Broccoli bad for thyroid: Do You Need to Give Up Cruciferous Veggies When You Have Hypothyroidism?
Do You Need to Give Up Cruciferous Veggies When You Have Hypothyroidism?
If you have hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), you may have been told to avoid cruciferous vegetables — such as kale, cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts.
These vegetables have been shown, in certain situations, to interfere with how your thyroid gland uses iodine. Using iodine effectively is necessary for normal thyroid function.
It’s not clear, though, if consuming cruciferous vegetables in moderation has any harmful effects on thyroid function in people without thyroid disease. And many people with hypothyroidism can safely incorporate these foods into their diet.
Here’s what you need to know about cruciferous vegetables and hypothyroidism — the effects these veggies can have on your thyroid, whether you should avoid them, and how to weigh the risks and benefits of eating them.
How Cruciferous Vegetables Affect Your Thyroid
Cruciferous vegetables belong to a group of related plants, and include the following produce:
- Bok choy
- Brussels sprouts
- Collard greens
- Mustard greens
- Turnips and turnip greens
These vegetables are chemically unique in many ways, including their high level of sulfur-containing compounds called glucosinolates — which gives them their distinctive smell.
But glucosinolates and other chemicals in these veggies are considered goitrogens, which means they may interfere with the production of thyroid hormone — mostly by disrupting your thyroid’s use of iodine. Your thyroid uses iodine for normal production of thyroid hormone, and if it can’t access iodine properly or if there isn’t enough iodine in your body, your thyroid hormone level will drop.
For most people, goitrogens shouldn’t be a concern and consuming cruciferous vegetables can lead to a number of health benefits, including a reduced risk of several types of cancer.
“They’re not necessarily harmful if you have a normally functioning thyroid,” says Luis O. Rustveld, PhD, RD, a dietitian and assistant professor at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.
In fact, Rustveld says, many concerns that people have about cruciferous vegetables stem from animal studies showing that they can trigger hypothyroidism. One such study, in which researchers observed thyroid gland enlargement in rabbits eating cabbage, was published in 1928 and led to the discovery of dietary goitrogens.
According to researchers at Oregon State University, normal consumption of foods containing goitrogens doesn’t seem to increase the risk of hypothyroidism in humans — unless someone is deficient in iodine. Iodine deficiency, Rustveld adds, is extremely rare in the United States, largely due to iodine supplementation in salt and other food items.
Researchers have found that collard greens, Brussels sprouts, and certain varieties of Russian kale contain enough goitrogens to potentially interfere with iodine uptake in healthy people when eaten in large quantities, according to a study published in March 2016 in the journal Nutrition Reviews. But other cruciferous vegetables — including broccoli, turnips, and most types of kale — didn’t contain enough goitrogens to pose a significant risk to people with normal thyroid function.
Cruciferous vegetables aren’t the only dietary source of goitrogens, Rustveld notes. They’re also present in soy, spinach, strawberries, peaches, and peanuts.
Can You Safely Eat Cruciferous Vegetables?
If you have hypothyroidism, you may want to consider limiting your intake of cruciferous vegetables, says Rustveld.
“If you have an underactive thyroid or iodine deficiency, you should avoid juicing cruciferous vegetables,” he adds, since juicing makes it easy to ingest large quantities of produce.
You should also be sure to cook cruciferous vegetables if you have hypothyroidism. “Cooking cruciferous vegetables lessens their goitrogenic properties,” says Rustveld. “It reduces the effect of goitrogens on the thyroid, so they don’t cause any problem” in normal quantities.
But you don’t have to overcook your veggies until they’re mushy; normal cooking or steaming should do the trick.
Another good rule of thumb: People with hypothyroidism shouldn’t consume more than half a cup of cooked cruciferous vegetables each day, Rustveld says.
Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Cruciferous Veggies
When deciding whether you should eat cruciferous vegetables, the first thing to consider is the advice of your doctor, says Rustveld.
It’s also important to keep tabs on how well your treatment for hypothyroidism is working, he says. If your thyroid levels are normal, you may have more room for choices in your diet.
If your doctor leaves the decision to you, you should consider the potential benefits of these vegetables along with their risks.
Don’t underestimate the nutritional value of these vegetables, urges Rustveld. “Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of nutrients — fiber, all kinds of vitamins, phytonutirents, antioxidants,” he says.
The bottom line: “Check with your doctor, but if you want to consume them because you like them, and if you cook them well, then you should be OK.”
Healthy Food Swaps for Hypothyroidism
If you have hypothyroidism, you probably already know that you need to take synthetic thyroid hormone medication to help restore thyroid levels. But did you know that making some simple changes to your diet could help you boost thyroid function and manage symptoms of hypothyroidism?
While diet alone can’t cure hypothyroidism, what you eat can aid significantly in preventing weight gain, help manage any related health conditions that may accompany weight gain, and improve your intake of some essential nutrients. Even though there’s no such thing as a “hypothyroidism diet,” some foods can inhibit your body’s ability to absorb iodine and can interfere with medication.
“Along with a healthy diet, [you should] ensure that foods high in iodine and selenium are consumed to help maintain levels of these essential nutrients,” says Kristi L. King, MPH, RDN, a senior dietitian at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston and a national spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Not only is selenium necessary for making thyroid hormone, but a study published in 2015 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism revealed that the occurrence of hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and enlarged thyroid was significantly higher among people who live in areas with low selenium concentrations in the soil and crops.
What’s more, according to a review published in 2014 in the Journal of Medical Nutrition & Nutraceuticals, iodine is the chief nutrient required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone, followed by selenium — as well as iron, vitamin A, and zinc, which all assist in thyroid hormone synthesis. While there are no foods that actually increase uptake of thyroid medication, iodine remains critical in a hypothyroidism-friendly diet; foods rich in selenium can help prevent oxidative damage to thyroid tissues; and avoiding foods high in fat can help prevent inflammation that can lead to further thyroid damage.
With this in mind, here are six recommended food swaps for hypothyroidism:
For improved iodine intake: Swap out processed wraps and use seaweed instead when making a sandwich. The iodine content of different types of seaweed varies greatly. According to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, a sheet of seaweed can contain anywhere between 11 and 1,989 percent of the recommended daily value of iodine. Other healthy foods that are high in iodine include fish, eggs, and plain low-fat yogurt. Foods that may prevent the full absorption of iodine include walnuts, bamboo shoots, soy flour, and horseradish, so limiting your intake of these foods may help.
For increased selenium intake: Swap out peanuts and walnuts in favor of Brazil nuts and sunflower seeds. Six to eight Brazil nuts have 777 percent of the recommended daily value of selenium. Peanuts have 2 percent. And walnuts may actually inhibit the absorption of iodine. According to the National Institutes of Health, other foods high in selenium include yellowfin tuna, halibut, shrimp, cottage cheese, and brown rice.
To boost vitamin A intake: According to King, too much fiber can interfere with the absorption of your thyroid medication, so people being treated for hypothyroidism should avoid eating more than five ounces per day of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage. Instead, swap out these veggies for those high in vitamin A, like carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach.
To increase zinc intake: Swap out white pasta and bread for whole-grain, whole-wheat varieties, and choose brown rice over white. Other foods high in zinc include shellfish, like oysters, crab, and lobster.
To avoid inflammation (and control weight): Swap out butter for olive oil, since saturated fatty acids, like those in butter, have been shown to cause inflammation, which may cause further damage to thyroid tissue. You should also swap out sugary beverages like soda for water whenever possible because sugar can also promote inflammation.
To control weight and cholesterol: Swap out high-fat foods, like fatty red meat, for lean meats, such as chicken and turkey, or fish.This will help you control your weight and reduce your cholesterol intake. As an added bonus, tuna, halibut, and shrimp are all high in selenium.
King also recommends eating five to six smaller meals when you have hypothyroidism, rather than three large ones, to help manage appetite and weight.
What Happens if Hypothyroidism is Left Untreated?
Your thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped organ that sits in your neck, produces hormones that help regulate how your body uses energy.
When your thyroid gland doesn’t make enough of these hormones — known as hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid — a wide range of functions in your body can slow down.
This can happen for a number of reasons, but the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder in which your body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid.
Symptoms can vary from person to person, but common symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
Treatment for hypothyroidism is fairly straightforward, and involves taking replacement thyroid hormone. While it may take some trial and error to find the right dose of medication, many symptoms of hypothyroidism may be reversed once you do.
There are a number of reasons people may not treat hypothyroidism, however. They may stop taking medication because they’re experiencing side effects or because they’re not noticing benefits of the medication, for example. Or they may not know they have hypothyroidism. In this case, the condition can gradually become more severe and potentially cause a range of complications.
Because your thyroid affects so many areas of your body, untreated hypothyroidism can cause widespread harm. Here are seven complications to watch out for.
A goiter is simply an enlarged thyroid gland, and it happens when the organ is trying extra hard to make thyroid hormone.
“Your endocrine system works in feedback loops,” notes Tracy S. Tylee, MD, an endocrinologist at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle. Specifically, your brain tells your thyroid how much thyroid hormone to make, and it monitors your thyroid hormone levels to determine this.
To stimulate your thyroid, your brain creates a hormone called the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). If your thyroid hormone level is low, your brain will make more TSH in an attempt to make your thyroid work harder.
A goiter happens when “the brain is hammering the thyroid, trying to get more thyroid hormone out of it,” says Dr. Tylee. “When that happens, the thyroid gets bigger and bigger as it’s trying to make more thyroid hormone.”
A goiter isn’t usually dangerous or uncomfortable, says Tylee, but it’s often an early warning sign of thyroid dysfunction — even before your thyroid hormone levels fall below normal — and it’s a sign that you should get your TSH level checked.
In addition, a large goiter may interfere with your swallowing or breathing, or cause you to be self-conscious about your appearance.
2. Heart disease
There are at least two ways that hypothyroidism can contribute to heart disease, according to Tylee. It tends to make your body retain fluid, which can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure (in which your heart can’t pump blood adequately).
Fluid retention is a major reason people with hypothyroidism often gain weight, and the extra weight looks different than weight gain based on fat tissue. “You tend to get puffy ankles and a puffy face” with fluid retention, says Tylee.
Another way that hypothyroidism can increase your heart risk is by raising your lipid (cholesterol and triglyceride) levels. These substances can contribute to a fatty buildup on the lining of arteries, known as atherosclerosis.
Tylee emphasizes that it’s a good idea to check for thyroid problems in people with elevated lipids. “If you treat their thyroid disease, a lot of times the lipids will get better on their own,” she notes.
Hypothyroidism may also have a separate effect on your risk of coronary artery disease (CAD, or atherosclerosis in the arteries leading to your heart) by contributing to dysfunction in the lining of blood vessels, according to a study published in July 2015 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
3. Kidney disease
One area of emerging research is the effect of hypothyroidism on kidney function. In a study published in February 2018 in the journal Scientific Reports, researchers looked at data from wide-ranging voluntary health examinations performed on Taiwanese adults.
Using a measure called estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as well as looking at levels of protein in participants’ urine, the researchers found that people with hypothyroidism had a 2.41 higher risk of chronic kidney disease than people with normal thyroid function.
This number includes participants with both subclinical hypothyroidism — in which TSH is elevated but thyroid hormone levels are normal — who were 2.04 times as likely to have kidney disease, and overt hypothyroidism — in which thyroid hormone levels are low — who were 7.61 times as likely to have kidney disease.
4. Peripheral neuropathy
Uncontrolled hypothyroidism can damage your peripheral nerves, which carry information from your brain and spinal cord to the rest of your body. One reason for this may be fluid retention, which puts excess pressure on the nerves.
Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include pain, numbness, or tingling in your arms or legs, and may also include muscle weakness or partial loss of muscle control.
But peripheral neuropathy is most likely to be caused by something other than hypothyroidism.
In a study of previously unexplained neuropathy published in November 2015 in the journal Muscle & Nerve, researchers found that only 0.7 percent of cases were due to hypothyroidism — compared with 25.3 percent of cases caused by diabetes or prediabetes.
5. Cognitive issues
Mental and emotional difficulties are common in hypothyroidism. “The thing that people most describe is just difficulty focusing,” says Tylee. “They feel like they’re in a cloud.”
Hypothyroidism can also contribute to depression. In these cases, treatment with thyroid hormone can help reverse depressive symptoms.
In a study published in March 2015 in the journal Endocrine Research, people with subclinical hypothyroidism were given a depression assessment and then randomly assigned to take either thyroid hormone or a placebo (inactive pill). After 12 weeks, depression scores improved significantly in the thyroid hormone group, but not in the placebo group.
Even if you’re not aware that hypothyroidism is affecting your mental or emotional status, this effect may become clear once you begin treatment. “They feel so much better that it becomes apparent in retrospect,” says Tylee about many of her patients.
6. Fertility issues
In many women with hypothyroidism, menstrual periods become irregular and unpredictable. This can have a negative impact on fertility, as can the autoimmune problems that often cause hypothyroidism.
In a study published in January 2015 in the Endocrine Journal, 69 infertile women with subclinical hypothyroidism were given thyroid hormone treatment. After this, 84.1 percent successfully conceived within an average time of less than a year, although 29.3 percent later miscarried.
7. Myxedema (coma)
Myxedema is a rare but life-threatening complication of severe hypothyroidism that involves extreme fatigue and impaired cognition, followed by loss of consciousness.
In someone with untreated hypothyroidism, a myxedema coma can be triggered by stress on the body, an infection, or taking sedatives, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Tylee stresses that myxedema is a medical emergency, and that although it’s rare, some people are at increased risk — such as elderly people and those who live alone. Often, she says, “they get sick with something else, like a heart attack or pneumonia,” and that can lead to myxedema.
Both myxedema and certain other cases of severe hypothyroidism require intravenous (IV) delivery of thyroid hormone, since fluid in the gut lining may prevent absorption of oral drugs.
But Tylee emphasizes that doctors should check for hypothyroidism well before severe symptoms develop.
“It’s important that if someone comes in complaining of feeling tired and having trouble focusing, you don’t just attribute that to stress and depression,” she says. “You [should] check their thyroid levels, because that’s something you can fix. ”
Why Is Broccoli Bad For Thyroid? | Healthy Eating
By Amy Myszko Updated November 21, 2018
Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, kale and cabbage are not inherently “bad” for the thyroid – but they may need to be limited – or at least thoroughly cooked – by people with goiter or hypothyroidism. Broccoli is actually full of beneficial substances which have been shown to reduce the risk of certain cancers like colorectal, lung, prostate and breast cancers. If you have normal thyroid function, the goitrogenic substances found in broccoli are probably outweighed by all the other health benefits found in cruciferous vegetables.
Thiocyanates and Thyroid Function
A class of compounds in broccoli that have been isolated as goitrogenic – that is a substance that contributes to the development of a goiter in at-risk individuals – are called thiocyanates. Isothiocyanates are made from phytonutrients known as glucosinolates, which are found in abundance in cruciferous vegetables like broccoli. These substances seem to interfere with iodine absorption, particularly where iodine is limited in the diet, and have been linked to the formation of goiters in low-iodine regions like parts of Africa that rely heavily on foods containing high levels of thiocyanates – in this case the cassava root.
Nutrient Deficiencies and Goitrogens
A deficiency in both iodine and selenium may be related to the anti-thyroid action of thiocyanates, according to the George Mateljan Foundation website. For hypothyroid sufferers whose thyroid disorder is not caused by a nutrient deficiency, limiting broccoli and other goitrogenic foods may not be necessary, according to thyroid specialist Dr. Alan Christianson – up to 95 percent of hypothyroidism in the U.S. is not caused by an iodine deficiency, but rather by an autoimmune reaction. In fact, acupuncturist and natural health expert Chris Kresser claims that excess iodine might be implicated in the higher levels of autoimmune thyroid disease in the industrialized world, and in that case the slowing of iodine absorption caused by thiocyanates might be beneficial for those suffering from autoimmune hypothyroidism.
The Effects of Cooking on Goitrogenic Compounds
Experts agree that cooking eliminates at least some of the goitrogenic substances in broccoli – but just how long to cook cruciferous veggies remains a bit unclear. Dr. Andrew Weil proposes that even a light steaming will deactivate most of the glucosinolates in broccoli, however nutrition expert Chris Masterjohn proposes that to remove 90 percent of the goitrogens, cruciferous vegetables need to be boiled for 30 minutes. According to Masterjohn, fermenting broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables actually enhances their goitrogenic actions.
If you don’t have any underlying thyroid conditions, it is probably safe – and even recommended – to eat plenty of broccoli. You may want to avoid eating huge quantities of raw broccoli if you have a family history of thyroid trouble, or are concerned that you might develop hypothyroidism. For those already suffering from thyroid disease, limiting broccoli and avoiding it raw are probably wise choices since the evidence still isn’t entirely in with regards to how goitrogens affect different types of thyroid disease. A diet that has a lot of diversity can provide you with many of the health benefits found in different foods without the risk associated with excessive consumption of just one type.
Thyroid and broccoli: perfectly safe
Posted on Mon, 26 Sep 16
People worried about broccoli and other vegetables in the brassica family can safely consume them as they do not cause hypothyroidism or goiter, according to research.
For some time, there has been potential concern that broccoli and other vegetables in the same (brassica) family such as kale, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts could cause hypothyroidism or goiter.
These vegetables do indeed contain substances that could negatively affect thyroid function referred to as “goiterogens,” but advice to avoid these foods has largely been speculative.
Concerns are related to a substance called methylthiobutyl glucosinolate that can be metabolized into progoitrin, a goiterogen that can decrease iodine uptake into the thyroid and reduces the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
However, a comprehensive assessment published in Nutrition Reviews looked at the evidence and found that usual dietary intakes are far lower than those that could ever negatively affect your thyroid . This is especially true if you cook them, as it de-activates the goiterogen.
An exception is if you were to eat certain species particularly high in goiterogens, such as Russian/Siberian kale, some collards, and Brussels sprouts, but you would have to consume over one kilogram of un-cooked or raw vegetables every day for several months before you developed symptoms.
So at usual intakes you can safely enjoy Brassica vegetables, which is good news as they are associated with a wide range of health benefits.
1. Felker P, Bunch R, Leung AM. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism. Nutr Rev. 2016 Apr;74(4):248-58.
Broccoli, Brassica Vegetables, Goitre, Hypothyroidism
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Is Broccoli Really Bad for Your Thyroid? – The Thyroid Dietician
Avoiding obvious culprits within the diet such as gluten and dairy when considering hypothyroidism is obvious to many already suffering with the condition. What is not obvious, however, is if goitrogenic foods such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and kale are good for thyroid health. It becomes confusing because the foods I just mentioned are rich sources of nutrition and yet many health care professionals tell patients to avoid these foods if they have hypothyroidism.
The theory behind avoiding foods like broccoli comes from the fact that they contain goitrogens which, in enough quantity, can hinder thyroid function by interfering with the enzyme thyroperoxidase or TPO. This enzyme is responsible for using iodine to create thyroid hormones. However, recent studies suggest that eating foods that contain goitrogens do not really affect thyroid function. (1)
There are several reasons for this:
- You need A LOT of goitrogens to hinder the thyroid. In order to understand how many goitrogens are needed to decrease thyroid function, I will give you some numbers. One needs 194mol of goitrogens to decrease uptake of iodine. A 100 gram serving of broccoli contains 10mol of goitrogen. This means that you would need to eat 2 or more kilos of broccoli per day every day to inhibit the thyroid. (1)
- Foods that contain goitrogens are also nutrient dense. Broccoli is known for its potential to boost the detoxification processes of the liver and can protect against cancer. Cabbage can be fermented to produce probiotics in the trillions range to support intestinal and immune health. Kale contains a powerhouse of nutrients that can enrich the blood with oxygen. In my opinion, there are more risks associated with NOT eating these foods than including them into your daily diet.
- How goitrogens affect you depends on other nutrient deficiencies. If you are deficient in iodine or selenium, eating foods that contain goitrogens CAN be detrimental to your thyroid. Selenium is a strong antioxidant that enhances thyroid hormone production as well as decreases oxidative damage to the thyroid. Iodine is a building block of thyroid hormones. If you are deficient in either, TPO (the enzyme mentioned earlier) can be inhibited.
- Goitrogens are destroyed by heat. Not sure if you have deficiencies? You can still enjoy many vegetables like kale or spinach simply by steaming or cooking them. Heat destroys goitrogens. If you want to include kale in your smoothie, quickly blanching it before you use it in your smoothie does the trick.
A Rich Diet means Nutrient Density
Overall, it’s important to look at the diet as a whole rather than avoid foods that have a lot of health benefits. It is very good for the diet to be diverse and to include different foods in order to ensure that you are getting all the nutrients you need in order to heal. For example, eating broccoli every single day and avoiding other vegetables is not a good idea. If for one week, you include broccoli, carrots, zucchini, and mushrooms into your diet, the next week change these vegetables and try foods like spinach, spaghetti squash, cabbage, and sweet potato.
Take home message:
- Foods that contain goitrogens do not necessarily decrease thyroid function.
- Foods like broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, kale, and cabbage all have anti-cancer properties and eating them is more beneficial than avoiding them.
- Goitrogens CAN hinder thyroid function in the presence of an iodine or selenium deficiency.
- Goitrogens are destroyed by cooking so you can enjoy a large range of foods that contain them.
- Eat a diet that is diverse in order to enhance the nutrients that are absorbed into your body for optimal health.
Felker P, Bunch R,Leung AM. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassicavegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism. Nutr Rev. 2016 Apr;74(4):248-58. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv110. Epub 2016 Mar 5.
Myth About Thyroid Health – “I Can’t Eat Kale, Broccoli, or Cabbage”
This is one topic I love talking about because I’ll rarely tell someone to NOT eat their veggies! And when it comes to supporting optimal thyroid health, I’m not going to deny you your plate of greens! Let’s redeem those cruciferous vegetables and give them a place back at your table.
Delicious and nourishing vegetables like cabbage, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower have been shunned from too many meals due to outdated misunderstandings and beliefs about thyroid disease.
What caused them to be dismissed?
It’s a funny-sounding word that can have a big impact on your thyroid health. Goitrogens are anti-nutrients. That means exactly what it sounds like. Whereas a nutrient helps and adds value to your health, an anti-nutrient hinders or takes away from health.
What Exactly Does a Goitrogen do to Your Thyroid?
Goitrogens are compounds that impact your thyroid gland by interfering with or suppressing thyroid hormone production. They can also prevent your thyroid gland from absorbing adequate iodine, a mineral needed to make your thyroid hormones. To compensate, your thyroid enlarges to counteract the reduced hormone production and to try to grab more of your circulating iodine. This enlargement is what’s known as a goiter. Some refer to it now as a more delicate-sounding thyroid nodule.
You may have heard that you should avoid goitrogenic foods if you have a thyroid condition. This is only partially true, as all goitrogens are not equal. Different foods have different goitrogenic substances and properties. Let’s talk first about the big one.
Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, kale, and cauliflower contain glucosinolates, compounds that can prevent the absorption of iodine into your thyroid gland. Eating too many of these foods in their raw state can cause symptoms of hypothyroidism in someone with otherwise well-controlled symptoms.
This was more of a problem decades ago when a primary cause for hypothyroidism was iodine deficiency. Since then, most industrialized countries have added iodine to their salt supplies, and iodine deficiency is rarely the main cause of hypothyroid conditions. The autoimmune condition, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is now the primary reason behind over 90 percent of hypothyroidism diagnoses in the United States. Remember, Hashimoto’s isn’t really a thyroid problem; it’s a problem with your immune system. Your thyroid gland just becomes the unfortunate victim of the attack.
Iodine deficiency is no longer a major concern in people with Hashimoto’s, and most cruciferous vegetables don’t even contain enough glucosinolates to cause an iodine deficiency.
Luckily, cruciferous vegetables are only goitrogenic when they’re consumed raw. Cooking or lightly steaming will deactivate the glucosinolates, and so will fermenting the vegetables (like when cabbage becomes sauerkraut). What was once a potential threat to your thyroid is now an inactive harmless substance.
While consuming fermented and cooked cruciferous vegetables is preferred, occasionally eating small amounts of these foods in the raw states should not aggravate autoimmune thyroid conditions. But, no more kale smoothies every morning!
So, have your crucifers and eat them too! Unless you have an overt or diagnosed sensitivity to this family of foods, it’s perfectly healthy for you to include (mostly cooked) cruciferous veggies to your meals. Most should be well-tolerated even if you have a diagnosed thyroid condition, and they offer health benefits like enhanced detoxification that you don’t want to miss out on.
Now here’s a food that should remain on the avoid list. Soy is one particular goitrogen-containing food that can be harmful to people with hypothyroidism and especially for those with Hashimoto’s disease. Soy contains a family of powerful phytochemicals called isoflavones. Three of these isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, and glycitein, block the activity of your thyroid peroxidase enzyme (TPO). TPO is essential for your thyroid gland to make your thyroid hormones. When it’s blocked, your thyroid can’t make all the T4 and T3 hormones that your body requires.
Isoflavones can be very beneficial to women, helping them reduce hot flashes and other bothersome symptoms associated with menopause. Genistein has even been shown to help reduce the risk and recurrence of hormonal cancers! When it comes to thyroid conditions, however, soy doesn’t have a place at the table.
Unlike cruciferous vegetables, the goitrogens in soy aren’t deactivated when they’re heated. So whether you’re drinking soy milk or gobbling up your tofu scramble, the goitrogen effect is the same.
Additionally, soy is a very common food allergen, is almost always genetically modified, and is rarely organic. Soybean crops just aren’t what they used to be.
If you have a diagnosed or suspected underactive thyroid condition, you should avoid soy and it’s goitrogenic compounds completely. If you currently include soy regularly, try removing it from your diet and stay attentive to how you feel or if you notice changes in your lab values. Of course, let your doctor know about the changes you’re making with this or any other major food category.
A few lesser-known goitrogenic foods:
Millet is a gluten-free grain that is frequently used in gluten-free breads and baked goods. Like soy, millet contains isoflavones that inhibit your TPO enzyme and should be avoided by people with thyroid disorders.
Canola oil (made from the rapeseed plant) and nitrates can have toxic effects on your thyroid gland, inhibiting iodine uptake in a similar way to the glucosinolate-containing crucifers. Both of these are commonly found in processed and packaged foods, so focusing your intake as much as possible on whole, real foods will reduce both.
So let’s review!
- Goitrogens are compounds found in cruciferous vegetables and other foods that prevent your thyroid gland from absorbing all the iodine it needs to make your thyroid hormones.
- Many goitrogens, especially those in cruciferous vegetables, are deactivated when you heat, cook, steam, or ferment them. These foods can be eaten in moderation without causing impairment to your thyroid gland.
- Raw kale is very high in goitrogenic compounds and should be eaten rarely, if at all, by those with hypothyroid conditions.
- Goitrogens in soy foods remain active after heating and cooking. Soy foods should be avoided by those who have hypothyroidism or Hashimoto’s.
- Other foods like millet, canola oil, and nitrates can impact thyroid health and should be avoided if you have an active thyroid condition.
I hope this gives you a greater understanding of why these colorful vegetables can safely find a spot on your plate.
Have you avoided any of these foods because of a thyroid condition? Let me know!
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Excessive consumption of broccoli disrupts the thyroid gland
Broccoli is considered the leader in useful properties among vegetables. It contains antioxidants, anti-inflammatory properties, and in addition can reduce the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and protect against many other types of cancer. The same applies to other types of green vegetables: lettuce, kale, Brussels sprouts, writes Zdr.ru.
But if you eat cruciferous green vegetables very often, it can harm your health.Nutritionists and nutritionists believe that eating green leafy vegetables can lead to hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism, or hypothyroidism, an insufficient function of the thyroid gland, is a condition in which the body lacks thyroid hormones, and they regulate almost all aspects of metabolism in adults, and in adolescents, in addition, they are responsible for normal growth and the onset of puberty.
Professor of Dietetics and Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health Teresa Fung explained in an interview with WBUR: “Adequate amounts of green vegetables are not a problem. The harmful effect on the thyroid gland comes from a huge dose, not just any consumption of green vegetables. If a person already has hypothyroidism, or is taking medications to correct the functioning of the thyroid gland, you need to consult a doctor: is it possible to eat crucifers, a variety of cabbage? But even in this case, a little salad, a few servings a week, should not harm. ”
Kale, or kale, is very popular with health, fitness and diet lovers in Europe and North America.To continue to receive all the benefits of cabbage and avoid side effects, it is enough to cook it. When heat treated, substances that contribute to hypothyroidism will be destroyed. However, you need not to overdo it in order to preserve vitamins – steaming will be enough. This includes kale and other cruciferous vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and broccoli.
Other possible recommendations are the addition of seaweed, brazil nuts and other foods to the diet that contribute to the accumulation of iodine in the thyroid gland. At the same time, nutritionists have compiled a list of vegetables that do not in any way increase the risk of thyroid disorders: zucchini and zucchini, celery, cucumbers, carrots and beets.
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The benefits and harms of broccoli: scientific facts :: Health :: RBC Style
© reinaldo kevin / unsplash
April 21, 2021
Broccoli contains many vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants. In the spring, this vegetable is able to bring the most tangible health benefits. Pink has compiled seven scientifically proven reasons to start eating broccoli today.
1. Broccoli protects against diseases
Due to the high content of phenolic compounds , broccoli can reduce inflammatory processes in the body .
Researchers at the University of Illinois have also found  that eating broccoli three to four times a week prevents diabetes, heart disease and asthma.
Interestingly, broccoli’s anti-inflammatory properties are not destroyed even when cooked. Therefore, it can be safely boiled, fried, baked, added to mashed soups. But the best way to preserve the health benefits of a vegetable is to steam it, according to scientists .
2. Broccoli helps to improve eyesight
A diet rich in broccoli improves vision.This is due to its constituent carotenoids – lutein and zeaxanthin, which accumulate in the retina. According to a study by Italian scientists , they improve the contrast and sensitivity of the eyes to bright light, as well as improve visual acuity.
In addition, lutein helps to absorb harmful blue radiation from gadget screens and neutralizes the effects of free radicals that damage the retina. It is lutein that gives broccoli its dark green color. Scientists are confident : regular consumption of this vegetable prevents cataracts and reduces the risk of age-related vision loss .
3. Broccoli strengthens bones and joints
Due to its high vitamin K content, broccoli strengthens bones, increases bone density and reduces the risk of fractures . In addition, it is rich in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, which are involved in the formation of bone tissue.
A sulforaphane contained in broccoli reduces inflammation and pain in joints, slows down their destruction and prevents osteoarthritis. This was proved by researchers from the University of East Anglia .According to them, more than 8.5 million people in the UK suffer from osteoarthritis. If the disease has already affected the joints, broccoli will help slow its course.
4. Broccoli cleanses the body
Broccoli is a powerful natural detoxifier and one of the champions in fiber content. Its coarse dietary fiber cleanses the body of toxins, excess sugar, cholesterol and carcinogens. Scientists from the Francis Crick Institute in London believe  that regular consumption of broccoli normalizes digestion and prevents gastrointestinal diseases.
And experts from Johns Hopkins University have proved that due to broccoli, chemicals that come with the air are removed from the body faster. The study involved 300 people . For three months, they received a drink with broccoli juice daily. As a result, the rate of elimination of benzene increased by 61%, acrolein – by 23%.
5. Broccoli helps to lose weight
Broccoli is a dietary vegetable.100 g of this cabbage contains only 34 calories. In addition, it speeds up the metabolism, and due to potassium and sodium it normalizes the water-salt balance in the body. The high water and fiber content of broccoli slows down digestion, creates a feeling of fullness and delays the secretion of the hormone ghrelin, which causes hunger.
Scientists from the Universities of Texas and Southern California have found  that daily consumption of this vegetable reduces the likelihood of obesity in children. Research has shown that it contains phytochemicals that break down fats and regulate insulin levels.
6. Broccoli improves immunity
Broccoli is also a powerful immune stimulating product. It is a supplier of zinc, selenium, vitamins A, C and D. Ascorbic acid in broccoli is almost the same as in lemon. This makes it one of the most important foods in the winter.
Broccoli boosts immunity, helps fight colds and kills bacteria. In addition, it contains kaempferol , which reduces allergic reactions and the effect of allergens on the immune system.
It is important to remember that any heat treatment destroys vitamin C. To get the most out of broccoli during cold season, it is best eaten raw. Try chopping the vegetable into small pieces, drizzling with lemon juice, and serving with salmon.
7. Broccoli accelerates muscle growth
100 g of chopped raw broccoli contains 2.82 g of vegetable protein. This is more than asparagus, spinach and potatoes.
And the aforementioned sulforaphane increases the level of testosterone required for muscle growth.Plus, broccoli is high in potassium: it lowers blood pressure, prevents muscle cramps, and supports heart health.
Doctors recommend using this vegetable for the prevention of nervous disorders. The B vitamins it contains have a positive effect on the nervous system. And the antioxidant quercetin in broccoli inhibits the production of cortisol , a stress hormone that breaks down muscles.
8. Broccoli improves skin condition
© kevin- aminto / unsplash
Broccoli contains a whole range of important natural antioxidants, including beta-carotene, vitamins C and E.They improve skin health and help slow down the aging process.
In addition, ascorbic acid promotes collagen production. It is the main protein of the skin, which reduces wrinkles, increases its elasticity and firmness. And sulforaphane accelerates healing and promotes the formation of new cells.
Scientists have also found  that broccoli sprout extracts effectively protect the epithelium from ultraviolet radiation and can replace sunscreen.
Potential harm to broccoli
You need to know when to stop in everything.Try to eat a wide variety of vegetables and consider what is right for you. Despite all the beneficial properties, broccoli is not for everyone. Due to the high fiber content, people with an unhealthy stomach and high acidity of gastric juice should not overuse this vegetable. In addition, broccoli can interfere with the effectiveness of blood thinners. This conclusion was reached by researchers at the Wexner Medical Center at Ohio University . An overabundance of this vegetable in the diet increases the risk of developing thyroid diseases.
90,000 Thyroid health products
The thyroid gland is responsible for hormones that are necessary for normal metabolism, cardiovascular system and cell growth. For its proper functioning, iodine needs to enter the body. On the air of the Russia 1 TV channel, Dr. Alexander Myasnikov explained which products contain the maximum amount of iodine, and which products should be discarded if you have been diagnosed with thyroid problems.
Diseases of the thyroid gland are insidious in that they can hide behind absolutely any symptoms. Fatigue, dizziness, increased blood pressure, sleep disturbances, a sudden change in weight – all this can be a signal from the thyroid gland. “All these symptoms indicate that you may have a lack of iodine. On average, we should consume 150 mcg of iodine per day. Pregnant women need more,” said Alexander Myasnikov.
In the program “On the most important”, the expert listed the products that must be included in the diet to prevent illness: fresh seafood, seaweed, spinach, eggs, dried fruits.
“Pay close attention to what you eat. Lack of iodine leads to the development of cretinism. And this is not a curse, as you might think, but the name of a serious endocrine disease caused by a lack of thyroid hormones. Cretinism is characterized by a delay in physical and mental development.” added the specialist.
Alexander Leonidovich also named products that are not recommended to be consumed in large quantities for thyroid problems: “Cauliflower, broccoli, soy are good for the heart and blood vessels, but not good for the thyroid gland.”
He urged everyone to quit smoking. It disrupts the production of thyroid hormones. In addition, certain medications can harm the thyroid gland. For example, taking amiadorone, a medication for arrhythmias, can lead to an excess of iodine in the thyroid gland. “An excess of iodine is more dangerous than a lack of it, and can lead to inflammation of the thyroid gland and dysfunctions of its functions,” said Myasnikov.
He advised not to take preparations with iodine for the prevention of thyroid diseases without a doctor’s prescription!
Even more interesting news can be found in our Instagram and Telegram channel @smotrim_ru.
Roman cabbage – Romanesco / Growing Romanesque broccoli / The benefits and harms of Romanesco
The Cabbage family, formerly known as Cruciferous, unites a large number of representatives, more than 4000 species, in demand, used for food in many countries of the world. The most famous representatives are rapeseed, horseradish, rutabagas, mustard and others. Among them there are flowers: levkoy, iberis. But the most famous plant from the Cabbage genus is, of course, the cabbage itself.
A bit of history
Which area is the birthplace of cabbage is still unknown. However, already in ancient Egypt, Rome, its cultivated species were widely grown. For example, Pythagoras, the Roman emperor Diocletian, were engaged in its cultivation. But today, different varieties of cabbage are still used in the cuisines of various peoples of the world. Cabbage is included in the diet of not only people, but also animals.
It contains a lot of vitamin C and nitrogenous substances. It was the consumption of cabbage that helped the ancient European sailors cope with such a serious disease as scurvy, which plagued them during difficult, long sea voyages.
Perhaps there is no other vegetable that has such a wide variety of species. Of these, the most common are white, red, colored, broccoli, Brussels, Beijing. But there are also species that have become known relatively recently. For example, at the end of the 20th century, Romanesco cabbage (roman cabbage) became popular in many countries of the world, although in Italy it was used for food already in the 16th century. The Dutch breeders who paid attention to it slightly improved its taste, thanks to which it became widespread.
Romanesco (Romanesco), also known as Romanesque broccoli, coral cabbage, obtained by selection, by crossing broccoli and cauliflower. The thermophilic annual vegetable plant is striking in its appearance. A powerful, sprawling bush with gray-green leaves is crowned with a cone-shaped light-green head of cabbage, consisting of small pyramidal inflorescences tightly pressed against each other, arranged in a spiral. The original “alien from space” found a place in the beds of Russian amateur gardeners.You can also plant it on flower beds, creating unusual compositions.
Despite the seemingly impressive dimensions of the head, their mass is usually about 0.5 kg. Romanesco is similar in taste and aroma to that of cauliflower. At the same time, it is distinguished by a pleasant nutty aroma. It goes well with fish, lean white meat (chicken, rabbit, turkey). But it is advisable not to serve legumes, mushrooms, fatty meat with Romanesco.
It can be boiled, stewed, fried, baked.In addition to the fact that it contains a unique set of trace elements and vitamins, it also has one more advantage: it cooks quickly. Enough 5-7 minutes for the inflorescences to boil. If you continue to subject them to heat treatment further, then they will lose their structure, their original appearance.
How to Grow Romanesque Broccoli
Unlike the more familiar varieties of cabbage, for example, white cabbage, the cultivation of Romanescu requires special conditions from the gardener.In the event of deviation from them, for example, if the temperature regime is not observed within 18 ° C, the plants, if they do not die, then the heads may not form.
Only in the southern regions of our country can Romanesco be grown by sowing seeds directly into the ground. In other climatic zones, it is necessary to use seedlings for planting, which are sown no later than early April.
Seedlings of coral cabbage do not tolerate picking and replanting well, so for its cultivation it is better to use cups or peat pots rather than containers for germination.The prepared containers are filled with soil mixture, which can be purchased at a specialized store or prepared independently from peat, humus, sand, turf soil, after having poured a layer of drainage on the bottom.
The seeds are buried by 0.5-1 cm, the soil is compacted and watered abundantly. Covering the top with glass or plastic wrap, keep at room temperature until shoots appear. After the sprouts appear, the temperature is lowered to 8-10 ° C during the day and 6-8 ° C at night. After a week, it is again increased to 16-18 ° C in the daytime and up to 10 ° C at night.
Romanesco loves well-lit places, so containers with seedlings should be placed on the south side of the greenhouse, where there is a lot of sun. Plants in a timely manner, but moderately moisturize, feed, watered with a weak, slightly pinkish solution of potassium permanganate.
Selection of a site for planting
When choosing a place for planting Romanesco cabbage, you need to take into account several factors at once:
- good illumination, lack of light negatively affects the tying and formation of the heads;
- the soil should be well structured, the best option is sandy loam, neutral or slightly alkaline, which allows air to pass through well, retains moisture;
- for slightly acidic soils, liming is carried out using slaked lime, dolomite flour, chalk
- a large amount of organic fertilizers is applied for planting, it can be wood ash, humus;
- legumes, potatoes, cucumbers have proven themselves well as predecessors;
- help in the fight against harmful insects will be provided by the nearby beds with mint, dill, celery.
Landing in open ground
Seedlings are planted in the ground after the threat of frost has passed. For the middle zone of our country, this is the end of April, and for the southern regions – the beginning of April. Romanesco cabbage is a fairly spreading plant, it needs a large area to grow. Therefore, holes for seedlings are made at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
The size of the planting hole should slightly exceed the size of the pot. Pour about a glass of wood ash at the bottom of the hole, mix thoroughly and watered.The planting material is carefully removed together with the earthen lump and carefully lowered into the prepared pits, leaving the cotyledonous leaves on the surface. Water carefully and abundantly.
When growing Romanesco, they use the same methods as for other vegetable plants: timely watering, fertilizing, loosening, fighting diseases and insect pests.
- Top dressing
- Pest control
- strengthens blood vessels while improving their elasticity;
- helps fight cancer;
- improves the functioning of the digestive tract;
- helps to eliminate toxins, toxins, cholesterol from the body;
- protects the central nervous system;
- fights infectious diseases;
- regulates blood sugar levels;
- activates the functioning of the brain;
- strengthens the heart;
- provides protection against free radicals;
- improves vision.
Like other types of cabbage, Romanesque broccoli loves moist, but not swampy soil. Adequate moisture can be achieved with regular, moderate watering. While the plants are still small, water twice a week. As they grow, the frequency of watering is reduced, but they are made more abundant. Water must be poured at the root, especially after the formation of the heads begins. The temperature of the liquid does not really matter.
So that after irrigation a crust does not form on the soil surface, which prevents air from reaching the roots, loosening, weeding, and hilling are carried out.It is clear that after the plants grow and the leaves close, this procedure will become impossible. Hilling stimulates the growth of adventitious roots. Before performing it, it is advisable to pour wood ash under the roots.
For active growth and formation of a head of cabbage, plants need a large amount of nutrients. Fertilization helps to provide them in the required amount: in the planting hole, during the growing season (3 times), adding wood ash with each hilling. A good top dressing for cabbage is an infusion of mullein or bird droppings. However, it should be borne in mind that they must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and watered with a weak solution. Otherwise, you can “burn” the leaves, in case of contact with them, and the plants themselves.
In addition to organic fertilizing, plants also need mineral fertilizers: azofoska, boric acid, ammonium molybdate. Lack of molybdenum affects the quality of the crop, while boron promotes faster growth and provides resistance to diseases.
For Romanesco, the same diseases are characteristic as for other varieties of cabbage. When pests appear and the first signs of a disease appear, plants are treated with appropriate pest control agents and other drugs.
From cauliflower Romanesco “got” a special attitude to sunlight: it loves open, illuminated places, but bright light negatively affects the development of the inflorescence, gives them a darker color. After the heads reach the size of a hen’s egg, the plants are shaded, for example, breaking the upper leaves, covering the heads with them.
Ripening, collection and storage of Romanesco
Harvest time is closer to autumn. Despite the fact that the plant occupies a large area and looks very voluminous, its head is rather small, within 0.5 kg. Harvesting is best in the morning, carefully cutting off the heads of cabbage with a sharp knife along with the stem, which can also be eaten. Overripe, overripe inflorescences can rot or dry out. They lose their useful qualities, and the pulp coarsens.
It is not recommended to store heads for a long time, even in the refrigerator, as they quickly deteriorate, the content of nutrients decreases.Therefore, they should be used as soon as possible, within 1.5-2 weeks, to prepare various dishes or be processed: canning, quick deep freezing. By the way, Romanesco can be stored frozen for a whole year without losing trace elements and vitamins.
Useful and dangerous properties
Like other types of cabbage, Romanesco is rich in trace elements (iron, manganese, zinc), vitamins (A, C, K), antioxidants, fiber, carotenoids, flavonoids (kaempferol) and so on. In addition, it is very easily absorbed by the human body, having a positive effect on it:
Eating foods prepared with Romanesco cannot cause an allergic reaction. However, insufficient heat treatment of cabbage can lead to bloating, diarrhea. Limitations in the consumption of coral cabbage impose diseases of the heart and thyroid gland.
“Broccoli should not come into contact with boiling water” – Weekend Ukraine – Kommersant
Broccoli is rich in protein, vitamins B1, B2, C, PP, B6 and E.When cooked correctly, it retains all the beneficial properties. About how to cook broccoli and what to eat with Marina Gladkoy was told by the chef of the leading French culinary school Ritz Escoffier at the Parisian Ritz David Gulaz, invited to Kiev at the Martell Gastronomic Art Festival by the cognac house Martell.
– How is broccoli good for you?
– Broccoli is an extremely valuable product, it contains vitamins B1, B2, C, PP, B and E, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium salts. If we consider each vitamin separately, then broccoli will receive a rather flattering, even enviable characteristic. For example, in terms of vitamin C content, it is only slightly inferior to lemon, while there is no such ardent acid in cabbage. In addition, vitamin C is found in broccoli in the form of ascorbigen, and it is well preserved during long-term storage of cabbage. B vitamins – and there are several types of them in broccoli – have a positive effect on the nervous system. The union of vitamins C and E helps to maintain vision – however, broccoli cannot be put under the eyes like a cucumber, but for the same purpose it can be used internally as an anti-aging agent.In terms of protein, broccoli is ahead of sweet potatoes, asparagus, spinach and potatoes. And the purine, which contributes to the formation of kidney stones, is four times less in broccoli than in cauliflower.
– Are vitamins preserved in broccoli?
– Vitamins disappear from vegetables the moment you start cutting them. And in the water they lose everything, alas! Each vitamin has its own whim. For example, vitamin C reacts poorly to daylight, oxygen and contact with dishes, especially metal.Therefore, you should not buy greens that have stood in the sun in the fresh air all day. Vitamins A, E, K, B2, B6 and carotene are sensitive to light, but easily tolerate cooking, but vitamin B1 is destroyed when heated. There are things that seem unimportant, that seem to be negligible – say, not putting a lid on the butter. But practice shows that if you want to preserve the beneficial qualities of butter, then you simply have to cover it with a lid. If you want to extract vitamins from vegetables – do not stretch the time: the smaller the distance between the garden and your table, the better.
– How to store vitamins in broccoli?
– There are several options: cook the cabbage in a double boiler or eat it raw. And even raw broccoli can be enjoyed. It is enough to cut it into small pieces, sprinkle with lemon and serve with salmon. When steaming, you should be extremely careful: broccoli should not come into contact with boiling water.Do not open the lid until the very end of cooking. Processing methods should be as efficient as possible. Thanks to the careful treatment of vegetables during cooking, their useful substances are preserved and, in turn, spare your body. An alternative to steaming is baking in foil. But if you do decide to cook broccoli, then remember a few simple rules. Place the vegetables in boiling water rather than cold water. The water must first be salted, this is very important – the salt will help preserve chlorophyll in the cabbage.Boil broccoli for no more than three minutes, and then remove and put in cold water with ice. Ice is needed for the vegetable to retain its color.
– What foods does broccoli go with?
– Broccoli is a neutral vegetable, so it’s easy to find a company for him. He performs well in supporting roles, simply decorating dishes. This could be, for example, a salad rich in greens, where broccoli plays the role of the raisins on the cake.
– Which sauces are suitable for broccoli?
– In conjunction with seafood, broccoli goes well with soy sauce and sesame oil, broccoli stew – with béchamel sauce.As you can see, broccoli, for all its unobtrusiveness, makes a worthy pair to active, bright products. Smoky-flavored meats like smoked fish or duck are incredible for her. I like to marinate broccoli with onions, paprika and lemon juice.
benefits and harms, how to use, properties, tips
Broccoli is well known to all supporters of healthy nutrition, athletes. Delicious and healthy, it has won the hearts of millions of fans around the world.
Broccoli is a hybrid variety of cabbage.She appeared in Italy. In appearance, the vegetable very much resembles cauliflower , but the taste is distinguished by the presence of spicy notes and a herbaceous shade. It consists of several inflorescences that form a kind of ball.
In ancient Rome, broccoli was given the epithet “blessed”. In Russia, it appeared at the beginning of the 20th century
Broccoli has different varieties: asparagus and Calabrian . They differ in shades and ripening times. In early ripening varieties, inflorescences are looser, in later varieties, they are dense.The most common varieties on the market are , dark green .
Broccoli can be grown in temperate climates , it is quite unpretentious.
Broccoli in the garden
Benefits and harm
The main advantage of a vegetable, for which it is valued by people leading an active lifestyle, is a large amount of protein in the composition. In this it is not inferior to chicken and eggs. Broccoli contains amino acids, fatty acids, chlorophyll, lutein, dietary fiber, including fiber.
There are minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium in the vegetable. In addition, there are vitamins A, C, B, E, K, lipids. Magnesium, copper, cobalt, chromium, iron, beta-carotene are present in smaller amounts. Broccoli contains more vitamin A than other types of cabbage. In terms of the content of calcium , the vegetable can compete with milk.
These substances have a beneficial effect on the body. Thanks to the use of broccoli:
- arterial and intracranial pressure is stabilized;
- age-related changes slow down;
- increases immunity;
- the nervous system is strengthened;
- decreases blood sugar;
- improves the functioning of the digestive system;
- metabolism is normalized;
- heavy metal ions are blocked;
- vascular elasticity increases;
- Reduces cholesterol levels.
Broccoli is an antidepressant and general tonic. It has a mild diuretic and laxative effect, and also removes toxins from the body. Fiber contributes to the maintenance of normal intestinal microflora.
Broccoli is recommended to be included in the menu for people suffering from diabetes, obesity
Scientists have come to the conclusion that this type of cabbage is a powerful means of preventing cancer .It has anti-inflammatory effect , has a positive effect on the joints, is the prevention of arthritis. Broccoli is also good for the thyroid gland.
Everyone knows that carrots improve eyesight. Broccoli is in no way inferior to her in this. Eating vegetable improves eye health , reduces the risk of cataracts.
The plus of the plant is that it is hypoallergenic product .
The only serious contraindication can be considered individual intolerance of certain substances that make up cabbage.
With caution should be consumed by people with diseases of the digestive organs. During an exacerbation, it is better to completely abandon the product and follow a diet.
How to use broccoli
The most common use of broccoli is cooking . Vegetable must not be subjected to prolonged heat treatment . It can be stewed, boiled, blanched, baked, steamed. But frying is not recommended .
Many people prefer to eat broccoli raw
You should know that broccoli broccoli should not be eaten because of the harmful substances it contains. But cabbage stump can be used for food.
Broccoli in batter
Broccoli goes well with fish, turkey, seafood, meat, chicken, eggs and other vegetables. One of the popular recipes is broccoli in batter.
Can be used as a complementary food for babies up to one year old due to hypoallergenicity and easy absorption.
Broccoli and are used in cosmetology . Masks containing broccoli have a tonic, tightening, whitening effect. They make the skin glowing, velvety. Cabbage seed oil has a similar effect.
Hair masks with a laminating effect are made from broccoli juice. It moisturizes dry, split ends and gives them shine.
Use vegetable and for medicinal purposes . Women eat broccoli to get rid of mastopathy.
In conclusion, some useful tips.
- Before cooking, the cabbage is soaked in cold salted water for a few minutes, then washed thoroughly.
- Broccoli should not be cooked with other vegetables . It is first boiled a little in a separate bowl, the broth is drained. Broccoli is added to the dish at the end of cooking.
- To preserve as much nutrients as possible, heat treatment should not exceed 5 minutes .
- After boiling, it is recommended to immediately rinse with cold water.
Broccoli is deservedly considered a medicinal plant. It is useful for both adults and children. It can be included in the diet at least every day, if there are no contraindications.
You will learn more information about the benefits and dangers of broccoli by watching the video:
how cabbage is useful for health, properties for the body and application for weight loss
Broccoli is a type of cabbage and, like cauliflower, is represented by small inflorescences with a lush green “cap”.It is she who is used for food, saturating the body with proteins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals.
Broccoli contains a large amount of protein, and in this it is equal to chicken, beef and eggs. Unsurprisingly, broccoli is recommended for those who play sports and also don’t eat animal products.
In addition to protein, the vegetable also contains amino acids, and there are even those that are not produced by the body, but come exclusively with food.
The mineral composition is represented primarily by potassium, calcium and phosphorus, which ensures the smooth functioning of the cardiovascular system and has a positive effect on intellectual activity.
Broccoli also contains lipids necessary for the activity of the thyroid gland and omega-acids, which help lower blood pressure and stabilize intracranial pressure.
The vegetable contains the strongest antioxidants, represented by tocopherol and ascorbic acid, and better known as vitamins E and C.They reduce the intensity of age-related changes in the body, and vitamin C also has a powerful immunostimulating effect, helps the body to resist flu and colds, vitamin deficiency, and negative environmental factors.
Cabbage contains various B vitamins – pyridoxin, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, which allows us to speak about the benefits of the vegetable for the nervous system. In combination with folic acid, vitamin B9, also present in the composition, makes broccoli very useful for the female body, increases the chances of conception.A similar combination of folic acid and vitamin B9 is also necessary during pregnancy for the formation of fetal organs.
Has broccoli and antifungal effect, as the product contains phytoncides. It is worth noting a fairly large amount of chromium, which helps to lower blood glucose levels. Copper, cobalt and iron can be found in slightly smaller volumes.
Broccoli is a source of dietary fiber, primarily fiber.Chlorophyll and pro-vitamin beta-carotene are also present here.
Despite the richness of vitamin and mineral composition, broccoli is a low-calorie product.Fresh, it contains 29 kcal per 100 g of product. At the same time, the high protein content allows you to quickly fill up with broccoli.
It is important that dietary fiber improves digestion, contributing to the rapid elimination of toxins and toxins from the body. It is not surprising that broccoli is widely consumed when it is necessary to quickly lose weight and keep fit.
The balance of the BJU is presented as 3/0/7. At the same time, proteins contain many amino acids, including essential ones.Dietary fiber accounts for about 10% of the composition.
The glycemic index of the vegetable is 12, which is not much. The vegetable is allowed to be consumed by people suffering from diabetes mellitus
How is it useful?
Cabbage has a beneficial effect on the digestive tract. Due to the presence of fiber, intestinal motility improves, which, in turn, helps foods to be digested faster and more completely.
Remaining slags and toxins, together with unprocessed fiber, rush outside the body. Regular consumption of broccoli allows you to “start” the metabolism, forget about the feeling of heaviness and bloating in the abdomen.
The carotene contained in cabbage has a beneficial effect on mucous membranes, blocks heavy metal ions that are harmful to the intestines. This enzyme soothes mucous membranes, helps to tighten wounds and ulcers, which means that the product is recommended for gastritis and ulcers.
An important point – it should not be consumed fresh, but boiled or stewed.
The medicinal properties of broccoli are due to the presence of fiber. It has a mild laxative and diuretic effect.Cabbage will save you from constipation, will prevent diseases of the urinary system.
The components of cabbage remove cholesterol from the vascular canals and increase their elasticity. Also included in the composition, chlorophyll improves blood circulation, and iron prevents anemia. In this regard, it can be argued that broccoli is useful for the human circulatory and vascular system.
Potassium contained in the product serves to strengthen the heart muscle, increase its activity.Broccoli can help lower intracranial and blood pressure.
The vegetable has a beneficial effect on the organs of the central nervous system, improving the conductivity of nerve endings. It is recommended for emotional stress, stress, chronic fatigue. Those who suffer from sleep disturbances are advised to include this type of cabbage in their daily diet.
Phosphorus, which is part of the composition, has a positive effect on brain cells, which helps to strengthen memory and concentration.Beta-carotene is a well-known component for improving and maintaining visual acuity.
The vegetable also contains a rather rare vitamin K, which, in combination with calcium and magnesium, contributes to the positive effect of broccoli on the skeletal system. The vegetable helps to strengthen tooth enamel and reduces the risk of caries, increases bone strength and cartilage mobility. Regular consumption of broccoli can be considered the prevention of osteoporosis, gout, rheumatism.
Broccoli, rich in ascorbic acid, helps to increase the protective functions of the body during flu and colds, to get rid of spring beriberi and blues. It is not surprising that it is recommended during pregnancy as well as children.
For men, the vegetable is useful in that it reduces the risk of inflammation of the prostate gland. In addition, inflorescences are considered an aphrodisiac that improves potency and increases libido.
Pregnant women, in addition to a huge supply of vitamins and minerals, provide their body and the body of the fetus with folic acid, which is vital for the development and formation of the latter.
The B vitamins included in the composition allow a pregnant woman to stabilize the emotional background, relieve anxiety and anxiety, get rid of insomnia.
Acting as a mild laxative, the vegetable relieves a woman from constipation, which is quite common in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Broccoli puree often becomes the first complementary food for babies, which is again explained by the usefulness of its composition, high protein content and hypoallergenicity.The product can be introduced into the diet of children from 4-5 months of age. It contains the protein necessary for growth, which, unlike its analogue of animal origin, is absorbed by the baby’s body.
However, the presence of protein and vitamins in the composition makes broccoli useful for the health of adults, if for some reason they cannot or do not want to eat proteins of plant origin. For athletes, broccoli is becoming an additional source of protein, which is essential for muscle growth.
Reviews of bodybuilders allow us to conclude that daily consumption of even 100 g of broccoli allows you to notice an improvement in the work of the digestive tract (which is important for those who are “on weight”), an increase in the body’s endurance and faster muscle recovery after training and, accordingly, their quality growth.
Finally, broccoli is one of the foods that reduce the risk of cancer. Vegetable sprouts are especially useful in this regard.
Despite the abundance of useful properties, with individual intolerance, broccoli will harm the body. As a rule, this is manifested by pain and cramps in the abdomen, increased gas production, nausea, vomiting, deterioration of health due to a decrease in blood pressure.The same signs can be observed with excessive consumption of vegetables. Fortunately, cases of broccoli allergies are quite rare, and overeating is also quite difficult – the vegetable quickly gives a feeling of fullness.
In case of gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis in the acute stage, it is forbidden to eat fresh vegetables, only after it has undergone heat treatment.We must not forget that, like any cabbage, broccoli is a gas-forming product. Consuming it fresh with flatulence can aggravate the situation.
Fresh vegetable is not recommended for high acidity of the stomach and diseases of the pancreas.
Existing varicose veins, heart attacks and strokes, as well as increased blood viscosity, in some cases, become the reason for refusal of broccoli or a significant reduction in the permitted daily dose.This is due to the presence of vitamin K in it, which, in addition to the indicated action, is also capable of increasing blood viscosity. This, in turn, threatens with stagnation, thrombosis.
In addition, this vitamin enhances the effect of statins, therefore, people taking them as part of medicines should first obtain a doctor’s permission.
In case of thyroid diseases, it is not recommended to eat raw broccoli, since the isothiocyanates in the composition prevent the assimilation of iodine by the body.This phenomenon is not observed in thermally processed vegetables.
Features of the choice of vegetables
You can only get the most out of your broccoli by choosing the right flowers and preparing them properly. Let’s dwell on the first aspect.
Edible inflorescences should have a deep green tint, even a slight blue is allowed.But the presence of yellow blotches suggests that the cabbage withers, and at the same time loses some of the nutrients.
The stem of the inflorescence should be firm and juicy, not showing signs of wilting and drying, brown spots. The inflorescences should be unopened, tightly adjacent to each other.
When buying fresh cabbage, do so from late summer to early fall. When choosing frozen food, make sure that it has not been repeatedly frozen and thawed.
Immediately after purchasing broccoli you need to cook or, wrapped in a damp towel, put in the refrigerator. You can also put the plant in a jar of water as a bouquet, or disassemble it into inflorescences and freeze it in small batches. The product that is kept fresh in the refrigerator should be consumed no later than 2 weeks.
First of all, the use of broccoli means its use in food.The easiest way to cook it is to boil it in slightly salted water. True, there are some tricks here, which will be discussed below.
Boiled cabbage can be used as a garnish for meat and fish, added to salads. The vegetable is suitable for stewing and baking, and the most famous recipe is broccoli in batter.
Naturally, such a useful vegetable is actively used in cosmetology. On its basis, masks are created to solve a variety of skin problems.They perfectly tighten and tone the skin, giving it a healthy glow and velvety softness. Due to the content of ascorbic acid, broccoli-based masks have a slight whitening effect, help to cope with oily sheen.
The main rule for cooking broccoli is to minimize heat exposure. Only in this case will it retain not only its excellent taste and rich green hue, but also all the useful elements.
Pour water into a saucepan, add a little salt, and after boiling, lower the inflorescences into the liquid. Cooking time – no more than 3-5 minutes. After that, the cabbage must be removed with a slotted spoon, allowed to drain and serve.
If a frozen vegetable is used, do not defrost it in hot water and microwave, this will spoil the taste of the finished dish.
The best option is to leave the broccoli to defrost on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, or, in extreme cases, on the table in the kitchen.
Do not cook in water, in which broccoli was boiled, as it contains toxins after that. For the same reason, you should not immediately lay the vegetable in vegetable or meat broth along with other ingredients. You should first boil the cabbage and lay it at the very end of cooking or even after the dish is removed from the heat.
Boiled broccoli can be served with meat and fish dishes, seasoned with a little olive oil or sour cream, cheese sauce. Broccoli goes well with almost all vegetables and herbs.
You can make a juicy salad full of vitamins from boiled cabbage. To do this, boiled inflorescences must be mixed with cucumber, carrots and an apple (the amount of ingredients and their ratio can be varied at your discretion). Cut the carrots into thin strips, grind the cucumber and apple on a coarse grater, disassemble the cabbage into inflorescences.Optionally, you can add sweet pickled onions, herbs. As a dressing, use sour cream and mustard, taken in proportions of 4: 1.
Broccoli in batter can be prepared with a minimum of ingredients. You will need cabbage inflorescences and a batter based on water and flour and salt. The cabbage should be dipped in batter and fried in a saucepan or frying pan with high sides in well-heated oil. You can also add eggs and kefir, mineral water to the batter, then it will turn out lush and airy.The grated cheese added to the dough will add an original cheese-creamy taste to the dish. It is also good to add squeezed garlic and finely chopped herbs to such a batter.
In most cases, a fresh vegetable is used in cosmetology as a more biologically active, concentrated in composition.
To get rid of oily sheen, for example, gruel from broccoli inflorescences will help. They can be finely chopped with a knife, but it is better to punch with a blender. You will need 1-2 teaspoons of mashed potatoes and the same amount of green or black clay diluted with water to a gruel state. The ingredients should be mixed and applied to cleansed skin for 20 minutes. Wash off the mask with warm water and then wash with cool.
In the fight against dryness and tightness of the skin, instead of clay, you should use fat sour cream. The procedure time is at least 20-30 minutes.
Broccoli juice revives dry split ends.
By its action, it resembles silicone, which closes hair scales, moisturizes hair, and gives it shine. Unlike many store products of a similar effect, broccoli juice does not form a film on the hair, does not weigh them down.
To prepare a healing potion, it is enough to squeeze the juice from fresh cabbage and apply it first to the scalp, rubbing a little into the skin, and then distribute along the entire length. The procedure is carried out on clean, washed hair, leaving the juice on the head for half an hour. You can additionally insulate your head with a towel or scarf.
As already mentioned, broccoli cabbage has a low calorie content and the ability to activate metabolic processes, cleanse the intestines.Regular use of it in combination with physical activity will get rid of body fat and build muscle mass.
To lose weight, it is enough to follow the rules of a healthy diet, adding at least 150-200 g of broccoli, cooked in a “healthy” way – boiled, baked, into your KBZhU norm.
There are also broccoli-based mono diets that can help you lose weight significantly in a short time. They usually give a good loss of excess weight, however, due to their aggressiveness, they should not be used longer than 5-7 days and no more than once every 3-5 months.
In addition to broccoli, during this period, the use of carrots, cucumbers, sweet bell peppers is allowed. Complex carbohydrates are represented by lean veal, breast, low-fat varieties of white fish. As drinks – kefir, herbal decoctions, water.
Such mono-diets can have several schemes and are based on certain approaches for losing weight.They are not recommended in the presence of serious chronic diseases, during illness, during the recovery period, for pregnant and lactating women, adolescents, and the elderly.
For the benefits and dangers of broccoli, see the next video.