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Can a bartholin cyst cause a yeast infection: A potentially dangerous Request.Path value was detected from the client (?).


Vaginal Rashes and Sores | PeaceHealth

Topic Overview

A rash in your vaginal area (vulva) may be caused by irritation of the skin from many sources, such as clothes rubbing against the skin. Rashes that occur without other symptoms are usually minor and often go away with home treatment.

Contact dermatitis

A common cause of a rash is contact with a substance that causes irritation or an allergic reaction (contact dermatitis). Soaps, detergents, shampoos, perfumes, or lotions can cause contact dermatitis. Often the rash from contact dermatitis is very itchy, but it is rarely serious. Changing your soap or detergent may be all you need to do to prevent this type of rash.

Other rashes in the vaginal area

Other conditions that may cause a rash in the vaginal area include:

  • Scabies, which is an itchy skin condition caused by tiny mites that burrow into the outer layers of the skin.
  • Pubic lice, which are small insects that live on humans and survive by feeding on blood.
  • Yeast infection (cutaneous candidiasis), which may cause a rash in the moist skin folds of the vaginal area.
  • Psoriasis, which causes raised red or white patches topped with silvery, scaling skin. The patches are most common on the knees, elbows, scalp, tailbone, and back, but may appear anywhere on the body (including the fingernails, palms, and soles of the feet).

Sores, blisters, or lumps in the vaginal area

Conditions that may cause a sore, blister, or lump include:

  • Genital herpes. Genital herpes is a viral infection that causes skin blisters and sores in the vaginal area.
  • Genital warts. Genital warts are a sexually transmitted infection (STI). They are caused by various types of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Bartholin gland cyst. Bartholin glands are two small glands located on each side of the opening of the vagina. These glands produce fluids that lubricate the opening to the vagina. If the opening to one of the glands becomes blocked, fluids may build up inside the gland, causing a painless lump called a Bartholin cyst. Bartholin cysts usually do not need treatment, but sometimes surgery may be needed to drain them. In some cases, one of the glands may become infected, causing an abscess, which may need to be drained.
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sores, blisters, or ulcers, especially in the groin or vaginal area, may be the first symptom of several different STIs.
  • An infected hair shaft (folliculitis). A red, tender lump may form when skin bacteria cause an infection at the base of a hair shaft.


Current as of:
October 19, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine

Current as of: October 19, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine

Women’s health special: Protect your very private parts.

As if you needed more proof that the toxins in cigarette smoke affect every cell in your body! Female smokers are twice as likely as nonsmokers to have bacterial vaginosis, a common but little-known infection that results in vaginal itching, a gray and runny discharge and a fishy odor, says Marijane A. Krohn, Ph.D., associate professor of reproductive sciences at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. BV crops up when the vagina’s natural defense system is altered, allowing its ever-present bacteria to grow out of control. “Smoking appears to dampen the immune system,” Krohn explains. “It’s like having a border patrol and the guards got drunk.”

But as with any vaginal infection, untreated BV can raise your risk of acquiring STDs with worse consequences, including infertility. Just as worrisome, evidence suggests that having BV during pregnancy can trigger spontaneous miscarriage or premature birth or can contribute to low birth weight.

The smart solution Quitting is the best gift you can give your body. Talk to your doctor about your smoking-cessation options, or check out Quitnet.com or LungUSA.org for advice on getting started stopping. Step two: Do away with the douche. It, too, throws off your vaginal balance and can increase your risk for BV. Remember, your vagina is completely self-cleaning. Should BV still strike, all you’ll need is a two-week course of antibiotics from your ob/gyn to knock it out and a follow-up visit a couple of months later.

Who knew?

Waxing can introduce an infection

It is torture—pure torture—having your body hair ripped out. But it’s undeniably worth those seconds of pain when all goes well and you have smooth, stubble-free skin. Unfortunately, things don’t always go well. The wax can be too hot, which can cause swelling. And the yanking can traumatize hair follicles, says Roberta Sengelmann, M.D., director of the Center for Dermatologic and Cosmetic Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. If the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus are present (they’re sometimes found on the skin and unclean applicators), they can set up shop in those damaged follicles, causing them to swell and fill with pus. Milder cases may look like a little rash of pimples, whereas more severe ones feature bumps that are hot and tender to the touch. Granted, you’re probably not going to die from a case of folliculitis, but it does kind of ruin that sexy, hairless look you were going for.

The smart solution Be proactive with your waxer. To prevent burns, ask the technician to put a tiny drop of wax on your wrist so you can test the temperature. And to keep your odds of infection down, make sure she wears gloves, has changed the paper on the table and uses a new applicator stick (watch her take it out of the box or wrapper). Happily, you don’t need to worry too much about the communal wax pot. “It’s doubtful that bacteria could grow and multiply in the high temperatures salons use,” Dr. Sengelmann says. After your treatment, slather the area with 1 percent hydrocortisone cream (available over the counter) for up to three days to reduce any inflammation. If those nasty pus-filled bumps still pop up, check in with your dermatologist, who will likely prescribe a topical or oral antibiotic to eradicate the infection. After that, you may want to look into other hair-removal options such as a depilatory or laser treatments, which can delay regrowth. Or you may decide that the gain (or loss) isn’t worth the pain.

Who knew?

Drinking can make sex painful

We’re not suggesting you give up your favorite Sancerre, but going overboard at happy hour can cause more problems than a hellish hangover. No doubt you’ve experienced alcohol’s diuretic powers. This means that the more you drink, the more dehydrated you become. And if your body is craving water, it can’t produce enough lubrication, even if you are aroused (which you’re less apt to be if you’re truly drunk, as alcohol is a depressant). The extra friction not only may make sex painful, it can also cause microtears in the vaginal tissue, says Kendall Bryant, Ph.D., HIV/AIDS scientific coordinator for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Bethesda, Maryland. And that leaves you vulnerable to vaginal infections of all kinds.

Bartholin’s Gland Abscesses Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Primigravida

J Lab Physicians. 2013 Jul-Dec; 5(2): 130–132.

Nermin Kamal Saeed

Department of Pathology, Microbiology Section, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Bahrain

Zainab A Al-Jufairi

1Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Bahrain

Department of Pathology, Microbiology Section, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Bahrain

1Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Bahrain

Copyright : © Journal of Laboratory Physicians

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.


Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses are common problems in females during their reproductive time. Majority of Bartholin’s gland abscesses described are of polymicrobial nature, but not necessarily involves opportunistic microbes that colonize the perineal region. In this report, we describe a case of Bartholin’s abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 25-year-old non-diabetic primigravida.

Keywords: Bartholin abscesses, primigravida, streptococcus pneumoniae


Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses are common problems in females during their reproductive time. The abscess is formed due to infection of the fluid accumulated inside the blocked duct. Fluid may upsurge over many years before abscess forms.[1] Most of Bartholin’s gland abscesses have been found to be caused by microorganisms that colonize the perineal region.[2] The infection is usually polymicrobial, with Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli being the predominant organisms. [3] In this report, we describe a case of Bartholin’s abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a 25-year-old primigravida.


A 25-year-old non-diabetic primigravida of 31 weeks gestation presented to the outpatient obstetrics and gynecology clinic with a painful lump on the right side of the vaginal opening and pain during the sexual intercourse of 1 week duration. She had a history of urinary tract infection 2 weeks before the presentation. On examination, there were a body temperature of 38°C and swollen and inflamed right labia majora. Pelvic examination revealed an enlarged, firm and tender 5 by 4 cm swelling of Bartholin’s gland on the right side. Her laboratory work-up revealed low hemoglobin of 10.3 g%, white blood cell count of 6300/dl with differential count showing polymorphs of 73% and lymphocytes of 20%, eosinophil 1% and monocytes 6%. She has also reduced glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. Her glucose tolerance test for pregnancy was 5. 7 mmol/L (normal is <7.8 mmol/L). Here, hepatitis B and C and venereal disease research laboratory tests were negative. Her urine analysis showed pus cells 50-99 cell/HPF, with positive leukocyte esterase of 3+ and urine nitrite was negative; but her urine culture was sterile.

Complete drainage of the abscess was done through a small surgical cut under local anesthesia in the out-patient clinic. Pus drained and sent immediately to the laboratory. Gram stain of pus revealed the presence of plenty of pus cells with Gram-positive cocci in pairs and short chains with its characteristic lancet shaped appearance and no Gram-negative diplococci were seen.

Culture of the abscess material on blood and chocolate agar in 5% CO2 atmosphere revealed alpha hemolytic slightly mucoid colonies with “punched-out” center as the colonies age. No growth on MacConkey agar and anaerobic culture media was observed. Identification was done using catalase, bile solubility and optochin susceptibility tests. Catalase test was negative. Bile solubility test induced lysis of the organism using the tube method while the optochin susceptibility test showed a zone of inhibition of 16 mm with a 6 mm of 0.5 μg optochin disk. Antibiotic susceptibility testing done by disk diffusion method (using Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and the plate was incubated at 35°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 24 h) revealed resistance of the organism (no zone) to 1 μg oxacillin disk from oxoid (Unipath, Ontario, Canada). Hence, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was done according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (2012)[4] using Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), which revealed penicillin MIC of 2 μg/ml that indicates susceptibility to parentral penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and meropenem.[4] The organism was sensitive to amoxicillin (MIC 1 μg/ml), cefuroxime (MIC ≤ 0. 5 μg/ml), cefotaxime (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml), cefepime (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml), meropenem (MIC 0.5 μg/ml), erythromycin (MIC ≤ 0.0625 μg/ml), tetracycline (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml), levofloxacin (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml) and vancomycin (MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml). The patient was treated with oral cefuroxime 500 mg twice-a-day for 1 week and repeat culture from the wound site on follow-up was found to be sterile.


Infection of Bartholin’s glands is one of the most common infections in gynecologic field.[5] The type and the frequency of the causative microbes of Bartholin’s gland abscess varied over the years. In the second half of the last century; gonococci played a significant role and involved in more than one-third of cases.[6] Infection with anaerobic bacteria was also reported to be quite common.[7] However, Chlamydia trachomatis had been implicated in quite number of cases with Bartholin’s gland abscess.[8] The bacteriogram in the last two decades showed implication of other bacteria in causing Bartholin’s gland abscess. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria from this abscess. Poly microbial infections with both aerobes and anaerobes were detected with high frequency. Anaerobes would be derived from vaginal flora and might strengthen the pathogenicity of aerobes.[9] Interestingly there is an increasing isolation rate for respiratory tract-associated infectious organisms, such as S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from Bartholin’s gland abscesses.[9]

In this case report, we isolated S. pneumonia from Bartholin’s gland abscesses in a young primigravida non-diabetic lady. In particular, S. pneumoniae known to be a common component of the indigenous flora of the oropharynx and is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults. There are more than 91 known serotypes of S. pneumoniae.[10] There were quite number of the previous reporting S. pneumoniae as a cause of Bartholin’s gland abscesses. Quentin et al. 1999 described three cases of Bartholin’s gland abscesses caused by S. pneumoniae isolates of serotype 3 or 4.[3] Mikamo et al. 2005 described one case of S. pneumoniae and Finegoldia magna causing Bartholin’s gland abscesses. They showed that the isolated S. pneumoniae was penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.[2] Parvathi et al. 2009 described a case of acute Bartholin’s abscess caused by S. pneumoniae in a primigravida.[11]

It is possible that infection of Bartholin’s gland with S. pneumoniae can be a primary focal abscess that could disseminate causing more serious infections. Danilova and Vdernikova 2006 described two cases of pelviperitonitis caused by S. pneumoniae.[10] The increasing rate of genital infection with S. pneumoniae and other respiratory organisms may be due to orogenital contact as a result of increasing tendency to orosexual activity. This was proved by the presence of the same resistance patterns for S. pneumoniae isolated from both Bartholin’s gland abscesses and respiratory tract infections.[8]

Our patient was diagnosed to have severe reduction of G6PD activity. Patients with severe G6PD reduction may have associated severe leukocyte G6PD deficiency. They may present with impairment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity and a history of recurrent infections, mimicking the phenotype of chronic granulomatous disease.[12]

There is a wide range of treatment spectrum for Bartholin glands abscesses. It varies from silver nitrate gland ablation; laser abscess fenestration, ablation, or excision, marsupialization, needle aspiration with or without alcohol sclerotherapy, fistulization using a Word catheter, Foley catheter or Jacobi ring, gland excision and or incision and drainage followed by primary suture closure.[13]

From this case, three possible hypotheses were elaborated and are in a need for further studies. The first hypothesis is about the possible role of pregnancy in increasing the risk of Bartholin’s gland abscess. The second hypothesis is the possible relationship between oral sex and the increased incidence of genital infections with microbes that usually cause upper respiratory tract infections. The third hypothesis is the effect of G6PD deficiency in increasing the incidence and tendency of abscess formation.


The authors wish to thank Ms. Hessa Mohammed Bushager for her assistance with this case report.


Source of Support: Nil.

Conflict of Interest: None declared.


1. Omole F, Simmons BJ, Hacker Y. Management of Bartholin’s duct cyst and gland abscess. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:135–40. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]2. Mikamo H, Tamaya T, Tanaka K, Watanabe K. Two cases of Bartholin’s gland abscesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Jpn J Antibiot. 2005;58:375–81. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]3. Quentin R, Pierre F, Dubois M, Soutoul JH, Goudeau A. Frequent isolation of capnophilic bacteria in aspirate from Bartholin’s gland abscesses and cysts. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990;9:138–41. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Vol. 32. Pennsylvania, USA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2012. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S22. [Google Scholar]5. Zeger W, Holt K. Gynecologic infections. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2003;21:631–48. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Lee YH, Rankin JS, Alpert S, Daly AK, McCormack WM. Microbiological investigation of Bartholin’s gland abscesses and cysts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;129:150–3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]8. Garutti A, Tangerini A, Rossi R, Cirelli C. Bartholin’s abscess and Chlamydia trachomatis. Case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1994;21:103–4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Tanaka K, Mikamo H, Ninomiya M, Tamaya T, Izumi K, Ito K, et al. Microbiology of Bartholin’s gland abscess in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4258–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]10. Danilova OP, Vdernikova NB. Two cases of pelviperitonitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Klin Lab Diagn. 2006;7:47–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]11. Parvathi S, Imara AS, Thoduka TG. Bartholinitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: Case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009;52:265–6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]12. Agudelo-Flórez P, Costa-Carvalho BT, López JA, Redher J, Newburger PE, Olalla-Saad ST, et al. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in a child with anemia and recurrent infections. Am J Hematol. 2004;75:151–6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]13. Wechter ME, Wu JM, Marzano D, Haefner H. Management of Bartholin duct cysts and abscesses: A systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2009;64:395–404. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Bartholin’s cyst – Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment from Healthily

If the Bartholin’s cyst is small and does not cause any symptoms, it’s often better to leave it alone. However, you should still see your doctor if you notice a lump.

If you have pain around the cyst, your doctor may recommend that you:

  • soak the cyst for 10–15 minutes in a few inches of warm water (it’s easier in the bath) – you may do this several times a day for three or four days
  • hold a warm compress (a flannel or cotton wool warmed with hot water) against the area
  • use pain relief, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen

Always read the manufacturer’s instructions when using over-the-counter (OTC) medication.

Treating an abscess

If the cyst becomes an abscess (a painful collection of pus), you may also be prescribed antibiotics to clear the infection.

Once the infection has been treated, your doctor may still feel it necessary to drain the cyst, particularly if the abscess is large.

Bartholin’s cyst incision and drainage

Drainage/balloon catheter insertion

When a Bartholin’s cyst or abscess is inflamed, it may simply be cut open and drained if this is possible.

An alternative procedure for draining a cyst is known as balloon catheter insertion, or sometimes catheter placement or fistulisation.

This procedure is used to drain the fluid from the abscess or cyst and to create a permanent passage to drain away any future fluid that builds up.

You will have balloon catheter insertion as an outpatient, which means you won’t need to stay in hospital overnight. It can be carried out under either local or general anaesthetic.

During the procedure, a cut is made in the abscess or cyst and the fluid is drained. A specially designed balloon catheter is inserted into the empty abscess or cyst. A balloon catheter is a thin, plastic tube with a small, inflatable balloon on one end.

The balloon is then filled with a small amount of salt water. This increases the size of the balloon so that it fills the cyst or abscess. If you have any pain, some of the solution can be removed to reduce the pressure slightly.

A stitch may be used to partially close the incision and the balloon catheter is held in place in the cyst. The catheter will stay in place while new cells grow around it (epithelialisation). This heals the surface of the wound but leaves a passage in place. This usually takes around four weeks, although in some cases it may take longer. After epithelialisation, the balloon is drained and the balloon catheter removed.

A few small studies have reported that, after balloon catheter insertion, 83–97% of women healed well and their cysts or abscesses did not reoccur.

Possible complications of balloon catheter insertion include:

  • pain from the catheter
  • pain during sex
  • swelling of the labia (the lips around the opening of the vagina)
  • infection
  • bleeding
  • scarring

If a cyst or abscess keeps coming back, a surgical procedure known as marsupialisation may be used. In marsupialisation, the cyst is opened with an incision and the fluid is drained out.

The edges of the skin are then stitched in a way that prevents further fluid build-up by allowing it to drain out. This creates a pouch (similar to a kangaroo’s pouch, hence the name marsupialisation).

Marsupialisation is often carried out as a day case, so you will not have to stay in hospital overnight. It can be carried out under:

  • local anaesthetic, where the area is numbed so you cannot feel anything but you remain conscious throughout the procedure
  • general anaesthetic, where you are unconscious and cannot feel anything

Although complications after marsupialisation are rare, they can include:

  • infection
  • the abscess reoccurring
  • bleeding
  • pain – you may be given painkillers to ease any pain in the first 24 hours after the procedure

Bartholin’s cyst removal

In some cases, it may be necessary to remove the Bartholin’s cyst. This procedure is often considered to have the best long-term benefits, but requires an overnight stay in hospital.

There is also a higher risk of complications when the whole cyst is removed, including bleeding or blood collecting in the wound (haematoma).

Alternative procedures

These procedures are alternative ways of treating a Bartholin’s cyst, but are rarely used or are not widely available.

Silver nitrate gland ablation

Silver nitrate is a mixture of chemicals sometimes used in medicine to cauterise (burn) blood vessels to stop bleeding. In silver nitrate gland ablation, a small solid stick of silver nitrate, which is 0.5cm wide and 0.5cm long, is used.

An incision is made in the skin of your vulva (your external sexual organs) and the wall of the cyst or abscess. The cyst or abscess is then drained and the stick of silver nitrate is inserted into the cavity (the empty space that is left after draining the fluid).

The silver nitrate causes the cyst cavity to form into a small, solid lump. After two or three days, the piece of silver nitrate and the cyst cavity are removed or they may fall off on their own.

It is possible for the silver nitrate to burn some of the skin of your vulva when it is first used. One small study reported that this occurs in 20% of women.

Carbon dioxide laser

A laser is used to create an opening in the skin of your vulva so that the cyst can be drained. The cyst can then be:

  • removed
  • destroyed using the laser
  • left attached but with a hole in it
Needle aspiration

During needle aspiration, a needle is used to drain the cyst.

Sometimes, this is combined with a procedure called alcohol sclerotherapy, where the cavity is then filled with a liquid that is 70% alcohol. This is left in the cyst cavity for five minutes and then drained out.

Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of a Bartholin’s Cyst

A Bartholin’s cyst, also known as Bartholin’s gland cyst and Bartholin’s duct cyst, occurs when a Bartholin’s gland—one of two glands responsible for the lubrication of the vagina—get filled up with fluid. The openings of the glands, located at either side of the vaginal entrance, can sometimes get obstructed due to an infection or other cause. When this occurs, the accumulation of fluid will lead to the formation of a cyst.

A Bartholin’s cyst doesn’t always need treatment, but there are options available if the cyst becomes painful, excessively large, or infected.

Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell


In many cases, a Bartholin’s cyst won’t cause any symptoms and may only be discovered while cleaning the genitals or undergoing a pelvic exam. Most cysts are soft and painless and resolve on their own without any problems.

Some women may report feeling an odd ache with movement or during sexual intercourse, while others may not see a physical lump but rather experience a generalized swelling of the vulva.

However, it is possible for the cyst to become infected with bacteria and transform into a pus-filled mass called an abscess. When the occurs, symptoms may include:

  • A swollen, red, painful lump
  • A greenish-yellow drainage from the lump
  • High temperature with chills
  • Generalized aches
  • Malaise (a general feeling of unwellness)

A Bartholin’s cyst can sometimes become excessively large and cause discomfort while sitting, walking, or engaging in physical activity or sex. Even if there is no infection, a cyst of this size can still cause pain.


Bartholin’s cysts form when there is a blockage at the opening of a Bartholin’s gland. Bartholin’s glands are situated to the left and right of the opening of the vagina and secrete mucus to lubricate vaginal tissues. If a blockage occurs, the mucus will back up into the gland and form a cyst.

The cause of the obstruction is often unknown but may include:

  • A bacterial vaginal infection, such as from E. coli
  • Extra-thick vaginal mucus
  • A vaginal injury
  • A sexually transmitted disease like gonorrhea and chlamydia
  • Vulvovaginal surgery

Around 2% of women will develop a Bartholin’s cyst at some point in their lives. It’s most common in sexually active women between the ages of 20 and 30. The older you get, the less likely you are to develop cysts as the glands will typically shrink and produce less mucus after 30.


Your doctor will diagnose a Bartholin’s cyst with a pelvic exam. The doctor will also ask about your medical history (including your sexual history) and take a sample of mucus to test for chlamydia and gonorrhea.

If you are over 40 and have undergone (or are undergoing) menopause, your doctor may order a biopsy to rule out vulvar cancer as a cause. A biopsy involves removing part of all of the cyst so that the tissues can be examines under a microscope in the lab.

Based on your age and risk of sexually transmitted infections, your doctor may also recommend a blood test to screen for chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, and syphilis.


If a Bartholin’s cyst is asymptomatic (without symptoms), it may not require treatment and will often resolve on its own. However, if there any changes in the size or shape of the cyst, report it to your doctor so that further evaluations can be performed.

Home Remedies and Lifestyle

If a cyst is painful, tender, or causing you discomfort, your doctor may recommend taking a sitz bath several times a day for three to four days. This simply involves soaking the tissues in a tub of warm water to promote drainage or help the cyst rupture.

Never “pop” a Bartholin’s cyst, as this may only increase the risk of a bacterial infection.


An over-the-counter analgesic like Tylenol (acetaminophen) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Advil (ibuprofen) may be recommended to relieve discomfort and inflammation.

If an abscess had formed, your doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic like Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Rocephin (ceftriaxone), Zithromax (azithromycin), or doxycycline to help resolve the infection.

If you have been diagnosed with chlamydia, you may receive a single oral dose of an oral antibiotic or will need to take a daily course of antibiotics for seven days. For gonorrhea, a single intramuscular injection of Rocephin (ceftriaxone) is generally recommended. If chlamydia has not been excluded, then an oral dose of doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for seven days) is necessary.

Surgeries and Specialist-Driven Procedures

If the cyst does not resolve after in-home treatment, or your doctor feels that interventions are needed because the cyst is severely infected or especially large, surgery and other interventions may be recommended.

The treatment options include:

  • Needle Aspiration: This can be performed in a doctor’s office and involves the insertion of a needle into the cyst to suction out the pus. This option is less commonly pursued because the cyst will likely return.
  • Incisional Drainage: For this approach, the cyst is simply cut and the fluids drained. Recurrence is also common with the procedure.
  • Catheter Insertion: This involves the insertion of a balloon-tipped catheter (called a Word catheter) into the cyst after it has been cut and drained. The catheter is then inflated and left in place for a minimum of four weeks for a permanent opening to form. The recurrence of cysts is unlikely with this method of treatment.
  • Marsupialization: This involves making a small cut into the cyst and, after drainage, stitching the edges of the cut to create a permanent drainage passage. Marsupialization is often performed under general anesthesia and is mainly used for women with recurrent cysts.
  • Excisional Resection: If other surgical methods fail, the surgeon may recommend that the gland be removed entirely. Even if it is, the remaining gland will still produce mucus to help lubricate the vagina.

A newer procedure involves the use of a carbon dioxide laser, which is able to open the cyst and vaporize the contents of the capsule. Its use in treating Bartholin’s cysts is controversial and generally avoided if there is an abscess.

A Word From Verywell

Having a Bartholin’s cyst is by no means life-threatening. Chances are that your cyst will resolve on its own or respond well to treatments if needed. Surgery is rarely required, but, if it is, can be very effective in treating severe or recurrent cyst formations.

While there is no way to prevent a Bartholin’s cyst from forming, practicing safe sex is believed to reduce your risk.

Female Genital Symptoms

Is this your symptom?

  • Itching or dryness of external female genital area (vulva)
  • Rashes of vulva, like sores, redness, blisters, or lumps

Some Basics…

  • Vulvar symptoms include rash, itching, and dryness.
  • These symptoms can have many different causes.

Causes of Vulvar Symptoms

  • Bartholin’s cyst
  • Contact dermatitis (soaps or feminine products)
  • Irritation after sex (lack of lubrication or a latex-condom allergy)
  • Poison ivy
  • Skin cancer
  • Skin problems (lichen sclerosis, squamous hyperplasia)
  • STIs (Herpes simplex, Syphilis, pubic lice, genital warts)
  • Vaginal yeast infection

Common Causes of Vulvar Itching

  • Skin Irritation: this can be caused by products like soaps, detergents, and douches. Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) can cause irritation from too much moisture. Do not use products that cause irritation and keep the area clean and dry. Good genital hygiene will help to prevent this.
  • Allergic Skin Reaction: this can be caused by many products. These may be benzocaine (in Vagisil anti-itch cream) and antibiotic ointments. Latex condoms, nail polish, and perfumes may also cause a reaction. Stop using products that cause the allergic reaction. Keep the area clean and dry. Good genital hygiene can help prevent this.
  • Menopause: during this time, the ovaries stop functioning. As a result, the body makes less estrogen. The skin in the genital area can become thinner. Women also note more dryness and itching. There are estrogen creams that can help these problems. A doctor will have more information about these medicines.
  • Vaginal Yeast Infection: these can sometimes cause itching. Often, there is also a new or increased vaginal discharge. It is often thick, white, cottage cheese-like, and does not smell. There are a number of over-the-counter (OTC) medications to treat yeast infections.

When to Call for Female Genital Symptoms

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Severe pain
  • Genital area looks infected (has a draining sore or spreading redness) and you have a fever
  • Pain with passing urine and fever
  • You feel weak or very sick
  • You think you need to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Genital area looks infected (draining sore, ulcer, or rash is painful to touch)
  • Rash with painful tiny water blisters
  • Pain or burning when passing urine
  • You think you need to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • You are worried you might have an STI
  • Itching that is moderate to severe (keeps you from working or going to school or sleeping)
  • Yellow, green, or gray vaginal discharge
  • Antibiotics for 3 or more days for an STI and symptoms are not better
  • Symptoms of a yeast infection (white, thick, cottage-cheese-like, itchy discharge) and you have not seen a doctor for this in the past
  • Yeast infection treated at home for more than 3 days and not better
  • All other female genital symptoms
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Symptoms that are like a past yeast infection (white, thick, cottage-cheese-like, itchy discharge)
  • Painless redness, tiny bumps, or sores on genitals for less than 24 hours
  • Mildly itchy

Care Advice

All Women

  1. What You Should Know:
    • Vulvar symptoms include rash, itching, and dryness.
    • These symptoms can have many different causes.
    • You can treat mild vulvar symptoms at home.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Pregnancy Test, When in Doubt:
    • If there is a chance that you might be pregnant, use a urine pregnancy test.
    • You can buy a pregnancy test at the drugstore.
    • It works best first thing in the morning.
    • Follow all package instructions.
  3. Genital Hygiene:
    • Keep your genital area clean and dry.
    • Wash daily.
    • Wipe from front to back after going to the bathroom.
    • Wear underwear that is all cotton or has a cotton crotch.
    • Do not douche.
    • Do not use scented feminine products or soap.
  4. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Pregnancy test is positive or you have trouble with the at-home test
    • Rash lasts more than 24 hours
    • Rash spreads or becomes worse
    • Fever
    • Not better after 3 days
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

Vaginal Yeast Infection

  1. Genital Hygiene:
    • Keep your genital area clean and dry.
    • Wash daily.
    • Wipe from front to back after going to the bathroom.
    • Wear underwear that is all cotton or has a cotton crotch.
    • Do not douche.
    • Do not use scented soaps or feminine products.
  2. Antifungal Medication: There are many over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to treat yeast infections.
    • Sold in the United States: Femstat-3, miconazole (Monistat-3), clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin-3, Mycelex-7), and butoconazole (Femstat-3).
    • Sold in Canada: miconazole (Monistat-3) and clotrimazole (Canesten-3, Myclo-Gyne).
    • Do not use yeast medication during the 24 hours before seeing a doctor. It may change the results of an exam.
    • Caution: If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor before using these.
    • Read the instructions and warnings on the package insert of all medicines you use.
  3. What to Expect: You should be better within 3 days. If you do not get better within 3 days, see a doctor.

Mild Vulvar Itching

  1. What You Should Know:
    • Itching can be caused by many things. These can be new soaps/detergent, perfumed toilet products, and hormone changes. Sweating can also cause itching.
    • Sometimes itching can be caused by a yeast infection.
    • You can treat vulvar itching at home.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Genital Hygiene:
    • Keep your genital area clean and dry.
    • Wash daily.
    • Wipe from front to back after going to the bathroom.
    • Wear underwear that is all cotton or has a cotton crotch.
    • Do not stay in wet clothing or bathing suits.
    • Do not douche.
    • Do not use scented feminine products or soaps.
  3. Cleansing: Wash the area one time with unscented soap and water. This will help to remove any irritants.

  4. Sitz Bath:
    • Sit in some lukewarm water for 10-15 minutes. You can also use a moist washcloth.
    • Do this 1-2 times a day.
    • Gently dry the area by patting it with a towel.
    • This will help soothe the itchy skin.
  5. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Any rash lasts more than 24 hours
    • Fever
    • Yellow or green vaginal discharge
    • Yeast infection is not better within 3 days
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

And remember, contact your doctor if you develop any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 4/30/2021 1:00:31 AM
Last Updated: 3/11/2021 1:00:31 AM

Copyright 2021 Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates.

Vaginal Diseases and Vulvular Disorders

Image: A female patient and nurse walking in the obstetrics and gynecology department. By: seapachi. Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0


Colpitis (or vaginitis) refers to the inflammation of the vagina. A pathological vaginal discharge and epithelial reddening are typical symptoms of colpitis.

The pH of the vaginal milieu is normally acidic (3.84.5). This way, the excessive proliferation of pathogenic germs is inhibited. Lactic acid bacteria are responsible for this milieu. They are called Döderlein’s bacteria and produce lactic acid based on estrogen.

Accordingly, the vaginal flora is disturbed if, for instance, the lactic acid bacteria are inhibited. Cervical mucus and menstrual blood can lead to alkalinization. Other irritations can be caused by a lack of estrogen, diabetes mellitus, foreign bodies (e.g. tampons), vaginal douches, sexual contact, or antibiotics.

Pathogens of colpitis

Inflammation of the vagina can be due to several reasons. The most frequent causes are:

  • Bacterial infections (bacterial vaginosis)
  • Fungal infections with candida (vaginal thrush)
  • Trichomoniasis

Bacterial Vaginosis

One major form of colpitis is bacterial vaginosis, which, as the name suggests, is vaginosis caused by bacteria.

Pathogens of bacterial vaginosis

Microscopic view of Gardnerella vaginalis

Gardnerella vaginalis can be found in the vaginal secretion of symptom-free, sexually active women. It is assumed that the transmission of this microorganism occurs via vaginal intercourse. Additionally, bacteria from the perianal region and bacteria of sexual partners can change the vaginal flora. This can promote the proliferation of anaerobes, such as G. vaginalis, which replace the lactic acid bacteria.

Note: Bacterial vaginosis is the most frequent form of colpitis, being present in 5–8% of women. G. vaginalis is the most common cause of bacterial vaginosis.

Clinical presentation of bacterial vaginosis

Reddening and itching are not present in bacterial vaginosis. Specific findings are a white-gray, very thin, sometimes foamy vaginal discharge and its fishy smell, with an alkaline pH. An ascending infection can develop as a complication.

Diagnostics for bacterial vaginosis

Clinical examination White-gray, foamy, thin vaginal discharge, fishy smell, pH of 4.8–5.5
Direct microscopic examination Vaginal secretion with leukocytes, numerous bacteria, clue cells (i.e., epithelial cells fully covered with G. vaginalis and other bacteria)
Culture Not recommended as in most cases, mixed infections are present

Treatment of bacterial vaginosis

Once tests are completed, treatment should be commenced. The administration of 5-nitroimidazole (metronidazole 2 × 400 mg for 5 days) is the established treatment. The healing rate is approx. 95%. The simultaneous treatment of sexual partners is not recommended.

Vaginal Thrush

Candida glabrata (License: Public Domain)

Vaginal thrush refers to a fungal infection that leads to colpitis. In over 80% of cases, these fungal infections are caused by Candida albicans. In rare cases, they are caused by Candida glabrata. Frequently, candida is already present in the vulva and vagina.

Thus, vaginal thrush is normally an endogenous infection. If the vaginal flora is disturbed, the proliferation of germs is promoted. Hormonal fluctuation (e.g., pregnancy or oral contraceptive use), antibiotic therapy, or immunodeficiency can also promote infection.

Clinical presentation of vaginal thrush

Itching, burning, pain, and discharge are typical symptoms of vaginal thrush. Vaginal thrush normally occurs together with vulvitis.

Diagnostics for vaginal thrush

Clinical examination White crumbly discharge
Microscopic direct specimen Confirmation through pseudomycelia. The detection of sprout cells only shows the colonization of yeasts.
Microbiological detection Only if clinical examination and direct specimen yield no significant results.

Treatment of vaginal thrush

A first step is local treatment with nystatin and imidazole medication in the vagina and on the vulva; 5–7 days are usually sufficient.

If the vaginal thrush is recurrent, systemic therapy with fluconazole becomes necessary. Treating the partner is not necessary since vaginal thrush is an endogenous infection. However, the rate of recurrence is relatively high.

In the case of chronic recurrent vaginal thrush, high-dose fluconazole for several weeks is recommended. Further, regular prophylactic antimycotic treatment is indicated in some cases.


Image: “Micrograph showing Trichomoniasis”, By: Nephron. License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Trichomoniasis is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, which is a facultative pathogenic protozoon. Trichomoniasis affects the vagina, glandular ducts, urethra, and less frequently, the bladder, rectum, and cervix.

Transmission occurs via sexual contact. The risk of infections is 70%. Recently, the number of infections has notably regressed and is now below 1%.

Clinical presentation of trichomoniasis

A characteristic sign of trichomoniasis is a severe, liquid, foamy discharge, which is sometimes greenish-yellow. Further, symptoms like burning, itching, and occasional dysuria and reddening can be observed.

Note: In 90% of men and women, trichomoniasis can be asymptomatic.

A potential complication of trichomoniasis is accompanying bacterial vaginosis.

Diagnostics for trichomoniasis

Clinical examination Foamy vaginal discharge, pungent smell, reddening
Microscopic direct specimen Moving trichomonads with surrounding leukocytes
Cytological cervical smear

Treatment of trichomoniasis

Systemic administration of 5-nitroimidazoles (1×2 g metronidazole) has a success rate of 90%. Treating the partner is necessary. Condoms can prevent transmission.

Nonspecific Colpitis

Nonspecific colpitis cannot be traced to one particular pathogen.


Vulvitis is defined as dermatitis of the labia of women. In almost all cases, it is accompanied by a form of vaginitis.

Etiology of vulvitis

Image: Candida albicans. By: GrahamColm. License: CC BY 3.0

Primary causes of the disease can be fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Secondarily, an inflammation of the outer genitals can also be due to mechanical causes or hormonal changes.

Pathogens of vulvitis

In 95% of the cases, the fungus C. albicans is the most frequent pathogen of vulvitis. Bacteria like A-streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Treponema pallidum are the second most frequent cause. Viruses like herpes simplex and varicella-zoster are rare triggers.

Secondary causes can be mechanical; for example, maceration, which is a consequence of obesity. Inflammation of the outer genitalia can also be caused by chemical irritation of the skin due to vaginal douches or detergents. Vulvitis can also be a secondary consequence of pregnancy and estrogen deficiency after menopause. In patients with diabetes mellitus, infections with C. albicans are frequent.

Note: Herpes genitalis causes the most painful vulvitis.

Clinical presentation of vulvitis

There are 3 main symptoms of vulvitis, and they are the most prominent features of inflammations of the outer genitalia:

  • Burning pain during walking, urination, and sexual intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pruritus: the scratching caused by the strong itching often worsens the infections. If children present with this kind of itching, worms should be considered as a differential diagnosis

Examination shows the typical signs of inflammation; reddened and swollen skin is visible. Candidiasis is often accompanied by a clumpy white discharge. The native specimen and Sabouraud agar show evidence of fungal infection. In herpes genitalis infections, fine vesicles can be seen. If an inflammation of the hair follicle is present (i.e., folliculitis), a small reddish area that is painful and sensitive to pressure is often observed.

Treatment of vulvitis

Clotrimazole, which is an antimycotic, is applied locally for fungal infections. Bacterial vulvitis can be treated locally with the antiseptic povidone-iodine and orally with cephalosporin. If an S. aureus infection is left untreated, folliculitis can develop into an abscess. Folliculitis must be surgically managed. For the relief of pain and itching, patients can apply cortisone balm and chamomile hip baths.


Image: “Bartholin’s cyst of the right side”. By: Medimage. License: CC BY 3.0

Bartholin glands are located on the inside of the inner labia. Their excretory duct lies in the introitus area. Bartholinitis is an inflammation of the Bartholin gland which leads to painful swelling. In most cases, the inflammation is unilateral. If the excretory ducts are obstructed due to stasis of the glandular secretion (Bartholin cyst), an infection with intestinal germs can occur.

Etiology of bartholinitis

  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • S. aureus
  • Escherichia coli
  • Anaerobe bacteria (Bacteroides, Peptococcus, and Peptostreptococcus)

Note: Primary infection with a pathogen is much less common than infection due to an obstructed duct.

Clinical presentation of bartholinitis

If the secretory ducts are obstructed, swelling occurs, which can reach the size of a ping-pong ball. This cyst is painful when infected and can even lead to problems walking.

Treatment of bartholinitis

In case of a large cyst or an abscess, treatment involves marsupialization, which is performed under general anesthesia. If the bartholinitis is recurrent, extirpation of the Bartholin gland can be performed.

Condylomata Acuminata

Image: Genital warts. By: SOA-AIDS Amsterdam. License: CC BY 3.0

Condylomata accuminata are papillary, pointy epitheliomas that mainly affect the vulva, vagina, porta uteri, and the anal region.

Etiology of condylomata acuminata

Infection with HPV (human papillomavirus) can trigger the formation of condylomata acuminata. Serotypes 6 and 11 are responsible for changes like pointy condylomas. Infection with HPV 16 and 18 can lead to cervical or anal carcinoma

Note: Almost 20% of sexually active women are HPV-positive with serotypes 6 and 11.

Clinical presentation of condylomata acuminata

Examination shows pointy, papillary changes of epithelial cells. They are arranged in a cockscomb-like manner.

Histology shows koilocytes. These are squamous epithelial cells with a perinuclear halo. Koilocytes are a sign of HPV infection.

Treatment of condylomata acuminata

Treatment options depend on the severity of the disease. The first step is topical treatment. In cases of mild infection, denaturation using podophyllin cream or 60% trichloroacetic acid is possible. For extreme infections, surgical treatment using electric sling abrasion or CO2 laser has to be performed.

Note: All therapeutic measures have a recurrence risk of 25%.

Lichen Sclerosus: Vulvar Itching

Image: “Lichen sclerosus in an 82-year-old woman, showing an ivory white coloring in the vulva, also stretching downward to the perineum.” By: Mikael Häggström. License: CC BY 1.0

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic disease and is the degenerative change of the dermis. It comprises a shrinking of the vulva and sclerotization of subcutaneous fat tissue.

Etiology of lichen sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is caused by skin shrinking due to a lack of estrogen. Older women often experience estrogen deficiency in the postmenopausal period.

Clinical presentation of lichen sclerosus

Because of the marked pruritus, scratch defects can be noted. Examination shows depigmentation, scratch defects, and superinfection. The shrinking is accompanied by shiny vulvar skin.

Diagnostics for lichen sclerosus

Histological examination involving punch biopsy or excision should be performed in order to exclude vulvar carcinoma and vulvar intraepithelial dysplasia.

Treatment of lichen sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is treated with cortisone creams for at least 4 weeks after the patient is free of complaints. Fatty ointments should be applied before any event of skin stress (urination, defecation, coitus, etc). Treatment with corticoids is supposed to prevent skin shrinking and synechia (adhesion of the labia).

As long as there is no contraindication, systemic estrogen should be considered. In any case, local estrogen treatment should occur. If symptoms persist, laser therapy or surgical interventions such as denervation may be necessary.

90,000 Inflammation of the Bartholin gland in women 👩‍⚕️ causes and treatment

Bartholinitis is a common pathology associated with inflammation of the large gland in the vestibule of the vagina. It is named after the anatomist who first described it, the Bartholin gland. This gland is a steam room, located symmetrically on both sides of the entrance to the vagina in the region of the lower third of the labia majora. Normally, the special secret secreted by them maintains optimal moisture and Ph of the mucous membrane of the vulva and vagina, and with sexual arousal, due to it, it provides lubrication of the intimate zone and protects it from damage.

Inflammation of the Bartholin gland develops when pathogenic microorganisms enter its tissue. It can be nonspecific microorganisms (staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, etc.) or causative agents of sexually transmitted infections – gonococcus, chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.

Causes of bartholinitis

There are several ways for pathogenic microorganisms to enter the Bartholin gland:

  • for local tissue damage. In this case, the focus of infection is localized in the genitals of the woman;
  • in case of generalized infection, when the transfer of microorganisms occurred through the circulatory or lymphatic system from other organs that are not anatomically connected with each other.

Normally, the body is able to independently cope with pathogenic flora and suppress its ability to reproduce and spread, but if there are factors such as:

  • Non-compliance by a woman with the rules of personal hygiene and wearing uncomfortable, synthetic underwear. Synthetic fabric can affect the balance of moisture and temperature, which causes pathogenic bacteria to multiply. Tight underwear can squeeze the perineum, interfering with the release of secretions, which leads to swelling of the gland.
  • excessive neatness with the use of alkaline soap products, frequent douching with antibacterial drugs that cause violations of the vaginal microflora.
  • decreased immunity against the background of hypothermia, bad habits, poor nutrition, etc.;
  • 90,011 unprotected sex with different partners;

  • trauma, scratching in the perineal region;
  • with vaginal dysbiosis against the background of prolonged use of antibiotics;
  • in chronic inflammatory diseases with the formation of a permanent focus of infection: chronic cystitis, urethritis, colitis, chronic sinusitis and even caries, the infection can enter the gland through the blood or lymphatic vessels;
  • With a drop in immunity against the background of diabetes mellitus and other diseases, the risk of bacteria penetrating into the parenchyma and the development of inflammation of the Bartholin gland increases.

How does bartholinitis manifest in women?

Bartholinitis is characterized by asymmetry of the lesion. Cases when inflammation proceeded immediately in two glands at the same time are extremely rare and refer to casuistry. Usually, the primary inflammatory process is localized at the mouth of the duct, where a dense edema forms, leading to its blockage. In such conditions, when the ability to evacuate secretions is impaired, the infection spreads very quickly throughout the organ structure. Such acute inflammation is always characterized by specific symptoms:

  • The appearance of a dense painful formation in the area of ​​the labia majora.When you press on it, the pain increases;
  • discomfort when urinating
  • the labia become asymmetrical;
  • A woman complains of severe pain in the perineum, which worsens when walking
  • pain during sexual intercourse; lack of intimate lubrication during arousal.
  • purulent discharge from the vestibule of the vagina. With some sexually transmitted infections, the discharge may be slimy and watery;
  • General intoxication syndrome with fever, chills and general weakness.

The appearance of such symptoms should not be ignored, as it requires immediate treatment. The purpose of which will be to restore general well-being, prevent the development of complications and the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

In chronic, recurrent bartholinitis, exacerbation episodes will be replaced by remissions, and so on until the extinction of the reproductive function of a woman who will enter menopause. During this period, the estrogen-dependent secretory function of the glands of the vestibule of the vagina will significantly decrease and at the same time the prerequisites for inflammation will subside.But is it worth the wait that long?

Required examination

Our doctors quickly recognize bartholinitis. As a rule, it is based on the characteristic appearance of the labia, which is revealed during a gynecological examination. What methods are used in our clinic?

A swab is taken from the urinary canal and vagina. This is necessary to assess the microflora and identify its deviations. The study is supplemented with bacteriological inoculation of the gland discharge from the ducts.Thanks to this, doctors determine the specific causative agent of the disease and its susceptibility to antibiotics.

Additionally, a general gynecological examination is carried out, which can reveal concomitant gynecological diseases.

Treatment of bartholinitis

Independent elimination of the pathology is impossible – it can cause the development of complications of varying severity, up to a severe purulent infection. Therefore, all patients with signs of bartholinitis should seek professional medical attention.

Our specialists at the Clinic of Modern Technologies conduct a comprehensive examination of all patients and determine the optimal treatment tactics. It depends on the stage of the disease and associated pathologies.

Conservative therapy is used for acute inflammation. Two approaches are actively used: antibacterial treatment and anti-inflammatory drugs. Antibiotics are prescribed when determining the sensitivity of pathogens to them. This makes the treatment more effective and safer.Anti-inflammatory drugs are intended to relieve symptoms of intoxication. Also used for treatment:

  • suppositories, for the administration of drugs closer to the site of infection
  • applying cold – to slow down the development of infection
  • antihistamines
  • pain relievers
  • droppers with water-saline solution – with severe intoxication

When an abscess or a chronic cyst forms in the perineal region, surgical treatment is performed.An abscess containing a large number of bacteria is opened in the operating room. All pus is removed, and the wound is washed with antiseptic solutions. After that, a drainage is installed into the abscess cavity, through which all the inflammatory fluid flows out. Surgical interventions are always accompanied by antibiotic therapy.

Choosing the correct treatment for bartholinitis is a guarantee of recovery and the absence of problems with the female reproductive system in the future. Therefore, we recommend contacting our specialists at the first symptoms of the disease, when even conservative approaches are highly effective.Remember this and do not delay the visit to the gynecologist.

Physicians treating bartholinitis

Treatment of inflammation of the Bartholin gland
  • Bartholinitis Treatment6 900
  • Lancing of the abscess of the Bartholin gland 8 100
  • Lancing of the abscess of the external genital organs2 700
  • Removal of Bartholin gland cyst 19 000 90 113
  • Lancing of the abscess of the Bartholin gland with marsupialization 22 000 90 113
  • Restoration of the patency of the excretory duct of the large gland of the vestibule 15,000

Bartholinitis, Bartholin gland cyst | Diseases of the Bartholin gland

Bartholin’s gland are paired glands in the vestibule of the vagina.It is located in the depths of the tissues between the large and small labia on the right and left. The contents of the gland are secreted along the duct into the vaginal vestibule, providing sufficient moisture to the vaginal opening. With poor patency of the duct or its complete closure, the contents accumulate in it and in the cavity of the gland itself.

Violation of the patency of the Bartholin gland duct occurs when:

  • Infection of the gland and ducts with genital infections (such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma or Trichomonas),
  • for vaginal candidiasis (thrush),
  • with the rapid multiplication of opportunistic flora due to weak immunity (Escherichia coli, streptococcus or staphylococcus).

How does a Bartholin gland cyst manifest?

An oval-shaped volumetric formation appears, which a woman herself or a gynecologist can notice when examined on a chair. The cyst of the Bartholin gland can increase in size over time, create discomfort when walking, sitting, wearing underwear, during sexual activity. With inflammation of the Bartholin gland cyst, an abscess is formed, which is accompanied by pain, swelling, and an increase in body temperature. In such cases, opening of the abscess is required, this is a temporary measure, since the abscess most often reoccurs.There is such a disease as chronic bartholinitis: the Bartholin gland is infected, it can periodically increase in size with pain.

Methods for the treatment of the bartholin gland and bartholinitis?

Small cyst (no more than 2 cm): detection and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, normalization of the flora in the vagina, recommendations for intimate hygiene, observation. Large Bartholin gland cyst, cosmetic defect, discomfort, pain, recurrent Bartholin gland abscesses: surgical treatment is required.

The most effective treatment for a Bartholin gland cyst is to remove the capsule of the Bartholin gland cyst, sometimes together with the gland itself. In chronic bartholinitis, the infected Bartholin gland is removed. Sometimes the process can be two-way. The operation is performed after examining the patient, identifying and treating sexually transmitted infections. The incision is made in the least visible place along the mucous membrane of the labia. After the operation, the necessary treatment, wound treatment and physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.

For the treatment of diseases of the Bartholin gland, you can seek advice from A.N. Ignatiev. or Malmygin D.A.

90,000 ➤ Treatment of yeast colpitis in women ☑ Price from 10 thousand rubles. with analyzes in Moscow⭐ Yeast colpitis during pregnancy

Yeast colpitis is an inflammatory disease of the vagina caused by yeast of the genus Candida. The disease is accompanied by a decrease in immunity and can activate another infection. Treatment of yeast colpitis is carried out with antimycotic drugs, but sometimes antibiotics are additionally prescribed.

Risk factors for yeast colpitis

There are protective factors in the vagina that prevent bacteria and fungi from growing. But with a decrease in local or general immunity, the growth of candida is not inhibited, so inflammation may occur. Risk factors for colpitis of yeast etiology may include the following conditions:

  • Changes in hormonal levels during pregnancy, menopause
  • long-term bacterial vaginitis, adnexitis
  • uncontrolled antibiotic treatment
  • obesity and malnutrition with a predominance of simple carbohydrates in the diet and fiber deficiency
  • corticosteroid treatment, radiation and chemotherapy for oncology
  • diabetes mellitus
  • acquired immunodeficiency
  • severe chronic diseases of internal organs
  • stress, overwork, time zone change
  • change of sexual partner
  • allergic reactions
  • douching

In some women, menstruation is a provocateur of an exacerbation of a yeast infection.Before menstruation, hormonal changes occur, which are accompanied by a decrease in local immunity. Therefore, fungal infections are easily exacerbated.

Women who take antibiotics for a long time destroy the healthy microflora of the vagina. Fungi are not sensitive to antibacterial drugs, so they replace dead lactobacilli on the mucous membrane of the genital tract.

Mechanism of development of the disease

Yeast colpitis in women often occurs against the background of a decrease in the normal amount of lacto- and bifidobacteria.These microorganisms form the basis of a healthy microflora in the vagina. Yeast also lives on the mucous membrane without causing inflammation as long as there are enough beneficial bacteria.

Protection against infection in women acts due to the large number of lactobacilli that populate all niches in the genital tract. Beneficial microorganisms in the process of metabolism produce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, which inhibit the growth of dangerous bacteria. Also immune cells are included in the work.

When taking antibiotics, stress, decreased ovarian function, there is a lack of bifidobacteria. Therefore, opportunistic microorganisms begin to multiply. These include yeast-like fungi. But even with the active colonization of the vagina with a healthy microflora, the fungi will not stop growing, they tolerate an acidic environment well.

Symptoms of yeast colpitis

The disease can be acute or chronic. Yeast colpitis symptoms will vary.The criteria for acute inflammation are sudden onset, duration no more than 4 weeks. Chronic vaginitis in women caused by fungi lasts more than 4 weeks or recurs more often 4 times a year. Acute colpitis is characterized by:

  • itching and burning in the vagina
  • white curdled discharge, sometimes in lumps or creamy
  • Sourish odor in discharge

Depending on the attached microflora, the color of the discharge may become yellowish, grayish.Sometimes yeast colpitis is accompanied by gardnerellosis. Therefore, a characteristic fishy smell appears.

In chronic vaginitis, exacerbations are provoked by inaccuracies in diet, menstruation, sex partner change, or allergies to pads, toilet paper, or detergents. But the symptoms may be less pronounced, there is less discharge. The woman complains more about unbearable itching. If the disease bothers for several years, atrophic processes appear on the vaginal mucosa.

Yeast colpitis during pregnancy occurs due to a decrease in local immunity under the influence of progesterone.

Diagnostic methods for acute and chronic forms

In order to prescribe a high-quality and effective treatment for yeast colpitis, it is necessary to undergo an examination. You cannot focus only on the symptoms of the disease. If a fungal infection is combined with a bacterial infection, antimycotics without antibiotics will be ineffective.

For diagnosis, a smear from the vagina is used. In it, an increase in leukocytes is noticeable, the amount of rod flora is reduced, and cells and mycelium of fungi appear. Sometimes they are combined with coccal flora.

In most cases, with acute yeast colpitis, this is sufficient. But in chronic forms of the disease, when treatment is ineffective, it is necessary to study the type of fungus and its sensitivity to drugs. The following methods are used:

  1. Culture – sowing vaginal discharge on special nutrient media.
  2. ELISA – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay helps to determine the presence of a fungus in a mild clinical picture.
  3. Real-time PCR diagnostics can detect Candidate DNA and its quantity in order to make a decision on the need for treatment.

Pelvic ultrasound for diagnosing yeast inflammation is not informative, but it helps to identify inflammation in the appendages or uterus, which provoke a decrease in immunity.

Colpitis treatment

In order for a woman to undergo colpitis treatment, it is necessary to change her lifestyle.The recommendation is especially relevant for the chronic course of the disease. Women are prescribed a fermented milk diet, which is based on the rejection of sugar, simple carbohydrates in the form of sweets, flour, some sweet fruits and berries. Instead, the volume of fermented milk products, vegetables and fruits increases.

For the treatment of yeast colpitis, local and systemic drugs are used. Topically used suppositories, cream or ointment based on the following chemicals:

  • clotrimazole
  • nystatin
  • pimafucin
  • butaconazole
  • miconazole

The course of therapy and dosage are selected individually.Sometimes complex preparations are needed, which include an antibiotic, an antipruritic agent and an antimycotic.

If there are foci of fungal infection in other places, which is often the case with diabetes mellitus, intestinal dysbiosis, systemic treatment of the yeast fungus is necessary. For this, antifungal capsules are used.

Treatment of yeast colpitis during pregnancy is carried out only with local preparations. They are not absorbed from the mucous membrane, therefore they do not have a negative effect on the fetus.It is optimal to carry out a course of therapy in the second trimester, when the placenta protects the fetus from the negative effects of drugs. But the symptoms of acute colpitis during pregnancy are dangerous, therefore, with a pronounced clinical picture, treatment is prescribed at any time.

For women with chronic yeast colpitis, therapy is prescribed during an exacerbation. To do this, use the same drugs as for an acute infection. But after the relief of severe symptoms, they switch to supportive therapy.In this case, one of the medicines is used once a week for 6 months.

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Prevention of fungal colpitis

You can prevent the development of yeast colpitis if you follow the rules of personal hygiene.This is not an STI, so it is impossible to get infected through sexual intercourse. But other infections open the way for the growth of the fungus, so it is better to refuse casual intimate relationships.

It is recommended not to use panty liners. They create a greenhouse effect and stimulate the growth of the fungus. It is useful to follow a special diet rich in fermented milk products, vegetables and fruits. This diet is also allowed during pregnancy.

Uncontrolled antibiotic treatment is dangerous.For patients prone to exacerbation of colpitis against the background of antibiotic therapy, doctors advise preventive doses of antifungal agents before the start of the course and at the end.

So that yeast colpitis does not turn into a chronic pathology, at the first signs of inflammation, you must consult a doctor, and not use self-medication or alternative methods.

You can consult a gynecologist in our medical center. To register, you need to contact by phone or through the feedback form.The administrator will select the most convenient time for you.


Vaginal pain may be a temporary symptom of infection or injury. However, in some cases it can be a chronic symptom with no known cause. Persistent vaginal pain with no clear cause called


Vaginal pain may be a temporary symptom of infection or injury.However, in some cases, it can be a chronic symptom with no known cause.

Persistent vaginal pain without a clear cause is called vulvodynia. It is a common gynecological condition that affects up to 16% of women in the United States.

Fear or embarrassment can deter a person from seeking professional treatment for vaginal pain. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some doctors may quickly ignore this symptom.

However, the right healthcare provider will work diligently to diagnose and treat the problem.

Read on to learn about the symptoms and causes of vaginal pain and treatment options.

Causes of vaginal pain

Vaginal pain can be caused by a number of conditions, but the following are the most common:

Infectious disease

Yeast infections are one of the most common causes of vaginal pain. About 75% of women develop a vaginal yeast infection at some stage in their lives.

A fungal infection can cause itching, burning, and sometimes cottage cheese-like vaginal discharge.

These infections are not usually sexually transmitted, and most experts do not recommend treating sexual partners.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is also a common infection, especially among sexually active people.

Although BV does not always cause symptoms, some people may experience the following vaginal symptoms:

  • pain
  • itching
  • burning
  • fishy smell
  • discomfort during sex

Many people mistake BV symptoms for yeast infection symptoms …However, these two diseases have different causes and require different treatment.

Certain other infections, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can also cause pain and unusual discharge.

Physical injury

Physical injury to the vagina or vulva can cause vaginal pain. Sometimes relatively minor injuries, such as shaving cuts, can be the cause, but childbirth is one of the most common causes of injury and pain.

Childbirth causes most people to rupture the vagina during the first birth. The tear usually extends to the perineum, which is the area between the vagina and the anus. Doctors call this a perineal tear. It is also possible for the clitoris or labia to rupture during childbirth.

A doctor or midwife may need to have severe tears stitched up. The stitches they use will fade over time and do not need to be removed.

Pelvic floor dysfunction or trauma

Injury to the pelvic floor muscles can cause pain in the vagina, abdomen, and back, as well as affect muscles in other areas.

Some factors that can increase the risk of pelvic floor problems include:

  • Age
  • Pregnancy
  • Trauma from childbirth
  • Episiotomy, which is a surgical incision to enlarge the vaginal opening in the perineum during labor

Some people with pelvic floor dysfunction also experience urinary incontinence, especially when sneezing or jumping. The person may also experience fecal incontinence, pain during bowel movements, or both.


Vulvodynia is a type of chronic pain in the vulva, vagina, or both. Pain varies from person to person, but many report fairly long-lasting burning pain, although intercourse can cause or worsen it.

Doctors do not fully understand why vulvodynia occurs. The diagnostic process can be time-consuming as it excludes other causes of vaginal pain.

Anyone who suspects they have vulvodynia should see a doctor as a variety of treatments are available.

Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin glands are located on either side of the vaginal opening and help lubricate it.

A blockage in one of these glands can lead to the formation of a cyst, which may feel like a hard lump or look like a pimple. A cyst can cause pain, usually on one side of the vagina.

Bartholinic acid cysts can grow in size several days before disappearing or rupture. They sometimes become infected, causing severe pain.


Vaginal pain can have many different characteristics. A detailed description of the pain can help the doctor diagnose the problem correctly.

The following are the most common types of vaginal pain:


Vaginal yeast infections, BV, and other types of infections often cause a burning sensation, especially during or after intercourse.

Vulvodynia also often causes burning pain, although this usually occurs in conjunction with other symptoms.


Itching is a classic sign of an infection such as a yeast infection, BV or STI.

Less commonly, trauma to the pelvic floor causes nerve dysfunction similar to itching or other unusual sensation.

Some people experience vaginal itching during intercourse. Some possible causes for this include:

  • vulvodynia
  • Bartholin cyst rupture
  • healing after physical injury

Tension or muscle spasms

Density, soreness, and muscle spasms in the vagina may indicate pelvic floor dysfunction.Some people also experience pain with different characteristics or in other areas – for example, they may have lower back pain or hip discomfort.

Vulvodynia can cause tension in the muscles of the vagina before or during intercourse. Some people report that their muscles tighten so much that they cannot have intercourse.

Tenderness or sensitivity

If the skin around the vagina and vulva feels painful, tender, or tender, it may be a symptom of a Bartholin gland cyst.

The area may also be discolored, a hard bump or visible swelling may appear. If an infection develops, the pain can become intense.

Trauma to the vagina or vulva can also cause soreness and tenderness. Many people report painful sensations after childbirth, especially after a ruptured perineum.

Pain during intercourse

Sexual intercourse can worsen any type of vaginal pain because friction causes irritation.

However, if a person experiences vaginal pain only during intercourse, vulvodynia may be the cause.

If a fishy smell occurs after painful intercourse, this may indicate BV.


A doctor can usually diagnose a vaginal yeast infection based on the person’s symptoms alone, although he may need to analyze a sample of the discharge. This test will help your doctor rule out bacterial infections and STIs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.

A physician may also be involved in the diagnostic process:

  • Physical examination of the area for recent injuries
  • Performing an internal vaginal examination to check for muscle abnormalities, swelling and irritation
  • Taking a detailed medical history during which they can ask about risk factors specific vaginal health problems

People with vulvodynia usually have no noticeable symptoms of a physical disorder.Thus, to make this diagnosis, the doctor needs to rule out other causes of vaginal pain.


The cause of the pain will determine the treatment options.

Antibiotics can treat gonorrhea, BV, chlamydia, and some other bacterial infections. For physical injuries, such as deep or infected wounds, antibiotics may also be required.

Because yeast is more a fungus than a bacterium, antibiotics will not cure a yeast infection and may worsen it.Instead, your doctor may recommend over-the-counter treatment or oral antifungal medications.

Bartholinic acid cysts usually go away on their own, although warm compresses can speed up the process. If the cyst becomes very large, your doctor may surgically remove it. If the cyst is infected, it may need antibiotics.

Physical therapy can help with pelvic floor injuries and the physical therapist can work with the patient to develop a plan to strengthen the pelvic floor at home.Physical therapy can also help with vulvodynia.

Vulvodynia is known to be difficult to treat. Proper treatment varies from person to person, but often involves a combination of:

  • oral and local pain relievers
  • nerve stimulation
  • drugs called nerve blocks
  • pelvic floor exercises
  • sex therapy
  • avoiding known triggers. where possible

Home remedies

Home remedies cannot cure bacterial vaginal infections and using these methods can worsen the condition of the infection.

Anyone who suspects they have a bacterial infection should see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

However, some home remedies can help with symptoms of other conditions. People may find that applying warm compresses to a bartholinic acid cyst several times a day shortens the time it takes for it to dissolve.

Those with a vaginal tear can often relieve pain with a sitz bath, ice packs, pain relieving sprays, or a combination of these.


Strategies for preventing some forms of vaginal pain include:

  • Wearing a condom during sex
  • Get regular STI testing and ask all partners about their STI status
  • Change clothes as soon as possible if they get wet or sweaty. because moisture creates an ideal environment for yeast
  • Ask your doctor or midwife about methods of preventing tears during labor if you are pregnant


Vaginal pain can be temporary or chronic, from mild irritation to severe, debilitating pain.The sensation may be the result of infection, injury, or an unknown cause.

Anyone with vaginal pain should see a doctor or other healthcare provider for a diagnosis. Most often, vaginal pain goes away when a person finds the right treatment.

The cause of chronic vaginal pain can be difficult to diagnose. Typically, a doctor only diagnoses vulvodynia after ruling out other possible causes of pain. Although experts know little about the causes of vulvodynia, there are many treatments available.

Some people report that healthcare professionals may not be sympathetic and unhelpful about vaginal pain. In this case, it is important to ask a second opinion from someone who specializes in this type of pain.

90,000 What to do if the labia is in the way

Sometimes a woman has unpleasant symptoms in the genital area. And they do not always force themselves to immediately resort to the help of a doctor, out of embarrassment, fear or shame.

One of these symptoms is the swelling of the labia.Usually, they try to cure such ailment on their own, which does not always lead to the desired result.

And if a woman is not sure of the root cause of the disease, which can be easily eliminated, then it is worth contacting a specialist.

Clinical picture

Important reproductive organs of a woman are located internally and the labia are important in their protection. They are classified into small and large.

Small – protect the entrance to the vagina, and their edema is often associated with diseases of the internal genital organs.

The labia majora hide the labia minora, they are covered with a thicker layer of skin on the outside – so they additionally protect the genitourinary system, and their edema is often associated with skin diseases and external pathologies.

If one labia is swollen more than the other, a cyst of the Bartholin gland is often detected, which in mild cases does not cause pain. But if there is discomfort during the sitting and walking position, as well as the swollen lip is highly sensitive and has acquired a rich red tint, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor, since an abscess is likely to develop.

Swollen labia may occur after sexual intercourse or masturbation. this is due to increased blood circulation during arousal and blood flow creates a slight swelling. This state lasts for a short period of time and disappears on its own.

But if the swelling lasts more than 12 hours, it is important to consult a gynecologist.

Why does it hurt and why does the labia swell

The swelling on the labia has many reasons, which are both harmless in nature and a serious signal for examination by a doctor.The first thing a woman should do, after she has discovered a symptom, is to identify possible factors that provoked the swelling and additional manifestations: delay, discharge or pain in the area of ​​the tumor.

Often the cause of edema is:

  • allergy;
  • pregnancy;
  • infection;
  • low-quality linen;
  • inflammation of the genitourinary system;
  • endocrine diseases.

Each of these reasons requires an individual approach to treatment, and in some cases, neglect can lead to complications.

Enlargement of axillary lymph nodes in women and men


Swelling and discoloration of the genitals may indicate pregnancy. This is due to an increase in blood circulation in the pelvic region and active oxygen saturation. Also, during this period, an increase in discharge is possible, which can lead to the development of thrush. If there is an unpleasant odor of discharge, you need to inform your doctor about it.

  • Usually, edema of the labia is observed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy – when the weight of the fetus increases and the pressure increases.
  • Sometimes a woman can observe swelling of the veins in the intimate area, this is usually considered normal, but you should consult your doctor about further actions to exclude the occurrence of venous stasis.

Allergic reaction

Swelling of the labia may be a symptom of allergies to laundry detergent, shower gel, synthetic underwear, condoms, pads or other products that have been in direct contact.

This cause is easily identified, since the symptom occurs in the next few hours after interaction with the allergen and leads to the following symptoms:

  • redness of the labia;
  • 90,011 edema;

  • itching.

This condition is not accompanied by discharge and disappears after exclusion of the irritant and taking antihistamines. It is not necessary for a woman to see a doctor if she has independently identified the cause and can exclude it from her life.

Yeast infection

  1. The development of candidiasis, or as it is also called, thrush, can be triggered by many factors: poor hygiene, taking antibiotics, hormonal imbalance, wearing synthetic underwear.
  2. Yeast infection symptoms:
  • cheesy discharge with an unpleasant odor;
  • swelling of the labia;
  • Itching and soreness during intercourse or urination.

If a woman has found inflammation, then not only she, but also her partner should undergo treatment in order to exclude a relapse. Contacting a specialist is necessary not only because of the appointment of treatment, but also to identify the causes. Since candidiasis can be a concomitant complication of certain diseases.Therefore, if the above symptoms are observed, it is worth excluding sexual intercourse before the diagnosis is made.

In some cases, thrush occurs before or immediately after menstruation. This is due to hormonal changes and does not have serious consequences if you consult your doctor.


The labia majora can swell due to sexually transmitted diseases, such as genital herpes. It can also develop through direct contact with the herpes simplex virus.

As the inflammation spreads, the woman observes edema in the intimate area, itching, redness and vaginal discharge. These symptoms portend serious consequences and require immediate treatment before the virus spreads further.

The cock swells after sex

Herpes is a huge danger for the unborn child, so many pregnant women are seriously frightened when they find swelling.

Sexual intercourse and other reasons

Sexual contact often provokes swelling of the labia.Since sexual arousal leads to an increase in blood circulation in the genital area.

Also, swollen labia minora can be observed after sex, if there was not enough lubrication or the partner preferred sharper frictions. If the swelling disappears less than 12 hours after intercourse, you don’t have to worry.

If this condition persists for a long time, you should consult a doctor.

The intimate area may swell after childbirth. This is due to several factors:
serious pressure during delivery; lochia – physiological bleeding after childbirth; hormonal changes.

Such diseases can cause edema as:

Bartholinitis – the Bartholin gland becomes inflamed and the genitals become reddened, increase in size. Sensitivity increases and pain appears when walking.

  • Vulvovaginitis develops against the background of inflammation of the tissues of the labia, which develops with their mechanical damage and lack of hygiene.
  • Vulvitis also provokes edema, it occurs due to high humidity in the genital area, poor hygiene, regular change of partners or abortion.
  • Any of the above diseases causes discomfort to a woman and requires medication.

Associated symptoms

Depending on the cause, swollen labia are accompanied by different symptoms. This often allows the woman to assess the severity of her condition.

Labia enlargement after sex, childbirth or arousal is usually asymptomatic and usually does not require medical attention. But if the left lip is swollen and hurts more than the right one, you should pay attention to whether there is redness and a feeling of a ball, since a cyst or inflammation of the Bartholin gland may appear.

Swollen intimate organs can also indicate an inflammatory process of the internal genital organs, starting with thrush and ending with sexually transmitted infections. The main signs are considered to be swelling, itching, pain, various vaginal discharge.

Therefore, if a woman’s genital area is swollen and hurts, it is worth hurrying to visit the gynecologist, until complications arise.

What to do if the labia is swollen

Do not ignore the slightest swelling and redness on the labia, and the first thing to do after identifying a symptom is to contact your doctor, who will determine why the labia are swollen.The gynecologist will conduct a visual examination, which will clarify additional signs, and also prescribe additional diagnostics to identify cysts or genital inflammations.

Drug treatment

Virtually any condition that causes labia edema can be treated with medication. They differ from each other only in the direction of action, depending on the causes of the disease.

Clinical picture of pulmonary edema in stroke

For fungal infections, women are treated with an antifungal drug such as flucostat.It is important to know that if candidiasis is found, treatment is carried out by both partners in order to exclude a relapse.

  1. Any inflammatory diseases and infections require antibiotic therapy, often complex treatment is carried out, which not only destroys the source, but also alleviates the symptoms.
  2. An allergic reaction is treated with antihistamines and the complete elimination of the allergen.
  3. Any treatment should be prescribed by a doctor, only he can determine the dosage of drugs so that the disease does not go into a latent or chronic stage.

Homeopathic treatment

There are preparations of homeopathic origin that can be used in the treatment of various types of inflammation, which are accompanied by edema of the labia. Bartholinitis or genital herpes is successfully treated with the drug Gepar Sulfur, which is based on a combination of sulfur and calcium. effectively fights inflammation of the glandular tissue.

Candida albicans well treats any form of candidiasis, as well as contact dermatitis and allergic reactions.Kalium bichromicum has the same effect, which is also effective for vulvovaginitis.

Folk remedies

Treatment of tumors of the labia minora or labia majora using traditional medicine methods should be carried out only after consultation with the doctor. Often it is not the main, but an additional remedy that will relieve symptoms due to its antiseptic and wound healing effect. It should be understood that the infection cannot be cured with herbs alone; antibiotic therapy is required.

It is believed that coconut oil, which is applied in large quantities to intimate places, relieves swelling well. The oil reduces swelling, relieves tooth and pain.

Natural unprocessed apple cider vinegar is also popular. It is believed to treat vulvar infection, relieve itching, and neutralize the pH level in the vagina.

Recommendations of gynecologists

  • Any woman can experience swelling of the labia, and if it does not subside within 12 hours, then it is necessary to sound the alarm and consult a doctor.
  • To prevent this condition, you must adhere to the following recommendations of gynecologists:
  • observe hygiene;
  • Use only your own clean disposable machines;
  • change your underwear daily;
  • to exclude unprotected sexual contact with an unfamiliar person;
  • 90,011 refuse abortion;

  • adhere to a healthy diet;
  • for dry vagina before sexual intercourse, use special lubricants;
  • timely attend preventive examinations with a gynecologist.

TOP-10 ways to raise the tone of the labia

Ways to strengthen the skin tone of the labia

Method Its features
Regular If a woman has regular sex, it will strengthen her intimate muscles
Self-weight control Improper nutrition and weight gain / loss weakens the skin on the labia
Kegel Exercises These exercises strengthen the skin on the labia and also tighten the vagina
Move more Sitting in one place causes weakening of the intimate muscles.Try to move more, exercise on a fitness ball
Do not ride a bike whose seat rubs your genitals Incorrectly fitted seat leads to deformation of the labia
Properly moisturize the genitals It is necessary to treat the genitals with special means for intimate hygiene
Labioplasty This is a procedure in which the doctor injects hyaluronic acid into the labia

Age influences not only the condition of the skin on the face.The genitals also undergo changes. This is because they are made up of muscle tissue that stretches over time.

As a result, the tone of the labia is weakened and they lose their firmness. This makes the woman unattractive, except that the sensations of sex become less pleasant.

Today we will tell you how to raise the tone of the skin of the labia so that a woman feels young again.

What causes weakening of the skin on the labia?

There are several factors that trigger the appearance of sagging skin on the labia:

  • age over 45;
  • pregnancy;
  • hormonal changes;
  • sexual abstinence;
  • transferred operations.

Consequences of loss of labia tone

  • The size of the clitoris is decreasing. In parallel with this, its sensitivity decreases;
  • the tone of the vagina decreases, as a result of which it loses its elasticity;
  • the skin of the labia becomes dehydrated, dry and loses firmness;
  • there is a prolapse of the skin;
  • the labia minora are reduced in size;
  • a woman feels discomfort during intercourse.

What methods can be used to tone the skin of the labia?

Have regular sex

If there is a vagina, it must be used for sexual gratification. Otherwise, there will be no youth and beauty. Regular lovemaking is the best and easiest way to keep your labia skin toned.

Weight Control

Sometimes women are unable to properly balance their diet, resulting in weight gain and loss.This has a direct impact on the appearance of the genitals. With age, the skin on the genitals loses its elasticity. If a woman has curvaceous body shapes, she may not even notice that the skin on the labia has lost its elasticity. But after losing weight, it becomes very noticeable. To avoid this, you must constantly monitor the metabolism.

Doing Kegel Exercises

This technique is aimed at strengthening the muscles of the vagina and labia. The result is an improvement in sexual sensations.Doctors recommend doing Kegel exercises regularly, then they will have the greatest effect. To do this, it is necessary to contract the walls of the vagina for 5 seconds. Then they need to be relaxed. You need to repeat the exercise 100 times 3 times a day. It may seem exhausting at first, but Kegel exercises will strengthen the intimate muscles and raise the tone of the labia skin again.

Do not sit for a long time in the office chair

To increase the tone of any muscles, it is necessary for a person to move actively.If he sits, the muscles will atrophy – weaken. Therefore, doctors do not advise sitting on an office chair for a long time. For relaxation, it is recommended to purchase a large rubber fitness ball.

It is recommended to sit on it, like on a chair, at least 15 minutes a day. You can also just relax on it after finishing work. This exercise trains all the muscles of the vagina, and without any tension. A woman will love using a rubber ball as it helps to strengthen the skin and muscles of the labia with minimal effort.

Be careful with cycling!

Not everyone may know that friction of intimate muscles against the bicycle seat stretches them and deforms the labia. This is especially noticeable in those women whose labia are naturally large. Experts advise to ride a bike as little as possible, or choose the seats that are as comfortable as possible.

Don’t forget to hydrate

Intimate hygiene means a lot for the health of the labia and organs.Soaps and scrubs are contraindicated for treating the genitals, as they dry out the skin. It is necessary to treat intimate places with a means for intimate hygiene, lotion, foam or, in extreme cases, water. Think about how you choose cosmetics for dry skin on your face. The same is true with the skin on the labia.

Conducting intimate plastics

Its scientific name is labioplasty. This procedure consists of injecting hyaluronic acid into the labia. As a result, the skin tone rises and the labia increase in volume.The labiaplasty is performed by a doctor using local anesthetics such as lidocaine.

Visit your gynecologist regularly

This will prevent the appearance of intimate problems. Be especially careful if you experience itching, burning, or pain.

These are the ways to help a woman keep her genitals in the necessary tone. It is best to prevent problems from occurring than to fix them later. Therefore, lead a regular sex life, visit a gynecologist, adhere to intimate hygiene and your personal life will bring only one pleasure.

Kisaev Vladislav Borisovich – andrologist, urologist, surgeon


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Flabby labia

Currently, women pay a lot of attention to their body, and especially to the intimate area. Finding flabby labia, many panic and throw all their strength into eliminating the problem.

They care less about the condition of their hair or skin than the area covered by underwear. Paradox. Nevertheless, we will try to figure out why such a change in tissues occurs and we will find out how to help a woman restore beauty to her labia.


  • 1 Change
  • 2 Stages
  • 3 Reasons
  • 4 Correction


As you know, the labia majora are larger. They are protected by the hairline and are close to the outside of the skin, which covers most of the body.The labia minora are deeper; they are, as it were, partially hidden. But sometimes they sag and they become too visible.

In this case, we are talking about hypertrophy. In this case, pronounced asymmetry is observed, stretch marks appear. Due to deformation, the lips also change color. Statistics show that this problem affects one third of women worldwide. Of course, it is not surprising that the bulk is wondering how to make the labia elastic.

Normally, the labia minora are visible, but the protruding area is approximately 2 cm, not more.If a woman notices that her lips stick out by 4-6 cm or more, then you should first contact a gynecologist.

Usually, the deformity is resolved by surgery. There are also such representatives of the fair sex for whom a ledge even by 1 cm seems terrible. And this is already a question of accepting your body.

It should be understood that labia hypertrophy is not a disease. This is just an anatomical feature of the body. If the defect interferes, then you need to think about its elimination.

Usually, medical attention is needed when trauma occurs with underwear or hygiene products (pads), when sex and physical activity become impossible.

Aesthetics is impaired if the labia are loose and wrinkled. In this case, the folds are uneven and the difference in length is noticeable. It is this condition of the external genital organs that most often worries women. Before agreeing to plastic surgery, it is necessary to understand the causes of the deformity. After all, any surgical intervention is stress for the body.

Women want to return to the intimate area its former beauty, so that you can wear erotic underwear of miniature size and sunbathe on the beach without looking back, visit the pool.

In this case, correction is indispensable, even though there is no harm to health. When hypertrophy becomes a hindrance to normal sexual life, then first of all, the help of a psychotherapist is needed. It is possible that a woman will be able to accept her body without using a surgical method.


Flabby labia have their own classification:

  • The labia minora do not cause much discomfort, as they protrude only 2 cm.
  • The lips protrude by 4 cm. In this embodiment, the skin folds sag quite noticeably, so a woman can feel them when walking, while riding a bicycle. Going to the gynecologist will also give you unpleasant sensations.
  • With an increase in the labia minora by 6 centimeters or more, noticeable irritation appears when moving.

There are several signs that allow you to go to surgical manipulations if the labia are loose and saggy. Here they are:

  • the form has changed so much that sexual life becomes impossible;
  • deformation interferes with hygiene procedures;
  • The skin of the labia turns blue due to circulatory disorders.


Causes of hypertrophy of the labia minora:

  • Menopause.The problem arises in the climacteric period, since hormonal changes are taking place in the body and the skin is no longer as elastic as it used to be. Flabby and uneven areas appear due to a lack of estrogen.
  • Weight loss. If the extra pounds are gone very quickly, then the body does not have time to adjust.
  • Childbirth. During the birth of a baby, the skin is stretched and may deform.
  • Aggressive sex. With prolonged and rather abrupt sexual contact, the external organs can stretch.
  • Injuries. The skin can be enlarged due to cuts or blows to the perineal area. After healing, it does not change its appearance for the better.
  • Piercing. Various elements of the piercing make the labia heavier and tighten.
  • Inflammation. With such pathologies, in addition to deformation, the skin acquires a bluish tint.
  • Heredity. If you ask close relatives in more detail, have they thought about how to make the labia elastic, then in response you can even get some advice.In this case, your guess is correct. Often, the first symptoms of deformity will appear either during adolescence or after the onset of sexual activity.
  • Hormonal imbalance. Changes in the labia can occur when there is a shift in the body towards male hormones.

It is very rare for young girls to suffer from this problem. Even if they have some changes, they are almost invisible. If we talk about babies, then even they have hypertrophied labia due to prematurity or some pathology that began even inside the womb.


Stretched and flabby labia are corrected only surgically, as mentioned above. The procedure is called labiaplasty. Many women have experienced its positive effects.

Labioplasty is relatively safe, but before going to surgery, it is necessary to study the contraindications:

  • inflammation affecting the genital area;
  • oncological diseases;
  • infectious diseases;
  • mental pathologies;
  • pregnancy;
  • 90 011 age up to 18 years.

The presence of at least one contraindication indicates that labioplasty is prohibited.

Before the procedure, it is imperative to be examined. A woman takes blood tests, including laboratory tests to determine the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis and HIV. Also, the gynecologist takes a smear on the flora, since the intervention, although external, but the internal genital organs will also be affected to some extent.

It is imperative to epilate before surgery.If the labia are loose, this can cause some difficulty. If desired, the doctor can photograph the intimate area so that the patient can then compare the result with what was before the intervention.

Local anesthesia serves as anesthesia during the operation. In addition, the woman is injected with a mild sedative.

The operation takes about 60 minutes or less in duration. The woman lies on her back with her legs spread and fixed. Everything happens quite simply.Excess areas are treated with an antiseptic solution and cut off. Then stitches are applied, the threads of which will dissolve by themselves.


Any intervention will cause pain. You need to endure them. It will be especially difficult in the early days. When urinating, severe cramps appear when urine enters the wound.

After about a week, the discomfort is less pronounced and the woman does not feel pain. After a month, if no infection has joined, you can live sex life again.But it is better to do this after the permission of the attending physician. They do the same with sports.

If flabby labia are a thing of the past, then you shouldn’t relax right away. Sometimes there are complications: scars and scars, bluish skin tone. It also happens that the sensitivity of the small lips decreases, so caressing during sex does not give pleasure.

Labioplasty, like any other operation, reduces local immunity, therefore, inflammatory reactions are not excluded. Statistics report that the complication rate is only 10%.The remaining 90% are happy that they decided to have an operation.

90,000 Pain after sex: 11 possible causes

Most of the problems that spoil the reflection in the mirror are known to arise from hormones. The endocrinologist knows this very well and already at the first appointment takes the necessary measures if something goes wrong.

The level of estrogen decreases – age spots appear on the face. The progesterone level swings – swelling occurs.The skin has become dry – clearly a disorder with sex hormones. In fact, everything that happens to us, including, of course, age-related changes, is regulated by hormones (even physical and emotional sensations – thirst, arousal, hunger, drowsiness).

Who’s in charge here?

Usually, when you feel tired, you attribute it to the fact that you have not been on vacation for a long time. It is so?

If on vacation, instead of climbing a mountain peak or diving, you prefer to sleep in your room, it is possible that the reason is in the thyroid gland.It is a tiny gland (weighing no more than 25 g) at the base of the neck.

The doctor, knowing the hierarchical chain of the endocrine system (and she clearly put everything in its place), quickly establishes a causal relationship and identifies where the failure occurred.

Iodine is captured from food using a special protein transport system and delivered to the thyroid gland. There, the synthesis of the primary hormone T4, thyroxine, takes place. Further, the hormone regulator TSH (this is the abbreviated name for thyroid-stimulating hormone) acts – a very important component in the metabolic system.It is produced in the pituitary gland and controls the thyroid gland, stimulates the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), without which metabolism can take place. If, for some reason, T4 and T3 exceeded the norm, TSH turns on regulation and reduces their amount to an acceptable level. This is theory. Let’s move on to practice.

Hyper- and hypothyroidism: what is the difference

Today, women over 35 have a higher risk of developing thyroid disease, and it increases with age.Problems can cause menstrual irregularities to fail, reduce the chance of conception, or complicate pregnancy.

It happens that after childbirth there is an increased risk of developing thyroiditis – an inflammation of the thyroid gland. Postpartum thyroiditis affects more than 10% of women, causing fatigue and irritability. The risk of developing hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) also increases with age.

The condition is accompanied by irritability, moodiness, nervous excitement, hyperactivity and anxiety, sweating, hypersensitivity to high temperatures, hand tremors, hair loss.

Hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function) may develop over time. In this condition, sleep problems are usually disturbed, concentration of attention decreases, a feeling of fatigue and depression occurs, sensitivity to low temperatures increases, pains in the back and joints occur, skin and hair become dry.

If you do not start early treatment and control hormonal status, the risk of developing heart disease increases. And in the case of hyperthyroidism, do not forget about the possible development of osteoporosis.

Myths and truth about the thyroid gland

Thyroid problems are more common in women than in men. Many people think that thyroid problems are directly related to taking oral contraceptives. This is not the case, oral contraceptives cannot affect the condition of the thyroid gland. In the pituitary gland there is a hormonal representation for the ovaries with the production of hormones: prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone. Contraceptives regulate the process and help maintain balance.However, you should only use contraceptives that are appropriate for your age group.

Also, contrary to popular belief, menopause does not affect the thyroid gland in any way. In menopause, the rate of the hormone estradiol may be disrupted. This occurs under the influence of factors such as age-related changes, the duration of climacteric changes, the level of other hormones. Because of this, sometimes there are problems associated with vascular tone, blood pressure may increase.

Seasonal Crisis

What really affects the functioning of the thyroid gland is seasonality – it is very sensitive to temperature extremes.Therefore, the transition to winter or summer can be accompanied by painful symptoms. The fact is that the thyroid gland is involved in energy metabolism, the slightest waste of energy has a depressing effect on it.

That is, if you walk in cold weather in light clothes or sleep poorly and irregularly, wait for an alarm from the thyroid gland. Lifestyle and bad habits will immediately affect her condition.

Now, when we are smoothly moving towards summer, iron can also make itself felt.It is not for nothing that at this time there is a complete record in the endocrinologists’ offices. Patients come on their own or in the direction of a local therapist with complaints of increased irritability, tearfulness, resentment, sharp weight loss.

Hypothyroidism, or hypothyroidism, means that the gland does not produce enough hormones to do its job.

Another problem is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, a condition that causes the body to produce antibodies that attack its own thyroid gland.Because of this, metabolism decreases, weight increases, cholesterol levels rise, and all this does not reflect in the best way on appearance.

In a bundle

At the first appointment, the endocrinologist will listen to your complaints, and then examine the neck to see if there are changes in the structure of the gland (induration or enlargement). If there is any suspicion of a thyroid problem, you will be given a blood test and an ultrasound (ultrasound) scan. What can the research show? Nodules in the thyroid gland.According to experts, they are formed from a lack of iodine in the body.

Other factors contributing to the appearance of nodes are hereditary predisposition. Gigi Hadid admitted that she has a thyroid disease, and this is the same case.

How are thyroid nodules treated? It all depends on what the node is. There are nodes that were at first colloidal, and then became independent, autonomous, and ceased to obey anyone.To understand these intricacies is the task of an endocrinologist. The decision on the choice of treatment, of course, also remains with the doctor.

Diagnostics according to the rules

Prevention of thyroid diseases is a consultation with an endocrinologist twice a year, starting from the age of 25.

Ultrasound of the thyroid gland and lymph nodes is the safest and most informative diagnostic method that does not require special preparation. Hormone tests for T3 and T4 hormones can give a more accurate picture of how the thyroid gland is functioning.You may also need hormone tests in order to recognize the signs of the disease in time, check the production of hormones and the functioning of the endocrine glands, a biochemical blood test.

It is important to understand that one size approach is unacceptable in the diagnosis of the thyroid gland. It is possible that the doctor will add other laboratory tests to your examination program, as well as consultations from specialists: a cardiologist, a gynecologist, a mammologist.


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