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Bronchitis tonsillitis: Bronchitis | NHS inform

Bronchitis | NHS inform

Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs (bronchi), causing them to become irritated and inflamed.

The main symptom is a cough, which may bring up yellow-grey mucus (phlegm). Bronchitis may also cause a sore throat and wheezing.

Read more about the symptoms of bronchitis.

When to see your GP

Most cases of bronchitis can be treated easily at home with rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and plenty of fluids.

You only need to see your GP if your symptoms are severe or unusual – for example, if:

  • your cough is severe or lasts longer than three weeks
  • you have a constant fever (a temperature of 38°C – 100.4°F – or above) for more than three days
  • you cough up mucus streaked with blood
  • you have an underlying heart or lung condition, such as asthma or heart failure

Your GP may need to rule out other lung infections, such as pneumonia, which has symptoms similar to those of bronchitis. If your GP thinks you may have pneumonia, you will probably need a chest X-ray, and a sample of mucus may be taken for testing.

If your GP thinks you might have an undiagnosed underlying condition, they may also suggest a pulmonary function test. You will be asked to take a deep breath and blow into a device called a spirometer, which measures the volume of air in your lungs. Decreased lung capacity can indicate an underlying health problem.

Treating bronchitis

In most cases, bronchitis will clear up by itself within a few weeks without the need for treatment. This type of bronchitis is known as “acute bronchitis”. While you are waiting for it to pass, you should drink lots of fluid and get plenty of rest.

In some cases, the symptoms of bronchitis can last much longer. If symptoms last for at least three months, it is known as “chronic bronchitis”. There is no cure for chronic bronchitis, but there are several medications to help relieve symptoms. It is also important to avoid smoking and smoky environments, as this can make your symptoms worse.

Read more about treating bronchitis.

Why do I have bronchitis?

The bronchi are the main airways in your lungs, which branch off on either side of your windpipe (trachea). They lead to smaller and smaller airways inside your lungs, known as bronchioles.

The walls of the bronchi produce mucus to trap dust and other particles that could otherwise cause irritation.

Most cases of acute bronchitis develop when an infection causes the bronchi to become irritated and inflamed, which causes them to produce more mucus than usual. Your body tries to shift this extra mucus through coughing.

Smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. Over time, tobacco smoke can cause permanent damage to the bronchi, causing them to become inflamed.

Read more about the causes of bronchitis.

Complications

Pneumonia is the most common complication of bronchitis. It happens when the infection spreads further into the lungs, causing air sacs inside the lungs to fill up with fluid.  1 in 20 cases of bronchitis leads to pneumonia.

People at an increased risk of developing pneumonia include:

  • elderly people
  • people who smoke
  • people with other health conditions, such as heart, liver or kidney disease
  • people with a weakened immune system

Mild pneumonia can usually be treated with antibiotics at home. More severe cases may require admission to hospital.

Read more about the treatment of pneumonia.

Who is affected

Acute bronchitis is one of the most common types of lung infection, and is one of the top five reasons for GP visits.

Acute bronchitis can affect people of all ages, but is most common in younger children under the age of five. It is more common in winter, and often develops following a cold, sore throat or flu.

It is estimated that there are around 2 million people in the UK affected by chronic bronchitis. Most of these are adults over the age of 50.

Acute Bronchitis | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is acute bronchitis?

Bronchitis is inflammation of the breathing tubes. These airways are called bronchi. This inflammation causes increased mucus production and other changes. Although there are several different types of bronchitis, the most common are acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis may also be called a chest cold.

Most symptoms of acute bronchitis last for up to 2 weeks. The cough can last for up to 8 weeks in some people. Chronic bronchitis lasts a long time. It is more common among smokers.

What causes acute bronchitis?

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection. This is most often the same viruses that cause colds and the flu. It may also be caused by a bacterial infection, or by physical or chemical agents that are breathed in. These may include dusts, allergens, and strong fumes, including those from chemical cleaning compounds or tobacco smoke.

Acute bronchitis may come after a common cold or other viral infections in the upper respiratory tract. It may also occur in people with chronic sinusitis, allergies, or those with enlarged tonsils and adenoids. It can be serious in people with lung or heart diseases. Pneumonia is a complication that can follow bronchitis.

What are the symptoms acute bronchitis?

The following are the most common symptoms of acute bronchitis. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Back and muscle pain
  • Cough, first dry (non-productive), later, a lot of mucus is produced
  • Chest soreness
  • Chills
  • Feeling tired and achy
  • Headache
  • Runny nose
  • Slight fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore throat
  • Watery eyes
  • Wheezing

The symptoms of acute bronchitis may look like other conditions or medical problems. Talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is acute bronchitis diagnosed?

Healthcare providers can often diagnose acute bronchitis by taking a medical history and doing physical exam. Tests may be done to rule out other diseases, such as pneumonia or asthma. Any of these tests may be used to help confirm a diagnosis:

  • Chest X-rays. A test that uses invisible radiation beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs, including the lungs.
  • Arterial blood gas. This blood test is used to analyze the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood.
  • Pulse oximetry. An oximeter is a small machine that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. To get this measurement, a small sensor is taped or clipped on a finger or toe. When the machine is on, a small red light can be seen in the sensor. The sensor is painless and the red light does not get hot.
  • Cultures of nasal discharge and sputum. Testing the sputum you cough up or swab from your nose may be done to find and identify the microorganism causing the infection.
  • Pulmonary function tests. These are tests that help to measure the ability of the lungs to move air in and out of the lungs. The tests are usually done with special machines that you breathe into.

How is acute bronchitis treated?

Acute bronchitis is usually mild and does not cause complications. The symptoms often resolve on their own and lung function goes back to normal.

In most cases, antibiotics are not needed to treat acute bronchitis. That’s because most of the infections are caused by viruses. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. If it has progressed to pneumonia, then antibiotics may be necessary.

Treatment is aimed at treating the symptoms, and may include:

  • Avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Cough medicine
  • Humidifying the air
  • Increased fluid intake
  • Pain relievers and fever reducers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Quitting smoking

Avoid antihistamines because they dry up the secretions and can make the cough worse.

What are the complications of acute bronchitis?

Acute bronchitis can worsen and progress to chronic bronchitis or pneumonia. If this happens, a different treatment may be necessary.

Can bronchitis be prevented?

Acute bronchitis can’t always be prevented. However, there are shots you can get to prevent its complications, such as pneumonia.

Check with your healthcare provider about getting the flu and pneumococcal shots. Getting a flu shot every year can help prevent both the flu and pneumonia. The pneumococcal shot can protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia.

Anyone can get pneumococcal disease. However, children younger than age 2, adults ages 65 and older, people with certain medical conditions, and smokers are at the highest risk.

When should I call my health care provider?

Most often, bronchitis resolves on its own. If your symptoms worsen or don’t get better over time, call your healthcare provider.

Key points

  • Bronchitis is inflammation of the breathing tubes. These airways are called bronchi. There are several different types of bronchitis. The two most common are acute and chronic.
  • Acute bronchitis is usually caused by the same viruses that cause colds and the flu. It may also be caused by a bacterial infection, or by physical or chemical agents that are breathed into the lungs.
  • The most common symptoms for acute bronchitis include cough, chest soreness, runny nose, feeling tired and achy, headache, chills, slight fever, and sore throat.
  • Healthcare providers can often diagnose acute bronchitis by taking a medical history and doing physical exam. Blood tests, breathing tests, and imaging tests may also be used.
  • In most cases, antibiotics are not needed to treat acute bronchitis. If it progresses to pneumonia, then antibiotics may be necessary. Treatment is aimed at managing the symptoms.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your healthcare provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your healthcare provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your healthcare provider if you have questions.

symptoms and treatment in adults

Chronic tonsillitis is a disease characterized by prolonged inflammation of the tonsils. It develops after an untreated acute tonsillitis (tonsillitis) or an inflammatory process of the structures of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. As a rule, pathogenic bacteria on the tonsils are in a “dormant” state, but when the whole body or the oral cavity becomes cold, with injuries of the oral cavity, a decrease in immunity, or due to other factors, they are activated and cause an acute inflammatory process.

Contents

  1. Causes of chronic tonsillitis in adults
  2. Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis
  3. Complications of chronic tonsillitis
  4. Diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis
  5. Tests for chronic tonsillitis
  6. Treatment of chronic tonsillitis

Causes of chronic tonsillitis in adults

  1. Frequent pharyngitis . If you have a sore throat, we also recommend that you do not self-medicate, and make an appointment with a doctor, especially if you have pharyngitis several times a year.
  2. Allergy . It can also cause damage, as it affects the immune system and reduces the body’s ability to resist infections.
  3. Diseases of the dental system . Caries, periodontitis and other diseases of the teeth and gums are characterized by the development of infection in the oral cavity. If left untreated, the infection can affect other organs and tissues.
  4. Low immunity . The body’s ability to resist infection decreases after an illness (for example, measles, scarlet fever, etc.) or in other stressful situations for the body (for example, hypothermia, overwork, malnutrition, regular stressful situations, long-term use of certain medications).
  5. Inflammation in the nasal sinuses, adenoids, sinusitis, polyps, etc. We recommend not to ignore even a frequent runny nose and consult a doctor in a timely manner.
  6. Deviated septum . Such a violation can lead to a violation of the ventilation of the nasopharynx and the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria.
  7. Heredity . In about 3% of cases, tonsillitis is not caused by external factors, but is inherited from close relatives.

Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis

  • persistent sore throat;
  • discomfort when eating and after sleep;
  • sensation of a foreign object in the throat;
  • white or yellowish patches on tonsils;
  • frequent cough;
  • elevated body temperature without other cause;
  • pustular formation of tonsils;
  • decreased performance, increased fatigue;
  • Bad breath from the mouth.

Chronic tonsillitis can cause complications due to the spread of infection from the tonsils throughout the patient’s body, for example, damage to the kidneys or joints. The disease affects the functioning of the immune system and partly affects the occurrence of collagen pathologies, for example, eczema, psoriasis.

Chronic tonsillitis occurs with periodic exacerbations, that is, transitions into an acute form. The cause of exacerbations can be SARS, the use of cold water, food, as well as hypothermia and other reasons. In this case, there are signs of acute tonsillitis, for example, fever, severe pain when swallowing, an increase in regional lymph nodes.

Complications of chronic tonsillitis

The most common complication is a paratonsillar (near-tonsillar) abscess. It is initially similar to a sore throat, since at the initial stage it is characterized by an increase in body temperature and a severe sore throat. But in the absence of timely treatment, the tonsil swells, and the pain becomes stronger: often patients cannot not only swallow, but even sleep or open their mouths. An abscess requires inpatient treatment.

But this is not the only complication. The infection can easily spread throughout the patient’s body, which is fraught with a variety of pathologies and lesions of internal organs. The most common complications include skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, etc. ), diseases of the genitourinary system, changes in thyroid function, arthritis (inflammation of the tissue of the joints), inflammation of the heart tissue (endocarditis, myocarditis).

Tonsillitis diagnostics

The doctor makes a diagnosis not only on the basis of complaints, the medical history and the general condition of the patient, but also taking into account the results of the tests – this is the only way to be sure of its correctness.

First of all, the specialist performs palpation of the lymph nodes and a visual examination under special lighting (pharyngoscopy). If the tonsils are enlarged, their tissue is loosened, reddened, there are thickenings, swelling, scar tissue, grooves, pus (especially with an unpleasant odor), curd-like discharge, etc., this may indicate the presence of chronic tonsillitis.

Tests for chronic tonsillitis

  1. General and biochemical blood tests. They show the level of leukocytes, ESR, etc., tell the doctor about the degree of the inflammatory process and the reaction of the immune system.
  2. Throat swab. As a rule, pus has a mucous structure and smells unpleasant. The analysis also allows you to determine the type of microbes – usually it is a streptococcal infection or staphylococcus aureus. The study also provides information about the general condition of the throat – a long-term chronic disease can provoke the development of other diseases, and it is important to identify them in a timely manner.
  3. Urinalysis. It shows the level of lymphocytes, ESR and protein, helps to determine the activity of parasitic microorganisms and clarify whether they have penetrated into other tissues and organs or not.

Three days before the examination, it is recommended to stop drinking alcohol, and two hours – from smoking and treating the throat with local medicines.

Treatment of chronic tonsillitis

The simplest and most popular method of treatment is washing the tonsils. This is not a one-time procedure, it is carried out in a course, and the doctor selects the number of sessions individually. Washing does not always contribute to complete recovery, but even in this case it has a positive effect: it normalizes the patient’s well-being and condition, gives the body strength and reserves for recovery, and avoids surgical intervention and relapses.

Some doctors use a syringe flush. But practice shows that this method does not always allow you to completely clear the affected area from the infection, and some bacteria remain, which means that the disease can return. In the Rehabilitation Clinic in Khamovniki, washing is carried out using the Tonsilor apparatus. It uses vacuum and low-frequency ultrasonic action and works pointwise: with its help, the doctor can treat only the affected tissues (palatine tonsils), without touching healthy areas.

Benefits of flushing with Tonsilor:
  1. High efficiency . The device allows you to completely wash the tonsil.
  2. Active action . Low-frequency ultrasound exposure inactivates pathogenic bacteria and starts recovery processes.
  3. Comprehensiveness . Several antiseptics act on the tissue of the tonsil at once.
  4. Safety . Ulcers, pathogenic bacteria and microbes do not come into contact with the patient’s oral cavity.

At the first stage of treatment, Tonsilor washes the tonsils, further ultrasound exposure to tissues allows:

  • improve blood microcirculation at the site of exposure;
  • reduce the formation of scar tissue of the tonsils;
  • to improve the reparative regeneration of the tonsil parenchyma.

All this ensures fast healing.

If necessary, the doctor may also prescribe medications. They allow you to normalize body temperature, have an analgesic effect, reduce swelling, increase immunity, etc. In some cases, physiotherapy is indicated: electrophoresis, laser therapy, UHF, UVI, magnetic therapy, etc.

Full recovery is possible only if the cause of the disease is eliminated, for example, caries, pharyngitis, etc. Proper nutrition, hardening of the body, quitting smoking and drinking alcohol, and moderate physical activity help to improve immunity and avoid the recurrence of the disease.

Contraindications to the procedure of washing the tonsils on the device “Tonzilor”

Any medical intervention, including washing on the Tonsilor apparatus, has a number of contraindications. Therefore, before treatment, each patient is examined by a doctor. He studies the medical history, concomitant diseases, the general condition of the patient, the presence of indications and contraindications, and only then selects the optimal treatment program, the most suitable and effective method for washing the tonsils in each case.

Rehabilitation clinic in Khamovniki

Treatment of chronic tonsillitis in Moscow is carried out by various clinics. Contact the one whose specialists you trust. The doctors of the Rehabilitation Clinic in Khamovniki have extensive experience, regularly improve their skills and treat each patient with attention, achieving high results. We use only modern equipment, follow all the novelties and the latest techniques and use the best of them in our practice.

Read also about tonsillitis on our website.

symptoms and treatment in adults

Chronic tonsillitis is a disease characterized by prolonged inflammation of the tonsils. It develops after an untreated acute tonsillitis (tonsillitis) or an inflammatory process of the structures of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. As a rule, pathogenic bacteria on the tonsils are in a “dormant” state, but when the whole body or the oral cavity becomes cold, with injuries of the oral cavity, a decrease in immunity, or due to other factors, they are activated and cause an acute inflammatory process.

Contents

  1. Causes of chronic tonsillitis in adults
  2. Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis
  3. Complications of chronic tonsillitis
  4. Diagnosis of chronic tonsillitis
  5. Tests for chronic tonsillitis
  6. Treatment of chronic tonsillitis

Causes of chronic tonsillitis in adults

  1. Frequent pharyngitis . If you have a sore throat, we also recommend that you do not self-medicate, and make an appointment with a doctor, especially if you have pharyngitis several times a year.
  2. Allergy . It can also cause damage, as it affects the immune system and reduces the body’s ability to resist infections.
  3. Diseases of the dental system . Caries, periodontitis and other diseases of the teeth and gums are characterized by the development of infection in the oral cavity. If left untreated, the infection can affect other organs and tissues.
  4. Low immunity . The body’s ability to resist infection decreases after an illness (for example, measles, scarlet fever, etc.) or in other stressful situations for the body (for example, hypothermia, overwork, malnutrition, regular stressful situations, long-term use of certain medications).
  5. Inflammation in the nasal sinuses, adenoids, sinusitis, polyps, etc. We recommend not to ignore even a frequent runny nose and consult a doctor in a timely manner.
  6. Deviated septum . Such a violation can lead to a violation of the ventilation of the nasopharynx and the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria.
  7. Heredity . In about 3% of cases, tonsillitis is not caused by external factors, but is inherited from close relatives.

Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis

  • persistent sore throat;
  • discomfort when eating and after sleep;
  • sensation of a foreign object in the throat;
  • white or yellowish patches on tonsils;
  • frequent cough;
  • elevated body temperature without other cause;
  • pustular formation of tonsils;
  • decreased performance, increased fatigue;
  • Bad breath from the mouth.

Chronic tonsillitis can cause complications due to the spread of infection from the tonsils throughout the patient’s body, for example, damage to the kidneys or joints. The disease affects the functioning of the immune system and partly affects the occurrence of collagen pathologies, for example, eczema, psoriasis.

Chronic tonsillitis occurs with periodic exacerbations, that is, transitions into an acute form. The cause of exacerbations can be SARS, the use of cold water, food, as well as hypothermia and other reasons. In this case, there are signs of acute tonsillitis, for example, fever, severe pain when swallowing, an increase in regional lymph nodes.

Complications of chronic tonsillitis

The most common complication is a paratonsillar (near-tonsillar) abscess. It is initially similar to a sore throat, since at the initial stage it is characterized by an increase in body temperature and a severe sore throat. But in the absence of timely treatment, the tonsil swells, and the pain becomes stronger: often patients cannot not only swallow, but even sleep or open their mouths. An abscess requires inpatient treatment.

But this is not the only complication. The infection can easily spread throughout the patient’s body, which is fraught with a variety of pathologies and lesions of internal organs. The most common complications include skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, etc.), diseases of the genitourinary system, changes in thyroid function, arthritis (inflammation of the tissue of the joints), inflammation of the heart tissue (endocarditis, myocarditis).

Tonsillitis diagnostics

The doctor makes a diagnosis not only on the basis of complaints, the medical history and the general condition of the patient, but also taking into account the results of the tests – this is the only way to be sure of its correctness.

First of all, the specialist performs palpation of the lymph nodes and a visual examination under special lighting (pharyngoscopy). If the tonsils are enlarged, their tissue is loosened, reddened, there are thickenings, swelling, scar tissue, grooves, pus (especially with an unpleasant odor), curd-like discharge, etc., this may indicate the presence of chronic tonsillitis.

Tests for chronic tonsillitis

  1. General and biochemical blood tests. They show the level of leukocytes, ESR, etc., tell the doctor about the degree of the inflammatory process and the reaction of the immune system.
  2. Throat swab. As a rule, pus has a mucous structure and smells unpleasant. The analysis also allows you to determine the type of microbes – usually it is a streptococcal infection or staphylococcus aureus. The study also provides information about the general condition of the throat – a long-term chronic disease can provoke the development of other diseases, and it is important to identify them in a timely manner.
  3. Urinalysis. It shows the level of lymphocytes, ESR and protein, helps to determine the activity of parasitic microorganisms and clarify whether they have penetrated into other tissues and organs or not.

Three days before the examination, it is recommended to stop drinking alcohol, and two hours – from smoking and treating the throat with local medicines.

Treatment of chronic tonsillitis

The simplest and most popular method of treatment is washing the tonsils. This is not a one-time procedure, it is carried out in a course, and the doctor selects the number of sessions individually. Washing does not always contribute to complete recovery, but even in this case it has a positive effect: it normalizes the patient’s well-being and condition, gives the body strength and reserves for recovery, and avoids surgical intervention and relapses.

Some doctors use a syringe flush. But practice shows that this method does not always allow you to completely clear the affected area from the infection, and some bacteria remain, which means that the disease can return. In the Rehabilitation Clinic in Khamovniki, washing is carried out using the Tonsilor apparatus. It uses vacuum and low-frequency ultrasonic action and works pointwise: with its help, the doctor can treat only the affected tissues (palatine tonsils), without touching healthy areas.

Benefits of flushing with Tonsilor:
  1. High efficiency . The device allows you to completely wash the tonsil.
  2. Active action . Low-frequency ultrasound exposure inactivates pathogenic bacteria and starts recovery processes.
  3. Comprehensiveness . Several antiseptics act on the tissue of the tonsil at once.
  4. Safety . Ulcers, pathogenic bacteria and microbes do not come into contact with the patient’s oral cavity.

At the first stage of treatment, Tonsilor washes the tonsils, further ultrasound exposure to tissues allows:

  • improve blood microcirculation at the site of exposure;
  • reduce the formation of scar tissue of the tonsils;
  • to improve the reparative regeneration of the tonsil parenchyma.

All this ensures fast healing.

If necessary, the doctor may also prescribe medications. They allow you to normalize body temperature, have an analgesic effect, reduce swelling, increase immunity, etc. In some cases, physiotherapy is indicated: electrophoresis, laser therapy, UHF, UVI, magnetic therapy, etc.

Full recovery is possible only if the cause of the disease is eliminated, for example, caries, pharyngitis, etc. Proper nutrition, hardening of the body, quitting smoking and drinking alcohol, and moderate physical activity help to improve immunity and avoid the recurrence of the disease.

Contraindications to the procedure of washing the tonsils on the device “Tonzilor”

Any medical intervention, including washing on the Tonsilor apparatus, has a number of contraindications. Therefore, before treatment, each patient is examined by a doctor. He studies the medical history, concomitant diseases, the general condition of the patient, the presence of indications and contraindications, and only then selects the optimal treatment program, the most suitable and effective method for washing the tonsils in each case.

Rehabilitation clinic in Khamovniki

Treatment of chronic tonsillitis in Moscow is carried out by various clinics. Contact the one whose specialists you trust.