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Caffeine heart rate increase: The effects of caffeine on blood pressure and heart rate: A review

5 Ways to Recover From Being Overcaffeinated

You were just trying to get the wake-up job done and now this. That joyful lift that you felt at 7 a.m. has turned south. Deep south. Maybe that espresso chaser wasn’t such a good idea after all.

Your eyelid is twitching, your heart is going thumpa thumpa and your leg is doing the cha-cha.

Yep, another overcaffeinated Monday.

We get it. Over-the-top coffee consumption is how you tolerate a day in the life. But now what?

How much is too much

Everybody metabolizes caffeine differently. That’s because your genetics, age, weight, tolerance and liver all play a role in how quickly you process caffeine.

“While the response to caffeine varies, 400 milligrams or above is generally the amount considered excessive for adults,” says Arun Sridhar, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., a cardiac electrophysiologist and specialist in heart rhythm disorders at UW Medicine Heart Institute.

And it’s important to know that the maximum tolerated dose of caffeine differs between adults and children.

“Children weigh less and are more prone to its effects. So we caution against overuse in kids,” says Sridhar.

It’s tough to standardize the measurement of caffeine in coffee because it depends on bean origin, flavor, roast and grind, not to mention water temperature, brewing time and, well, you get the idea … But a typical cup of brewed coffee has caffeine levels from 65 to 120 milligrams while a shot of espresso ranges from 30 to 50 milligrams.

“Rather than a universal set point for how much is too much, it’s when you take in an out-of-the-ordinary amount for you that you experience bad effects,” says Sridhar.

It’s not only coffee that can pole vault you over your own personal caffeine set point but also snack bars, soda, bottled water, energy drinks or over-the-counter or prescription headache or PMS medications, all of which can contain caffeine.

The symptoms of too much caffeine

Caffeine is a stimulant. That’s why it helps wake you up in the morning. And it’s a big part of why you like it.

Aside from that jittery leg, there are other signs of too much caffeine. They range from relatively mild symptoms like sweating and restlessness to uncomfortable symptoms like nausea, diarrhea and anxiety.

The good news is that most of these symptoms, unpleasant as they are, won’t endanger your life. Cardiovascular symptoms, on the other hand, require vigilance.

The effects of caffeine on your heart

Caffeine stimulates your heart rate and gives a temporary boost to your blood pressure. And for most people this isn’t a problem.

But in anyone with a pre-existing heart condition (known or not), excessive caffeine can trigger fast and irregular heart rhythms, which could lead to sudden cardiac arrest.

“On a high caffeine dose, people will feel a lot of skipped beats, thumping or a noticeably fast heart rate. If your heart rate is irregular or stuck at a very high rate, if your symptoms just feel overwhelming or if you are dizzy or faint, then you should go to the emergency room,” says Sridhar.

That’s because dizziness can indicate that your body is not pumping enough blood to your brain.

If your symptoms are not overwhelming and don’t include dizziness, but you’re still concerned, then you can make an appointment with a doctor to get checked out instead, he says.

You should also discuss your caffeine intake with a doctor if you have a pre-existing arrhythmia or seizure disorder, as caffeine can trigger these conditions.

Caffeine can contribute to anxiety

It’s caffeine’s effect on your nervous system that produces the jitters. But if you have a predisposition to anxiety, that jitteriness can make you feel even more anxious.

“Jitteriness feels like anxiety to someone who is primed that way,” says Sridhar.

Any heart symptoms you experience can add to this anxiety.

“When people feel their heart thumping hard, this tends to increase their anxiety and can contribute to a feeling of panic,” says Sridhar.

So if you have a predisposition to anxiety or panic attacks, caffeine may exacerbate those feelings. That means that you’re probably not having a heart attack but having a hard time telling the difference between a heart attack and anxiety.

What you can do to feel better

Like recovering from a hangover, you’ll have to wait out your caffeine overdose to get over it completely. And this could take 4 to 6 hours, says Sridhar, unless you’re one of the unlucky few who are caffeine-sensitive, in which case you may have to wait much longer. Sigh.

But while you’re waiting, here are a few things that might help.

No more caffeine. Don’t consume any more caffeine today. Seems like a statement of the obvious, but be sure you don’t absentmindedly nosh on your usual mid-afternoon chocolate-covered snack bar by mistake.

Drink plenty of water. Caffeine is a diuretic, which means that you need to drink extra water to make up for what you’re peeing out. You don’t want to add dehydration to the unpleasantness.

Replace electrolytes. If you have been sick to your stomach or have diarrhea, you’re losing not only water but also electrolytes. You can replace those with an electrolyte replacement solution like Pedialyte.

Take a walk. If you feel a lot of pent-up energy, take a walk to expend some of it. But if you notice anything unusual happening to your heart rate — like a sudden rapid increase — then stop.

Practice deep breathing. If you’re anxious, chances are that your breathing is fast and shallow — and that will only further increase your anxiety. Take slow, deep, deliberate breaths to bring your breathing back to normal and reduce anxiety.

On the bright side, unless you have a cardiac side-effect, chances are you will recover with no permanent damage. So don’t beat yourself up too badly.

“Hopefully you’ll remember the unpleasantness the next time around and say no to that extra cup of coffee,” says Sridhar. “Caffeine is best in moderation.”

Caffeine, Irregular Heartbeat and Heart Failure

By Steven Reinberg

HealthDay Reporter

MONDAY, Oct. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Contrary to common belief, coffee doesn’t seem to increase the risk of irregular heartbeats in people with heart failure, according to a small Brazilian study.

“Our data reassures that most patients with heart disease might drink moderate doses of caffeine-rich beverages with no major risks,” said lead researcher Dr. Luis Rohde. He’s from the division of cardiology at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre.

Caffeine-rich beverages have long been suspected of causing several heart-related symptoms, such as palpitations or rapid or irregular heartbeats, Rohde said.

“Because of this assumption, counseling to reduce or avoid caffeine consumption is still widely recommended in clinical practice by most physicians for patients with any heart disease,” he said.

But Rohde’s team found no link between caffeine and abnormal heartbeats in the short term. “In fact, our results challenge the perception that patients with heart disease and at risk for arrhythmias should avoid or limit caffeine intake,” he said.

Heart failure occurs when the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.

The study included 51 people with heart failure. The researchers randomly assigned them to two groups. One group was given decaffeinated coffee that contained 100 milligrams (mg) of caffeine powder. The other group received decaffeinated coffee with a milk powder.

Patients drank the brews at one-hour intervals during a five-hour period. Those given caffeine received a total of 500 milligrams. The study also included a treadmill “stress” test one hour after the last cup of coffee.

Although no effect of caffeine on heart rhythms was seen, the researchers pointed out that the study was small. About half of the study volunteers were regular coffee drinkers, so they might have been less prone to the effects of caffeine.

The study also didn’t look at long-term use of caffeine and its effect on abnormal heart rhythms among patients with heart failure, the researchers said.

The report was published online Oct. 17 in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.

Dr. Christopher Granger is a professor of medicine at Duke University in Durham, N.C. He said that “this study adds to the body of evidence that coffee and caffeine consumption appears to be safe from a cardiovascular perspective.

“Even in a high-risk group, a group you might be most concerned about drinking caffeine, it looked like modest caffeine consumption was safe,” said Granger, who co-authored an accompanying journal editorial.

But he cautioned that caffeine is a stimulant and can slightly increase blood pressure, even though it didn’t have an effect on the heart rate of the study participants.

Granger noted that this study doesn’t exonerate all forms of caffeine for heart patients either. “It did not take into account energy drinks that contain a lot of caffeine; there may be adverse effects from that,” he said.

The bottom line from this study is that “modest amounts of coffee are safe even for people who have heart problems,” Granger said.

How Much Caffeine is Too Much? – Cleveland Clinic

Whether you’re dragging yourself out of bed on a dreary morning or trying to survive the world’s longest staff meeting, caffeine seems to be a good answer. But is your reliance on caffeine helpful or harmful?

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True, it can increase your energy and help you power through your day, but you can overdo it, says registered dietitian Beth Czerwony, MS, RD, CSOWM, LD.

“Caffeine is a stimulant, and it affects your body in several ways,” says  Czerwony. “How much caffeine is too much? You have to weigh the risks and benefits.”

How much caffeine should you have in a day?

That depends on who you are. Caffeine isn’t safe for everyone. Some people should avoid caffeine, including:

  • Children.
  • People taking anti-anxiety medications.
  • Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • People with heart disease or high blood pressure.

If you’re otherwise healthy, caffeine is safe in moderation. Here are the boundaries.

  • Healthy adults shouldn’t consume more than 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine per day. That’s equal to about four 8-ounce cups of brewed coffee or 10 cans of cola.
  • Teens should limit their caffeine intake to less than 100 mg per day (one 8-ounce cup of coffee or about two cans of cola).

Side effects of too much caffeine

Of course, caffeine isn’t all terrible. As a stimulant, caffeine can boost your energy, improve physical and mental performance and even help you burn fat.

But more isn’t always better. Over-caffeinating can lead to side effects that can be unpleasant and even unsafe, including:

Insomnia

If you had a rough night’s sleep, you might reach for coffee to help get through the next day. Trouble is, too much of it can keep you up the following night. “It becomes a vicious cycle,” Czerwony says.

To avoid disrupting your precious slumber, skip caffeine in the afternoon and evening.

Anxiety

“Caffeine excites your central nervous system,” Czerwony explains. “That can result in feeling anxious, jittery and irritable.”

Cutting back on caffeine can help keep those side effects in check. But if you have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, you might want to avoid caffeine altogether.

Heart palpitations and racing heart

Lots of people experience heart palpitations along with anxiety. Caffeine can make both worse.

Heart palpitations can make you feel like your heart is racing, fluttering or skipping a beat. Though they aren’t usually dangerous, they can be alarming — a good reason to skip that double espresso.

Dehydration

Caffeine has a diuretic effect — aka, it makes you pee. Plus, if you’re sipping coffee all day, you’re probably not drinking enough water. To avoid becoming dehydrated, make sure to drink plenty of water along with any caffeinated beverages.

High blood pressure

Some research shows that caffeine can cause mild increases in heart rate and blood pressure. In people who already have high blood pressure or other heart problems, that increase could spell trouble.

Heartburn and stomach upset

“Caffeine can aggravate the production of stomach acid,” Czerwony says. The result: uncomfortable heartburn symptoms.

Acids in coffee can add to the problem, but coffee isn’t the only culprit. Caffeine in soda and other sources can also trigger acid reflux. “Too much caffeine can cause stomach issues,” she adds.

Caffeine toxicity

Very high levels of caffeine can be dangerous. That’s one reason Czerwony recommends steering clear of energy drinks and energy shots, which can contain much more caffeine than a strong cup of coffee.

Weight loss supplements can also contain caffeine, and an overdose could cause serious — and potentially deadly — heart rhythm problems.

Caffeine withdrawal

If you’re used to guzzling a lot of caffeine, your body can go through withdrawal when you stop. Skip your usual pot of coffee and you’ll probably be rewarded with a splitting headache.

Caffeine users can also experience rebound fatigue. Caffeine helps you feel awake in the short term. When it wears off, though, you might be hit with a wave of tiredness that’s even worse than you felt pre-coffee. 

How to cut back on caffeine without withdrawal headaches

Some people are more sensitive to caffeine than others. If you’re swallowing less than 400 mg per day and aren’t bothered by side effects, you may not need to give up your morning latte or your afternoon soda fix.

But what if you wish your cold brew habit had less control over you? Step one is to recognize how much caffeine you’re consuming. The stimulant is found in many food and non-food sources, including:

  • Tea.
  • Soda.
  • Coffee.
  • Chocolate.
  • Energy drinks.
  • Weight loss supplements.
  • Over-the-counter medications, including some pain relievers.

Once you know where your caffeine is coming from, make a plan to cut back, Czerwony says. To avoid a headache or other withdrawal symptoms, cut caffeine down gradually over several weeks. Czerwony recommends swapping your usual coffee for half decaf. Or try replacing every other can of soda with fizzy water or herbal tea.

With some trial and error, you’ll find a balance that leaves you alert and energized, but without the unpleasant side effects. “There are benefits to caffeine, but it can really get away from you,” Czerwony says. “Too much of a good thing is still too much.”

Understanding heart palpitations | University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics

Heart palpitations are irregularities in the heart’s rhythm. These irregularities can include a feeling that your heart is racing, skipping a beat, or flip-flopping in the chest.

Sometimes patients report a general sense of uneasiness, lightheadedness, or a loss of consciousness accompanying palpitations.

What causes a palpitation?

Palpitations occur for a variety of reasons, including what you have had to eat or drink.

Michael Giudici, M.D., a University of Iowa cardiologist who specializes in arrhythmias, lists these elements as reasons for occasional heart palpitations:

  • Caffeine-related palpitations can come from drinks like espresso that are high in caffeine. Reduce or eliminate beverages that contain caffeine such as coffee or soda to avoid palpitations.
  • Consuming large quantities of chocolate has been linked to heart palpitations. Chocolate provides the same stimulants as caffeine and can trigger abnormal heart rhythms.
  • An increase in alcohol consumption can cause heart palpitations, especially in patients with previous heart problems.
  • Some over-the-counter medications that contain decongestants, such as cold and allergy medications, act as stimulants increasing the risk of palpitations.
  • Fatigue, stress, and lack of sleep can either cause or worsen palpitations—managing stress and developing healthy sleep habits is important.

What if you experience frequent or severe palpitations?

Heart palpitations are among the most common heart related symptoms that people report. They are often harmless episodes that come and go, however, on occasion, they are a symptom of an underlying serious heart rhythm disorder.

Begin by consulting your primary care physician. Your doctor can review the food and beverages you consume along with over-the-counter medications you take and determine what may have caused the palpitation. Your doctor may recommend a thorough physical exam focusing on the heart and lungs.

Unless you experience a more severe symptom such as extreme lightheadedness, chest pain, shortness of breath, or loss of consciousness, occasional palpitations should not cause great concern in patients who are otherwise healthy and have no previous heart conditions.

If more serious symptoms occur, however, it would be smart to visit with a cardiologist.

What are the treatment options for palpitations?

For patients who have more serious heart rhythm disorders, an electrophysiologist will perform a number of diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the arrhythmia. Once the disorder is identified, the electrophysiologist has the option to try medications, lifestyle changes, procedures, and implanted devices to correct the problem.

A final note from Dr. Giudici

“The causes of palpitations are usually benign and do not require treatment, however they should not be ignored. If you notice an occasional palpitation and are otherwise healthy it’s unlikely anything serious is going on.”

Caffeine affects autonomic control of heart rate and blood pressure recovery after aerobic exercise in young adults: a crossover study

Participants

Forty healthy young male volunteers (23.59 ± 3.45 years), were recruited through social network ads. Smokers, alcoholics, individuals with known cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological disorders or with musculoskeletal injury that would impede the accomplishment of the exercise protocols were not included. Individuals who participate in an organized team or individual sport requiring regular competition were not included. Volunteers who showed a series of RR intervals with less than 95% of sinus beats and those who did not complete all stages of the experimental protocol were excluded.

All volunteers signed a consent letter and were informed of the procedures and objectives of the study. The study’s procedures were all approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Philosophy and Sciences at the Paulista State University, Marilia – São Paulo, SP, Brazil (file no. CEP-2200/11) and conformed with resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council of 12/12/2012. The present study’s crossover clinical trial is registered in the Clinical Trials network by the identification code NCT02917889 on September 19th, 2016.

Study Design

The protocols were performed between 5:30 and 9:30 PM to standardize the circadian influence and with temperature between 23 °C and 24 °C and humidity between 60% and 70%. Prior to the experimental procedure, all volunteers were advised to abstained from caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, food, and strenuous exercise for at least 24 hours before each testing session and consume a light meal two hours before the experiment.

The experimental procedure was divided into three stages with a minimum interval of 48 hours between them, in order to allow adequate recovery time for the participants. Before the beginning of the first stage, body weight measurements on a digital scale (Welmy W 200/5, Brazil) and height in stadiometer (ES 2020 – Sanny, Brazil) were recorded.

The first stage of the experimental procedure consisted of the maximum effort test. This was performed first as it was used to determine the exercise intensity in subsequent stages. The other steps were called the placebo protocol and caffeine protocol, whose order of execution was established through a randomization process using a coin. The volunteers were blinded during their protocol and were not informed of the order of these protocols; however the researcher was not blinded at any time in the study.

Maximum stress test

In order to prescribe the intensity of the exercise, the cardiopulmonary exercise test in treadmill (Inbramed, MASTER CI, Brazil) was performed using the Bruce incremental protocol14. The analysis of expired gases was performed using the Quark PFT commercial system (Comend, Rome, Italy), obtaining the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) established as the highest oxygen consumption achieved during the test.

Caffeine and Placebo Protocol

Before initiating these protocols, the HR receiver (Polar RS800CX, Finland) was strapped to the volunteers to register HR beat-to-beat, followed by an intake of 300 mg of caffeine (this concentration is within the maximum allowed daily by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)1) or a placebo (300 mg starch) in identical capsules according to the protocol selected. After ingesting the capsules, volunteers performed an initial supine rest for 15 minutes, HR values, systolic blood pressure (SBP) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) being registered in the 15th minute.

After these measurements, the volunteers exercised on the treadmill at a speed of 5 km/h and slope of 1% in the first 5 minutes for warm up, followed by 25 minutes with work load equivalent to 60% of the VO2peak HR, with the same inclination. At the end of the activity, the volunteers were again placed in the supine position and were monitored over 60 minutes, their HR, SBP, DBP, RR and SpO2 being logged in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and from then every 10th minute until the end of the recovery period. A single evaluator performed these measurements throughout the experiment to avoid errors in the measurements of the parameters evaluated.

Blood pressure

Verification of the SBP and DBP was made indirectly with the use of a stethoscope (Littman Classic II, Saint Paul, USA) and aneroid sphygmomanometer (Welch Allyn Tycos, New York, USA) on each volunteer’s15 left arm.

Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation

The RR measurements were taken by counting volunteers’ breaths for one minute without the volunteers having knowledge of the process, so that no change occurred in the respiratory pattern. The measurement of SpO2, was obtained by pulse oximeter (PM-50 Mindray, China).

Analysis of HRV

The HRV analysis was registered during the whole experimental protocol by an HR receiver (Polar RS800CX, Finland), the equipment previously used to record the pulse rate of HR16. The HRV indices were determined at the following times: 10th to 15th minute of rest and during recovery (Rec): Rec1 (0 to 5 minutes), Rec2 (5 to 10 minutes), Rec3 (15 to 20 minutes), Rec4 (25–30 minutes), Rec5 (35 to 40 minutes), Rec6 (45 to 50 minutes) and Rec7 (55 to 60 minutes). During the autonomic evaluation, the volunteers were instructed to remain awake, in silence, breathing normally while resting in the supine position.

The recording examined had at least 256 consecutive RR intervals and underwent a digital filtering supplemented by manual filtering, to eliminate artifacts and only series with more than 95% of sinus heart rate were included in the study. Linear methods in time and frequency domain were applied to analyze HRV. In the time domain indexes RMSSD (square root of the average of the square of the differences between normal adjacent RR intervals) and SDNN (standard deviation of the average of all normal RR intervals) were used. The indexes of the Poincaré plot: SD1 (standard deviation of the instantaneous rate variability the rhythm) and SD2 (long-term standard deviation of R-R intervals ushers)17 were also calculated.

The spectral components LF and HF, in ms² and the normalized unit extracted from the Fast Fourier Transform, plus the ratio between these components (LF/HF), were used to analyze HRV in the frequency domain. The frequency bands used for each component were: low frequency (LF = 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF = 0.15–0.40 Hz)17. HRV analysis software (Kubios, Biosigna Analysis and Medical Image Group, Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, Finland)18 was used to analyze the linear indices in the time and frequency domains and the Poincaré plot.

Data analysis

The sample calculation was made using a pilot test utilizing software contained in the online site www.lee.dente.br, considering the RMSSD index as variable. The scale of significant difference was taken to be 12 ms with a standard deviation of 16.2 ms. The size of the sample was 28 volunteers with a 5% significance level and an 80% test power.

Gaussian distribution of the data was verified using the Shapiro-Wilks test. For the data analysis we used descriptive statistics of the characterization of the sample, results were presented with average values, and minimum and maximum standard deviation. Comparisons of the values of the indexes of the HRV and cardiorespiratory parameters between caffeine vs. placebo protocols and moments were made by two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The repeated measures data were checked for sphericity violation using Mauchly’s test and the Greenhouse-Geisser correction was conducted when sphericity was violated.

For analysis of points in time (rest vs. recovery) we applied ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni post-test for parametric distribution or the Friedman test followed by Dunn’s post-test for non-parametric distribution. Statistical significance was set at 5% for all analyses.

The analyses were performed using the Minitab software-version 13.20 (Minitab, PA, USA), GraphPad Instat – version 3.01, 1998 (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego California USA) and IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Too Much Caffeine May Stress the Heart

A sudden jolt from cortisol prompts your blood pressure to rise, heart to beat faster and energy level to soar, which no doubt enabled some early humans to escape a hungry lion in pursuit. Few of us today have to worry about becoming prey to a wild beast. Still, many live in a near-constant state of biochemical stress with the body’s alarm system turned on high all day long.

A constant outpouring of too much cortisol can result in a number of health problems, including anxiety, depression, problems with memory and concentration, trouble sleeping, weight gain and — yes, dear brother — heart disease.

Although the cortisol responses to caffeine are reduced in people who consume it every day, they are not eliminated, a controlled trial by a multidisciplinary research team demonstrated. In a report published in 2005 in Psychosomatic Medicine, the team, led by William R. Lovallo, an expert on stress at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, concluded that “chronic elevations of cortisol secretion may have implications for long-term health.”

Among the possible harmful effects the team listed are impaired responses by the immune system and central nervous system, memory deficits and changes in the workings of the brain’s frontal lobe and limbic system involved in critical factors like problem solving, judgment, motivation, attention, memory, learning, emotions and empathy.

For those at risk of heart disease, perhaps the most serious adverse effect of excessive caffeine consumption is its ability to raise blood pressure. As Dr. Lovallo’s team reported, “daily caffeine intake does not abolish the blood pressure response to caffeine” even in healthy young men and women.

Other studies have shown that in people with hypertension or at risk of developing it, cortisol responses to caffeine are exaggerated. In an earlier study, Dr. Lovallo and colleagues found that “borderline hypertensives and those with a positive family history have more rapid and prolonged cortisol responses to caffeine than do low-risk persons.”

My brother has long been treated for hypertension and is now very conscientious about staying on a low-sodium diet. But maybe it would be even more helpful if he also reduced the amount of caffeine he regularly consumes, replacing some of that caffeinated coffee with decaf, a suggestion he categorically rejected when I offered it.

Energy Drinks Quickly Affect the Heart

It may be the dangerous changes in heartbeat and blood pressure that land some consumers of energy drinks in the emergency room, based on results of a clinical trial that tested their short-term effects on the heart. Findings were recently published in the Journal of the American Heart Association and suggest that anyone with high blood pressure or heart rhythm disorders should use caution when consuming energy drinks.

Conducted at the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California, this study explored known health concerns associated with energy drinks. Energy drinks—which contain a mixture of caffeine and other energy-boosting ingredients—have been linked to a number of health problems, including abnormal heart rhythm, heart attack and sudden cardiac arrest. In 2011 alone, energy drinks caused more than 20,000 hospital visits and have led to at least 34 deaths to date.

However, just how energy drinks cause the increase in health risks is not fully clear.

To learn more, researchers tracked heart activity in 34 healthy volunteers who consumed two popular brands of energy drinks (or a placebo sugar drink) on three separate occasions. The goal was to see how energy drinks affect blood pressure and changes in QT interval, which is the time it takes the heart to recharge in between beats.

The energy drinks tested in the study contained between 152 and 160 milligrams of caffeine per can, along with other ingredients like taurine, glucuronolactone and vitamins. The placebo drink contained only carbonated water, lime juice and cherry flavoring.

After tracking participants’ heart rhythm and blood pressure for four hours after consuming the drinks, researchers found that the two energy drinks significantly increased blood pressure compared to the placebo drink. After consuming the energy drinks, participants’ average QT interval was also 6-7 milliseconds higher than it was after consuming the placebo drink.

What this shows, according to authors, is that energy drinks likely have an immediate impact on both blood pressure and heart rhythm. These changes could be to blame for the increase in heart risks from energy drink consumption.

A long QT interval can signal a heart rhythm disorder, which can cause serious irregular heart rhythms that increase risk for stroke. High blood pressure, which affects nearly half of U.S. adults, is also a known risk factor for heart disease and significantly increases risk for heart events.

For these reasons, experts urge individuals with heart conditions and high blood pressure to use caution and limit their energy drink intake. Authors also encourage additional research to study the long-term health effects of regular energy drink consumption and to help identify the ingredients that pose a danger to heart health.

90,000 How do babies react to caffeine? | Pharmacy Weekly

According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics, caffeine consumption has different effects on heart rate and blood pressure in boys and girls after puberty. Caffeine also affects girls’ cardiovascular systems differently during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

Previous studies have shown that caffeine increases blood pressure and lowers heart rate in children, adolescents and adults.The aim of the new study was to find out how caffeine consumption affects the cardiovascular system of boys and girls after puberty.

The study involved 96 children. Pulse and blood pressure were measured before and after drinking a caffeine-containing drink (1 and 2 mg / kg body weight) by children aged 8–9 and 15–17 years, respectively, or placebo.

According to Jennifer Temple, associate professor in the Department of Physical Education and Nutrition at the University at Buffalo, USA, all children in the study showed a decrease in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure after consuming caffeine.However, caffeine affects girls and boys differently after they reach puberty. Boys are more susceptible to the effects of caffeine.

The study also found that the body of girls after puberty responds differently to the effects of caffeine, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, a decrease in heart rate is more pronounced in the middle of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and an increase in blood pressure is more pronounced in the middle of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.The phases of the menstrual cycle are characterized by changes in hormone levels. The follicular phase begins on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation, followed by the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. It is worth noting that during the luteal phase there is a significantly higher level of progesterone than in the previous phase of the menstrual cycle.

Further studies will be conducted to investigate whether differences in cardiovascular response to caffeine in boys and girls are due to physiological (hormone levels) or psychological factors.

According to D. Temple, the use of caffeine among adolescents has increased recently. Although the evidence suggests differences in the cardiovascular response of boys and girls to caffeine, children of both sexes have an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in heart rate after drinking caffeine, so attention should be paid to the amount of caffeinated drinks that children consume.

Based on materials from http: //www.buffalo.edu

90,000 coffee, latte, day, own, one, volume, caffeine, child, drink, child

It is not surprising that one fine day, while you are standing in line for your favorite latte, your ten-year-old daughter will ask: “Can I, too?” What to do in such a situation? Is coffee such a terrible poison that you can only afford it after 21 years?

Where does a child have a desire to drink coffee? Coffee is one of the symbols of adulthood, the forbidden fruit.Kids want to be like their parents or the celebrities they see on the tabloid pages with a giant Starbucks cup. At the same time, real black coffee will most likely seem to a child as ordinary disgusting, one of the adult quirks, which he, when he grows up, will never repeat. Another thing is some latte, and even with a sweet addition.

For many parents, the thought of their child drinking coffee is as terrible as the thought of drinking alcohol. However, they do not even think that besides coffee, there are many other sources of caffeine, such as cola or chocolate. The harm from an overdose of caffeine lies in the load on the central nervous system and provokes symptoms such as: headache, distracted attention, indigestion, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure.

How much caffeine becomes an overdose? In Canada, the recommended dose of caffeine for a preschool child is 45 mg per day, which is the equivalent of 350 ml soda or four small chocolate bars.For children aged 7 to 9, no more than 85 mg is recommended, for adolescents from 13 and older, no more than 125 milligrams of caffeine per day.

If a child’s diet is not controlled, during the day he may well exceed the recommended level, but not at all because of coffee, but because of the usual cola or chocolate.

At the same time, the same 45 mg, or even less, is contained in one espresso, which, diluted with a large amount of milk in a latte, no longer seems such a terrible poison.

However, not all countries keep coffee away from children. While American parents see it as their duty not to give their kids a drop of coffee until they turn 21, other cultures do not share these concerns. For example, Hispanics are well known for giving their children coffee with milk for breakfast almost from a very young age. Remember Manny, the son of Colombian beauty Gloria from The American Family? So he liked to sit in silence, sipping an espresso from a tiny cup.

At a recent SCAA symposium, the Brazilian coffee industry even advocated regular coffee breaks for children in schools.

Proper nutrition is especially important for a growing body, so parents have to carefully monitor what their child drinks and eats, regardless of age. Coffee is not included in the number of healthy products, just like cola. It is important to ensure that delicious drinks do not replace healthy ones in any way, so that the child does not start drinking more coffee to the detriment of milk, for example. Children under the age of 13 should not be encouraged to drink coffee every day, but one latte with minimal caffeine is unlikely to harm anyone. Doubters can consult a barista, from which beans to prepare an espresso for a latte, how many seconds the extraction takes, ask them to make a ristretto instead of an espresso. The lowest caffeine content will be in ristretto (short, underexposed espresso, no longer than 13 seconds) from dark-roasted arabica, and the highest in lungo (large-volume espresso, the extraction of which lasts from 35 to 50 seconds) from light roasted robusta.However, light roast and robusta are practically mutually exclusive concepts, dark roasted arabica is exactly what you will meet in most coffee houses, you only have to keep track of the cooking time (in many places they like to abuse lungo). In long black coffee, no matter how it is prepared (hario, filter coffee maker or Turkish coffee), there will be much more caffeine, its amount may no longer fit into the admissible dose even for a teenager.

The point is also that each person is individual.And if your child begs you too much about coffee, it is better to consult with your family doctor about what dose of caffeine per day will be safe for him.

90,000 Energy drinks and alcohol: megadoses of caffeine mixed with alcohol can be dangerous!

Energy drinks and alcohol: megadoses of caffeine mixed with alcohol can be dangerous!

Energy drinks are drinks that contain large amounts of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or herbs containing caffeine, such as guarana.

Energy drinks are often used mixed with alcohol, especially among teenagers and young people.

Many people who drank alcohol with energy drinks have been admitted to hospitals with high levels of toxicity, prompting doctors and scientists to express concerns about the safety of these drinks.

Studies have shown that caffeine is an unsafe food additive when combined with alcohol.

Energy drinks have approximately three times more caffeine than Coca-Cola, making them extremely dangerous due to their stimulating effect.

Each energy drink contains 40 to 240 mg of caffeine. Exceeding the recommended daily intake of 400 mg of caffeine per day can cause side effects, which are much more likely when energy drinks are combined with alcohol.

Energy drinks can reduce the ‘mask’ feeling of drunkenness. This allows you to drink more, which leads to alcohol poisoning, injury and accidents.

A side effect of energy drinks is a potential risk to heart function: alcohol itself negatively affects the cardiovascular system, and together with energy drinks, this risk increases: heart rate, blood pressure increases, the risk of stroke, heart attack increases and other heart diseases.Both caffeine and alcohol stimulate atrial fibrillation – an irregular heartbeat.

A common ingredient in energy drinks and caffeinated drinks is sugar. Large amounts of alcohol and simple sugars increase blood triglyceride levels, which, like cholesterol, can contribute to plaque formation in the arteries, lead to fatty liver, pancreatitis, and may be associated with insulin resistance.

Caffeine overdose symptoms

Shivering, restless,

increased heart rate, heart rate,

nausea, vomiting,

temperature rise,

chest pain,

convulsions,

labored breathing,

hallucinations.

Don’t risk your health – avoid mixing caffeine with alcohol

If you want to stay awake as long as possible, choose tea instead of an energy drink, it also contains caffeine, or a small cup of espresso coffee.

Avoid sugary drinks: People are more likely to consume more sugary drinks, which leads to excessive consumption of sugar.

Drink water: Water between each alcoholic beverage will help you consume less alcohol, calories and sugar.

Control the amount of alcohol you drink. Caffeinated drinks cause a false sense of sobriety.

Eat: Food will help reduce the rate at which alcohol is absorbed and significantly limit alcohol consumption.

Avoid drinking alcohol, especially in combination with drinks containing caffeine. Mixing energy drinks with alcohol can be dangerous and even deadly.

90,000 Health effects of energy drinks 9,0001
eleven.11.2020

Health effects of energy drinks

Small amounts of energy drinks are believed to speed up the reaction, increase aerobic and anaerobic endurance, prevent drowsiness while driving, increase the intensity of perception, and improve mood and well-being. Energy drink-related health problems have been associated primarily with excess caffeine, especially for people who have more than 200 mg of caffeine daily.

While taurine and glucoronolactone have not been shown to be hazardous when taken alone, data on their synergistic effects when combined with each other or with caffeine and guarana are incomplete.The main health problems associated with the use of energy drinks are:

Increased heart rate, palpitations,

High blood pressure,

Sleep disorders and insomnia

Increased urge to urinate,

· Hyperglycemia (due to the high sugar content in energy drinks), which can be dangerous in the first place for those suffering from diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Energy drinks contain enough stimulants to cause anxiety, insomnia, dehydration, irritation of the digestive system, irritability, nervousness, redness of the skin, increased urination, and palpitations. Energy drinks have also been linked to seizures, manic seizures, and hemorrhages. The content of guarana, taurine and ginseng in popular energy drinks is too small to have any therapeutic effect, or vice versa – to lead to any negative phenomena. However, the amounts of caffeine and sugar contained in energy drinks can be harmful to the body.

The effect of energy drinks on the body

Effects on the central nervous system:

Adverse events reported in association with energy drink use include headache, anxiety, irritability, tension, dizziness, tremors, confusion, psychosis, seizures, and altered mental states.Patients with bipolar disorder and other psychiatric diagnoses have had manic episodes, that is, mania.

It has also been observed that excessive consumption of energy drinks can cause hypervigility (excessive attention and focus on all external and internal stimuli, which is usually a secondary manifestation of delusional states or hallucinations) and psychomotor restlessness, followed by a deterioration in mental state, especially in humans. with poorly controlled or undiagnosed mental health problems.

Effects on the cardiovascular system:

Cardiovascular conditions that can occur with overuse of energy drinks include palpitations, chest pains, rapid heart rate, abnormal heart rhythms, and hypertension. Energy drinks are high in caffeine, which can alter the elasticity of blood vessels and thus contribute to heart disease. The risk is increased if energy drinks are consumed with alcohol.

Effects on the digestive system:

Excessive intake of caffeine in energy drinks can lead to hyperstimulation of the digestive tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Caffeine can also cause gastroesophageal reflux disease, heartburn, and esophagitis. In addition, excess sugar can disrupt the normal balance of the intestinal microflora.

Dental health and excess weight:

Deterioration of dental health and dental erosion are common occurrences in energy drink drinkers, caused by their high sugar content.Tooth erosion and tooth sensitivity are exacerbated by the high acidity of energy drinks. Obesity associated with energy drinks is also alarming. Energy drinks are high in calories – one bottle or can contains up to 200 or more calories. If energy drinks are consumed in quantities that exceed the daily energy requirement, this can lead to excess body weight, and even in childhood.

Energy drinks and eating disorders:

People with eating disorders (especially anorexia) may regularly consume large amounts of caffeine to cope with the depression caused by lack of energy, suppress appetite, facilitate bowel movements, and increase urine output.Given that people with eating disorders already have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and electrolyte imbalance in their bodies, large doses of caffeinated energy drinks can exacerbate these risks.

Energy drinks and physical activity:

It is not uncommon for energy drinks to be consumed before training, during training, and during competition. This can lead to very rapid dehydration, heart attack, heatstroke, or heart attack.The combination of the diuresis-enhancing properties of caffeine, increased sweating and fluid loss combine to cause severe dehydration.

Energy drinks and sports drinks are often confused, but they are inherently very different. Sports drinks can contain carbohydrates, minerals, electrolytes (eg, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), flavors, sometimes vitamins, and other nutrients that are designed to replace amounts of water and electrolytes lost during exercise through sweat. Energy drinks do not contain electrolytes, but they do contain caffeine and other stimulants.

People who are physically active are often unaware of the fact that they require more fluids and nutrients in connection with sports, and they often think that energy drinks are suitable to meet their increased energy needs. Drinking energy drinks instead of sports drinks leads to the ingestion of large amounts of caffeine, which has the opposite effect in terms of meeting the body’s need for fluids.Therefore, it is very important to choose the right drink that can be consumed before or after exercise, as well as in other cases to replace fluid loss, while avoiding high doses of sugar and large amounts of energy.

In some cases, the use of sports drinks by athletes may be justified, but people with normal physical activity do not need to drink sports drinks instead of water.

Energy drinks and alcohol:

1.Decreased sensitivity to signs of alcohol poisoning, which increases the likelihood of both poisoning itself and an incorrect assessment of the situation, which can lead to accidents (for example, on the road), wrong decisions (for example, driving drunk), risky behavior (for example, sexual or violent).

2. Dehydration, which can cause:

Diarrhea, nausea or vomiting,

Fatigue and headache,

An increase in heart rate,

Muscle cramps,

· The most serious hangover syndrome (which in turn interferes with working and driving).

Conflicting signals to the nervous system that can lead to cardiovascular problems (such as heartbeat or high blood pressure) and sleep disturbances. Mixing energy drinks with alcohol can be dangerous because energy drinks are stimulating and alcohol is overwhelming. The stimulating effect of energy drinks can make it difficult for a person to determine the degree of their intoxication, and it becomes unclear to him how much he has drunk.Both alcohol and energy drinks are diuretic, and together they interfere with the body’s breakdown of ethyl alcohol and can worsen alcohol poisoning.

90,000 how to drink coffee to live longer

Earlier we already wrote how coffee helps to lose weight. Now there is one more reason to rejoice for coffee lovers.

This drink can be a bit of a superhero for you. A recent analysis of three long-term studies on coffee shows that it has the potential to prolong life.

No, coffee won’t let you live 105 instead of 100. Researchers have found that the drink reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, type 2 diabetes, and suicide. If you are at risk for cardiovascular disease, coffee will give you some antioxidants, chlorogenic acid, and a sense of energy.

That being said, you can’t just go to Starbucks, Cofix, or another coffee shop, order a large mug, pour cream and sugar over it and expect the same benefits.First of all, because eating a lot of sugar every day is the perfect way to induce type 2 diabetes.

Let’s go back to research. More than 200,000 people were tracked. Every 4 years, people completed a survey detailing their coffee consumption and other lifestyle options. Some were tracked for 30 years. During the research, about 31,000 people died.

These people were not watched from day to day. They were not locked in the laboratory. The study did not aim to determine a direct causal relationship between coffee consumption and life expectancy.However, enough data has been collected to confirm the positive effects of coffee on life expectancy.

The authors found that people who consume moderate amounts of coffee are most beneficial. Moderate means between 1-3 cups of coffee a day. Smoking significantly reduces the benefits of coffee.

Main effect of coffee

The popularity of coffee in the modern world is undeniable. Many people drink it every day and more than once. One of the reasons is that it contains the chemical stimulant caffeine.

Caffeine has several biological effects that revitalize the body. The stimulatory effect of caffeine on the central nervous system is dose-dependent: the more caffeine is consumed, the stronger the stimulating effect. It blocks a neurotransmitter called adenosine, which is a central nervous system depressant and has a calming and slowing effect on the brain.

When adenosine is blocked, the adrenal glands begin to release adrenaline, a chemical associated with the body’s fight-or-flight response.This reaction is characterized by an increase in heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels.

When caffeine blocks adenosine, it also increases dopamine levels, which is associated with elevated mood. This reaction is characterized by an increase in heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels.

It takes approximately 15 to 45 minutes to reach peak levels of caffeine in the bloodstream.The half-life of caffeine is approximately 5-6 hours, which means that this is how long it takes for its concentration in the bloodstream to be halved.

So, if you drank a 250 ml cup of coffee at 7 a.m. containing about 250 milligrams of caffeine, by 1 p.m. you will still have 125 milligrams of caffeine circulating in your body.

For smokers, the half-life of caffeine in the bloodstream is only three hours, which is why heavy smokers drink coffee much more often.

Caffeine levels up to 250 milligrams cause very few side effects and can help people feel more alert. Doses in excess of 1000 milligrams can affect sleep and cognitive performance.

Side effects of caffeine withdrawal appear approximately 12-24 hours after stopping coffee and may include headaches, irritability, and constipation. This happens if you usually consume a lot of caffeine. In this case, gradually reduce your coffee intake to avoid the effects of withdrawal.

Coffee and sleep

Caffeine can make it difficult for people to sleep well, which means they need even more caffeine the next morning to feel functional. This can turn into a vicious circle if the coffee drinker is not careful with his coffee consumption. But you can be sure that caffeine will not rob you of your precious sleep.

Caffeine primarily interferes with sleep by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain. Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that signals the brain that the body is tired and needs rest.Caffeine fits well with these receptors and prevents adenosine from doing its job.

As long as the receptors are constantly replenished with caffeine, sleep will be difficult. Some can still fall asleep even if caffeine blocks adenosine receptors, but this sleep is usually shallow and restless.

Caffeine not only blocks adenosine receptors, but, if consumed shortly before sleep, can disrupt the entire circadian rhythm of a person. Researchers at the MRC7 Molecular Biology Laboratory in the UK found that when study participants were given 200 mg of caffeine 3 hours before bedtime, their normal circadian sleep patterns were delayed by 40 minutes.

In study participants who were also exposed to bright light along with caffeine, their sleep cycle was delayed by 105 minutes. A normal circadian rhythm affects not only how well you fall asleep, but also how well you feel the next morning.

People need sleep. In a dream, most of the processes of recovery and rejuvenation of the body take place. Adults need to sleep 7-8 hours a night, and children who are still developing need to sleep more than 9 hours every night.

In fact, one of the main reasons excess caffeine is not recommended for children is because sleep is very important for proper brain development, and caffeine can affect the length and quality of sleep a child needs.

Lack of quality sleep is also associated with obesity, mental illness, high blood pressure and stress. It is very important that you get plenty of rest if you want to be as healthy as possible.

If you are not sleeping well and are not sure if caffeine is interfering with your sleep, consider the following:

  • Do you have trouble falling asleep?
  • Do you fall asleep but wake up soon after?
  • Do you sleep but wake up frequently during the night?
  • Do you toss and turn a lot during sleep?
  • Do you often take sleeping pills to help you sleep?

All of this may indicate that caffeine, which is still in your body, is interfering with your sleep.If you can answer yes to any of these questions, then you should take the steps mentioned above to better manage your caffeine intake.

While caffeine can be beneficial in helping us be more alert and productive in stressful lives, it can interfere with our sleep. By following the rules for drinking coffee, you will also improve your sleep hygiene.

Incidentally, a recent study by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine showed that caffeine does not help with many days of sleep deprivation.If you are awake, do not drive a car or attempt any other necessary task, even if you drank coffee or some other source of caffeine. There is no substitute for a good night’s sleep!

When is the best time to drink coffee

Unfortunately, caffeine and lack of sleep all too often form a vicious circle. People use caffeine because they don’t get enough sleep, and caffeine prevents them from getting the amount and quality of sleep they need to feel awake and alert.

However, there are a few steps you can take to break your cycle and still get enough sleep while using caffeine.

  • Do not drink coffee immediately after waking up

When you first wake up, your cortisol levels skyrocket. And caffeine and cortisol, alas, don’t work together.

So instead of stumbling around like a zombie on your way to your morning coffee, do your morning rituals first.Go to the bathroom, brush your teeth, take a shower, get dressed, exercise kettlebells, etc. Do what you usually do in the morning, and only an hour later indulge in the delayed pleasure of coffee.

Drinking coffee within the first hour after waking will weaken the effects of caffeine as cortisol is already working hard to wake you up. Over time, you may develop a tolerance, and then you will have to drink more and more coffee to wake up.

Caffeine and cortisol are not friends and have absolutely no intention of getting over their differences.Although caffeine does increase cortisol levels. However, in order for your daily caffeine dose to be much more effective, you need to drink coffee later if you feel that it is not working well.

Experiment. To get the most out of your coffee, do not drink it during your peak cortisol periods: 12:00 to 13:00 and 5:30 to 6:30. Instead, take advantage of the natural surge of cortisol and then add coffee.

  • Do not drink coffee too late in the afternoon

If you want to go to bed at 10, you should probably avoid drinking coffee after 12 noon.If you got 200 mg of caffeine at noon, based on a half-life of 5.7 hours, you will still have over 50 mg in your body by 10:00 pm.

This does not count the caffeine you consumed earlier in the day, which is also still being processed. If you have a high sensitivity or low tolerance to caffeine, you may need to stop consuming it even earlier.

  • Know your personal safe daily intake of caffeine and do not overuse it

You can find out with our caffeine calculator, but for most people it is 300-400 mg per day.Insomnia is one of the main symptoms of a caffeine overdose that can prevent you from getting enough sleep.

By the way, the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee greatly depends on the type of coffee and the preparation technique.

According to the International Coffee Organization, the automatic drip method produces a drink containing an average of 115 milligrams of caffeine per 140-gram cup, while instant coffee gives much less – an average of 65 milligrams per 140-gram cup.

Percolation methods such as a French press produce an average of 80 milligrams per 140 gram cup. However, the amount of caffeine varies greatly from cup to cup, even after taking these factors into account.

Conclusion

Coffee is becoming more and more popular in the modern world. People love it for its “slimming” effect, but most importantly – for invigorating, stimulating.

Research also suggests that moderate coffee consumption reduces the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, type 2 diabetes and even suicide.

But, if used improperly, coffee can impair sleep quality, which can lead to obesity, mental illness, high blood pressure and stress.

Here are some tips on how to adjust your caffeine intake to enjoy all of its benefits:

  • Do not drink coffee immediately after waking up. During this period, your cortisol levels, which work to wake up, skyrocket. Cortisol does not interact with caffeine in any way, and a morning cup of coffee is simply useless.So it is more logical to wait for the cortisol wave to subside and “catch up” with coffee in an hour or two for greater alertness.
  • Do not drink coffee too late in the day. Keep in mind that if you got 200 mg of caffeine at noon based on a 5.7 hour half-life, you will still have over 50 mg in your body by 10:00 pm.
  • Know your personal safe daily intake of caffeine and do not overuse it. for most people this is 300-400 mg per day. Insomnia is one of the main symptoms of a caffeine overdose that can prevent you from getting enough sleep.

90,000 Arrhythmia Treatment

What is arrhythmia?

Arrhythmia is a violation of the rhythm of the heart, namely the normal frequency and / or sequence of heartbeats. Depending on the heart rate, arrhythmias are distinguished:

Tachycardia

– increased heart rate (more than 90-100 beats per minute in an adult).

Bradycardia

– reduced heart rate (less than 60 beats per minute at rest).

Cardiac arrhythmias – arrhythmia – a fairly common pathology in the practice of a cardiologist.

What are the causes of arrhythmias?

This happens when the foci of excitation that initiate heart contractions occur irregularly, are atypical, or there is an obstacle to their normal passage through the myocardium. A combination of these factors is not uncommon.

The causes of arrhythmia can be conditionally divided into two groups: cardiological and functional.Various diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as disorders of the nervous, endocrine and autonomic type, intoxication, and craniocerebral trauma can provoke a violation of the heart rhythm. And stress, caffeine, alcohol, or lack of sleep can also be the culprits of arrhythmias.

arrhythmia develops with the following disorders:

  • strengthening, oppression or complete suppression of the activity of the sinus node;
  • increase in the activity of the centers of automatism of the lower order; shortening and lengthening of the refractory period;
  • decrease or complete cessation of conduction in the conducting system or contractile myocardium;
  • pathological impulse conduction in the direction opposite to normal (retrograde conduction), or along paths that do not function under normal conditions.
  • Most of the arrhythmias are caused by the occurrence of a pathological excitation wave circulation in the heart.
types of arrhythmias:

Sinus tachycardia. The main thing in the area of ​​the myocardium – the formation of electro-impulses – is the sinus node. When a person is sick with sinus tachycardia, the heart rate is greater than 90 beats per minute. Sinus tachycardia is explained by severe stress, emotional stress, fever with colds, it can also arise from heart disease and all of the above reasons for the appearance of arrhythmias.

Sinus bradycardia. It manifests itself as a decrease in heart rate, often below 60. Bradycardia can also occur in healthy, trained people during rest or sleep. Bradycardia can be accompanied by hypotension, heart disease, and a decreased function of the thyroid gland. With this disease, the patient feels discomfort in the region of the heart, general weakness and dizziness.

Sinus arrhythmia. Incorrect alternation of heartbeats. This type of arrhythmia is most commonly seen in children and adolescents.Sinus arrhythmia can functionally be associated with breathing. During inhalation, heartbeats become more frequent, and during exhalation, they decrease. Such respiratory arrhythmia does not affect well-being and, as a rule, does not require treatment. When diagnosing this type of arrhythmia, breath holding is used, during which the arrhythmia disappears.

Extrasystole. This is an extraordinary contraction of the heart muscle. In healthy people, rare extrasystoles can be observed, they can be caused by various diseases, as well as bad habits.Arrhythmia can be felt by strong shocks in the area of ​​the heart muscle or in the form of fading.

Paroxysmal tachycardia. Paroxysmal tachycardia is the correct work of the heart, but with a rapid heart rate. Thus, the heart rate can reach 140-240 beats per minute. This type of tachycardia occurs and disappears suddenly. Symptoms: increased heart rate, increased sweating, and weakness.

Atrial fibrillation. The disease creates an irregular contraction of individual muscle fibers, while the atrium does not contract completely, the ventricles begin to contract irregularly at a frequency of about 100 to 150 beats per minute.With atrial flutter, they begin to contract faster and faster, the frequency of contractions is from 250 to 300 beats per minute. This condition is often observed in people with heart disease and defect, as well as thyroid disease and alcoholism, due to an injury from electricity or an overdose of certain medications.

Symptoms: unexpected cardiac arrest, pulse cannot be felt, loss of consciousness, hoarse breathing, possible convulsions, dilated pupils. The first and first aid to a person in this state consists in immediate external indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.

Heart block. With this type of arrhythmia, the conduction of impulses in all structures of the myocardium slows down and stops. A characteristic sign of blockages is periodic loss of pulse, blockages can be either complete or incomplete. Complete blockages are often accompanied by a decrease in heart rate. They often cause fainting and seizures. A complete transverse blockade can cause heart failure and even sudden death.

Treatment of arrhythmia

From time to time attacks of arrhythmias occur even in absolutely healthy people.Rare episodes of arrhythmias that do not make you feel worse do not need treatment. Treatment is selected depending on the type of arrhythmia and its degree.
The fight against arrhythmia presupposes a change in lifestyle, namely:

Reducing consumption of caffeine, alcohol
Quitting smoking
Learning to manage stress

A doctor can also prescribe medications

MORE COORDINAL TREATMENT METHODS MEAN:
  • Artificial pacemaker
  • Implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator
  • Catheter ablation

Hello, I am Meklon and I am caffeine-dependent / Habr

Other articles of the cycle:
Chronicles of the laboratory: how we considered ground coffee as software for the analysis of cellular structures
Compote from coffee dried fruits.Meet Cascara – the cyclist’s best friend

The alarm clock with a serrated saw rips the brain out of the embrace of sleep, the light from behind the curtain with burning impulses suddenly makes the retina flood the brain with packets of nerve impulses. The sleeping organism slowly initializes the underlying hardware, verifies the relative integrity of the checksum of the neuronal sequences, and launches the basic operating system on its way to the kitchen. Intricate initialization scripts force the hands to perform complex sequences of button presses, register a dull hum of acoustic sensors, the sound of pouring liquid … The brain automatically turns on an internal timer for 25 seconds, while simultaneously monitoring the color characteristics of a quietly murmuring pair of thin streams.A few movements with a teaspoon, which accelerates the dissolution of sucrose, and the mind explodes from the combination of a subtle invigorating aroma, a viscous chocolate taste with a slight acidity and notes of tropical fruits. The image of dark-skinned girls filling their baskets with red berries under the rays of the scorching mountain sun slowly emerges in the mind. Awakening …

On Habré / Giktimese, coffee and everything connected with it has already been discussed more than once. I decided to write a post on this drink and the various medicinal effects of caffeine.If there is enough time, perhaps it will be a series of articles with experiments on people, computer vision and other obscenities. We will see. In the meantime, comrades, caffeinated people and their sympathizers, welcome to cat.

Under the scorching Ethiopian sun

Originally, the coffee tree grew exclusively in Ethiopia. The invigorating effect of coffee berries was discovered by a traditional shepherd (in general, these shepherds are suspiciously often involved in all imaginable legends about the origin of food) and his energetic caffeinated goat.In the XIV century, coffee was tasted on the Arabian Peninsula, after which it began to spread throughout the Ottoman Empire and further around the world. For several centuries, the Arabs actually had the only source of coffee in the world, all exported coffee beans were subjected to temperature sterilization in order to exclude the possibility of cultivation in other countries. All this continued until, in the 17th century, the Islamic Sufi Baba Budan brought viable grain to South India. A little later, in the same century, Dutch traders smuggled coffee to Java and Sumatra, which ended the Arab monopoly on coffee growing.

Now coffee is grown all over the world in countries with hot, humid climates – Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Ethiopia and others.

Coffee is a very delicate product. Hundreds of aroma components in a finished beverage depend on the correct collection and processing of the coffee beans. Since the bushes grow in countries with relatively constant temperatures and daylight hours, the berries ripen continuously. As a result, berries of varying degrees of ripeness can be on the branch at the same time.That is why, in most countries, harvesting is an exclusively manual process, requiring attention to all stages. An exception is Brazil, where, due to the peculiarities of the climate, coffee ripens seasonally and the machine method of harvesting is often used.

First, the harvested crop is washed from impurities. After that, depending on the technology, it goes through a stage of fermentation, during which the final formation of the future grain takes place.

The pulp is washed off in special drums and the grains are dried.The green coffee is then sorted and packaged. From this point on, coffee begins its journey from large international auctions to small and large roasters around the world.

The size of coffee beans plays an important role in determining its grade – it is believed that the larger the coffee beans, the more ripe the berry from which it was obtained was, and, accordingly, the better the coffee infusion from such beans.