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Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


What is a facial fracture?

A facial fracture is a broken bone in the face. The face has a complex bone structure. The facial skeleton consists of the:

  • Frontal bone (forehead).
  • Zygomas (cheekbones).
  • Orbital bones (eye sockets).
  • Nasal bones.
  • Maxillary bones (upper jaw).
  • Mandible (lower jaw).

There are many other bones that are found deeper within the facial structure. Muscles required for chewing, swallowing and talking are attached to these bones.

Nasal fractures (broken nose) are the most common. Fractures to other facial bones can also occur. You might only have one fracture, or you might have several broken bones. Multiple fractures are more likely to occur during a motor vehicle accident or other high-impact accident. Fractures may be unilateral (occurring on one side of the face) or bilateral (occurring on both sides of the face).

Is a facial fracture a serious problem?

If you suffer from a facial injury, you should seek immediate medical attention. Some fractures are minor. However, complex fractures may cause irreversible damage and can even be life-threatening.

Located near to the bones in your face are the nerves and muscles that are responsible for sensations, expressions and eye movements. The muscles and nerves are located near to the facial bones. The face is close to the brain and central nervous system (CNS). Fractures may result in damage to cranial nerves, depending on the particular type and location of the fracture. Fractures to the orbit (eye socket) may result in problems with vision. Fractures of the nose may make it difficult for the injured person to breathe or smell. Also, fractures of the jawbones may cause breathing problems or make it difficult to chew, speak, or swallow.

What are the kinds of facial fractures?

There are several main types of facial fractures.

  • Nasal bones (broken nose): Nasal bone fractures are the most common type of facial fracture. The nasal bone is made up of two thin bones. It takes less force to break the nasal bones than other facial bones because they are thin and prominent. Usually, the nose looks deformed or feels sore to the touch after a fracture. Swelling in the area might make it more difficult to assess how much damage has occurred. Nosebleeds and bruising around the nose are common symptoms of a nasal fracture.
  • Frontal bone (forehead) fractures: The frontal bone is the main bone in the forehead area. A high-impact injury to the head can cause a fracture of the frontal bone and floor of the sinuses. The fracture is mostly likely to occur in the middle of the forehead. That’s where the bone is the thinnest and weakest. An injury may cause the bone to be indented (pushed inward). Substantial force is required to fracture the frontal bone, so often other injuries to the face and skull or neurological trauma may be present. Associated problems may include leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid, eye injuries and damage to the sinus ducts.
  • Zygomaticomaxillary fractures (broken cheekbone/upper jaw): The zygomas (cheekbones) are attached at several points to the upper jaw (maxilla) and bones of the skull. Fractures to the cheekbone(s) might also involve breaks in other facial bones nearby.
  • Orbital fractures (eye socket): There are three main types of orbital fractures.
    • Orbital rim fracture: The outer rim is the thickest part of the eye socket. It requires a lot of force to break the bone. Many other injuries may accompany an orbital rim fracture, such as damage to the optic nerve.
    • Blowout fractures: The orbital rim remains intact in this case, but a crack forms in the thin bone at the lower part of the eye socket. The eye muscles and other structures can become entrapped in the break and prevent the eyeball from moving normally.
    • Direct orbital floor fracture: This is a rim fracture that extends into the lower socket.
  • Mid-face (Le Fort fractures): Blunt force trauma tends to cause fractures along three lines of weakness in the mid-face. One characteristic of all types of Le Fort fractures is the fracture of the pterygoid processes, part of the sphenoid bone. There are three main types of Le Fort fractures, but there may be individual variations.
    • Le Fort I: The fracture extends above the upper jaw (maxilla).
    • Le Fort II: The fracture extends from the lower part of one cheek, below the eye, across the bridge of the nose, and to the lower part of the other cheek.
    • Le Fort III: The fracture extends across the bridge of the nose and the bones surrounding the eyes.
  • Mandible (lower jaw): The mandible holds the lower teeth in place and moves when you are talking or chewing. Fractures of the lower jaw affect the sections of the lower jaw that supports teeth (called the body), the part where the jaw curves upwards into the neck (the angle) or the knob-shaped joint at the top of the jaw bone (the condyle) or the point where the two sides of the lower jaw are joined (the symphysis). If you have a break in the lower jaw, you may also have broken or loose teeth.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes facial fractures?

You can break the bones in your face in many ways, including:

  • High-impact accidents, such as motor vehicle accidents.
  • Sports injuries.
  • Workplace accidents.
  • Falls.
  • Interpersonal trauma like fighting or domestic violence.

What are the symptoms of a facial fracture?

Symptoms of a fracture to the face may include pain as well as bruising, swelling or tenderness.

Symptoms of a nose fracture may include:

  • Purplish patch on skin caused when blood leaks from broken blood vessels (also called bruising or ecchymosis).
  • Discoloration under the eyes (“black eyes”).
  • Blockage of one or both nostrils or a deviated septum.
  • Twisted or crooked nose or indented bridge.
  • Nosebleed.

Symptoms of an orbital fracture may include:

  • Blurry, decreased or double vision (diplopia).
  • Difficulty in moving eyes left, right, up or down.
  • Swollen forehead or cheek or swelling under the eyes.
  • Flatness of the cheeks.
  • Sunken or bulging eyeballs.
  • Facial numbness near the injury.
  • Blood or discoloration in the white part of the eye.

Symptoms of upper or lower jaw fractures:

  • Trouble with chewing, eating, or speaking.
  • Loose, broken or missing teeth.
  • Teeth not fitting together properly.
  • Cheek pain when opening the mouth.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are facial fractures diagnosed?

First of all, medical personnel will determine whether there are any life-threatening injuries. These conditions have to be addressed immediately before a more thorough examination of the face is performed. A physician will check to see if there is anything blocking the airways or nasal passages, assess pupil size and reactions, and look for any damage to the central nervous system.

The doctor will then ask questions about how and when the injury occurred. The patient or caregiver should provide information about whether the patient has any other medical problems or previous problems, such as past facial injuries or surgery. A physical exam will be performed to check the face for signs of asymmetry (one side appears different from the other) and damage to motor functions (movement). The doctor will look at the face from several angles and examine the bones of the face by palpating (gently pressing on) them.

Signs of orbital fractures may include differences in the position of the eyeballs or sunken eyes. If the measured distance between the eyes is greater than normal, it may indicate a nasoethmoid fracture. Two-dimensional face CT scans and 3-dimensional reconstructive scans may be required for diagnosis and after surgery to confirm correction of the fracture.

Your provider might order a series of plain X-rays if the nose is broken. However, you might not need X-rays if:

  • The tenderness and swelling are confined to the bony bridge of the nose.
  • You can breathe through each nostril.
  • Your nose is straight, and no blood clot is found at the septum. The septum is the piece of cartilage in the middle of the nose that divides the nostrils.

If a fracture is suspected, your healthcare provider may order a computer tomography scan (CT scan) to determine the exact location and type of the fracture or fractures. A basic series of X-rays may be sufficient in some cases to assess the fracture if a CT scan can’t be performed or if there’s no indication of a midface or maxillary fracture.

In cases where there are complex fractures of the midface (LeFort fractures), your provider might order two-dimensional face CT scans and three-dimensional reconstructive scans. These images may be needed for a correct diagnosis or before facial reconstructive surgery to improve the outcome.

Management and Treatment

How are facial fractures treated?

Your healthcare provider may prescribe pain-relieving drugs as well as oral steroids to ease swelling. Your provider will prescribe antibiotics if there’s a high risk of infection.

In general, fractures may be treated by performing a closed reduction (resetting the broken bone or bones without surgery) or an open reduction (surgery that requires an incision to reposition the fractured bones). For a complex fracture with multiple broken bones, you will need reconstructive surgery.

The type of treatment will depend on the location and extent of the injury. The aim of treatment for facial fractures is to restore the normal appearance and function of the injured areas.

Life-threatening conditions, such as blockage of the airways, cardiovascular problems, or brain or nervous system injuries, must be treated immediately.


How can facial fractures be prevented?

There’s no way to completely prevent facial fractures. However, you can take some steps to reduce the extent of injuries.

  • Wear a seat belt when driving a motor vehicle or riding in one. Wear a helmet and other protective gear if you are operating a motorcycle or all-terrain vehicle.
  • Wear the correct protective equipment, such as a helmet and/or a face mask, when playing sports.
  • Follow safety guidelines at work and wear protective head gear if your job requires it.

You should get medical help right away if you have any of the following:

  • Open wounds where you can see the bone.
  • Bloody or clear fluid discharge from your nose.
  • Blurred or double vision, or problems moving your eyes.
  • Trouble swallowing or breathing.
  • Displaced jaw or nose.
  • Upper and lower jaw that don’t meet properly, or pain when you move your jaw.
  • Loose teeth.
  • Pain and swelling in the face.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

If you think you’ve broken any bone in your face, it’s important to contact your healthcare provider. You might only need to rest and be careful about what you eat, but if the breaks are serious, they can cause problems over the long term. Luckily, facial fractures can be treated.

Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


What is the jawbone?

Your jawbone keeps your teeth in place and helps you speak, chew and swallow. It consists of an upper jawbone (maxilla) and a lower jawbone (mandible).

You can move the lower jawbone forward, backward and sideways, but the upper jawbone doesn’t move. The jawbone is part of the skeletal system.

What is a broken or dislocated jaw?

Like other bones in the body, the jawbone can experience a fracture (broken bone). You can also dislocate the jawbone. A dislocation means the lower jawbone moves out of one of the two temporomandibular joints (TMJ) that connect the mandible to the skull.

Both conditions can cause pain and make it difficult or impossible to talk or eat. A dislocated or broken jaw can also affect breathing. These medical emergencies require prompt evaluation and treatment.

A fracture or dislocation most often affects the lower jawbone. Fractures can occur in the:

  • Part that supports your teeth (body).
  • Angle where your jaw curves.
  • Knob-shaped joint at the top of the jawbone (condyle).
  • Point where the two sides of the lower jawbone join (symphysis).

An upper jawbone fracture often happens along with other facial fractures like the cheekbone (zygomaticomaxillary or ZMC fracture) or eye socket (orbital fracture). Broken jaws are second to broken noses as the most common type of facial fracture.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes a broken jaw?

Most broken jaws are the result of:

  • Accidents, including vehicle accidents, workplace accidents and falls.
  • Assaults and trauma.
  • Sports injuries or other injuries.

What causes a dislocated jaw?

People with TMJ disorders and conditions that cause loose tissues and joints (like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) may be more likely to dislocate the jaw.

It’s also possible to dislocate a jaw while:

  • Getting a dental procedure.
  • Opening the mouth too wide.
  • Vomiting.
  • Yawning.

What are the symptoms of a broken or dislocated jaw?

A broken or dislocated jaw tends to be very painful. You may also have:

  • Bleeding from the mouth or nose.
  • Bruising in the jaw or cheek area.
  • Dental injuries, such as chipped or loose teeth or teeth that don’t match up.
  • Difficulty breathing, swallowing, talking or eating.
  • Ear pain.
  • Facial numbness.
  • Mouth that won’t close all the way or can’t open wide.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is a broken or dislocated jaw diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam to assess the injury. You may also get these diagnostic tests:

  • X-rays to check for broken or dislocated bones.
  • CT scan to look for a broken upper jawbone, other facial fractures or internal bleeding from an accident.

Management and Treatment

What are the treatments for a broken jaw?

Treatments for a broken jaw depend on the severity of the injury. Mild fractures may heal on their own. You’ll need to eat a soft diet or liquid diet while the jawbone heals.

More serious fractures require surgery. Your healthcare provider may:

  • Wire the upper and lower jawbones together for several weeks to hold the broken bones in place.
  • Place metal plates on the fractured area to help the bone heal and fuse together.

What are the treatments for a dislocated jaw?

Your healthcare provider may perform a closed reduction (nonsurgical) treatment. In this procedure, your provider manually moves your jaw back into place. You receive a local anesthetic to numb the area. You may also have a muscle relaxant or sedative to keep you comfortable during the procedure.

If you are prone to jaw dislocations, your provider may recommend surgery. Surgery can shorten the ligaments that connect the jawbone to the skull. The procedure tightens the connection to the temporomandibular joint.

What should I expect during recovery?

While recovering from a dislocated or broken jaw, you may:

  • Apply ice packs to the jaw area to reduce swelling.
  • Eat soft foods or drink a liquid diet through a straw.
  • Place a fist or hand under your chin to keep your mouth shut when you feel the urge to yawn or sneeze.
  • Take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease pain and swelling, as well as antibiotics to prevent infections.
  • Use a prescription dental mouth rinse if you’re unable to brush your teeth.
  • Wear a stabilizing bandage (called a Barton bandage) for several weeks to limit jaw movement. The bandage wraps under your chin and over the top of your head.

When healing is complete, your healthcare provider may recommend exercises to strengthen the jaw.


How can I prevent a broken or dislocated jaw?

Often, there isn’t a way to prevent the accidents and injuries that cause broken or dislocated jaws. You may lower your risk of facial fractures by wearing:

  • Helmets, facemasks and mouthguards when riding motorcycles, bikes and scooters, skiing or playing contact sports.
  • Protective headgear on the job, if applicable.
  • Seatbelts in cars.

Outlook / Prognosis

What are the complications of a dislocated or broken jaw?

A dislocated or broken jawbone requires immediate medical attention. A severely broken jawbone can affect your breathing, especially if there are other facial fractures.

If you have surgery to wire your jaws shut, you should carry wire cutters with you at all times. You may need to cut the wire if you feel like you are choking or feel the urge to vomit.

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Pain that doesn’t improve with at-home treatments.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  • Signs of infection, such as fever and chills.
What questions should I ask my doctor?

You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What is the best treatment for my condition?
  • What foods are safe for me to eat?
  • How can I prevent future jaw dislocations?
  • Can jaw-strengthening exercises help?
  • Would I benefit from surgery?
  • Should I watch for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Most people heal from dislocated or broken jaws, although a full recovery may take a few months. It’s important to follow your healthcare provider’s recommendations during recovery. You may need to eat a soft diet, take care while brushing teeth and not open the mouth wide. You may be more prone to jaw dislocations after the problem happens once. Your provider can offer suggestions to prevent future jaw dislocations and fractures.

Guide | Physical Therapy Guide to Jaw Fracture (Temporomandibular Joint Fracture)

Once you have completed a course of rest or splinting, your physical therapist can help restore the natural movement of your jaw and decrease your pain. During your first visit, your physical therapist may:

  • Review your medical history, and discuss any previous surgery, fractures, or other injuries to your head, neck, or jaw.
  • Evaluate the quality and quantity of movement of your jaw and neck.
  • Assess your posture and observe how your neck moves.
  • Examine the TMJ to find out how well it can open, and whether there are any abnormalities in jaw motion following the fracture.

Following the examination, your physical therapist will select the appropriate treatments to improve your jaw movement and relieve your pain.

Improving Your Jaw Movement

Stretching and Motion Exercises.Your physical therapist may prescribe stretches and range-of-motion exercises for the jaw. The instruction will include guidelines for frequency and intensity of movement to ensure your safe performance of all your exercises.

Manual Therapy. Your physical therapist may also apply skilled hands-on techniques (manual therapy) to gently increase your jaw movement and relieve your pain.

“Low-Load” Exercises. Your physical therapist may teach you special “low-load” strengthening exercises that don’t exert a lot of pressure on your TMJ, but can help strengthen the muscles of the jaw and restore a more natural, pain-free motion. Your physical therapist also will teach you exercises that help you increase the opening of your jaw and improve the way it works.

Relieving Your Pain

If your pain is severe, your physical therapist may apply physical modalities, such as electrical stimulation or deep heat, to reduce pain and improve motion.

Upper and Lower Jaw Fractures in Cats

The treatment needed for jaw fractures in cats is very dependent on what type of fracture is present. The most common procedures are listed below:

External Immobilization

The affected bones are aligned properly and then secured by a muzzle. The muzzle is administered using either a commercially produced mouth muzzle or medical tape. In less complicated fractures, this is sometimes all that is needed.

External Skeletal Fixation 

Pins are threaded through the skin into the bone while all being connected to an external rod or bumper bar which holds the jaw in place. It is a less invasive surgery in which all implants can be removed after healing has occurred. There is some postoperative care involved to remove the pins. This method is very effective in treating open mandibular body fractures.

Internal Reduction 

Bone plates and screws are placed surgically to secure bone pieces. They stay in the animal upon recovery. There is minimal postoperative care involved. This procedure is often used in repairing temporomandibular joint luxations (complete joint dislocation).

Interosseous or Interfragmentary Wiring 

A long, slender wire is inserted through the lower jaw but remains under the tongue and then protrudes back through to the underside of the jaw. It is then bent properly to prevent snagging.Postoperative care is required to remove the wire. This works to join two pieces of broken bone back together, especially in mandible symphysis breaks.

Interarcade Wiring 

The jaw is essentially wired shut to prevent movement and encourage proper alignment. The cat can only consume liquids and pureed foods throughout the healing process. A postoperative visit is required to remove the wire so the mouth can function again. This treatment is often used to correct a simple mandibular body fracture.

Interdental Wiring 

The wire is secured around the cat’s teeth to stabilize the realignment of the jaw. Wires will be removed at a later vet visit once the jaw has healed. This treatment is noninvasive.

Partial or Full Mandibulectomy

If the jaw is shattered beyond repair, or blood loss is too severe, mandibulectomy (amputation of the jaw) may be offered as a last resort attempt to save your cat’s life. It is important to note that some cats will permanently refuse to eat after having this surgery, and the morbidity rates are high.

Feeding tubes may be used for a time with all of the above treatments.

Broken Jaw (Mandibular Fracture) –

By Terry Zeigler, EdD, ATC 

A broken jaw (mandibular fracture) is the second most common facial fracture in sports because of the anterior location on the skull. The mandible is the jawbone. Because the mandible is exposed and not covered by most protective devices, it is susceptible to injury.


Symptoms of broken jaw 

The mandible usually fractures in more than one place and occurs on opposite sides of the midline of the jaw. These fractures can either be displaced (more severe with bone ends separated and moved apart) or nondisplaced (bone ends aligned).

The signs and symptoms of a displaced broken jaw include:

• Gross deformity
• Malocclusion (teeth do not align when the jaw is closed)
• Oral bleeding
• Paresthesia or anesthesia of lower lip and chin
• Changes in speech
• Swelling
• Bruising to the floor of the mouth
• Mucous membrane tears

The signs and symptoms of a nondisplaced broken jaw include:

• Oral bleeding oozing between the teeth
• Point tenderness over the fracture site
• Pain on opening and closing the jaw
• Swelling
• Discoloration


Who gets a broken jaw?

A broken jaw is most often caused by a blow to the lower jaw from sports equipment (hockey stick, bat). Because of the length of a hockey stick and/or bat, it does not take as much force from the opponent swinging the equipment to create enough force to fracture the jawbone.

Mountain biking is another sport with a high incidence of facial fractures. This type of injury occurs when the athlete goes over the handlebars and falls directly onto the lower jaw or chin hitting a hard surface.

Fighting sports in which direct blows are delivered as part of the sport (boxing, mixed martial arts) also have a high incidence of jawbone fractures.


Treatment for broken jaw 

If a broken jaw is suspected, emergency services should immediately be called. Initial treatment should be focused on maintaining an open airway with the athlete in a sitting position with the athlete’s hands supporting the lower jaw. This position will allow the blood to flow forward and out of the mouth rather than back into the throat.

Because the amount of force required to fracture the mandible is significant, care must be taken to evaluate the athlete for a possible concussion and/or brain injury also.

To determine if the athlete has any signs and symptoms of concussion, check for the following:

• Dizziness
• Headache
• Confusion
• Nausea
• Ringing in the ears
• Inability to answer simple questions

If any of the above symptoms are present, assume that the athlete may also have a concussion. An unconscious athlete or an athlete with a suspected concussion should be placed on their side with a head tilt and jaw support after the mouth has been cleared of any broken or dislodged teeth.

The jaw can be immobilized using an ace bandage or roller gauze but care must be taken to ensure that the jaw is not displaced posteriorly which may compromise the airway. The bandages can be wrapped under the chin and over the top of the head.

A crushed ice pack can be applied to the area to reduce the amount of swelling. However, care must be taken that the weight of the ice pack does not displace the fracture.


Is surgery needed to repair a broken jaw?

If the athlete has sustained a nondisplaced jawbone fracture, the healing can be managed conservatively with analgesia and rest. To allow the fracture to heal properly, the athlete should only eat soft foods for up to four weeks or as long as recommended by the treating physician.

Most displaced jawbone fractures will require closed reduction and internal fixation for four to six weeks. While the athlete’s jaw is wired shut, the athlete should be consuming high-protein, high-carbohydrate liquid diets. It is normal for an athlete to lose between 5% and 10% of his/her body weight during this time. If there is concern about the amount of weight lost, the athlete should consult with a nutritionist.


Returning to sports after a broken jaw 

Light activities such as stationary cycling, walking, and light resistance exercises can be performed during the time of fixation to maintain muscle tone. Care should be taken not to increase the heart rate to a level where increased oxygen is needed for the muscles because the athlete is only able to breathe through his/her nose and not able to breathe through his/her mouth to increase the oxygen uptake. It is recommended that the athlete should not return to contact or collision sports until one to two months after the jaw is unwired.


Getting a Second Opinion

A second opinion should be considered when deciding on a high-risk procedure like surgery or you want another opinion on your treatment options.  It will also provide you with peace of mind.  Multiple studies make a case for getting additional medical opinions.

In 2017, a Mayo Clinic study showed that 21% of patients who sought a second opinion left with a completely new diagnosis, and 66% were deemed partly correct, but refined or redefined by the second doctor.

You can ask your primary care doctor for another doctor to consider for a second opinion or ask your family and friends for suggestions.  Another option is to use a Telemedicine Second Opinion service from a local health center or a Virtual Care Service.


SportsMD’s Second Opinion and Telehealth Service

SportsMD offers Second Opinion and Telehealth appointments with a top sports medicine doctor to confirm a diagnosis and/or learn about different treatment options.

Please reach out to us at [email protected] if you need help finding a top sports doctor for a second opinion or Telehealth appointment in NY, NJ or CT.

We’ll do our best to connect you with a top sports medicine doctor who specializes in your injury area.



  • Anderson, M.K., Hall, S.J., & Martin, M. (2009). Foundations of Athletic Training: Prevention, Assessment, and Management. (3rd Ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA
  • Bahr, R., & Maehlum S. (2004). Clinical Guide to Sports Injuries. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL.
  • Brukner, P., & Khan, K. (2004). Clinical Sports Medicine (revised 2nd Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York, NY.

Facial Fractures | Boston Children’s Hospital

What are facial fractures?

Facial fractures are broken bones in the face.

  • This kind of a fracture can involve bones of the upper jaw, lower jaw, cheeks, and nose or eye sockets.
  • A closed fracture is one in which the skin is not broken.
  • An open or compound fracture involves laceration of the skin.
  • Most children’s facial fractures heal rapidly with very few complications.
  • The majority of all facial fractures involve the lower jaw.
  • The nose and the cheekbones, because of their prominence, are also damaged frequently.

If you suspect that your child has a facial fracture, seek medical attention immediately.

Facial fractures can result breathing impairment, since the airway can be blocked by bone fragments, swollen tissue, blood clots, dislodged teeth, or pieces of debris.

What causes facial fractures?

Facial fractures during childhood have a number of causes:

  • falls
  • being struck by a blunt object
  • motor vehicle accidents
  • disease (a very small percentage)

Jaw fractures

Fractures of the jaw are most often caused by:

  • car, bicycle, and motorcycle accidents
  • fistfights
  • falls
  • sports accidents
  • industrial accidents

They may also result from diseases, such as osteomyelitis (an infection of the bone), metabolic disorders, or tumors.

Nasal and cheekbone fractures

Fractures of the nasal bones and cheekbones can result from any severe impact to the area. Common causes include:

  • blunt objects
  • falls
  • fistfights
  • sports accidents

Eye socket fractures

Fractures of the floor of the eye bone socket are called blowout fractures. They most often result from a sudden increase in pressure around the eye area due to an external force, such as a fist or a baseball.

All of the connecting bones in the eye area are compressed, and the system of bone structures gives out (blows out) at its weakest point — the floor of the eye bone socket.

What are the symptoms of facial fractures?

Each child may experience symptoms differently and they vary depending on what kind of facial fracture your child may have experienced. Symptoms your child may have can include:

  • pain
  • excessive salivation
  • difficulty swallowing
  • swelling
  • malocclusion (improper meshing of the upper and lower jaw and teeth)
  • skin discoloration
  • visible jaw deformity
  • nosebleed
  • difficulty breathing
  • lacerations either inside or outside the nose
  • visible displacement of the nose
  • crackling noise when the ends of a broken bone are rubbed together

If you suspect that your child has a facial fracture, seek medical attention immediately.

How are facial fractures diagnosed?

Your child’s doctor will first feel the facial bones to discover bone fragments or irregularities of the face.

The doctor may also look inside your child’s nose and ears for blood clots or discharge of cerebrospinal fluid. (Such a discharge from the ears could mean a base skull fracture.)

X-rays are also needed to diagnose a facial fracture and to rule out other problems, such as dislocation or fracture of the neck.

How are facial fractures treated?

Your child’s physician will discuss specific treatments options with you, but it’s generally pretty straightforward.

The usual treatment for facial fractures involves two steps, reduction or “setting of the bone” and fixation.

  • Reduction involves restoring broken pieces to their proper position. In many cases of facial fracture, reduction can be accomplished several days after the injury, once the swelling has subsided.
  • Fixation is the process of holding the broken pieces together until they have rejoined and the fracture has healed. Most often, this means immobilizing the broken parts.

Jaw fracture fixation

Many children’s jaw fractures only require your child to stick to a soft diet for a period of time. Sometimes jaw fractures require intermaxillary fixation (IMF), which basically means temporary locking of the upper and lower jaws together by wire or rubber bands.

While the jaws are wired shut, only liquid nourishment is possible. The length of time the IMF is in place varies with the extent and severity of the fracture. The usual length of time is three to six weeks.

Nasal fracture fixation

Nasal fracture fixation is usually accomplished by external splinting and occasionally by packing the inside of your child’s nose with soft material. A blowout fracture may require careful exploration and restoration of your child’s orbital floor.

What’s my child’s long-term outlook?

Generally, children’s broken bones heal rapidly with few complications.

Don’t panic

The surgeons at the Boston Children’s Hospital General Surgery Program understand how traumatic a facial fracture can be. The good news is that most facial fractures in children heal relatively quickly and without complications. Our experienced staff is here to help heal your child and provide support in this upsetting time.

Jaw Fracture

You have a broken jaw, or mandible bone. It may be a minor break in the bone. Or you may have a major break, with the bone moving out of place. This causes swelling, pain, and bruising in your lower face. You may have a cut and bleeding inside your mouth. 

Most jaw fractures are stable. They can be treated by wiring the upper and lower teeth together. This keeps the fracture from moving while the bone heals. The bone should heal in about 4 to 6 weeks. But you may need surgery to put the broken bone back in place.

A blow to the face that’s strong enough to break a jaw may also cause a concussion or more serious brain injury. You should watch for the warning signs listed below.

Home care

  • If your jaw was wired shut, it’s important for you to be able to open the wires in any emergency that makes it hard to breathe. This includes vomiting, extreme coughing, or choking. You must carry a pair of small wire-cutters with you at all times. Keep them near your bed at night. Be sure you know which wires to cut in case you need to do this. If you don’t know, ask your healthcare provider.

  • If a bandage was wrapped around your jaw, leave this in place, even when you are sleeping. Do this until you are seen at your next appointment. This will keep the broken bones from moving until you see the oral surgeon or ENT (ear, nose and throat surgeon).

  • If your jaw was wired shut, follow a full liquid diet. Drink liquids and blended drinks, or smoothies, through a straw.

  • If your jaw was not wired shut, you may follow a full liquid diet plus soft foods. Don’t try to open your mouth wide or chew on solid food.

  • Use an ice pack on the injured area for no more than 20 minutes at a time. Do this every 1 to 2 hours for the first 24 to 48 hours. Then use ice packs as needed to ease pain and swelling. To make an ice pack, put ice cubes in a plastic bag that seals at the top. Wrap the bag in a clean, thin towel or cloth. Never put ice or an ice pack directly on the skin.

  • You may use over-the-counter pain medicine to control pain, unless another pain medicine was prescribed. If you have chronic liver or kidney disease, talk with your provider before using this medicine. Use the children’s liquid form of the medicine if your jaw was wired closed.

  • If you were given antibiotics to prevent an infection, take them as directed until you have finished the prescription

Special note on concussions

If you had any symptoms of a concussion today, don’t return to sports or any activity that could result in another head injury.

These are symptoms of a concussion:

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Dizziness

  • Confusion

  • Headache

  • Memory loss

  • Loss of consciousness

Wait until all of your symptoms are gone and your provider says it’s OK to resume your activity. Having a second head injury before you fully recover from the first one can lead to serious brain injury.

Follow-up care

Follow up with your healthcare provider in 1 week, or as advised.

If you had X-rays or CT scans taken, you will be told of any new findings that may affect your care.

When to seek medical advice

Call your healthcare provider right away if any of these occur:

  • Facial swelling or pain that gets worse

  • Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider

  • Chills

  • You can’t swallow liquids

  • Bleeding from mouth or gums

  • You had to cut the wires placed on your teeth



Call 911 if you have:

  • Repeated vomiting

  • Severe headache or dizziness

  • Headache or dizziness that gets worse

  • Abnormal drowsiness, or you can’t wake up as usual

  • Confusion or change in behavior or speech

  • Convulsion or seizure

90,000 Fracture of the jaw: Causes, Diagnosis, Causes | doc. ua

In case of a fracture of the upper jaw, the victim has double vision, since there are double muscles near the jaw, numbness of the skin below the eye due to nerve damage, or a change in the shape of the arch of the cheekbones, which can be felt by running a finger along it.


Usually the cause of a jaw fracture is an injury, a fairly strong blow to the jaw or a fall on the face on the asphalt or other hard surface.


If there is a suspicion of a fracture of the jaw, then an x-ray examination should be carried out. Any injury that leads to a fracture of the jaw, especially if it is very serious, can be accompanied by damage to the spine in its cervical spine. That is why, even before the start of treatment, an X-ray examination of the cervical spine is prescribed, which makes it possible to exclude damage to the spinal cord. A severe blow that breaks the jaw can also cause a concussion or bleeding into the skull.


In a medical facility, a splinter can be done for a victim who has a fractured jaw – both jaws are tied together. They stay in this position for six weeks, and this allows the bones to heal. During this period, a person cannot eat, but can only drink liquids through a straw. A large number of jaw fractures can be treated with surgery using miniplates. Mini-plates are metal devices that are fixed to the bone with screws on both sides of the fracture.The jaws are briefly fixed (immobilized), after which, for several weeks, a person can only eat soft food.

If we mean a children’s fracture of the jaw, then immobilization is not necessary for some fractures. Instead, movement is limited at the beginning of treatment. You can return to normal levels of activity and activity only after a few weeks. Antibiotics may be prescribed, especially in the case of an open fracture that passes through a tooth or socket, which opens into the oral cavity, which is not protected from bacteria.

If there is a suspicion of a jaw fracture, then the jaw should be fixed, and the teeth should be clenched. The jaw can be held in place by hand or, more preferably, by a bandage that runs under the jaw at the crown. The person applying the dressing should check that it will not interfere with the victim’s breathing. The sooner, the better you need to seek medical attention, as fractures can cause internal bleeding and airway obstruction.

It often happens that in case of serious injuries to the face, there is a need for plastic surgery. The reason for this is that the bones of the lower jaw receive sufficiently strong and widespread damage. Then the damaged parts are replaced with prostheses.

A fracture that is not complicated usually heals within three to four weeks. The consequences that can develop along with complications are usually uncommon for a mild type of injury. If we are talking about complex fractures, then the recovery time will directly depend on how strong the damage was.

After the course of treatment is over and the splints are removed, courses of therapeutic gymnastics and mechanotherapy must be carried out. They are needed in order to restore the mobility of the lower joint and the chewing muscles as soon as possible.

To effectively heal a fracture of the jaw, the sooner, the better it is to see a specialist. If the following symptoms are observed, then you need to immediately call an ambulance:

  • the bite changes, pain is felt in this area after receiving a certain injury or blow to the jaw;
  • if it is not possible to open the mouth wide, and when it is opened and closed, the jaw shifts to the side;
  • if double vision, the skin under the eyes becomes numb, the zygomatic arch changes noticeably;
  • if speech, chewing is impaired, profuse salivation is observed after injury.


Jaw fracture can be fraught with the following complications:

  • displacement of some part of the row of teeth;
  • malocclusion;
  • the appearance of large distances and gaps between the teeth;
  • severe aching pain in the fracture zone;
  • violation of the functions of chewing, swallowing and breathing;
  • Loss of sensitivity in the lower part of the face.

The occurrence of all complications can be successfully prevented if you try to adhere exactly to the advice and recommendations of your healthcare professional.It is also very important to pay attention not only to the treatment period for the jaw fracture, but also to the rehabilitation period after the jaw fracture. In order for bones to heal as quickly and efficiently as possible, you also need to take vitamins and adhere to proper nutrition.

Jaw fracture: symptoms, first aid, rehabilitation

[su_heading size = ”18 ″ margin =” 0 ″] Causes of jaw fractures [/ su_heading]

Traumatic fractures

These are the most common.They arise from a direct impact, road accident, gunshot wound, etc.

Pathological fractures

In this case, a fracture of the lower jaw occurs from exposure to low intensity, or simply in the process of daily physical activity.

Occurs due to the weakening of bone tissue caused by osteomyelitis, poor nutrition, lack of vitamins and minerals. The structure of the bone is broken, its strength is lost.

[su_heading size = ”18 ″ margin =” 0 ″] Danger of fractures of the lower and upper jaw [/ su_heading]

Fractures of the jaw are extremely dangerous injuries for the patient.

Possible complications:

  • Development of suffocation due to displacement of bone fragments, or the development of severe edema and painful shock.
  • Severe bleeding due to damage to the large vessels of the head and neck.
  • Facial defect, geometry displacement, scars.
  • Infectious complications. They develop due to the fact that the bone is separated from the external environment and the oral cavity by a thin layer of mucous membrane, and the oral cavity contains a large number of microorganisms.

Untreated teeth, which can lead to osteomyelitis, contribute to the development of infection of the jaw bones in case of fracture.

[su_heading size = ”18 ″ margin =” 0 ″] Signs and symptoms of lower jaw fracture [/ su_heading]

Severe pain

Especially pronounced at the site of the fracture. It increases with pressure on the site of injury, during a conversation or simple movement of the jaw. During a fracture of the jaw, the periosteum, nerve endings are damaged and inflammatory edema develops.Sometimes the pain reaction can be very strong and lead to traumatic pain shock.


Most often bleeding occurs inside the mouth. If there is damage to the skin, blood may be poured out through the wound. In case of severe bleeding, when a large vessel is damaged, an urgent need to consult a doctor!

Facial edema

This is a characteristic symptom. The edema is voluminous, the face swells and changes its shape. The skin is red, warm, pasty.Puffiness occurs not only in the area of ​​influence of the traumatic factor, but also in others.

Changes in the geometry of the lower jaw

During a fracture, fragments can move, thus changing the shape of the face. This can be seen during examination, for when feeling the site of injury.

This is a dangerous pathology, which should be treated by an experienced dental surgeon! Self-medication can lead to irreversible complications, up to self-destruction of bone tissue.The earlier you start treatment, the lower the risk of complications, and the more chances you have to restore jaw function.

[su_heading size = ”18 ″ margin =” 0 ″] First aid for suspected jaw fracture [/ su_heading]

Stop bleeding

A clean, sterile gauze swab should be applied to the wound site. Apply cold.


At the stage of first aid, this is one of the most important measures that will allow a little stabilization of the patient’s condition.Since taking pills is problematic, if possible, an injection of an anesthetic drug should be given.

If it is not possible – you can grind an anesthetic tablet, mix with water and give to the patient to drink. It is necessary to cleanse your mouth of knocked-out teeth and blood clots in advance. Ice has some analgesic effect, which will reduce swelling, stop bleeding, and desensitize damaged nerves.

Immobilize and fix the jaw

In order to prevent further displacement of fragments and subsequent trauma, it is imperative to immobilize the jaw.In case of a fracture of the upper jaw, put a ruler under the teeth and fix it to the head. In case of a fracture of the lower jaw, press it against the upper jaw until the teeth completely close and apply a sling-like bandage.

Fractures of the jaw older than 10 days are considered to be old, and fractures older than 20 days are considered to be improperly healed.

[su_heading size = ”18 ″ margin =” 0 ″] Subsequent rehabilitation [/ su_heading]

After the provision of emergency assistance, it is necessary to use physiotherapeutic procedures, exercise therapy, regular oral hygiene.In this case, the fracture of the jaw will heal quickly enough and the function will fully recover.

Exercise therapy

Be sure to carry out after removing the tires at 4-5 weeks. Objective: to restore the mobility of the muscles and joints of the jaw, chewing function, to normalize facial expressions and speech.

Power mode

Food must be chopped to a liquid state. Warm up to 40-50 degrees. During the rehabilitation period, you need a full, high-calorie balanced diet.


This is the effect of physical factors (heat, cold, electromagnetic waves, vibration, etc.)) to the damaged area, which activates the regenerative activity of tissues.

In case of fracture and dislocation of the jaw, physiotherapy is prescribed:

Exposure to an ultra-high frequency electromagnetic field.

Low-frequency pulse magnetic therapy.

Ultraviolet irradiation of the fracture site.

Calcium electrophoresis at the fracture site.

Fracture of the jaw in a cat – Network of Veterinary Centers “MEDVET”

Fracture of the jaw is a common pathology in cats.In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is associated with trauma, less often with oncological or inflammatory processes. In most cases, cats have a fracture of the lower jaw, and much less often – the upper one.

Signs of a jaw fracture are quite typical:

  • Jaw asymmetry
  • Incomplete jaw closing
  • Difficulty taking food and water
  • Refusal of food and water
  • Bleeding from the oral cavity
  • 29 Sickness with palpation

    29 Diagnosis of is based on radiography and characteristic clinical presentation.To clarify the condition of the cat and prepare it for surgery, you may need blood and urine tests, an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, and an X-ray of the chest cavity. In a tumor process, a biopsy may be required to determine the type of tumor and select the optimal method of therapy.

    Treatment of jaw fractures in cats is almost always surgical. In rare cases, in case of tumor processes, surgical intervention is not indicated, or the branch of the jaw is resected to prevent the spread of the tumor process.

    In the case of a symphyseal fracture (in the middle between the right and left branches), a wire tightening cerclage is applied at the fusion of the jaw branches. In case of fractures of the branches of the jaw, external osteosynthesis with a plate or intramedullary wires is performed, an alternative method is applied to an extrafocal external fixation device. In the case of a fracture of the coronoid processes that form the temporomandibular joint, they are resected with an osteotomy of the zygomatic arch. Fractures of the maxillary bone are fixed with positioning screws or the imposition of plates, previously modeled according to the shape of the bone.The metal structures are removed according to the results of X-ray, with the formation of a stable callus, on average, this takes 2-3 months.

    Antibiotics, pain relievers and soft food are prescribed after the operation.

    Prognosis for a traumatic fracture of the jaw is favorable. In almost all cases, except for multiple crushed fractures, it is possible to achieve a complete return of the jaw function and a good cosmetic effect. For fractures associated with a tumor or infectious process, the prognosis is cautious.Chemotherapy and long-term antibiotic therapy may be required.

    The article was prepared by D. Shpin’kov,
    veterinary surgeon, neurologist “MEDVET”
    © 2015 SEC “MEDVET”

    9000 Leave a review

    Treatment of a fracture of the zygomatic bone and upper jaw – all methods of treatment

    Maxillofacial surgeons in Moscow – latest reviews

    I had a suspicion of a fracture of the zygomatic bone.I got into an accident in a taxi, and in the emergency room I was just told that a fracture is possible. The doctor denied this, sent me to CT, very competently approached my question, explained everything, told me in detail. Very attentive and sensitive doctor. I will know that there is such a wonderful maxillofacial surgeon who can be contacted in case of need.


    09 July 2021

    Lola Davidovna very competently, accurately explained and told everything.As a result of the reception, we received a lot of drugs that need to be taken and we hope to improve the condition. Quite enough time was given. We will definitely refer to this specialist again.


    November 16, 2021

    The reception went well.I am satisfied with the quality of the reception. The doctor advised, diagnosed. He said that he needed to be treated in stages. During the appointment, he examined me, gave recommendations. I chose the clinic on the recommendation.


    November 16, 2021

    This was the first reception.Carried out an inspection. The quality of the reception suited me. Edgar Avetisovich is tactful and attentive. Appointed treatment. Then we will write another review on the result. For the first appointment, everything suits me.


    November 16, 2021

    Everything is great, Robert Artavazdovich is wonderful.I did an ultrasound of the veins. All told and showed veins, calmed me down. He also allowed him to be called by name. I needed his advice for the reason that I want to get vaccinated, but I have varicose veins. He approved the vaccination. The reception lasted about 30 minutes. All my questions were answered. As a result of the consultation, I learned what to do before vaccination.


    November 16, 2021

    I had residual stitches removed.Robert Artavazdovich took them off very quickly and bandaged them. If anything, I will re-enroll. The doctor received me without delay, even earlier than I was registered. The doctor devoted enough time to the procedure.


    November 11, 2021

    Andrey Rudolfovich is a polite, professional and cool doctor.Accepted on time. Enough time was given to me. At the reception, the specialist examined the stitches, removed them, gave recommendations and consulted. Everything that is needed, everything is done. No questions left. Many thanks.


    November 11, 2021

    The doctor is wonderful.

    Ekaterina Drozdova,

    08 November 2021

    The doctor is very attentive, kind, sincere.Doctor with a capital letter. At the reception, Robert Artavazdovich showed everything and explained it professionally. I spent enough time. There would be more such doctors. Thanks a lot to him.


    04 November 2021

    In my opinion, Robert Artavazdovich is a very professional doctor, very attentive, listens to the patient, and correctly evaluates the situation.At the appointment, the doctor did an ultrasound of the lower extremities professionally, quickly and accurately. I am very glad that I got to him. As a result, I realized what should be done to remove my situation. I would recommend this specialist to my friends.


    03 November 2021

    Show 10 reviews of 122 90,296 90,000 Feline jaw fracture treatment

    Fracture of the jaw in cats treatment

    Author: Elena (admin) November 4, 2015

    A cat’s jaw consists of two parts: the upper jaw and the lower jaw.The lower jaw is made up of two bones connected along the midline. Both the upper and lower jaw can be torn and the fracture can occur anywhere along the jawbone. Often the lower jaw is broken along the midline. Fractures can be classified as “closed” and “open”. In an open fracture, the bone protrudes through the skin and tissues to the outside. With a closed fracture, the skin at the site of injury is not damaged. Trauma to the jaw usually results in an open fracture because there is too little tissue in that part of the body that surrounds the jaw bones.

    Fracture of the jaw in a cat – symptoms
    • Loss of appetite
    • The cat cannot open or close the mouth
    • Pain
    • Bruising, swelling and soreness of the affected area
    • Deformation of the muzzle (appearance of an abnormal bite)
    • Bleeding from the oral cavity
    • Broken or missing teeth

    If the jaw is broken, other than due to injury (such as infection or cancer in the jaw bones), other symptoms such as bad breath and drooling may also be present.

    How to diagnose a fracture of the jaw

    The veterinarian performs a physical examination of the cat by carefully examining the mouth and jaw. Often, a fracture of the jaw can be diagnosed on the basis of an external examination, but an X-ray of the skull can also be performed when the fracture is closed, or in order to assess the extent of the fracture.

    Other diagnostic tests may be done to check for other injuries or to assess the general condition of the cat. These may include a complete blood count, biochemical profile, urinalysis, ultrasound, chest and abdominal x-rays.

    Treatment of a fractured jaw in cats
    • Surgery is required to treat a fractured jaw. If there is a fracture of the midline of the jaw, the doctor will need to fold both parts and fasten them with implants (plates, screws, wires, etc.).
    • Treatment of other injuries. Damaged soft tissue surrounding the jawbone must be thoroughly cleaned. Suturing may be required.
    • Treatment of an underlying medical condition, such as hyperparathyroidism or gum disease, may be required.Oral cancer is invasive and can quickly spread to surrounding tissues. If the cancer is in the front of the mandible, surgical removal of the bone may be attempted. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may also be recommended.

    The cat will be prescribed pain relievers, antibiotics and topical wound care. Recovery will take several weeks and your cat will need to be restrained during this period.

    It will be difficult for her to eat, therefore, until the jaw has healed, it is necessary to transfer her to a soft diet.

    A few weeks later, a second x-ray should be done to check the condition of the cat’s jaw.


    Fracture of the jaw in cats treatment

    Information for pet owners.

    AUTHOR: Ph.D. DV Kryuchkov, surgeon of the “Belladonna” veterinary center.

    Fractures of the upper and lower jaw are not so rare in the practice of a veterinary surgeon.For example, a fracture of the mandible is most typical for cats – 14.5% of all cases of fractures in them, in dogs these fractures are only 2.7%.

    Most jaw fractures are due to road traffic injuries (dogs) and falls from heights (cats). The remaining percentage of cases are due to blows, bites, gunshot wounds and dental procedures. It should be noted that periodontal disease predisposes to fracture of the mandible and constitutes a relatively high incidence of injury in Pekingese and Poodles.

    We diagnose and surgically treat fractures of the upper and lower jaw in dogs and cats.
    Make an appointment for a consultation or surgery by calling the Belladonna Veterinary Clinic (495) 440-73-35. Sometimes dogs are brought to the appointment with fractures of the upper / lower jaw – those who like to chase after cars, which nevertheless caught up with their target and tried to bite the tire of the wheel!

    In cats, when falling from a height, the typical fractures are the discrepancy of the symphysis of the lower jaw and the rupture of the hard palate.

    Symptoms of fractures of the upper and lower jaw:

    • bleeding from the mouth and nose
    • Malocclusion and excessive salivation
    • deformation of the upper jaw
    • Air accumulation in the subcutaneous tissue (with fractures of the upper jaw)
    • sneezing and excretion of food from the nostrils after feeding (with rupture of the hard palate)
    • Difficulty taking feed
    • soreness when taking feed

    Clinical examination and radiography are used to diagnose jaw fractures.

    If a fracture of the lower jaw is found in an animal, the owner can provide first aid – it is necessary to close the mouth and put on a muzzle (in cats, a bandage is used as a muzzle). The muzzle will immobilize the fragments of the lower jaw in order to prevent pain and displacement of the fragments before being received by the veterinary surgeon. The upper jaw will serve as a splint for the lower jaw.

    Non-surgical treatment is usually used in cases where there are contraindications to general anesthesia.Bandages, muzzles and specific soft / liquid feeding are used.

    The appearance of a cat after fixing a muzzle bandage. Surgical treatment (osteosynthesis) is carried out in order to connect the fragments of the broken jaw for their full fusion. For this we use implants: cerclage wire, plates, screws, Kirschner wires, bone cement or acrylic resin.

    The methods of osteosynthesis that we use to fix fractures of the upper / lower jaw:

    • Bone osteosynthesis with plates and screws
    • transverse wire cerclage
    • wire seams
    • external clips like acrylic bumper

    In case of dislocations of the temporomandibular joints, which are most common in cats (after falling from a height, we reposition the dislocation under anesthesia and immobilize it with a muzzle from a bandage bandage.

    After the operation, a course of antibiotics, local treatment of sutures and a specific diet are prescribed to reduce the load on the operated jaw.

    Fracture of the jaw in a cat

    Fracture of the lower jaw in cats is manifested by a violation of the integrity of the bone, most often accompanied by a discrepancy of the symphysis and rupture of the hard palate. With a fracture of the upper jaw, the anatomical relationship between the nasal, incisal and zygomatic bones is disrupted.

    Types of fractures of the jaw in cats:

    • transverse, oblique and helical;
    • open and closed;
    • single, double or multiple;
    • comminuted without / with offset;
    • fractures of the angle of the branch and the alveolar part of the jaw of the cat;
    • 90,029 fractures of the chin.

    Cat Jaw Fracture Symptoms:

    • visually noticeable asymmetry of the jaw, the upper and lower parts do not take the anatomical position;
    • the animal is profusely salivating;
    • with an open fracture of the jaw in a cat, bleeding from the nasal and oral cavities begins;
    • pet cannot close its mouth on its own;
    • it is difficult for a cat to chew food, or he completely refuses water and food;
    • the injured area is swollen;
    • The cat is restless due to pain and discomfort caused by a fracture of the upper or lower jaw.

    Diagnosis of trauma in a veterinary clinic

    1. The animal undergoes a complete examination, the results of which should show whether there are signs of hypovolemic shock. With a fracture of the lower jaw in a cat, the teeth and gums are most often damaged, and there is blood. Using the palpation method, the doctor identifies abnormal mobility of jaw fragments, as well as crepitus of bone fragments.
    2. The specialist directs the patient for a biochemical blood test to determine the level of calcium.This allows you to exclude concomitant diseases that could cause bone pathology.
    3. Radiograph provides complete information about traumatic injuries. The study is carried out under general anesthesia. Based on the results obtained, treatment is prescribed.

    Treatment of a cat with a fracture of the lower and upper jaw

    A cat needs emergency veterinary care if the jaw is broken. This type of injury causes shock, which must be relieved as quickly as possible.The doctor injects fluid in order to maintain blood pressure and ensure adequate oxygen supply to the tissues.

    Next, the veterinarian conducts a preliminary treatment of the oral cavity: removes blood clots, fragments of teeth, dirt, and then disinfects with a special solution.

    In case of a fracture of the midline of the jaw, the surgeon fixes the injured area with a titanium plate, screws or pins. Sutures are applied to the damaged soft tissues.

    Symphysis fractures are repaired using a special wire, which is placed on the teeth of both halves of the jaw.If necessary, the upper and lower canines are temporarily held together to keep the bone fragments in position while the healing process takes place.

    When the fracture is associated with cancer, which is localized in the anterior part of the lower jaw, the bone is removed completely and the cat is prescribed chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

    After the operation, the animal is prescribed a course of antibiotics, which are selected taking into account the individual needs of the pet. Also, local treatment of seams is regularly carried out.

    If, for health reasons, the animal is contraindicated in surgical intervention, fixing bandages are applied to it and transferred to feeding with liquid food through a tube or parenterally.

    Rehabilitation of a cat after a jaw fracture

    Your pet needs special care. He is still in pain, so without taking sedatives, he may have problems with appetite and eating. To stop the inflammatory process and improve the general condition of the animal, the doctor prescribes a course of anti-inflammatory corticosteroids.To avoid the development of secondary bacterial infection after a fractured jaw, a cat needs broad-spectrum antibiotics.

    The pet needs peace, try not to provoke him to play. Equip your pet with a comfortable resting place where no one will disturb him.

    The entire recovery period should take place under the strict supervision of a physician.

    If you are unable to come to the veterinary clinic on your own, you can call a doctor at home using the contact number.


    Broken cat’s jaw – what to do

    Olga Kocheva • 11.01.2019

    Fractured jaw in cats is considered one of the most serious injuries. The animal cannot tell what is wrong with it and asks for help. Without it, the purr will die, since it is impossible to eat and drink normally in this state. The owners need to be very attentive and take good care of the pet. What to do if a cat’s jaw is broken, and how to determine it – we will consider in the article.

    How to understand that a cat has a broken jaw

    Cats break their jaws when they fall unsuccessfully, try to chew on something hard, get run over by a car, fight with fellows and dogs.These animals have fragile jaw bones. They are not adapted to stress and break down quickly. Sometimes microcracks appear on them, which cause discomfort. The reason for the fracture of the jaw can be tooth decay, cancer, metabolic disorders and osteoporosis.

    More often, lesions appear on the lower jaw. The cat cannot close it, but does not give signals of severe pain. With a fracture of the upper jaw, it is present. In this case, an immediate visit to a doctor is required, since the purr can die from painful shock.

    Trauma to the lower jaw immediately striking:

    • the fracture of the palate is not obvious;
    • the cat refuses to eat;
    • strong salivation;
    • when examining the mouth, swelling, wounds, and sometimes bleeding are found.

    All these signs cannot be ignored. These injuries are fatal. Experts divide them into two categories. The first includes fractures without jaw sagging and displacement to the side. In this case, a tight bandage, plaster cast is applied to the cat and can be treated at home.

    The second category is considered more severe. It involves a misalignment of the jaw, which tears the muscles in the mouth. This is a dangerous injury in which the animal must be taken to the veterinary clinic as soon as possible.

    What to do – first aid for a broken jaw in a cat

    If there is a suspicion of a cat’s jaw fracture, the animal should be given a powerful pain reliever, and then taken to the veterinarian or called at home. The doctor will examine the purr, determine the severity of his condition and prescribe an examination.

    The cat will undergo X-ray, MRI, and blood tests. Treatment depends on the type of fracture. If it is simple, a tight bandage is applied to the animal’s face or a special muzzle is put on. The jaw is fixed with outer plates, which are secured with medical pins. After healing, the plates are removed. In case of severe fractures, they are also installed, but they remain with the animal for life. Such procedures are done if the cat’s lower jaw is broken.

    In case of fragmentation trauma of the upper jaw, the palatine bones are rigidly fixed by screwing to each other with special devices.If the teeth were damaged during the fracture, they are fixed with plates. With multiple small fragments, the damaged jaw is removed.

    Do’s and don’ts

    In case of a broken cat’s jaw, you must not try to apply a bandage yourself! Without an accurate diagnosis and determination of the type of injury, the animal can be harmed. All operations must be carried out professionally, otherwise there is a great risk of suppuration and all kinds of complications. The pet should be sedated and shown to the doctor as soon as possible.

    How to feed a cat with a broken jaw

    In case of minor fractures, the pet can be fed in the usual way, but for the first few days, only soft, well-cooked food should be given. When fractures heal, bouts of pain are likely, so purr is prescribed a course of pain relievers and corticosteroids to prevent the development of inflammation.

    For complex fractures, the cat is fed through a tube. It is important to reduce the physical activity of the pet, not to let him run, play.Particularly, complete peace of mind is needed for animals, in which the places where the plates are attached from the outside slowly heal. Retainers should be cleaned regularly with disinfectants.

    How long does a broken jaw heal in a cat

    It is difficult to say how long a broken jaw heals in a cat. Usually, the plates for minor injuries are removed after 10-14 days. But the animal does not return to normal immediately after that. Possible violation of bite, chewing process, development of osteomyelitis, periodontal disease. The main thing is to constantly and carefully look after the cat, to protect his head from bruises, and then in a month and a half the murdyka will be healthy.

    Fracture of the lower jaw in a cat

    The etiology of fractures of the lower jaw as skeletal fractures can be different, most often it is an accident, injuries from various small arms, falls from a height, human inhumanity.

    Types of fractures. There are open and closed fractions. The open form is characterized by damage to the skin and mucous membrane of the oral cavity with a bone fragment. If the fracture occurs through the dentition, then it is classified as an open form.A closed fracture does not lead to a violation of the integrity of the skin. In veterinary practice, it is customary to distinguish between simple and complex textures of the jaw bones. In simple cases, a fracture of the bone is observed only in one place. Complex ones are characterized by the presence of many fragments and are called comminuted (multiple). Comminuted fractures are displaced and without fragments of damaged bone. According to the shape of the bone damage, transverse, oblique and helical fractures are distinguished. Jawbone trauma can also be unilateral or bilateral.

    What do we see with a jaw fracture:

    – the upper and lower jaws do not take an anatomical position;

    – bleeding from the nose and mouth with an open fracture;

    – protruding bone fragments with open injuries;

    – the cat cannot close its mouth on its own;

    – refusal to feed, difficulty in eating and drinking;

    – with a unilateral fracture, the appetite is not disturbed, but the animal is not able to chew food;

    – if the hard palate is damaged, the cat sneezes, eaten food flies out of the nostrils;

    – deformation, asymmetry of the jaw during visual inspection;

    The video has been deleted.

    Video (click to play).

    – palpation reveals severe pain, swelling;

    – bad breath is observed in advanced cases.

    If characteristic symptoms are found, the owner should urgently show the pet in severe pain to a qualified professional.

    One of these patients Marquis male, 5.5 years old, not neutered, mixed food, free range .The owners’ complaints: the impossibility of eating the offered food normally, drooling and “jaw drooping”.

    After an external examination and physical examinations, taking clinical and biochemical blood tests, X-rays were taken.


    The picture shows a fracture of the right branch of the lower jaw, the fracture is simple, closed.

    Treatment of such injuries is only surgical, which will give excellent results in a short period of rehabilitation.

    Preparing the patient for surgery is standard: making sure that there are no additional injuries and injuries, as well as that there are no changes in blood tests, shave and thoroughly wash the operating field. Then the patient is transferred to the surgery department where preoperative treatments are performed.

    When the animal is ready, the operation begins.

    Reposition of fragments with a plate.

    On the postoperative X-ray, we can see that the fragments are aligned correctly, which will ensure rapid healing of the fracture.The implant will probably remain for the life of the animal.


    After 11 days, the stitches were removed, the patient (according to the owner) feels well, eats wet food.

    Author of the article: Bryndin Sergey Vladimirovich, chief veterinarian of the Aibolit computer center at 89a Rylenkova.

    Fractures of the jaw in cats

    Fracture of the lower jaw in cats is a noticeable violation of the integrity of the bone, often accompanied by a discrepancy of the symphysis and rupture of the hard palate.With a fracture of the upper jaw, the anatomical relationship between the nasal, incisal and zygomatic bones is disrupted.

    Possible types of fractures of the jaw in a cat

    • Open and closed
    • Single or multiple
    • Transverse, oblique and helical
    • Fractures of the chin
    • Fractures of the angle of the branch and alveolar part of the jaw of the cat
    • Comminuted fractures, displaced and non-displaced

    Cat’s jaw fracture symptoms

    • Visually noticeable asymmetry
    • Strong salivation
    • Blood from the nose and mouth, with an open fracture
    • Often the animal is unable to close its mouth
    • Refusal to eat and water
    • Edema
    • Discomfort, restless condition

    Diagnosis of jaw trauma in a cat

    In case of injury, the animal undergoes a complete examination, the results of which should show whether there are signs of hypovolemic shock.With a fracture of the lower jaw in a cat, teeth and gums are most often damaged and blood is drawn. By palpation, the veterinarian detects abnormal mobility of fragments and crepitus of bone fragments.

    The patient is sent for a biochemical blood test to determine the level of calcium. This allows you to exclude concomitant diseases that could cause bone pathology.

    X-ray provides complete information about the damage and the nature of the injury. Generally, the examination requires general anesthesia.According to the research results, treatment is prescribed.

    Treatment of a fractured jaw in a cat

    A cat needs emergency veterinary care if the jaw is broken. This type of injury causes shock, which must be relieved as quickly as possible. To maintain blood pressure, a special fluid is injected, which provides oxygen to the tissues.

    Next, the oral cavity is processed, the veterinarian removes blood clots, fragments of teeth and dirt, and then disinfects with a special solution.

    In case of a fracture of the midline of the jaw, the surgeon fixes the injured area with a titanium plate, screws or pins. Sutures are applied to soft tissues.

    Symphysis fractures are repaired using a special wire applied to the teeth of individual parts of the jaw. If necessary, the upper and lower canines are temporarily fastened, this is done to hold the fragments of the bone in the desired position in order to speed up healing.

    Sometimes a fracture is associated with cancer, if it is localized in the front of the lower jaw, the bone is removed completely, and the pet is prescribed chemotherapy.

    After the operation, the animal is prescribed medication. The course of antibiotics is tailored to the individual needs of the cat. In addition, the stitches must be cleaned regularly until complete recovery.

    If, for health reasons, the animal is contraindicated in surgical intervention, fixing bandages are applied to it and transferred to feeding with liquid food through a tube or parenterally.

    Rehabilitation after jaw fracture

    A convalescent animal requires special care.He is still in pain, so sedatives are indispensable, and feeding problems may arise. To speed up the recovery process, the attending physician will select the necessary anti-inflammatory drugs. In order to avoid the secondary development of bacterial infection, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are always prescribed.

    For the entire period of rehabilitation, the pet needs peace, do not provoke the cat to play. Equip your pet with a comfortable resting place where no one will disturb him.The entire healing process should be supervised by a physician.

    If you have a problem and need urgent help from a veterinarian, and you cannot come to the veterinary clinic, you can call a specialist at the address. Ours will rush in as quickly as possible, all you need to do is make a phone call.


    Veterinary clinic in Nizhny Novgorod “Belaya Medveditsa” provides all types of services for cats and dogs. She conducts any examinations and analyzes in her own veterinary laboratory, the clinic has a veterinary ambulance for animals and a round-the-clock call of a veterinarian at home.

    Fracture of the lower jaw in a cat

    According to official statistics, 15% of all bone injuries occur in a kitten’s jaw fracture. There are many reasons for such damage – from unsuccessful games and hitting a car to oncology and bone disease. Treatment is selected by a veterinarian after examination. Surgery with a course of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs is often required. Mandibular fractures can have negative consequences if treated incorrectly or untimely.

    What is the cause?

    In veterinary practice, there are:

    • External factors:
      • unsuccessful games;
      • falling from a height;
      • vehicle collision;
      • gunshot wounds or other ill-treatment;
      • fight with other animals.
    • Domestic provocateurs:
      • purulent and / or necrotic lesions of the bones of the skull;
      • oncology of the head or bones;
      • dental problems, the result of improper treatment of a dental ailment;
      • metabolic pathologies, for example, hyperparathyroidism, which is associated with a decrease in the amount of calcium in the body.

    Cats are at risk of fracture of the lower jaw due to the special mobility and fragility of the bones of this structure. Trauma to the maxillary structures occurs less frequently.


    You need to understand the difference between the concepts of fracture and dislocation of the jaw in a cat. In the first case, the bones are damaged, in the second, they are not. But one and second trauma are often combined. Classification into several groups according to different indicators is presented in the table:

    Fracture of the jaw in a cat
    Fractured jaw is a common condition in cats.In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is associated with trauma, less often with oncological or inflammatory processes. In most cases, cats have a fracture of the lower jaw, and much less often – the upper one.

    Signs of a jaw fracture are quite typical:

    • Jaw asymmetry
    • Incomplete closure of the jaws
    • Difficulty taking feed and water
    • Refusal of feed and water
    • Bleeding from the oral cavity
    • Tenderness on palpation of the jaw

    Diagnosis is based on radiography and characteristic clinical presentation.To clarify the condition of the cat and prepare it for surgery, you may need blood and urine tests, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, x-ray of the chest cavity. In a tumor process, a biopsy may be required to determine the type of tumor and select the optimal method of therapy.

    Treatment of jaw fractures in cats is almost always surgical. In rare cases, in case of tumor processes, surgical intervention is not indicated, or the branch of the jaw is resected to prevent the spread of the tumor process.

    In the case of a symphyseal fracture (in the middle between the right and left branches), a wire tightening cerclage is applied at the fusion of the jaw branches. In case of fractures of the branches of the jaw, external osteosynthesis with a plate or intramedullary wires is performed, an alternative method is applied to an extrafocal external fixation device. In the case of a fracture of the coronoid processes that form the temporomandibular joint, they are resected with an osteotomy of the zygomatic arch. Fractures of the maxillary bone are fixed with positioning screws or the imposition of plates, previously modeled according to the shape of the bone.The metal structures are removed according to the results of X-ray, with the formation of a stable callus, on average, this takes 2-3 months.

    After the operation, antibiotics, pain medications and soft food are prescribed.

    Prognosis for a traumatic fracture of the jaw is favorable. In almost all cases, except for multiple crushed fractures, it is possible to achieve a complete return of the jaw function and a good cosmetic effect. For fractures associated with a tumor or infectious process, the prognosis is cautious.Chemotherapy and long-term antibiotic therapy may be required.

    The article was prepared by D. Shpin’kov,
    veterinary surgeon, neurologist “MEDVET”
    © 2015 SVC “MEDVET”

    Fracture of the mandible in cats

    Fractures of the mandible are usually the result of extensive trauma, especially to the head, but can also be caused by diseases of the bones, teeth, and sometimes as a result of veterinarian treatment of diseased teeth.The most common causes are car accidents or falls from a height. The disease can occur in cats of any age and gender. Pathological fractures can be caused by bone cancer, osteomyelitis, increased fragility of bones with hyperthyroidism, or kidney disease.

    These fractures can occur anywhere along the entire length of the bone, from the middle to the posterior joint (TMJ). Fractures can occur on both sides of the jaw at the same time. Many of these fractures are “open,” but sometimes there are “closed” fractures.Open fractures have a higher risk of infection than closed fractures, which increases the risk of complications. Mandibular fractures can also be classified as “simple” or “comminuted”.

    Often, two halves of the lower jaw break along the midline (fracture of the mandibular symphysis). In addition, there may be a dislocation of the joints, which makes the jaw not functional.

    Depending on the nature of the fracture and the age of the animal, various recovery methods are used.Mandibular fractures can have serious complications if left untreated or if treatment fails.

    Signs of fracture of the mandible in cats:

    • Salivation.
    • Failure to close the mouth.
    • Pain when the cat tries to eat.


    A complete examination is very important to ensure that there are no signs of hypovolemic shock secondary to trauma or blood loss. It is also important to make sure there are no other injuries.The survey includes:

    Emergency treatment of comorbid problems is the first part of treatment. Shock is a common result of extensive trauma and must be treated quickly. Shock treatment includes intravenous fluids to maintain blood pressure and ensure adequate oxygen supply to the tissues. Injury to the lungs and chest cavity often occurs after extensive trauma and may require additional oxygenation or removal of free air (pneumothorax) from the chest cavity.

    After emergency treatment, additional treatment methods are carried out:

    If the cause of the fracture is a dental disease, then partial extraction may be required.

    Injectable analgesics (pain relievers) are given to the animal during hospital treatment and may be prescribed once after discharge. Antibiotics are usually given to minimize the chances of developing infections from bacteria in the mouth.

    Inappropriate treatment, incomplete surgical stabilization, or poor postoperative care can lead to complications such as a non-healing fracture, improper bone fusion, resulting in malocclusion and poor chewing, or osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone).

    Home care and prevention

    After conservative treatment with a muzzle or after surgical treatment of a fracture, the cat should be limited in activity for several weeks, it should be fed only soft food that does not require chewing.

    A follow-up appointment with the veterinarian should take place a few weeks later to assess how the bone has healed (possibly with new radiographs) and the safety of returning to a normal diet.

    Lack of free uncontrolled walking will help prevent most injuries associated with car accidents.It is also necessary to ensure that the cat cannot get to open windows.

    Oral hygiene and routine dental cleaning by a veterinarian will prevent serious dental disease that can lead to fractures of the mandible.

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    1. Alan, H. DeCherni Obstetrics and Gynecology. In 2 volumes. Volume 2. Gynecology / Alan H. DeCherni, Lauren Nathan. – M .: MEDpress-inform, 2010 .– 696 p.
    2. Polina, Melkina Bovine leukemia / Melkina Polina, Valery Alexandrovich Agoltsov und Ekaterina Sergeevna Krasnikova. – M .: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2012.- 100 p.
    3. Novak, Mikhail Dmitrievich Methodical Instructions on the Discipline “Parasitology And Invasive Diseases of Animals” Section “General Parasitology” For Students 3-5 Courses Full-Time And Part-time Forms of Study Specialty – 111201.65 Veterinary Medicine / Novak Mikhail Dmitrievich. – Moscow: Nauka, 2012 .– 10 p.
    4. Barbie veterinarian. Multicollection. – M .: Egmont Russia Ltd., 2012 .– 18 p.

    Fracture of the jaw in cats treatment

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    Jaw fracture – how to treat in dentistry

    Fracture of the jaw is a dangerous pathological situation, as a result of which the integrity of the bones is disrupted and their displacement occurs.The lower jaw is more mobile and less resistant to various injuries, which is why its fracture occurs. The most common cause is mechanical factors (impact, fall, road traffic accident), but it can also be due to serious bone disease. Taking into account the causes of occurrence, there are traumatic and pathological fractures of the lower jaw.

    The first type is most often found in young and middle-aged men, which is due to both anatomical features and lifestyle.In men, the chin protrudes more strongly, therefore, in case of facial injuries, it takes the brunt of the blow. In addition, the risk of getting a jaw fracture increases in those who are engaged in boxing and martial arts, are fond of extreme leisure, or enter into fist fights. When playing sports and riding a motorcycle, it is imperative to use protective equipment (helmets, mouth guards).

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    Signs of jaw fracture

    This pathological condition can be determined visually by the violation of the linear integrity of the bones.Depending on the localization of the impact, the fracture line is formed between the small molars, in the area of ​​the canines or the angle of the jaw.

    Main features:

    • Atypical jaw movement and noticeable displacement in the mouth
    • Severe soreness, up to shock and dizziness
    • Inability to close the mouth normally
    • Rupture of mucous membrane, bleeding and increased salivation
    • Swelling of the face and difficulty chewing, swallowing and speaking.

    Types of jaw fractures

    According to clinical manifestations, fractures are classified into open and closed.

    The open form is much more common and is considered very dangerous, as bone fragments extend beyond the gums and tear soft tissue. Fragments of broken bones are infected, therefore, without timely measures, they can provoke an infectious and inflammatory focus.

    – With closed form bone fragments do not damage the mucous membrane, respectively, this form avoids many complications and is easier to treat.

    According to other characteristics, the following types are distinguished:

    Fracture without displacement (incomplete), which is characterized by the formation of a gap, but while maintaining a normal ratio of bone fragments.

    A displacement fracture occurs when fragments of bone are displaced by external and internal factors.

    A comminuted fracture of is not common, as it requires a very powerful punctual impact (for example, with a metal instrument). In this case, a lot of bone fragments are formed, displaced to one degree or another.

    Diagnosis of jaw fracture

    The simplest way to diagnose fractures, in addition to visual examination, is X-ray, which allows you to determine the fracture line and its localization.The next method is orthopantomography with obtaining a panoramic image of the entire dentition. It makes it possible not only to identify the number of bone fractures and the degree of their severity, but also damage to the temporomandibular joint or dentition. The most accurate information about the clinical picture is given by the method of computed tomography. This diagnostic method is usually indicated when several fractures are found, including those with damage to the teeth, and if fractures of adjacent bones are suspected.

    First aid and treatment

    It is categorically impossible to self-medicate for fractures, but you can provide first aid to the victim to alleviate the general condition.It is necessary to fix and immobilize the jaw, give pain reliever and stop bleeding, if any. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is sometimes necessary because a fracture can block the upper airway. However, these activities (artificial respiration, chest compressions) should be performed with some experience. If the person is unconscious, then immediately call an ambulance.

    In most cases, surgical treatment of jaw fractures (osteosynthesis) is used.External, intraosseous, extraosseous or transosseous osteosynthesis can be performed.