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Bruising from muscle strain: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment of Muscle Strain


Muscle strains – Symptoms and causes


A muscle strain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon — the fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bones. Minor injuries may only overstretch a muscle or tendon, while more severe injuries may involve partial or complete tears in these tissues.

Sometimes called pulled muscles, strains commonly occur in the lower back and in the muscles at the back of the thigh (hamstrings).

The difference between a strain and a sprain is that a strain involves an injury to a muscle or to the band of tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone, while a sprain injures the bands of tissue that connect two bones together.

Initial treatment includes rest, ice, compression and elevation. Mild strains can be successfully treated at home. Severe strains sometimes require surgical repair.


Signs and symptoms will vary, depending on the severity of the injury, and may include:

  • Pain or tenderness
  • Redness or bruising
  • Limited motion
  • Muscle spasms
  • Swelling
  • Muscle weakness

When to see the doctor

Mild strains can be treated at home. See a doctor if your symptoms worsen despite treatment — especially if your pain becomes intolerable, or you experience numbness or tingling.


Acute strains can be caused by one event, such as using poor body mechanics to lift something heavy. Chronic muscle strains can result from repetitive injuries when you stress a muscle by doing the same motion over and over.

Risk factors

Participating in contact sports — such as soccer, football, hockey, boxing and wrestling — can increase your risk of muscle strains.

Certain parts of the body are more susceptible to strains during participation in certain sports. Examples include:

  • Legs and ankles. Sports that feature quick starts and jumping, such as hurdling and basketball, can be particularly tough on the Achilles tendon in your ankle.
  • Hands. Gripping sports, such as gymnastics or golf, can increase your risk of muscle strains in your hands.
  • Elbows. Elbow strains are often caused by throwing sports and racquet sports.


Regular stretching and strengthening exercises for your sport, fitness or work activity, as part of an overall physical conditioning program, can help to minimize your risk of muscle strains. Try to be in shape to play your sport; don’t play your sport to get in shape. If you have a physically demanding occupation, regular conditioning can help prevent injuries.

Sept. 01, 2020

The Best Ways To Recover From A Pulled Muscle

A pulled muscle, or muscle strain, occurs when a muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn. Muscle strains can occur without warning and affect people of all ages and fitness levels. Because these types of injuries can range in severity, you should see your doctor right away if you:

  • Are in a significant amount of pain

  • Cannot walk

  • Heard a popping sound when the injury occurred

  • Have a fever

  • Have broken skin at the injury site

  • Have major swelling of the injured area

“If you think you have pulled a muscle, I always recommend being evaluated by a medical professional to ensure a proper diagnosis,” says Lauren Powell, M. D., a family medicine physician at Piedmont.

If you only have mild discomfort, you may be able to treat the pulled muscle at home. However, you should consult with your doctor if you still have pain after 24 hours of at-home treatment.

Signs you have a muscle strain

Muscle strains are most common in the hamstrings, lower back, shoulders and neck. Symptoms of a pulled muscle include:

  • Bruising, swelling or redness at the injury site

  • Difficulty using the affected muscle

  • Muscle weakness

  • Sudden pain when using the affected muscle

  • Pain when the muscle is at rest

What causes muscle strains?

Muscle strains can be caused by:

How to treat a pulled muscle

“Once the diagnosis has been confirmed, it is usually managed with anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxers and targeted physical therapy,” says Dr. Powell. “Heating pads have also been shown to be beneficial.”

Your doctor may recommend the following at-home treatments:

  • Rest. Rest the muscle for a few days or until your doctor gives you the okay. If you had a minor muscle strain, you should be able to do some gentle movement after two days.  

  • Ice. Apply ice to the injury for 20 minutes each hour you’re awake. Ice can help reduce inflammation. Never apply ice directly to bare skin; instead, wrap the ice pack in a towel first.

  • Compression. Wrapping the muscle with an elastic bandage can help bring down swelling. Avoid wrapping it too tightly or your muscle won’t get enough blood circulation.

  • Elevation. Elevate the injured muscle to reduce swelling.

  • Medication. Your physician may recommend a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, like ibuprofen, to reduce pain and swelling.

  • Heat. Use a heating pad a few times a day after three days. Never apply heat directly to bare skin; always wrap the heating pad in a towel.

How to prevent a pulled muscle

“Pulled muscles can be prevented by utilizing proper technique when lifting and carrying,” says Dr. Powell. “For instance, individuals may pull a muscle at the gym due to improper form while exercising or by lifting something heavy and forgetting to bend at the knees. I also encourage patients to warm up prior to engaging in exercise and to stretch daily.”

Check out more health and wellness tips from Living Better experts.

Dr. Powell practices at Piedmont Physicians Buckhead, located at 35 Collier Road Northwest, Suite 500, Atlanta, GA 30309. Schedule an appointment with Dr. Powell or one of our other primary care providers. Save time, book online.

What You Need to Know About Pulled Muscles

Muscle strains are one of the most common reasons for missed playing time in the NFL. But you do not have to be a professional football player to have such an injury. They are quite common among both professional and recreational athletes.

What is a muscle strain?

Muscle strain or a “pulled muscle” is a partial or complete tear of a muscle.

These injuries typically occur:

  • in muscles that cross two joints
  • during explosive action, such as sprinting
  • during times when athletes suddenly increasing their exercise regimens (such as during training camps)

Normal muscle anatomy and function

A muscle is surrounded by an outer sheath that allows it to move smoothly over the surrounding tissues as it contracts. Inside the outer sheath are bundles of muscle fibers known as fascicles, which are further made up of myofibrils. These myofibrils are composed of millions of microscopic units called sarcomeres that are responsible for muscle contraction. In the sarcomere, muscle proteins called myosins pull against thin ropes of protein called actin when they are stimulated by nerves. When this occurs, the sarcomeres shorten, resulting in a contraction. When the myosin proteins relax, the sarcomeres lengthen back to their original position and so does the muscle.

The combination of muscle contraction and relaxation is coordinated through the nervous system. This is what allows athletes to run, kick, throw, and, for that matter, even walk and breathe.

What causes muscle strains?

Muscle strains occur when the force on a muscle is so great that the tissue begins to tear. The tear can occur in one of three places

  • within the muscle itself
  • at the junction between the muscle and tendon (most common)
  • in the tendon, where it attaches to the bone

Muscles, by way of their tendon attachments at each end, insert into bones and provide the force required for movement. During activities that require explosive movements, such as pushing off during a sprint or changing directions during racquetball, the force across the musculotendinous unit (the connected muscle and tendon) can be so great that tissues tear, either partially or completely.

These injuries commonly occur during excessive loading of the muscle; that is, when the muscle is contracting while it is elongating. Muscles that cross two joints, such as the hamstrings (the hip and knee joints), the calf (the knee and ankle joints), and the quadriceps (the hip and knee joints) are the most susceptible to injury. The hip adductor muscles are also commonly affected, though they only cross the hip joint.

Factors that can predispose an athlete to injury include older age, previous muscle injury, less flexibility, lack of strength in the muscle, and fatigue. Many athletes sustain muscle injuries when they just begin a training regimen. That is why they are much more common in training camps in the NFL than they are throughout the regular playing season.

Are there different types of muscle strain?

The severity of a strain can be assessed by how much strength and range of motion a person loses, and this can also provide an idea as to how long it will take to recover. Muscle strains can be categorized into three grades, based on severity:

  • Grade 1: Mild damage to individual muscle fibers (less than 5% of fibers) that causes minimal loss of strength and motion.
  • Grade 2: More extensive damage with more muscle fibers involved. However, the muscle is not completely ruptured. These injuries present with significant loss of strength and motion. These injuries may require two to three months before a complete return to athletics.
  • Grade 3: Complete rupture of a muscle or tendon. These can present with a palpable defect in the muscle or tendon. However, swelling in the area may make this difficult to appreciate. These injuries sometimes require surgery to reattach the damaged muscle and tendon.

What are the signs and symptoms of muscle strain?

The key symptoms of a muscle strain are: sudden pain that worsens while contracting the muscle, swelling and bruising, loss of strength and range of motion. People often report the sensation of pain as the feeling of being “stabbed. ” When muscle is initially injured, significant inflammation and swelling occurs.

After this inflammatory phase, the muscle begins to heal by regenerating muscle fibers from stem cells that live around the area of injury. However, a significant amount of scar tissue also forms where the muscle was injured. Over time, this scar tissue remodels, but the muscle tissue never fully regenerates. It is thought that this makes a strained muscle prone to future injury.

How is a muscle strain diagnosed?

The diagnosis is usually made based on patient history and physical exam. In severe, grade 3 cases, the examining physician may actually be able to feel the defect where the muscle has completely torn.

An X-ray may be helpful to rule out a fracture or dislocation as the cause of pain. Occasionally in young athletes, the tendon can pull off a piece of bone where it attaches, which can be seen on X-rays.

However, pure muscle injuries cannot be seen on regular X-rays. An MRI can sometimes be helpful to determine where the injury has occurred and whether there is complete rupture or not. MRIs can also show collections of blood, called a hematoma, that sometimes occur following severe injuries.

What is the treatment for a muscle strain?

Nonsurgical, conservative treatment

Most muscle strains do not require surgery, and a full recovery is expected.

If there is a partial tear then the athlete can return when they are pain free and have normal strength and motion. This usually occurs following anywhere from a few weeks to a few months of appropriate treatment and therapy. When the muscle is completely ruptured, the athlete may benefit from surgical repair.

The majority of acute muscle injuries are partial thickness tears. These can most often be treated successfully with:

  • the RICE protocol:
    • rest
    • ice
    • compression
    • elevation
  • NSAIDs – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen)

These treatements will be done for the first week, followed by progressive functional physical therapy, as needed.

Many athletes are able to return to their previous level of competition, but since scar tissue forms at the site of injury, they may susceptible to another injury at that location.

Surgery and platelet-rich plasma injections

Complete muscle injuries can lead to significant functional impairment and lost playing time and may require surgical repair. This is especially the case for patients who need to be able to run or be sufficiently agile to participate in sport. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections may be able to help accelerate the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue.

When can I return to sports after muscle strain?

Return to full activity is usually allowed when the patient is pain free, has full range of motion, and full strength. If an athlete attempts to return to their sport before these criteria are met, there is a high chance of reinjuring the muscle and sustaining a setback. Mild, grade 1 injuries may require only two to three weeks before an athlete can return. More severe injuries may require significantly more time.

Such a long period of lost playing time is less than ideal for professional and elite athletes, and some have advocated more aggressive treatment in this group. In a study that examined professional football players with severe hamstring tears with palpable defects, an intramuscular cortisone injection lead to a return to full activity time of 7.6 days, and 85% of the players did not miss a single game.1 However, the use of cortisone injections in the recreational athlete should be reserved for chronic or lingering injuries since there is a chance of weakening the remaining muscle and increasing the severity of the injury.

1. Levine WN, Bergfeld JA, Tessendorf W, Moorman CT 3rd. Intramuscular corticosteroid injection for hamstring injuries. A 13-year experience in the National Football League. Am J Sports Med. 2000 May-Jun;28(3):297-300.

2. Bedair HS, Karthikeyan T, Quintero A, Li Y, Huard J. Antiotensin II receptor blockade administered after injury improves muscle regeneration and decreases fibrosis in normal skeletal muscle. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Aug;36(8): 1548-54.

Updated: 11/19/2019


Lawrence V. Gulotta, MD

Chief, Shoulder and Elbow Division, Sports Medicine Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery
Associate Attending Orthopedic Surgeon, Hospital for Special Surgery

Contusions or Bruises | Joint, Ligament and Muscle Disorders

Contusions or Bruises


Muscle contusions, or bruises, are second only to strains as a leading cause of sports injuries. Most contusions are minor and heal quickly, without requiring the athlete to be removed from the game. However, severe contusions can cause deep tissue damage, which may lead to complications and/or keep the athlete out of sports for months.


Contusions cause swelling and pain, and limit joint range of motion near the injury. The injured muscle may feel weak and stiff, and torn blood vessels may cause bluish discoloration. A lump that forms over the injury (hematoma) indicates that a pool of blood has collected within the damage tissue. In severe cases, swelling and bleeding beneath the skin may cause shock. Extensive tissue damage may also occur along with a fractured bone, dislocated joint, sprain, torn muscle, or other injuries. Contusions to the abdomen may damage internal organs.


When a part of the body is struck by enough force to crush underlying muscle fibers and connective tissue without breaking the skin, a contusion may occur. A fall, jamming the body against a hard surface, a direct blow, or repeated blows from a blunt object are among the many common causes of contusions.


A physical examination, and when needed, diagnostic imaging tools, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography (CT) scans, will allow your physician to determine the extent of your injury and check for related nerve damage.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Most athletes with contusions get better quickly without surgery. Your doctor may give you nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other medications for pain relief. Do not massage the injured area.

During the first 24 to 48 hours after injury (acute phase), keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position and use the RICE formula (rest, ice, compression and elevation) to help control pain, bleeding, swelling and inflammation. If there is a large hematoma that does not go away within several days, your doctor may consider draining it surgically to speed healing.

  • Rest—Protect the injured area from further harm by stopping the activity. Use of a protective device, such as crutches or a sling, will relieve stress on the injured area.
  • Ice—Apply ice wrapped in a clean cloth directly to the injured area for 15 to 20 minutes at a time, waiting at least one hour between icing sessions. Chemical cold products (“blue” ice) should not be placed directly on the skin and are not as effective.
  • Compression—Lightly wrap the injured area in an Ace elastic bandage or other soft material.
  • Elevation—Raise the injured area to a level above your heart to minimize swelling.

After a few days, inflammation should start to go down and the injury may feel a little better. At this time, the doctor may tell you to apply gentle heat to the injury and start the rehabilitation process. Remember to increase your activity level gradually. As the injury heals, exercising the uninjured parts of your body will help maintain your overall level of fitness. Depending upon the extent of your injuries, returning to your normal sports activity may take several weeks or longer. If you put too much stress on the injured area before it has sufficiently healed, excessive scar tissue may develop and cause more problems. In the first phase of rehabilitation, your doctor may prescribe gentle stretching exercises that begin to restore range of motion to the injured area. When your range of motion has improved, you may be given weight-bearing and strengthening exercises. Once you have normal, pain-free range of motion, you may be allowed to participate in noncontact sports.


When you have returned to full strength, motion and endurance, you may be allowed to resume contact sports. Your physician may want you to wear a customized protective device to prevent further injury to the afflicted area. Depending on your sport, you may also need special padding to spread out the force of impact from any direct blows to the body.


Prompt medical treatment and following your doctor’s advice regarding rehabilitation can help you avoid serious medical complications, such as compartment syndrome and myositis ossificans, that occasionally result from deep muscle contusions.

  • Compartment syndrome—In certain cases, rapid bleeding may cause extremely painful swelling within the muscle group of your arm, leg, foot, or buttock. Build-up of pressure from fluids several hours after a contusion injury can disrupt blood flow and prevent nourishment from reaching the muscle group. Surgery may be required to drain these excess fluids and relieve pressure. Compartment syndrome is an emergency and must be addressed quickly to prevent permanent damge to the affected limb.
  • Myositis ossificans—Sometimes a severe contusion can develop into a condition in which the bruised muscle grows bone instead of new muscle cells. Symptoms may include swelling, mild to severe pain that does not go away, and abnormal bone formations that reduce flexibility. Use of the RICE formula helps to reduce inflammation, and while vigorous stretching may worsen the condition, gentle stretching exercises can improve flexibility. Surgery is rarely required.

The differences between a sprain, strain and tear

For many, the start of a new year means the start of a new workout regimen. It is difficult enough to make the time commitment, but nothing throws off a resolution like an injury. Martin Mufich, MSN, RN, sports massage therapist and clinical assistant professor at the Texas A&M College of Nursing, offered some tips to better recognize and prevent common workout injuries. Still, he warned that you should not self-diagnose. “See a health care provider to be sure about the type of harm that may have occurred, especially if improvements are not seen within 24 hours,” Mufich recommended.

Sprain: Ligament injury

Have you ever been running through the grass then all of a sudden your foot lands on uneven ground, and you feel your ankle wrench followed by a jolt of pain? It is likely that your ankle is sprained, or twisted.

A sprain involves the overstretching or tearing of the ligaments, which are the fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to each other and stabilize them. “Sprains occur when the joint is forced into an unnatural position,” Mufich said. “They happen most often in the ankle but can occur at any joint, such as the wrist or knee.” Ligament injuries on the outside ankle occur when the ankle turns outward and the foot twists inward. On the other hand, inner-ankle sprains, which are less common than those on the outside of the ankle, result from the ankle rocking inward and the foot turning outward.

Joint or muscle pain, inflammation, hampered movement, tenderness and bruising are symptoms of a sprain. The severity of the sprain can range from mild to serious. A tweak of the ankle could result in an overstretched ligament that becomes tender, swollen and stiff, but the ankle should still be stable enough to support the weight of walking. “A mild sprain should take approximately seven to 10 days to heal,” Mufich said. “A torn ligament is considered a severe sprain that will cause pain, inflammation, bruising and result in ankle instability, often making it difficult and painful to walk. Recovery from a torn ligament may take several weeks, and should be done under the supervision of a health care provider.”

Strain: Muscle or tendon injury

A strain is the overstretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon, which are the fibers that connect the muscles to the bones. They can occur from a single incident or from repetitive movements over the long term. “An acute strain is an instantaneous stretch or tear of the muscle or tendon;” Mufich said, “whereas, a chronic strain stems from repetitive motions over time that place stress on the muscle or tendon.”

Muscle spasms, weakness, cramping and immobility, as well as pain, bruising and swelling are symptomatic of a strain. Like sprains, strains vary in severity. It could take a few weeks for the symptoms of a mild-to-moderate strain to subside.

Tear: Ligament, muscle or tendon injury

Tears are the ripping of fibrous tissue that can occur in the ligaments, muscles or tendons from similar activities that cause fibers to overstretch, but the diagnosis is more serious and muscle and tendon tears could take multiple months to heal. “Typically, the worse a tear, the more inflammation and pain a person will experience, and the longer it will take for the injury to heal,” Mufich said. Non-surgical rehabilitation is often sufficient. However, some tears may require surgery to repair, such as those to the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL.

Treatment and Prevention

Treating sprains, strains and tears consists of taking steps to reduce the swelling and pain from the injury. Swelling is often the body’s first reaction for healing an injury. As fluid and white blood cells rush to the damaged tissue, it becomes inflamed in an effort to repair the tissue and protect it from further damage. However, the fluid can compress the nerves in the injured area and cause pain. Excessive swelling can also potentially lessen the ligaments’, tendons’ and muscles’ flexibility, making the area more susceptible to future injuries. Mufich said these injuries are generally treated by following the plan “RICES.”

  • Rest: Unpainful movement of the area is important, but avoid putting weight on the injury for a prolonged time, perhaps by using crutches, until it is less painful to use
  • Ice: Apply ice, not heat, to the affected area for 10 to 20 minutes every hour or two throughout the first 24 to 72 hours or until the swelling subsides
  • Compression: Wear an elastic compression wrap for the first 24 to 36 hours to help minimize any swelling
  • Elevation: Rest the injury above heart level for two to three hours per day to reduce the amount of swelling that collects in the body’s extremities
  • Stabilization: Especially if medical care is not readily available, like in the wilderness, stabilize the injured area until care becomes available

“Particularly for muscle injuries, the blood works to lay collagen layers on the injury to heal it by forming an internal scab,” Mufich said, “and hopefully overtime, as the muscles fibers heal, that collagen will break down. ” Ligaments and tendons do not receive as much blood flow, so they tend to take longer to heal.

It is important to ease back into mobilizing the area and remain patient throughout the recovery process until your body is ready to return to pre-injury activities. Some discomfort throughout the healing process is normal. However, there should not be any sharp pain. A health care provider can recommend proper rehabilitation practices and exercise.

Sprain, strains and tears can generally be prevented by adequately warming up and stretching prior to rigorous activity, wearing protective equipment, wearing proper fitting shoes that provide stability and building and maintaining muscle and joint strength by exercising regularly.

“While it is great to push your limits, know your limits,” Mufich said. “If you are not seeing improvements within 24 hours or it is getting worse, contact a health care provider.”

— Nicole Bender

MYOSITIS OSSIFICANS | Sports Medicine Today

What is it?

Myositis ossificans is a condition stemming from an injury that can occur in many types of sports. In this condition, bone tissue forms within a muscle. When a bruise (contusion), repetitive trauma, or strain occurs to a muscle, myositis ossificans can develop. However, myositis ossificans only occurs in 9-17% of muscle bruises. It is most common in the thigh muscles, which include the hamstrings and quadriceps, the muscles in the back and front of the thigh, respectively. 

Myositis ossificans can also occur in other muscles. Bony tissue formation can occur 2-4 weeks after the muscle injury or bruise. The athlete will often complain of pain in the muscle associated with exercise. Range of motion and strength of the limb may be compromised. A hard bump may also be felt in the muscle.


When a muscle is injured or bruised, bony tissue can be deposited into the bruise during the healing process. While the exact cause of this reaction is unknown, athletes who subject the area to repetitive trauma before it is able to fully heal are more likely to have calcification and bony formation in the injured muscle. Additionally, not taking measures to reduce inflammation in the muscle after the initial injury also leads to in an increased risk of developing myositis ossificans. Calcification typically occurs 2-4 weeks after the initial muscle injury and the bone fully matures by 3-6 months.

Risk Factors

• Not appropriately resting muscle after a bruise or muscle strain, thus causing repetitive injury to the injured muscle.

• Not taking measures to reduce inflammation and swelling in the injured muscle, including not icing or applying compression.

• Intensive stretching, therapy, or massage after an injury are thought to increase bleeding into the muscle and inhibit healing, thus leading to myositis ossificans.

• Premature return to sport.

• Re-injury to the same area as a previous injury.


Persistent pain in previously injured muscle. While muscles can take months to get back to full strength following a strain or a bruise, typically, after 2-3 weeks there should be continued improvement in pain and performance. If pain, range of motion, and strength have not begun to improve or get worse at a month after the injury, the cause could be myositis ossificans. In addition to pain, swelling or a hard bump are signs of myositis ossificans.

Sports Medicine Evaluation

A sports medicine physician will ask the athlete questions about the initial injury as well as their progression, including improvement or worsening of symptoms. The physician will ask about the athlete’s training program, initial treatment, and their rehabilitation program. The physician will examine the affected area to determine the location of the pain and assess strength or flexibility. They may watch the athlete walk, run, jump, or balance.

If there is suspicion of myositis ossificans, either an ultrasound or x-ray will be performed to assess for calcifications within the muscle. Sometimes, radiographs initially will be negative and, at a later date, show bone tissue. Serial imaging to follow the progression of the bone formation may be obtained at subsequent appointments. MRIs are not typically ordered unless there are questions regarding the diagnosis, or there are concerns for complications.


Treatment is initially conservative, as calcifications can be reabsorbed by the body, and some patients can fully recover despite calcifications, if treated properly. Conservative treatment includes rest from activities that strain the muscles, or less commonly, immobilization of the affected muscle. These measures that limit further repetitive trauma can promote spontaneous resorption of the calcification, and thus, healing. Anti-inflammatory medications such as naproxen or ibuprofen may help but using these is controversial; these medications may also increase the risk of bleeding into the muscle early in the course of the injury. Physical therapy is commonly prescribed. Initially, after a muscle injury, aggressive stretching should be avoided, as this can increase bleeding or inflammation. Physical therapy may include light stretching, early strengthening of surrounding muscles, followed by working on the strength and flexibility of the injured muscle itself. Ultrasound and light massage therapy may also help. 

Rarely, surgical removal of the calcification is pursued, especially when the patient still has severe symptoms despite months of conservative therapy. Surgery is more strongly considered if range of motion is limited, if nerve irritation occurs, or if the calcification limits the quality of life. Calcifications often reoccur despite removal especially if done before the bony tissue fully matures. If surgical therapy is considered it should only be pursued 6-12 months after the injury. Even when surgical treatment is delayed, reoccurrence is possible.

Injury Prevention

Myositis ossificans more commonly occurs with repetitive trauma; thus, avoiding trauma to a muscle after a contusion or strain can prevent occurrence. Sometimes, protective padding over an injured muscle can also help. Stretching to prevent muscle strain, as well as wearing appropriate protective equipment, can help.

Return to Play

Full return to play can occur without full resolution of the bone formation. Return to play is guided predominantly by the comfort and function of the athlete. Prior to return, an athlete must have full range of motion and strength of the affected muscle. They must be able to fully perform the tasks of their sports and position. The area should be adequately protected to avoid further trauma.

AMSSM Member Authors
Caitlyn Mooney, MD and George Pujalte, MD

Anderson K, Strickland S, and Warren R. (2001). Hip and groin injuries in athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(4).Jarvinen TAH. (2005). Muscle injuries: Biology and treatment., American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(5), 745764.

Kary JM (2010). Diagnosis and management of quadriceps strains and contusions. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 3(1-4), 2631.

King JB (1998). Post-traumatic ectopic calcification in the muscles of athletes: a review., British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(4), 287290.

Thigh or Calf Strain or Sprain | Orthopedic & Knee


A thigh or calf strain occurs when those muscle fibers become damaged, often from a sudden movement that puts excess stress on the muscles and causes them to tear. A thigh or calf sprain, on the other hand, occurs when those ligaments are stretched or torn.

While the severity of strains and sprains varies, symptoms generally include bruising, tenderness and swelling in the affected area—which may worsen while walking.

Treatment will vary according to the severity of the injury. Most mild strains and sprains can be treated at home. Call your doctor if your pain or swelling is severe and inhibits your ability to walk, or if your symptoms do not improve over time with home remedies. 

Thigh or calf strain or sprain causes

Common causes of thigh strains or sprains include:

  • Weakness, imbalances, tightness or fatigue in the legs
  • Improper workout techniques
  • Not warming up adequately before working out

Calf strains are often caused by:

  • Overstretching
  • Abrupt pushing-off motions
  • Jumping motions
  • Abruptly changing directions when running of playing a sport

Thigh or calf strain or sprain risk factors

You may be at an increased risk of experiencing a thigh strain or sprain if you:

  • Have tight hamstring or quadricep muscles
  • Increase the intensity of your exercise dramatically and abruptly
  • Do not follow proper exercise techniques

You may be at an increased risk of experiencing a calf strain or sprain if you:

  • Have tight calf or leg muscles
  • Are older

Thigh or calf strain or sprain symptoms

The main symptom of a thigh sprain or strain is a pain in the thigh that feel like a pulling or tugging sensation.

Additional signs and symptoms may include:

  • Pain while walking or using the affected muscle
  • Bruising, swelling or tenderness in the affected thigh
  • Hearing a “pop” or “snap” at the time of the injury

Common symptoms of a calf strain or sprain include:

  • Bruising, swelling or tenderness in the affected calf
  • Feeling an abrupt pain in the calf

Thigh or calf strain or sprain prevention

While some strains and sprains result from accidents that are hard to prevent, you can reduce your risk of knee sprains or strains by:

  • Wearing proper, supportive footwear when exercising
  • Always warming up before exercising
  • Stretching and strengthening the leg muscles
  • Making changes to your training regimen incrementally, not suddenly

Thigh or calf strain or sprain diagnosis

When diagnosing a thigh or calf strain or sprain, your doctor will conduct a physical examination and ask about the event that caused your injury. In some cases, if a more serious injury is suspected, your doctor may also order an X-ray or MRI scan.

Thigh or calf strain or sprain treatment

After consulting a doctor, you can generally treat mild calf or thigh sprains and strains at home, by:

  • Resting, icing, compressing and elevating the joint
  • Taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatories, as needed
  • Following a physical therapy routine, provided by your doctor

When to seek care

Call your doctor if you have extreme pain or swelling in the area that inhibits your ability to walk, or if your symptoms do not improve over time with home remedies.

Next Steps

Your doctor will assess your symptoms and provide a diagnosis and treatment plan accordingly.

90,000 signs of sprains, what to do, treatment

Ligaments connect tissues of joints and bones and are composed of connective fibers. Despite their elasticity and strength, they can be suddenly damaged as a result of injury. This is fraught with not only stretching, but also partial or complete rupture. A slight sprain can be healed on its own, and in case of ruptures, you must definitely visit a doctor. Considering that after an injury, it is difficult for a non-professional to understand how serious the damage is, it is advisable to immediately go to the emergency room and undergo an examination.

Sprains are not considered a serious injury, and proper care will ensure a quick recovery without consequences. But if you underestimate the severity of the injury and do not provide first aid in a timely manner when spraining the ligaments, there are complications. You can understand that the measures taken are not enough by the following symptoms that appear in the first 3 days:

  • the temperature has risen;
  • pain increases;
  • limitation of mobility persists or increases;
  • , swelling and redness of the skin is manifested.

The listed symptoms are a reason to urgently consult a doctor!

The main causes and signs of sprain

Ligaments on the legs in the area of ​​the knee and ankle joint, less often on the elbow bend are subjected to stretching. Injuries often occur as a result of physical activity, jumping and running. The reason is in sudden movements without preliminary warming up of the muscles. In addition, ankle sprains occur as a result of wearing uncomfortable shoes.Lovers of high, unstable heels often become victims. When stretching occurs, severe pain, weakness in the muscles near the damaged joint, swelling, and sometimes hematoma (bruising) due to subcutaneous hemorrhage. Movement increases pain.

Sensations at different degrees of stretching

Treatment is prescribed depending on the degree of sprain. Knowing the symptoms, you can roughly determine the severity of the injury, provide first aid and decide on the urgency of calling doctors.

Taking into account the number of damaged ligaments and muscle tissues, 3 degrees are distinguished:

  1. Minor trauma with mild pain, there is practically no edema. Stretching does not interfere with movement and normal activities. No special treatment is required, but it is advisable to reduce the load until recovery.
  2. Moderate severity of injuries with single tissue ruptures. The pain is constant, there are hematomas and swelling. Treatment will take about 1-2 months at home under the supervision of a traumatologist.
  3. Complete rupture of tissues, severe pain, numerous hematomas and edema. Urgent hospital care is required. In severe sprains, the prognosis is poor. Recovery will take a long time.

Stages of rehabilitation

In case of severe sprains, the doctor prescribes comprehensive treatment to alleviate the victim’s condition and speed up the recovery process. Medicines, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.The duration of treatment depends on the degree of injury, the age and health characteristics of the patient, as well as on whether first aid was provided after the injury.

Medications are prescribed to reduce pain and relieve swelling. Typically, doctors prescribe pain relieving ointments and anti-inflammatory drugs. After the puffiness subsides, local warming drugs are prescribed. The therapy is supplemented with angioprotectors and absorbable ointments.

To improve the circulation of blood and lymphatic fluid, as well as accelerate recovery and prevent complications in the form of accelerated tissue accretion, lameness and other negative consequences, the following physiotherapy procedures are prescribed:

  • cryotherapy;
  • electrophoresis;
  • ultrasound;
  • UHF;
  • magnetic currents;
  • amplipulse therapy.

The traumatologist or physiotherapist will determine the duration and number of treatments.

Preventive measures

To prevent sprains, the following recommendations of traumatologists must be observed:

  • choose comfortable casual shoes;
  • to use special sports shoes and accessories to protect the ligaments during increased loads;
  • regularly do exercises or gymnastics, maintaining the tone of the ligaments and muscles;
  • avoid physical overstrain;
  • on a slippery road, move slowly and carefully.

Physiotherapy: basic exercise principles

You can start physiotherapy exercises only with the permission of a traumatologist. In some cases, simple exercises can be performed as early as 3 days after the injury, but they begin to actively train about a month after the injury. Exercises are selected by the instructor based on the nature and extent of the injury. The goal is to improve blood circulation, strengthen muscles and ligaments. If pain occurs during the lesson, the exercise is stopped and transferred to the next day.Exercise cannot be completely excluded from rehabilitation: muscles and ligaments will be replaced by connective tissue, which will limit their mobility.

Stretching is an essential part of exercise therapy. It is necessary to avoid spasm of injured muscles and ligaments. As a rule, the exercise lasts 15 seconds, and you need to repeat it 2-3 times a day. In chronic injuries, the duration of stretching is increased to 30 seconds, and the number of repetitions up to 3-5 times per day. If you do everything right, then the next day you will not feel pain.If discomfort occurs, this indicates muscle overstrain, and the intensity of stretching is reduced.

Correct first aid

In case of sprains, first aid is reduced to the following measures:

  1. Provide rest to the victim – sit or lay down so that the injured limb does not move. To reduce the swelling, it is advisable to slightly raise the arm or leg.
  2. Apply cold. This will reduce swelling and pain.Ice is poured into the bag, if not, use a heating pad with cold water. Apply to the damaged area for 15 minutes, take a half-hour break and repeat. It is good if there is a special cooling bandage that provides a safe cold for 2 hours.
  3. Protect against overload. The painful joint is fixed with an elastic bandage.
  4. Ointments and anti-inflammatory drugs for pain and swelling should only be used as directed by a specialist.

These measures for sprains are enough to reduce pain. For the next 2 days, it is important to provide the injured limb with fixation and rest. During this time, pain and swelling should be reduced to a minimum. Then it remains to start gradually and gradually load the limb. Full recovery occurs in 2–3 weeks.

Advice from trauma specialists

Sprains are common among athletes, so they always have remedies in their medicine cabinet to relieve pain, immobilize the joint, and speed up recovery. Traumatologists recommend that all people replenish their first-aid kit with special medical products that can be useful in case of injury.

The self-fixing elastic bandage when stretched is an excellent solution for the treatment of damaged tendons. The product is made of fabric of a special structure, does not contain latex (only polyamide, cotton and viscose). All that remains is to choose a suitable bandage width and always have it at hand. Unlike conventional elastic bandages, the new medical dressings are resistant to sterilization, X-ray treatment, high temperatures (can be ironed), breathe air and wick moisture away from the skin.

Traumatologists recommend not only athletes, but also all active people to buy a modern self-fixing bandage. The costs will be paid off by its long service life – even with reusable use, the material retains its shape. When the ligaments are sprained, this bandage will help out both an adult, a child, and an elderly person.

90,000 What to do with a muscle strain? –

For many people, sport is a whole life, without which a person cannot exist. But sport is impossible without injury.One of the injuries that can occur while playing sports is a muscle strain.

One awkward movement or abruptness during exercise can lead to muscle stretching (especially in an untrained person). If you stretch your muscles, you will immediately feel pain in the damaged area, which may soon form swelling or bruising. Of course, it is best to seek help from a doctor, but if it is necessary to provide first aid, and there are no injuries to the point in the vicinity, knowledge on the topic – what to do when stretching muscles will come in handy?

Step # 1

It is recommended to take a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to reduce muscle strain pain. The most effective are aspirin or ibuprofen. The medicine will relieve pain, reduce swelling, and reduce inflammation that occurs after a muscle strain.

Step # 2

Leave the injured muscle at rest so as not to harm or aggravate the situation. Complete rest must be ensured for the first 36 hours.

Step # 3

The damaged place must be given rest. Be sure to apply something cold to the injured area.This will not only relieve pain and swelling, but it will also speed up healing. The ice should not come into contact with the skin; it can be put in a plastic bag or wrapped in a cloth. Within 3 days it is impossible to warm the damaged area, so as not to aggravate the pain and not to provoke the appearance of edema.

Step # 4

Traumatologists recommend after stretching the muscles to fix the injured area of ​​the body with an elastic bandage or bandage. A tight bandage will reduce internal bleeding. It must be worn within 3 days from the date of injury.

Step # 5

To relieve swelling and pain, it is recommended to raise the injured area of ​​the body to the maximum possible height. Raising the muscle above the level of the heart will reduce blood flow – this will relieve swelling.

Step 6

If you do something and the injured part of the body starts to hurt, stop immediately. This will prevent more serious injury from occurring.

Step # 7

3 days after injury, you can make warm compresses, warming ointments and compresses. This will improve blood flow and speed up the muscle regeneration process.

Step # 8

When stretching the muscles, you can use ointments. Ointments are one of the most effective remedies against types of sprains. Modern ointments can not only numb the damaged area, but also cool and relieve swelling and prevent bruising.

It is best to consult a doctor when stretching to prescribe qualified treatment, recommend a good ointment, compresses and correctly apply a bandage.

injuries, bruises, strains, ruptures – Treatment and rehabilitation – Department of Traumatology – State Hospital of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The pectoralis major muscle is the main relief of the chest, it is formed from the largest clusters of fibers. It is a very strong and powerful muscle. The pectoralis major muscle consists of three parts or bundles: sternocostal, clavicular and abdominal (abdominal).All three of its parts merge together and form one short flat tendon, which is attached to the humerus just below the large tubercle. It is responsible for the ability to make movements with the hand in front of the chest (rotation of the arm inward, lowering the raised arm, bringing the shoulder (arm) to the body), and also participates in the act of breathing as an additional muscle. Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are extremely rare and usually occur in weightlifting athletes and people doing hard physical work, usually men.

Types of injuries: bruises, sprains, ruptures

Classification of injuries of the pectoralis major muscle:

  1. Contusion or sprain of muscle
  2. Partial rupture
  3. Complete break:
    • detachment of the tendon from the place of attachment to the humerus
    • rupture at the junction of muscle into tendon
    • rupture of the muscle fibers themselves
    • avulsion of the pectoralis major muscle with bone block
    • separation from the place of attachment to the sternum, ribs

Main causes of injury

  • Excessive physical activity (for example, when playing sports (working with dumbbells or a barbell))
  • Lifting weights, falling (when stretching)
  • Direct blow to the chest area
  • Taking stimulant drugs (steroids)
  • Muscle fatigue and microtrauma

Symptoms of trauma

  • Onset of pain, weakness and burning sensation
  • Decreased mobility of the shoulder girdle
  • Puffiness, swelling and hematoma occurs
  • Characteristic sound of muscle tearing – click or clap (at the time of injury)
  • There is a deformation of the muscle and a violation of its natural contours (with a complete rupture)


Diagnosis of tendon injuries includes:

  • Medical examination by a doctor
  • X-ray examination
  • Ultrasound examination (ultrasound)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Specialists to contact if these symptoms appear:

Healing and recovery

In case of any damage to the pectoralis major muscle, it is necessary to contact the traumatology department for qualified help.

When stretching the muscles, conservative treatment is used. The patient must be provided with complete rest, apply cold to the injured area, the doctor prescribes the intake of painkillers and warming ointments. The duration of rehabilitation depends on the severity of the injury (from 3 weeks to 3 months). During the recovery period, the patient is prescribed moderate physical activity, massage, reflexology. If all recommendations are followed, complete recovery is observed.

Surgical treatment is preferable for partial and complete rupture of the tendons. The choice of the type of surgery depends on the location of the tear. The main task of any surgery is to connect the tendon to the bone.

Rehabilitation includes:

  • application of a fixation bandage (immobilization of the shoulder joint)
  • cryotherapy
  • taking painkillers
  • physiotherapy exercises
  • intensive massage.

For qualified medical help in Moscow, you can contact the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Prices for services

Service name Cost, rub

Appointment (examination, consultation) at an orthopedic traumatologist, primary


Appointment (examination, consultation) at a traumatologist-orthopedist repeated


Appointment (examination, consultation) of a surgeon, primary


Reception (examination, consultation) of a surgeon with a scientific degree K.M.N. (academic title “Associate Professor”), primary


Reception (examination, consultation) of a surgeon with a scientific degree D.M.N. (academic title “professor”), primary


Appointment (examination, consultation) of a surgeon repeated


Appointment (examination, consultation) at a rheumatologist, primary


Appointment (examination, consultation) of a rheumatologist repeated


Appointment (examination, consultation) at an orthopedic traumatologist, primary


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Remedies for bruises and bruises, how to quickly get rid of a bruise

Congratulations, friends: the cycling season is open! And besides cycling, roller skates, dancing on the embankment, swimming and outdoor sports are waiting for us.In this letter, we will tell you how to quickly get rid of accidental sprains and bruises so that they do not darken your good mood.

  1. Badiagi-based ointment

Badiaga is a freshwater sponge, the skeleton of which consists of silicon oxide. Crushed badyaga is a powder of microscopic needles of silicon oxide. As part of the ointment, these needles have a local irritating effect on the skin around the hematoma, improving blood circulation and accelerating the healing of the bruise.

  1. Heparin ointment

Heparin is a substance that prevents blood clotting. As part of the ointment, heparin accelerates the resorption of the bruise, strengthens the capillaries, reduces edema and swelling of the skin. For heparin to work, you need to apply the ointment to clean skin 2-4 times a day.

  1. Anti-inflammatory ointments

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments reduce pain from bruises and sprains, help relieve swelling and inflammation. It should be understood that these are serious medications that have contraindications.You can independently use such an ointment for no longer than a week, applying it to the skin 2-3 times a day.

  1. Arnica based ointment

Mountain arnica is a perennial medicinal plant popular in folk medicine. Arnica ointments have hemostatic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects.

  1. Warming ointments

Warming paprika-based ointments are used a day or two after a bruise to speed up the blood supply to the area of ​​the hematoma.By receiving more oxygen and nutrients, the tissues regenerate faster and the bruise goes away sooner.

Ointments for bruises and bruises of all three types should not be applied to abrasions and scratches. Therefore, it is necessary to lubricate the damaged area very carefully. If you do not want to stain your clothes, then 2-3 minutes after application, when the ointment is absorbed into the skin, the bruise can be covered with a clean bandage.

Aertal anti-sprain cream. An effective remedy for sprains

Sprains are a common injury that occurs when you move incorrectly or abruptly. Most often ankle or knee ligaments are affected, less often sprains occur in other parts of the body . Stretching can be obtained not only during sports and activities, but also in everyday life. If, after an unsuccessful or sudden movement, jump, hit or fall, we feel sharp pain, discomfort and discomfort, then, most likely, a sprain has overtaken us.

Symptoms of sprain:

  • Sharp pain with
    movement.The pain may increase when trying to strain or move
    injured limb. Numbness may also be felt at the injury site.
    Perhaps the pain will build up over time. When you try to touch the place
    there will be a feeling of discomfort.
  • May occur
    spasms in the area of ​​damage.
  • Probability of edema,
    bruising, bruising, or hemorrhage.
  • Difficulty
    movements: inability to turn, lift, perform other actions.
  • If at the moment
    of injury, we felt not only pain, but also a crack, click, then, throughout
    Apparently, we are dealing with a rupture rather than a sprain.

First aid for sprains:

  • First aid – cold. You can use everything that is at hand: ice, cold water, spray-freeze. Task – remove puffiness or prevent its appearance .
  • Immobilize and fix the limb. If this is not done, a mild or moderate sprain may rupture completely.
  • Apply anti-inflammatory and analgesic cream.You can use a non-steroidal aceclofenac cream.
  • For severe pain, use analgesics.
  • To clarify and confirm the diagnosis, you must consult a doctor.

the first aid provided leads to minimization of the consequences of the injury. Stretching
ligaments are insidious because for a long time the ligaments remain inelastic
and prone to re-stretching. Therefore, giving a load on
injured place, we risk damaging the ligaments again.Hence, even
if it is a slight sprain, and after a couple of days the pain symptoms disappeared, and the swelling
began to subside – it is still necessary to use the cream within 7-10 days
local action. The cream must be selected according to the following criteria: anti-inflammatory,
pain relieving, non-steroidal, regenerative and safe.
use the cream “Aertal”, which is suitable for all qualities and properties
as an assistant in the first stage and in further treatment. The main active
substance cream
is an aceclofenac that has the ability to quickly
absorbed, which speeds up the healing process.In the easy stage of stretching
ligaments for complete recovery, it is enough to keep the damaged area at rest
one to four days and use the cream for a week.

If stretching
moderate or severe, the rehabilitation period will last from three to
four weeks. A plaster cast, bandage, splint are applied to the injured area.
An anti-inflammatory cream is used. The final stage is physiotherapy.

To large
Unfortunately, it is impossible to prevent sprains, so you need to be prepared
to the timely provision of first aid, which will help to avoid possible
unpleasant consequences.

My health

Child injury has always been and will be a topical issue. First of all, this is due to the increased motor activity of young children. Older children are no exception. Walking, going to school, visiting your favorite sports section often ends up with varying degrees of damage to the skin and soft tissues. When faced with this problem, parents often ask questions: “How to provide first aid to a child with a bruise? What tools can be used and what not? When is it worth seeing a doctor? What’s the best bruise ointment for children? “These are the most common questions parents ask a pediatrician or pediatric trauma specialist. In this article, we will try to analyze in more detail the main types of closed soft tissue injuries in children, first aid for trauma, a rating of the best medicines for bruises. Let’s pay attention to the positive and negative qualities of each drug, and, most importantly, we will indicate the most popular remedies for bruises, depending on the age of the baby.

Types of soft tissue injuries in children

When considering traumatic injuries in children, it should be mentioned that this issue is rather extensive and laborious.It is not in vain that there is a separate science that studies these issues – traumatology. We will try to consider this topic from the pediatric side.

In this regard, we will dwell in more detail on such damages as:

  • Contusion.
  • Break.
  • Concussion.

These injuries, according to the classification, can be attributed to closed soft tissue injuries.

Soft tissue injuries in children are a fairly common problem.

Below we will consider each type of damage, as well as its signs in a baby.


Concussion is understood as a mechanical effect on the body, which leads to functional changes on the part of the organ without visible damage. Concussion is often referred to as a concussion.

Symptoms of a concussion of the brain:

  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Double vision.
  • Possible loss of consciousness and seizures.

It should be noted that a baby’s head injury always requires a doctor’s consultation with a number of instrumental examination methods.


A bruise is a mechanical injury that is not accompanied by a violation of the anatomical integrity. As a rule, the skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue are bruised. This damage is often caused by falling or hitting objects.

Symptoms of contusion in a baby:

  • Pain. Pain usually occurs immediately. The degree of pain depends on the conditions of the injury and the force of the impact, the type of object or coating. A particularly painful place in children is the periosteum. Within one to two hours, the pain subsides, but it may reappear if the hematoma grows.
  • Swelling. Swelling occurs almost immediately after injury. It is painful when pressed on it, and also has no clear boundaries with healthy tissues. Usually, the swelling grows within a few hours, in rare cases, the swelling may grow up to one day.
  • The appearance of a hematoma. Hematoma is a bleeding in soft tissue. The severity of the hematoma, first of all, depends on the type of damaged vessel and the strength of the blow. Most often, children experience a rupture of small vessels with blood soaking the skin and subcutaneous fat. Outwardly, it looks like a “bruise”.
  • Functional impairment. This refers to the limitation of active movements, for example, limbs. This is due to an increase in edema and pain syndrome against the background of trauma.

Restriction of movement in case of injury is associated with edema and pain associated with trauma.


A rupture, unlike a bruise, is a soft tissue lesion in which anatomical integrity is disturbed.


  • Ligament rupture.
  • Tendons.
  • Muscles.

Ligament ruptures are accompanied by severe pain, swelling, and hematoma. Dysfunction of the affected joint is also characteristic.Muscle tears are less common. Such damage usually develops with a large impact of gravity, a strong impact on the contracted muscles, a rapid strong contraction. Muscle rupture is characterized by various symptoms, it all depends on the degree of rupture. As a rule, children have incomplete breaks. Children have instant severe pain, followed by the appearance of puffiness and hematoma. The mechanism of tendon rupture formation is similar to the mechanism of muscle rupture. When a tendon ruptures, children complain of pain, a specific place of greatest pain is noted at the site of the rupture.The most common symptom that distinguishes it from other injuries is loss of function by the muscle whose tendon is damaged.

Injuries are often accompanied by the appearance of wounds. You can find out more about this problem in our article.

First aid for child trauma

  1. Calm the baby down and take a comfortable position.
  2. Examine the site of injury, exclude dislocations, fractures.
  3. Apply cold to the injury site.
  4. Take, if possible, an inflated position of the affected limb.
  5. Lubricate the affected limb with bruise ointment. With severe pain syndrome, it is possible to prescribe painkillers inside.

What is the best ointment to use depending on age, as well as which one will be more effective, we will consider further.

Rating for baby ointments for bruises

When choosing an ointment for bruises, it is necessary to take into account the age of the baby, as well as the severity of the damage.It is also very important to pay attention to the individual tolerance of the drug.

When choosing an ointment, be sure to consider the age of the baby and the degree of damage.

To relieve the symptoms of bruising in children, the following ointments are used:

  • Lifeguard . Application in young children is permissible. It contains useful natural ingredients that allow you to quickly relieve pain and inflammation (essential oils, vitamins, beeswax components, etc.).
  • Bruise-OFF . It is also possible to use it in young children. Contains pentoxifylline and medicinal leech extract. It is an ointment for bruises and bruises for children.
  • Heparin ointment . Contains heparin, benzocaine and other substances. It has a stronger anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It is used in children aged two years and older.
  • Lyoton . It also contains heparin.
  • Dolobene . Contains in its composition all the same heparin. In addition to heparin, the active ingredients are dimethyl sulfoxide, dexpanthenol. Dimethyl sulfoxide promotes deeper penetration of other substances. Used in children over 5 years old.
  • Diclofenac . The name coincides with the active ingredient. Quite a popular drug, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is an ointment for bruises with pain relievers for children.
  • Diclac . The active ingredient in diclac is diclofenac. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It has a good analgesic effect. It is used in children over 6 years old.

In adolescence, it is possible to use a wider range of drugs, including ointments for bruises. Let’s list the most effective of them:

  • Finalgon .
  • Reparil Gel .
  • Troxevasin .

It should be noted that warming (locally irritating) ointments are used not in the first hours after the injury, but after 3-4 days. In the early hours, preference is given to pain relievers and cooling agents.

There are a large number of ointments for bruises and sprains for children. It is very important to find the most suitable remedy for your child. It all depends on the type of injury, as well as on the age of the patient. It is important to remember that the ointment does not heal the disease, but only the symptom. Do not self-medicate, in the event of traumatic injuries in the baby, contact the pediatrician and traumatologist.

Stretching of the groin and hip muscles

Stretching of the adductor muscles of the thigh is difficult to treat and is not correctly diagnosed by everyone. In fact, it is enough to lunge or swing the leg to recognize a stretch in the muscles of the leg – the groin and hip will instantly react with acute pain in the groin area.

Stretching the thigh muscles: first aid

The five muscles attached to the pelvic and leg bones are called adductors. They are designed to bring your legs together and apart.With a sharp jerk at the time of stretching to a twine, jumping, falling or unsuccessful abduction of the leg, an injury or stretching occurs. In severe cases, muscle tissue or tendon tears and bruises or swelling appear on the skin.

After a serious injury, immediately ensure the patient’s rest and apply a cold compress to the injury site for 15 minutes. After this time, you can use anti-inflammatory ointments. On the recommendation of a doctor, the treatment is supplemented with a kinesio taping technique.

Methods of applying kinesiotapes differ in specific cases:

  • Ligament sprain – pain occurs when moving and significantly decreases during rest.
  • Tearing of a muscle is a constant pain that does not subside.

Taping while stretching the muscles of the thigh

The first, and preferably the subsequent taping, should be performed by a doctor, since the kinesio tape must be applied in a certain sequence, according to the technique chosen by the doctor.The method of applying the patch depends on the location of the injury.

Stretching the muscles of the back of the thigh:

  1. Degrease the skin and remove hair (if necessary).
  2. Take a prone position and bend the injured leg 60⁰ to relax the desired muscles.
  3. Glue the first 2-3 cm of tape (anchor) without tension.
  4. Glue the middle part of the tape without tension or with a tension of 10 – 50%. The degree of tension depends on the need for immobilization: the greater the tension, the greater the fixation of the damaged muscle in one position.
  5. If necessary, you can use two more tapes, which are applied perpendicularly.

Gluteus muscle:

  1. The patient should stand with his back to the person performing the procedure, resting his hands on a chair. In this case, the gluteal muscles relax and stretch, creating the optimal effect of the tape.
  2. Select a wide tape and round off the edges. For this area, such a kinesiological patch is used, since there is a broad muscle, which requires better fixation.
  3. Glue the tape anchor (2-3 cm) onto the prepared skin without tension.
  4. Glue the middle part with a tension of 20-30%.
  5. Remove the tension when securing the armature.
  6. When taping the gluteus medius muscle, apply two tapes without tension: on the front and back of the thigh.

Injury to the gluteal muscle often occurs in athletes when lifting weights or physical overload.


  1. With this taping technique, the correct position is as follows: the patient lies on the couch with his back so that his legs hang off the couch, bending the knee at an angle of 90⁰.
  2. Glue a vertical strip in the middle of the thigh without tension.
  3. Glue the middle of another tape horizontally over the previous one with a tension of 10-30%. Smooth the ends of the horizontal tape without tension.

Hip joint (position when taping – lying down):

  1. First, stick the tape, bypassing the gluteus muscle along its upper part with a straightened leg.
  2. Bend the leg at an angle of 90⁰. Apply the tape in the same way, only bypassing the lower part of the gluteus muscle.The result should be the letter “Y”.

The hip joint is most often injured, therefore, to prevent damage, kinesiotapes can be used as a prophylaxis.

Groin trauma occurs mainly in contact sports. Also, if you fall or place your leg incorrectly during exercise. Gluing the tape on the groin muscles:

  1. On clean skin (without hairline) stick the tape from the groin muscle along the thigh.
  2. Stick the strip on the inner thigh with the knee up.
  3. For better hold, you can stick the tape around the inner thigh.
  4. Glue tapes without tension.

There are three degrees of groin muscle strain with corresponding symptoms:

  1. Mild discomfort.
  2. Significant pain, swelling and bruising occurs.
  3. Severe edema and bruising in the groin area. Pain when walking may increase, which can lead to muscle spasms (cramps).

Prevention of muscle strain using kinesio taping

As a preventive measure, the tape is applied without tension for normal muscle tone. Correct use of kineso patches using special techniques will help prevent injuries and stretching of the leg muscles:

  1. Measure the tape to the desired length and round off the edges.
  2. In a standing position, pull the sock over yourself without bending the knee.
  3. Stick the edge of the tape on the outer side of the foot and wrap it around it.The foot should be flat on the floor (the leg is still straight).
  4. Make three more turns around the leg: the first through the shin, the second – just below the knee, and the third – diagonally across the thigh.

A good warm-up before playing sports or strenuous physical activity is also a prevention of sprains and other injuries.

Video instructions for taping

How to make the right choice of kinesio tape

The attending physician should prescribe a specific tape and how it should be applied.