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The Coronavirus: What We Know Right Now

What is a Coronavirus?

Human Coronaviruses as a whole are by no means new. In fact, most people have likely had coronavirus at some point in their life; as these viruses typically cause mild respiratory illnesses like the common cold.  So, what is the difference with COVID-19? It appears that this particular coronavirus likely started in bats. In the past, the coronaviruses that have originated in animals and then spread to humans have caused more significant illnesses.  The two prior coronaviruses to start in this particular manner were SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003 and MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome), which surfaced in 2012. The COVID-19 virus is “novel” meaning that until December 2019, this strain had not been identified in humans.

What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

According to the Center of Disease Control (CDC) people with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms-ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Reported symptoms include fever or chills, cough, body aches, sore throat, headache, diarrhea, new loss of taste or smell, congestion or runny nose, and even shortness of breath.  If you have of the above symptoms, call your medical provider for guidance on where to be evaluated. Older adults and people who have severe underlying chronic medical conditions like heart or lung disease or diabetes seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications from COVID-19 illness. Click here for additional information on Coronavirus symptoms from the CDC. 

If you or your loved one is having symptoms
  • Contact your primary care doctor to see when and where you should be tested
  • Stay Home!
  • Try to isolate from other household members as much as possible.

For an update on COVID-19 and Frequently Asked Questions about testing click here

Diseases and their Vectors

Bacterial Diseases

Mode of Transmission



Airborne water droplets

Fatigue, persistent cough, bleeding in lungs; can be fatal


Airborne water droplets

Fever, sore throat, fatigue

Scarlet Fever

Airborne water droplets

Rash, fever, sore throat



Fever, weakness, headache, progression into bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms.



Rash, chills, fever; often fatal


Dirty wounds

Severe, prolonged muscle spasms


Contaminated water

Severe diarrhea, vomiting; often fatal


Contaminated water and food

Headaches, fever, diarrhea, rash; often fatal

Hanson’s Disease (Leprosy)

Personal contact

Nerve damage, skin lesions, tissue degeneration

Hantavirus Bite or contact with rodent waste products Fever, chills, sweaty palms, diarrhea, malaise, headaches, nausea, abdominal and back pain, respiratory problems

Lyme Disease


Rash, pain, swelling in joints

Syphilis Sexual transmission Chancre sores, rash, later no visible symptoms, late stage can involve inflammation and involvement of central nervous system
Gonorrhea Sexual transmission Often no symptoms, or burning sensation during urination, many late symptoms if untreated

Viral Diseases

Mode of Transmission


COVID-19 Airborne (droplets) fever, dry cough, fatigue, shortness of breath
Zika virus mosquito or sexual transmission fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, rash, but often no symptoms; can cause microcephaly in unborn children
H5N1 (Bird Flu) Airborne, originated in poultry fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis
h2N1 (Swine Flu) Airborne, originated in pigs headache, muscle aches, sore throat, cough
SARS Airborne (droplets) fever, muscle ache, lethargy, cough, sore throat


Air currents

rash, fever

Measles (Red Measles)

Air currents

blotchy rash, high fever, congestion in nose and throat

Rubella (German Measles)

Air currents

rash, swollen glands


Air currents

swollen salivary glands

Influenza (Flu)

Air currents

headache, muscle aches, sore throat, cough; can be fatal


Air currents

high fever, pustules on skin; now extinct (though the U. S. and Russia have frozen samples)

Infectious hepatitis (Hep A)

Contaminated food or water

fever, chills, nausea, swollen liver, jaundice, pain in the joints


Contaminated food or water

headache, stiff neck, possible paralysis

Dengue fever Mosquitoes fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pain, skin rash

Yellow fever


nausea, fever, aches, liver cell destruction; can be fatal

Ebola Contact with bodily fluids, consumption of bush meat fever, sore throat, muscle pain, headache followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, internal bleeding


Exchange of bodily fluids

immune system failure; often fatal due to secondary infections


Protist Diseases



Amoebic dysentery







Humans, cats





African sleeping sickness

Humans, tsetse flies



Humans, sand flies


COVID delta variant has slightly different symptoms

by: K. Querry-Thompson/KFOR, Nexstar Media Wire

Posted: / Updated:

(Getty Images)

OKLAHOMA CITY (KFOR) – As concern grows regarding the delta variant’s spread across the globe, health leaders are warning about somewhat different symptoms that come with it.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is reporting drastic increases across the country in the number of people contracting COVID-19.

As hospitals begin to fill up with younger, unvaccinated patients, doctors are stressing that there are new symptoms people should watch for as the highly contagious delta variant spreads.

Indiana doctors: Breakthrough cases are rare

“The delta variant has slightly different symptoms compared to the original virus. You may not get the loss of taste & smell. The delta variant could cause issues like a cough, shortness of breath, a fever, body aches, congestion, and more. Please get tested if you have these,” Dr. George Monks wrote on Twitter.

(15) The delta variant has slightly different symptoms compared to the original virus. You may not get the loss of taste& smell. The delta variant could cause issues like a cough, shortness of breath, a fever, body aches, congestion, and more. Please get tested if you have these

— George Monks (@GeorgeMonks11) July 17, 2021

Without a test, many patients may not realize they have COVID-19 until their symptoms intensify, doctors say.

Common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea, according to the CDC.

Experts stress that the delta variant spreads easily and it takes less of the virus to make someone sick. The variant, a version of the coronavirus first identified in India, was first detected in the U. S. in January. It’s now spreading in more than 90 countries.

“This delta variant is more deadly than the original,” said Dr. Mary Clarke, Oklahoma State Medical Association President.

As of July 14, the CDC reported the current seven-day moving average of daily new COVID-19 cases increased 69.3% compared to the previous week’s numbers.

Also, the seven-day average of new hospital admissions for COVID-19 was 35.8% higher than the same time the previous week.

Officials also stress that deaths have increased 26.3% compared to the previous seven-day moving average.

In order to protect yourself from the latest variant, officials stress that you should continue to wash your hands, keep your distance, wear a mask and get vaccinated.

Monks said that even if you are fully vaccinated, it’s still a good idea to wear a mask in indoor settings or crowded areas.

“If you are still hesitant or have some questions about the Covid vaccine, please talk to your physician. The Covid vaccine is safe and very effective at keeping you out of the hospital and keeping you alive. Getting Covid is risky,” Monks wrote.

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Is it a Stomach Virus or Food Poisoning?

By Dr. Joseph DiFranza
Family Practitioner, Reliant Medical Group

When you are vomiting every hour or going through a bad round of diarrhea, you may not care that much whether you have a stomach virus or food poisoning. However, once you recover you may wonder if you can safely return to your favorite restaurant or barbecue stand again…so it can be valuable to know the difference.

In the United States, the most common cause of a stomach virus (also known as stomach flu) is the norovirus. This is a viral infection that attacks the digestive system (and has nothing to do with the flu virus). Stomach viruses like the norovirus are very contagious and can spread quickly. We’ve all heard the stories about passengers on cruise ships suffering en masse with the norovirus. Unfortunately, people infected with a stomach virus are contagious from the moment they become ill to at least the first few days after they recover. Typical stomach viruses can be spread in a number of ways:

  • Eating food or drinking liquids that have been contaminated with the virus
  • Touching a surface that someone with the infection has touched
  • Having direct contact with someone that has the virus

Stomach viruses can be easily spread through the vomit and stool of infected people, so caretakers should be especially careful and take precautions. Although there are rapid stool tests that can be used to detect the norovirus or rotavirus, your doctor will probably make a diagnosis by asking about your symptoms. Typical symptoms of a stomach virus (also known as gastroenteritis) are:

  • Diarrhea that may be watery or bloody
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach cramps, muscle aches or weakness
  • A low-grade fever
  • Headaches, as well as light-headedness or dizziness

Food poisoning often causes similar symptoms to a stomach virus, which is why the two conditions often confused. However, food poisoning is caused by consuming food that is contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Medical professionals often use the term gastroenteritis to describe both conditions.

The symptoms of food poisoning hit more quickly than those of a stomach virus. While symptoms of a stomach virus can take days to develop, food poisoning symptoms can appear very quickly – within six hours of eating a meal. Food poisoning is usually caused by bacteria. Salmonella and E. coli are two common types of bacteria linked to food poisoning. Usually food poisoning happens to more than one person at a time. (Everyone who eats the contaminated food becomes ill.) Salad greens, eggs, undercooked poultry, dairy products and seafood can easily cause food poisoning if they are not handled properly, whether at home or in a restaurant.

Although the symptoms are similar, there are some ways to tell the difference between the stomach flu and food poisoning.

  • Bloody diarrhea is more likely to be a symptom of food poisoning.
  • Projectile vomiting and stomach cramps are often caused by the norovirus, a type of stomach virus.
  • Stomach viruses take longer to develop but usually go away in about 24 to 28 hours after symptoms begin. Food poisoning often lasts longer.
  • Food poisoning usually affects more than one person and can often be traced to a particular source.
  • A stomach virus is more likely to cause a fever, headache and stomach pain.

Whether you have food poisoning or a stomach bug, the important thing to do is treat it properly. Here are some tips:

  • One of the most important things to do is stay hydrated. Throwing up and suffering from diarrhea means you are losing a lot of fluids. Take small sips of water or broth to stay hydrated. Fluids that contain electrolytes such as sports drinks or coconut water can also be helpful (avoid sugary drinks).
  • If you can safely keep fluids in your system, you can start to eat simple, easy-to digest foods such as toast, crackers, soup, rice and bread.
  • Get plenty of rest. It’s best to cancel any planned activities until you feel better.
  • Don’t take any anti-nausea or anti-diarrhea medication without consulting a medical provider first (some medications can make you feel worse). Adults can take ibuprofen or acetaminophen to relieve symptoms.

Be sure to call your doctor if you have a fever, can’t tolerate liquids, have bloody stools or if your diarrhea is severe or lasts more than three days. If you take a prescription medication for a pre-existing condition but can’t keep it down, you should also contact your doctor.

Pediatric COVID-19 Inflammatory Syndrome: What to Look For

In a way, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, or MIS-C, is a master of disguise. Appearing in Maryland in mid-to-late April, after making its presence known in Europe and New York City, the COVID-related syndrome is causing typical viral symptoms in children, including fever and stomach upset such as pain, diarrhea and vomiting, but generally not respiratory problems. However, some children are experiencing conjunctivitis, red eye, skin rash, swollen hands or feet, cracked lips and even a very red tongue — signs associated with classic Kawasaki disease, marked by inflammation of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart. Also confounding this clinical picture, some children experience neurologic symptoms such as headache, unusual sleepiness, disorientation and confusion. So, confronting such symptoms, how should parents react? Call their pediatrician? Drive to the nearest hospital? Watch and wait?

“It’s tough because we’re dealing with a newly identified illness,” says pediatric infectious disease specialist Anna Sick-Samuels. “We think this may be similar to Kawasaki disease, which we are familiar with, but we are still learning about this new condition.”

“The CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] is coming out with various treatment recommendations, but this is a new virus and without solid science or the time to do randomized control trials to figure out the exact science of this, it’s hard to predict which children need hospitalization and which will become critically ill,” adds pediatric intensivist Becky Riggs.

Riggs, Sick-Samuels and their colleagues at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center know that those afflicted with MIS-C likely had COVID-19 infection beforehand, evidenced by antibodies created by the immune system in response to healing from the virus. Many of these children may not have had symptoms of the original COVID-19 infection, but a few weeks later they developed symptoms of this newly recognized illness called MIS-C.

“Because we find antibodies to COVID-19 in these patients, we think this is an immune response, not an active viral infection anymore,” says Sick-Samuels. “The initial infection with COVID-19 triggered the child’s immune system to attack its own body, causing inflammation and injury.”

The initial symptoms of MIS-C may be vague and not necessarily something that a parent would typically bring their child to the doctor for, notes Riggs. Different from those found in other illnesses, symptoms of MIS-C may not go away and will get worse over time.

“The longer this inflammation continues without treatment or supportive care,” Riggs says, “the sicker these kids will continue to get. ” Riggs and Sick-Samuels stress that the two symptoms of MIS-C most often seen are persisting fever and an upset stomach (pain, vomiting or diarrhea).

In addition to fever and stomach symptoms, other symptoms children with MIS-C have had include skin rashes, red eyes, swollen hands and feet, red “strawberry” tongue, symptoms of meningitis such as neck pain and headache, body aches, poor appetite, loss of taste or smell, and overall feeling unwell. The take-home message, say Sick-Samuels and Riggs, is parents should not hesitate to call their child’s pediatrician if they have any concerns.

Parents should bring their child to an emergency room if their child has any of the following symptoms:

  • Persistent fever (greater than 38 degrees Celsius or 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) for four or more days (even if there are no other symptoms).
  • Difficulty feeding (infants) or too sick to drink fluids.
  • Severe and persistent abdominal pain, diarrhea or vomiting.
  • Dehydration with decreased frequency of urination.
  • Change in skin color or appearance — becoming pale, patchy or blue, swelling, or turning bright red, especially in the hands or feet.
  • Trouble breathing, painful breathing or breathing very quickly.
  • Racing heart or chest pain that does not improve with a simple dose of acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • Unusual sleepiness, dizziness or confusion.

Treatment includes IV fluids, medicines such as steroids or immunoglobulins to fight inflammation and, for some patients, blood thinning agents because these children are prone to developing blood clots. In the pediatric intensive care unit, patients may also receive medication to keep blood pressure at a normal level and to support the heart. In some very rare but severe cases, the child may require a breathing tube or support on extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) heart/lung bypass to allow the heart and lungs, if injured, to heal. However, even with this extreme intensive support, some children do not survive, says Riggs, stressing the need for fast and early medical intervention.

The good news is that MIS-C seems to be a rare complication of COVID-19. Even though children with MIS-C can get very sick and a few children have not survived, most children with this illness have recovered fully. “We are still learning a lot about this condition,” says Sick-Samuels. “There is amazing collaboration between the hospitals and the CDC to learn from each other and quickly build our understanding and optimize management of MIS-C.” 

Johns Hopkins’ medical concierge services offer complimentary assistance with appointments and travel planning. Request free assistance:

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Disease Outbreak Control Division | Norovirus


Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause gastroenteritis. Viruses are very different from bacteria and parasites, some of which can cause illnesses similar to norovirus infection. Viruses are much smaller, are not affected by antibiotic treatment, and cannot grow outside of a host (animal or human).

You may hear norovirus illness called “food poisoning” or “stomach flu.” It is true that food poisoning can be caused by noroviruses. But, other germs and chemicals can also cause food poisoning. Norovirus illness is not related to the flu, which is a respiratory illness caused by influenza virus.

From: https://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/index.html



Symptoms of norovirus illness usually begin about 24 to 48 hours after exposure to the virus, but they can appear as early as 12 hours after exposure.

The symptoms of norovirus illness usually include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. Some people may have a mild fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and a general sense of tiredness. The illness often begins suddenly, and the infected person may feel very sick. The illness is usually short, with symptoms lasting only about 1 or 2 days.

Infographics : CDC

Noroviruses are found in the stool or vomit of an infected person. People can become infected with norovirus by eating or drinking contaminated food or water or by touching objects or surfaces contaminated with norovirus, and then placing the hand or object in the mouth.

Due to the highly infectious nature of the virus, outbreaks of norovirus are possible, particularly in settings such as long term care facilities, schools, and cruise ships. Norovirus can also be found in shellfish, especially oysters and clams, or on produce that has been washed or irrigated with contaminated water.


Your doctor can order tests to detect norovirus in stool. The tests are most accurate when performed within 2–3 days after onset of symptoms.

There is no medicine that works against norovirus and there is no vaccine to prevent infection. Severe diarrhea and/or vomiting over a long time may cause the body to lose fluid too quickly. Lost fluids should be replaced by drinking liquids such as fruit juices, soups, and special fluids called oral rehydration salts.

There is no lasting immunity. There are many different types of norovirus, and being infected with one will not protect you from getting another. Any time you are infected with a different type of norovirus, you could become ill again.

Norovirus is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness year-round, though it is more common during the winter months. While people of all ages are susceptible to infection, rates of infection in children under 5 are higher, and elderly people may be at risk for more severe illness.

  • Students with diarrhea should stay home from school until the diarrhea stops. Food handlers, day care workers and health care workers should not return to work until they have their doctor’s permission
  • Wash your hands well after using the toilet, changing diapers and before preparing or eating food. After changing diapers, wash the child’s hands as well as your own.
  • Carefully wash fruits and vegetables, and cook seafood thoroughly.
  • Immediately clean and disinfect surfaces contaminated with stool or vomit by using bleach-based household cleaner.
  • Immediately remove and wash soiled clothing or linens that may be contaminated with virus (use hot water and soap).
  • Flush or discard any vomitus and/or stool in the toilet and make sure that the surrounding area is kept clean.

Norovirus is a ROUTINE/ENTERIC (enteric prevention priority) notifiable condition and must be reported by phone if the individual is a food handler, direct care provider, or pre-school aged child. Otherwise routine reports may be used. Laboratory confirmed cases and suspected outbreaks should be reported.

Disease Reporting Phone Numbers (24/7)
Oahu (Disease Investigation Branch): (808) 586-4586
Maui District Health Office: (808) 984-8213
Kauai District Health Office: (808) 241-3563
Big Island District Health Office (Hilo): (808) 933-0912
Big Island District Health Office (Kona): (808) 322-4877
After hours on Oahu: (808) 600-3625
After hours on neighbor islands: (800) 360-2575 (toll free)

For more information: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


Last Reviewed: June 2019

90,000 Influenza and Acute Intestinal Infections – City Hospital


Influenza has been and remains a serious health problem, causing annual epidemics, during which up to 10% of adults and up to 30% of children on the planet fall ill. This is the most common infection in the world. Every year, influenza epidemics cause huge economic losses, both to individuals and to society as a whole. In addition, the incidence of influenza is accompanied by an increase in mortality, and then we are talking about millions of human lives.

How can you get infected?

Influenza, like other ARVI (acute respiratory viral infections), is transmitted by airborne droplets. A sick person actively talks, coughs, sneezes, while particles of saliva containing the influenza virus enter the surrounding air, and from there into our upper respiratory tract (nose, nasopharynx). There may be a contact-everyday path: a sick person, coughing, covered his mouth with his palm, then took hold of the handrail in public transport, the door handle in the office … We followed him into the bus, office … You can get infected, and exchanging common objects with the sick person everyday life and everyday life, notebooks, writing utensils, using common utensils.

How does the flu manifest itself?

The disease, as a rule, begins suddenly: with a sharp rise in temperature (38-39 degrees and above). At the very beginning of the disease, you may feel chills, weakness and lethargy, severe headache. On the 2-3rd day of illness, a sore throat, a runny nose, a dry cough begins. The disease can be accompanied by abdominal pain and vomiting.

Why, despite all the efforts of modern medicine, the flu does not leave our planet?

Passing from person to person, the virus seeks new forms of protection, slightly transforming the proteins of its shell and adapting to survival in the human body.Thus, each year brings us new mutated varieties of this disease.

Why is flu so terrible?

Moderate and severe forms of influenza can cause serious complications: pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs), cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the nervous system, etc. sore throats).

Influenza is a serious illness that kills between 300,000 and 500,000 people every year worldwide.Pregnant women, young children, the elderly in poor health, and people with chronic conditions such as asthma or heart disease are at increased risk of severe infection and death. An additional benefit of vaccinating pregnant women is that the vaccine for the mother also protects the newborn (there is no flu vaccine for children under 6 months of age).

Seasonal influenza vaccines provide immunity to the 3 most common strains circulating during a given season.This is the best way to reduce your risk of developing severe flu and getting others around you. These vaccines have been in use for over 60 years. Avoiding the flu means avoiding additional medical costs and losing income from absenteeism or school absence.

Mass vaccinations against influenza are carried out in accordance with the National Vaccination Schedule every year.

Where can I get the flu shot?

In polyclinics and GPs of the city:

Polyclinic №1 st.Oktyabrskaya, 80 Inoculation room

ORP of the settlement of Silikatny, ORP of the settlement of Chkalov

Polyclinic №2 st. Dobrolyubova, 7 vaccination room

Polyclinic №3 st. Ryabova, 20 vaccination room

Branch of the polyclinic in Leninsky, Lermontov str., 137 vaccination room.


This is a group of acute infectious diseases occurring with a predominant lesion of the intestines, which is accompanied by upset stools, dehydration and intoxication of the body.Symptoms of acute intestinal infections Acute intestinal infections are a group of acute infectious diseases occurring with a predominant intestinal lesion, which is accompanied by upset stools, dehydration and intoxication of the body. The causative agents of acute intestinal infections are various types of bacteria (shigella – causative agents of dysentery, salmonella, E. coli, staphylococcus, yersinia, enterococci, as well as conditionally pathogenic microorganisms – Proteus, Klebsiella, Candida fungi) and viruses (rotavirus, adenosirus, enterovirus).Infection occurs through food, water, household items, dirty hands. Pathogenic microorganisms cause damage to various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which is accompanied by an appropriate clinical picture.


Infection occurs when eating mainly contaminated eggs, poultry, but infection is possible through meat and fish. Poor heat treatment and improper storage of products play a decisive role, so the disease occurs mainly in the warm season.The contact-household route of infection is also possible, because Salmonella is very persistent in the external environment. The disease is characterized by an acute onset, nausea, repeated vomiting, a rise in temperature (up to 38-39C), then pain in the navel area or throughout the abdomen, bloating, frequent loose fetid stools – 10 or more times per day, which can last without treatment 5-8 days. Symptoms of dehydration and general intoxication (fever, general weakness and malaise) are pronounced.

Rotavirus infection (“intestinal flu”).

The main route of transmission is food. Children are more often infected with this virus, as a result of the transferred disease, partial immunity is developed and each subsequent case is easier. The disease has an epidemic feature: its outbreaks usually precede flu epidemics (for which it received its unofficial name “intestinal flu”). The disease begins acutely: vomiting occurs, the temperature rises, loose stools appear up to 10-15 times a day. The chair has its own characteristics – it has a yellow-gray clay-like character.In most cases, catarrhal symptoms are also noted – a runny nose and sore throat. Symptoms of general intoxication are noted: general malaise, lack of appetite.

Enterovirus infection

Infection occurs mainly when bathing in water bodies, which are treated with untreated sewage. Enterovirus infection is characterized by swelling, vomiting, fever, headache, abdominal pain, loose stools, but also damage to the meninges – serous meningitis, which is also accompanied by the appearance of a rash on the arms and legs.Adenovirus spreads by airborne droplets and infects all mucous membranes. Therefore, in severe adenovirus infection, stool disorder is noted against a background of high fever, catarrhal phenomena (runny nose, cough), conjunctivitis. Diagnosis of acute intestinal infections. Due to the similarity of the symptoms of acute intestinal diseases, when a patient develops an appropriate clinical picture, a preliminary diagnosis of “Acute intestinal disease” is established and samples are taken from the rectum for inoculation and subsequent bacteriological examination.Thus, in particular, the causative agents of dysentery and salmonellosis can be identified. Currently, enzyme immunoassay is increasingly used to identify pathogens of intestinal infections. Serological methods are of less importance in the diagnosis of intestinal infections, because antibodies in the blood appear only on day 4-5. Treatment of acute intestinal infections The principles of treatment of most acute intestinal infections are largely similar. A gentle diet is prescribed. With severe intoxication and dehydration, polyionic solutions are prescribed orally or intravenously, and in the absence of dehydration, colloidal solutions (rheopolyglucin, hemodez, etc.)). It is recommended to add antibiotics to the treatment regimen: nitrofurans, and in severe cases, fluoroquinolones for a course of 5-7 days. Enterosorbents (smecta, activated carbon, enterosgel) are used to treat diarrhea. For the treatment of generalized forms (sepsis, meningitis, pyelonephritis, cholecystitis), II and III generation cephalosporins are used. With a protracted course of diseases, eubiotics and enzymes are indicated. Prevention of acute intestinal infections

The World Health Organization gives ten “golden rules” for the prevention of intestinal infections:

1.Choose safe foods. Keep track of their expiration dates

2. Prepare food thoroughly. Observe the recommended heat treatment times.

3. Eat food as soon as possible after cooking.

4. Store food carefully. Observe the temperature storage conditions.

5. Reheat pre-cooked food thoroughly.

6. Avoid contact between raw and prepared food.

7.Wash your hands often, and be sure to wash your hands before eating.

8. Keep the kitchen clean. Do not use one cutting board and one knife for raw and cooked food

9. Protect food from insects (flies!), Rodents and other animals.

10. Use only high quality clean water or boiled water.


Enteroviruses – so named because after the onset of infection, they multiply initially in the gastrointestinal tract.Despite this, they usually do not cause intestinal symptoms, most often they actively spread and cause symptoms and diseases of organs such as the heart, skin, lungs, brain and spinal cord Enteroviruses are found throughout the world, but infection most often occurs in areas with low the level of hygiene and high overcrowding. The virus is most commonly transmitted through the faecal-oral route, as well as through contaminated food or water. The ingestion of certain strains of the virus by airborne droplets can lead to respiratory diseases.Breast milk contains antibodies that can protect newborns. The incubation period for most enteroviruses is 2 to 14 days. In areas with a temperate climate, infections occur mainly in summer and autumn.

Enterovirus most often enters the human body through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or respiratory tract. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, viruses stop in the local lymph nodes where they begin the first stage of reproduction. Around the third day after infection, viruses enter the bloodstream and begin to circulate throughout the body.On the 3rd-7th day, viruses with blood can enter the organ systems where the second stage of reproduction can begin and, as a result, cause various diseases. The production of antibodies to the virus occurs during the first 7-10 days.

Symptoms and signs of enterovirus infection

Enteroviruses cause a huge number of infections per year. More than 90% of these cases are either asymptomatic or cause nonspecific febrile illness.Usually the spectrum of symptoms is very large, but in most cases it almost always includes: fever (an increase in body temperature up to 39-40 ° C), general weakness, headache, muscle pain and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Enteroviruses can cause several symptoms when ingested.

  • Runny nose and nasal and sinus congestion , nasal pain, sore throat, ear pain, difficulty swallowing, loss of smell or taste.
  • Nausea, indigestion, reflux, bloating , upper and lower abdominal pain, cramps, constipation alternating with diarrhea.
  • Rapid weight loss due to indigestion and decreased caloric intake or weight gain due to inactivity.
  • Numbness in the limbs , muscle twitching and spasms. Tingling of the face and numbness may occur.
  • Various types of headache (acute, aching, throbbing).
  • Pain in bones, muscles and joints . Leg pain is fairly common.
  • Chest pain and tightness, palpitations .
  • Cough, shortness of breath, wheezing .
  • Heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmias) or tachycardia (heart palpitations)
  • Intermittent fever – characterized by a rapid, significant increase in temperature (38-40 ° C), which lasts for several hours, and then gives way to a rapid drop to normal values), chills and severe night sweats.
  • Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity .
  • Vesicles or ulceration in the mouth, pharynx and, in women, in the vagina / cervix .
  • Psychological problems – anxiety or depression.
  • Problems concentrating . Cognitive problems, short-term memory problems.
  • Sleep disorder .
  • Seizures are rare, but they do happen.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
  • Rash

It is impossible to talk about any specific symptoms characteristic of the entire group of enteroviruses in addition to those listed above, but it is possible to group the symptoms manifested in complications of enterovirus infection:

Treatment of enterovirus infection

In most cases, Enterovirus infection proceeds without complications and does not require any specific treatment.The basis is symptomatic and supportive treatment. Bed rest, plenty of fluids, vitamins, in case of high fever, antipyretic. Do not forget that even if the slightest and insignificant symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor, especially if a child has symptoms! SELF-TREATMENT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE!


General hygiene and frequent hand washing are effective in reducing the spread of these viruses.If soap and clean water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. It’s important to note that breast milk contains antibodies that can protect your baby.

90,000 Abdominal migraine: a description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

Abdominal migraine is a specific form of the disease in which the patient suffers from attacks not headaches, but from abdominal pain. This is psychogenic pain that develops without any pathological changes in the intestines, abdominal organs or peritoneal muscles.The disease is observed in childhood and adolescence, and in adults it occurs only as an exception. Pain in pathology strongly resembles an attack of appendicitis or other intestinal pathologies, which requires a full examination of the patient. The pain syndrome with this migraine is from moderate to severe, and in some cases it is unbearable. The disease cannot be ignored, and it is required to carry out its treatment with the involvement of a specialist.

The special danger of this form of the disease is that it can easily be missed by serious violations that require urgent surgical intervention.This phenomenon is possible in cases where the attack is not the first, and the patient takes anesthetic to relieve it. In reality, this is not a migraine state, but symptoms of another disease. As a result, a blurred picture can cause a serious complication, which will pose a danger to the patient’s life.

For the first time, migraines in children usually appear between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Attacks occur with varying intensity, as with a normal migraine, and can be very rare, or develop constantly.During sleep, the pain completely subsides, which is associated with changes in the work of the central nervous system at this moment. Up to 20 years, the percentage of the ratio of patients of both sexes is the same. After 20 years in women, pathology is diagnosed more often, although it is a rare occurrence. The fact that adults have almost no migraine pain in the abdomen is due to the peculiarities in the work of the central nervous system. Most often, the abdominal form of the disease is characterized as a child’s migraine.

The pain attack lasts an average of 1 to 2 hours.At the same time, in some patients, it can last only a few minutes, or, conversely, it will last for 5 days, which is especially dangerous, since it easily leads to severe dehydration, requiring medical intervention. Pathology most often has a hereditary nature and occurs in children whose parents in childhood faced the same problem. When diagnosing a disease, the main principle is to exclude the presence of other pathologies in the patient.


The initial causes of the onset of the disease have not been sufficiently studied to date.Only the factors that can cause the development of pain syndrome have been established. Pain can occur for the following reasons:

  • strong nervous experiences – they can occur in children for many reasons that seem insignificant to an adult and do not require attention. Because of this, parents cannot always establish what triggered the problem in the child;

  • metabolic disorders;

  • rapid growth – while muscle tissues, bones and internal organs in children do not increase in size equally and are forced to catch up with each other;

  • improper sleep and rest routine;

  • A sharp increase in workload – especially often observed at the beginning of school.Causes an increase in seizures in children 7 years old;

  • physical activity – when they are too great for a given age category. Usually this cause occurs in adolescents;

  • unbalanced, illiterate nutrition;

  • abrupt change in weather or climate;

  • the use of a number of drugs.

To determine the patient’s condition, the doctor needs to know as accurately as possible about what happened after the attack. This will allow not only to make the correct diagnosis faster, but also to prescribe the most effective treatment.


When abdominal pain occurs, it is necessary to exclude the presence of other pathologies. For this, a general examination of the patient is carried out. The main activities are as follows:

  • ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;

  • magnetic resonance imaging – performed if possible;

  • clinical blood test;

  • general urine analysis.

It is also important to describe your condition to the doctor as accurately as possible and to name the time of the onset of the attack. An anamnesis of the disease is compulsorily collected. The diagnosis is made only after receiving all the patient’s examination data.

Temperature, vomiting, abdominal pain …

Date of publication: . Category: News.

Summer is the time of vacations and vacations.Understandably, the desire of parents to pamper their children with fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the garden, take them to swim in the nearest body of water. But the joy of communicating with nature can be overshadowed by an enterovirus infection.

The beginning of the epidemic rise of this disease, as a rule, falls on June, and the peak – in August-September. Last year, 14 cases of enterovirus infection were registered in the district (4 cases – gastroenteritis. 10 – herpangina). In the region, 481 such cases were registered, of which 459 were in children.

– A common symptom for all types of this infection is fever and a sharp rise in temperature, which usually lasts for 3-5 days, – says the infectious disease doctor of the district hospital E. V. Vasilieva. – If the infection is intestinal, the child will have abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. If the mucous membranes are attacked, signs of a respiratory disease will appear – a runny nose, cough, sore throat.

Well, if at a high temperature the child has a headache, vomiting does not stop, there is photophobia, the doctor already has reason to suspect serous-viral meningitis.

– Enterovirus infection is a “disease of dirty hands,” continues Elena Viktorovna. – The name is one, but there are a great many diseases that can be attributed to this type. It affects not only the gastrointestinal tract. It can affect the mouth and eyes. Becoming the cause of herpetic sore throat or conjunctivitis can cause fever with or without a rash, and can also cause very serious diseases such as serous viral meningitis or encephalitis.

The exact same answer to the question of whether the child has an enterovirus infection, and what kind of virus infected him, will only help laboratory tests.

Enterovirus most often affects children under the age of 10. The most likely way of infection is waterborne. The virus can enter the body when children splash in bodies of water and swallow water. Or if they drink unboiled water.

Airborne droplets and contact-household are also options for a wide spread of infection, primarily among organized preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Food products, in particular fresh vegetables, fruits, and berries, can also be a source of infection.

How to protect yourself from infection? First of all, follow the rules of personal hygiene. Use boiled or bottled water for drinking. Be sure to wash your hands with soap and water before eating and after each visit to the toilet. Ventilate the rooms more often and carry out wet cleaning in the apartment.

Before use, vegetables and fruits (including bananas, watermelons, kiwi) should be thoroughly washed with a brush and soap and rinsed with boiling water. The same goes for eggs.You should not purchase food products from individuals, in places not designated for trade.

Swim – only in officially approved places, when bathing, try to prevent water from getting into your mouth.

If you still did not manage to protect yourself from the disease, and you have clinical manifestations of an infectious disease, do not self-medicate, but seek qualified medical help!

classification, prevention, diagnosis in Anapa

Acute respiratory infections enter the body through the respiratory tract and mainly affect the respiratory system.Infection occurs through contact with an infected person, usually by airborne droplets. The symptoms of ARVI are similar in terms of the main indicators: fever, runny nose, sneezing and sore throat. SARS can cause dozens of viruses, but only a few are the most studied and diagnosed.

Types of respiratory infections

Rhinovirus infection – the most common among ARVI, affects the nose and nasopharynx. The disease-causing viruses of the picornavirus family are active all year round, but are most aggressive in April and September.Immunity in a person who has recovered is practically absent, therefore, it is possible to become infected several times in a year.

Symptoms appear in 1–5 days, nasal congestion, runny nose, chills, sneezing, sore throat, light cough, watery eyes are worried. Body temperature rarely rises above 38 degrees. If a bacterial infection does not join, the symptoms disappear in about a week, the person recovers.

Adenovirus infection affects the respiratory tract, eyes, lymphoid tissue, and the digestive tract.Symptoms appear 5-7 days after infection. Disturbed by a runny nose, fever (38-39 degrees), hoarseness, cough, lacrimation, acute conjunctivitis, weakness, joint pain, diarrhea. Adenoviruses are active in the autumn-winter period, they are not afraid of low temperatures, but they quickly die from ultraviolet radiation and chlorine.

Respiratory syncytial infection affects the lower respiratory tract, can spread to the small bronchi and bronchioles. Symptoms are similar to other acute respiratory viral infections: chills, low-grade fever, serous-mucous nasal discharge, shortness of breath.A characteristic feature is a dry, paroxysmal cough. The virus is most active in the winter-spring period, rapidly spreading in collectives. Children under three years of age are very susceptible to MS infection; they are the most difficult to carry the disease.

Coronavirus infection occurs after infection with one of the coronaviruses. To date, seven coronaviruses that infect humans have been studied, the most famous COVID-19 is only one of them. Coronaviruses strike the upper and middle respiratory tract: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi.The symptoms of all coronavirus infections are similar: malaise, weakness, chills, mild headaches, fever. Some types of viruses of this type cause rhinitis.

The acute course of COVID-19 is characterized by high fever, dry cough, loss of taste and smell. Covid has a high prevalence rate and is dangerous with complications, one of which is pneumonia. However, a severe course of the disease is characteristic of weakened people with a “bouquet” of other diseases.Most tolerate covid in the same way as other ARVIs.

Influenza can also be attributed to ARVI, since its causative agent are viruses transmitted from the carrier of the infection by airborne droplets through the respiratory tract during conversation, coughing and sneezing. Influenza epidemics occur in the fall and winter and are caused by several of the most aggressive virus subtypes. Symptoms are pronounced: high fever, headache, dry mouth and nose, photophobia, dry cough with chest pain.

Complications of ARVI and their danger

In a person with good immunity, acute respiratory diseases disappear in a few days, especially if you help the body to cope with viruses. It is recommended to drink more water, rinse your nose, gargle. Symptoms can be stopped – bring down the temperature above 38 degrees, fight a runny nose, treat the throat with emollients.

However, in some cases, severe intoxication with viruses or the addition of a bacterial infection can cause complications.Most often, complications arise in the respiratory system and lead to other diseases: tonsillitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis. Often ARVI turns into bronchitis, otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia.

More serious consequences of ARVI threaten people with weakened immunity. A respiratory infection may not be limited to the respiratory tract and may spread to other organs. Among the severe complications: pyelonephritis, nephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, neuroinfection.

Prevention of respiratory diseases

Prevention of ARVI is aimed at increasing immunity.There are many popular ways to increase the body’s defenses: hardening, a diet rich in vitamins, the use of natural phytoncides, for example, garlic.

In order not to get infected, you must take precautions: maintain a safe distance, reduce contacts during periods of epidemics, wash your hands more often, ventilate the premises, dress for the weather, avoiding hypothermia

The most effective protection against viruses is provided by vaccination.