faster (ESR increases). In acute inflammatory diseases, ESR usually rises a day after the onset of the disease, while the normalization of this indicator after recovery is slower, and can take from several days to two or more weeks.

See also test no. 43 CRP (C-reactive protein).

Please note that when performing a clinical blood test (No. 1515) and when calculating the leukocyte formula (No. 119), if significant deviations are found in the samples, and the result requires manual microscopy, INVITRO additionally performs a manual calculation of the leukocyte formula with counting young forms of neutrophils (including an accurate count of stab neutrophils) and a quantitative assessment of all pathological forms of leukocytes (if any).

What is the purpose of the study “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukocyte formula, ESR”

Complete blood count together with leukocyte formula is widely used as one of the basic tests of laboratory examination in most diseases, although the changes that occur in peripheral blood are detectable for the most part are non-specific, and are subject to interpretation only in conjunction with an analysis of the clinical situation, anamnesis and the results of other types of examination. In addition to a general blood test with a leukoformula, in certain clinical situations, it may be useful to evaluate the ESR as a non-specific marker of inflammation activity (see also test No. 43).

What can affect the results of the test “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukoformula, ESR”

Changes in the protein composition of the blood during pregnancy lead to an increase in ESR during this period. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is influenced by their morphology (poikilocytosis of the erythrocytes of the test sample leads to an underestimation of the ESR, smoothing the shape of the erythrocytes, on the contrary, can accelerate the ESR), as well as the hematocrit value. A decrease in the content of erythrocytes (anemia) in the blood leads to an acceleration of ESR and, conversely, an increase in the content of erythrocytes in the blood slows down the rate of sedimentation.

At different times of the day, at different times after a meal, and also due to excessive dehydration or hyperhydration, fluctuations in the values ​​​​of clinical blood tests are possible, so it is advisable to carry out routine diagnostic studies under standard conditions (see Preparation for studies). Clinical blood test indicators have age and gender characteristics and are subject to interpretation in comparison with reference values ​​in relation to sex and age.


Rules for preparing for the study “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukoformula, ESR”

It is preferable to take blood in the morning on an empty stomach, after 8-14 hours of a night fasting period (you can drink water), it is permissible in the afternoon 4 hours after light meal.

On the eve of the study, it is necessary to exclude increased psycho-emotional and physical activity (sports training), alcohol intake.

Indications for use

In what cases is carried out “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukoformula, ESR”:

  • in order to diagnose and control the course of the pathological process;
  • hematological diseases;
  • inflammatory diseases;
  • infections;
  • oncological diseases.

Interpretation of results

Interpretation of test results contains information for the attending physician and is not a diagnosis. The information in this section should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. An accurate diagnosis is made by the doctor, using both the results of this examination and the necessary information from other sources: history, results of other examinations, etc.

See related tests.

Interpretation of the results of the study “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukoformula, ESR”

See descriptions of individual tests:

  • №5 Blood test. Complete blood count (without leukocyte formula and ESR) (Complete Blood Count, CBC)
  • №119 Leukocyte formula (differential white blood cell count, leukocytogram, Differential White Blood Cell Count) with blood smear microscopy in the presence of pathological changes.
  • №139 ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, ESR)


and answers


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In this section you can find out how much it costs to complete this study in your city, read the description of the test and the table for interpreting the results. When choosing where to take the analysis “Clinical blood test: general analysis, leukoformula, ESR (with microscopy of a blood smear in the presence of pathological changes)” in Volzhsky and other cities of Russia, do not forget that the price of the analysis, the cost of the biomaterial taking procedure, methods and deadlines studies at regional medical offices may differ.

prices, take tests in Moscow near you in the laboratory DNAOM

Attention! The service is not running in CITO mode.
Complete blood count 5 diff is a study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of blood elements.
The material for the study is blood taken from a finger into a microvete.

Capillary blood sampling is recommended:

  • for burns that occupy a large surface area of ​​the patient’s body;
  • with severe obesity of the patient;
  • with an established tendency to venous thrombosis;
  • in newborns.

Complete blood count 5 diff includes:

  • determination of the size, number, shape of erythrocytes and their hemoglobin content;
  • determination of the ratio of plasma volume to blood cells;
  • determination of the total number of leukocytes;
  • calculation of the percentage of different leukocytes: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils on an automatic analyzer;
  • counting and evaluation of the average size of platelets.

The CBC is performed as the first screening test for complaints of “malaise”. The analysis gives an idea of ​​the possible areas where pathological changes occur and helps the clinician determine further examination tactics.


    • screening examinations within the framework of preventive, dispensary observation;
    • basic examinations during hospitalization in therapeutic and surgical hospitals;
    • diagnosis of anemia;
    • diagnostics of inflammatory, infectious diseases;
    • diagnostics of diseases of the blood system;
    • monitoring of ongoing therapy and the course of various diseases.

    Special preparation is not required. Blood sampling is recommended no earlier than 4 hours after the last meal. Children – before the next feeding. If possible, eliminate high emotional and physical stress the day before.

    Interpretation of results
    When interpreting the analysis, it should be taken into account that in 5% of healthy people, the blood test values ​​deviate from the accepted reference values. Blood counts depend on race and sex, age.

    The most important indicators in the general blood test:

    1. Hb (hemoglobin) – hemoglobin;
    2. Ht – hematocrit;
    3. total number of erythrocytes ;
    4. MCV* — mean erythrocyte volume;
    5. RDW * – distribution of erythrocytes by volume;
    6. MCH * — average content of hemoglobin in 1 erythrocyte;
    7. MCHC * – average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes;
    8. total platelet count;
    9. total leukocyte count ;
    10. leukocyte formula.

    *It should be taken into account that the value is not specific, the indicator should be used to diagnose anemia only in combination with other indicators of the general blood test and biochemical blood tests.

    Determination of CBC parameters allows diagnosing conditions such as anemia/polycythemia, thrombocytopenia/thrombocytosis and leukopenia/leukocytosis, which can either be symptoms of a disease or act as independent pathologies.

    Hemoglobin (Hb, hemoglobin)

    A protein in erythrocytes that contains heme. The main function is the transport of oxygen.
    Units of measurement: g/l.

    Increased hemoglobin:

    • dehydration: with severe diarrhea, vomiting, increased sweating, diabetes, burn disease, peritonitis;
    • physiological erythrocytosis: in residents of highlands, pilots, athletes;
    • symptomatic erythrocytosis: with insufficiency of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, polycystic kidney disease; erythremia.

    Decrease in hemoglobin:

    • anemia of various etiologies;
    • hyperhydration.

    Hematocrit (Ht, hematocrit)
    An indicator of the proportion of cells in the majority of red blood cells to the liquid part of the blood.
    Units: %

    Increase in hematocrit:

    • dehydration: with severe diarrhea, vomiting, increased sweating, diabetes, burn disease, peritonitis;
    • physiological erythrocytosis: in residents of highlands, pilots, athletes;
    • symptomatic erythrocytosis: with insufficiency of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, polycystic kidney disease;
    • erythremia.

    Decreased hematocrit:

    • anemia of various etiologies;
    • hyperhydration.

    Units: ppm (10 6 /µl).
    Alternative units of measure: 10 12 cells/L.
    Conversion factors: 10 12 cells/l = 10 6 cells/µl = million/µl.

    Increased concentration of erythrocytes:

    • dehydration: with severe diarrhea, vomiting, increased sweating, diabetes, burn disease, peritonitis;
    • physiological erythrocytosis: in residents of highlands, pilots, athletes;
    • symptomatic erythrocytosis: with insufficiency of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, polycystic kidney disease;
    • erythremia.

    Decrease in the concentration of erythrocytes:

    • anemia of various etiologies;
    • hyperhydration.

    Estimated indicator, which is calculated based on the histogram of the distribution by size of erythrocytes. According to MCV, microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic anemias are distinguished. An increase in the indicator indicates the presence of large erythrocytes in the blood, a decrease indicates the presence of small ones.

    Units: fl (femtoliter).

    Increased MCV values:

    • B 12 – deficiency and folate deficiency anemia;
    • aplastic anemia;
    • liver disease;
    • hypothyroidism;
    • autoimmune anemias;
    • smoking and drinking.

    Reduced MCVs:

    • iron deficiency anemia;
    • anemia of chronic disease;
    • thalassemia;
    • some types of hemoglobinopathies.

    RDW (Red cell Distribution Width)
    The calculated value, which is calculated on the basis of the histogram of the distribution of erythrocytes by volume. Reflects the heterogeneity of erythrocyte sizes. An increase in the indicator indicates that small and large red blood cells are present in the blood sample. Decreasing the value indicates the homogeneity of erythrocytes in the sample.

    Units: %

    RDW boost:

    • anemia with heterogeneity in erythrocyte size, including those associated with nutrition; myelodysplastic, megaloblastic and sideroblastic types; anemia accompanying myelophthisis; homozygous thalassemias and some homozygous hemoglobinopathies;
    • significant increase in the number of reticulocytes;
    • condition after red cell transfusion;
    • interference – cold agglutinins, leukemia, hyperglycemia.

    A calculated indicator that characterizes the average mass of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte. An increase in the indicator is associated with a supersaturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin, a decrease indicates a deficiency of hemoglobin.

    Units: pg (picogram).

    Increase in MCH values:

    • B 12 – deficiency and folate deficiency anemia;
    • aplastic anemia;
    • liver disease;
    • hypothyroidism;
    • autoimmune anemias;
    • smoking and drinking.

    Decreased MCH:

    • iron deficiency anemia;
    • anemia of chronic disease;
    • some types of hemoglobinopathies.

    A calculated indicator that characterizes the average mass of hemoglobin contained in a unit volume of an erythrocyte.

    Units: g/dl.
    Alternative units of measurement: g/l.
    Conversion factor: g/l x 0. 1 ==> g/dl.

    Increase in MCHC values:

    • hereditary microspherocytic anemia.

    Decreased MCHC values:

    • iron deficiency anemia;
    • anemia of chronic disease;
    • some types of hemoglobinopathies.

    It should be borne in mind that the MCHC value is not specific, the indicator should be used to diagnose anemia only in combination with other indicators of a general blood test and a biochemical blood test.

    Units: thousand/µl (10 3 cells/µl).
    Alternative units of measure: 10 9 cells/l.
    Conversion factors: 10 9 cells/l = 10 3 cells/µl = thousand/µl.

    Increased platelet concentration:

    • physical overexertion;
    • inflammatory diseases, acute and chronic;
    • hemolytic anemias;
    • anemia due to acute or chronic blood loss;
    • conditions after undergoing surgical interventions;
    • condition after splenectomy;
    • oncological diseases and hemoblastoses.

    Decreased platelet concentration:

    • pregnancy;
    • B 12 – deficiency and folic acid deficiency anemia;
    • aplastic anemia;
    • viral and bacterial infections;
    • taking drugs that inhibit platelet production;
    • congenital thrombocytopenia;
    • splenomegaly;
    • autoimmune diseases;
    • conditions after undergoing massive blood transfusions.


    Cells with nuclei that perform protective functions. Formed in the red bone marrow and organs of the lymphatic system. There are 5 populations: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils or basophils. Functions and lifetime depend on which population the leukocyte belongs to.

    Units: thousand/µl (10 3 cells/µl).
    Alternative units of measure: 10 9 cells/l.
    Conversion factors: 10 9 cells/l = 10 3 cells/µl = thousand/µl.

    Increase in the concentration of leukocytes:

    • physiological leukocytosis: emotional and physical stress, exposure to sunlight, cold, eating, pregnancy, menstruation;
    • inflammatory processes;
    • viral and bacterial infections;
    • conditions after surgery;
    • intoxication;
    • burns and injuries;
    • infarcts of internal organs;
    • malignant neoplasms;
    • hemoblastosis.

    Decreased leukocyte count:

    • viral and certain chronic infections;
    • taking medications: antibiotics, cytostatics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, thyreostatics, etc.;
    • autoimmune diseases;
    • exposure to ionizing radiation;
    • wasting and cachexia;
    • anemia;
    • splenomegaly;
    • hemoblastosis.

    Leukocyte formula
    Leukocyte formula – the percentage of different types of leukocytes in peripheral blood and counting their number per unit volume.