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Can anxiety cause hiccups: Hiccups – Symptoms and causes


Intractable hiccups may be more common than we think — ScienceDaily

Everyone gets hiccups, but some people suffer intractable hiccups that last longer than a month, according to two Loyola Medicine neurologists.

“Intractable hiccups can occur more often than we realize and present to multiple medical disciplines,” Stasia Rouse, MD, and Matthew Wodziak, MD, wrote in the journal Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. Dr. Rouse is chief neurology resident and Dr. Wodziak is an assistant professor in Loyola’s department of neurology.

Hiccups typically occur between four and 60 times a minute. Acute hiccups are common. They start without any specific reason and go away in a few minutes. They often can be stopped by holding the breath or breathing into a paper bag.

Persistent hiccups (lasting longer than two days) and intractable hiccups (lasting longer than a month) generally are associated with underlying medical conditions. They interfere with eating, socializing and sleeping and can significantly impair a patient’s quality of life. The longest recorded case was an Iowa farmer who hiccupped continually for 69 years and nine months, according to the Guinness Book of World Records.

About 4,000 people in the United States are hospitalized each year for hiccups. Ninety-one percent of people who suffer intractable hiccups are men, most of whom are over age 50.

Drs. Rouse and Wodziak describe a hiccup as an involuntary, spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and sometimes the intercostal muscles (tiny muscles between the ribs). This causes inhalation to be cut short by closure of the glottis (the opening between the vocal chords).

Common hiccup triggers are drinking carbonated drinks or eating a large meal. Anxiety or stress also can trigger hiccups, along with alcohol, spices, smoking or other irritants to the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts.

Intractable hiccups usually have underlying causes. In one patient, for example, hiccups were traced to arthritis in the sternoclavicular joint (the joint connecting the collar bone to the breast bone). In another patient, hiccups were linked to pulmonary embolisms (blood clots in the lungs). Certain drugs also can trigger hiccups.

In addition to treating the underlying cause, if known, physicians can treat hiccups with various medications, including baclofen, gabapentin, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine and haloperidol, Drs. Rouse and Wodziak wrote. Nerve blocks within or near the phrenic nerve (involved in breathing) also are being studied. Other reported remedies include swallowing granulated sugar, hypnosis and acupuncture.

Hiccup treatments cross multiple disciplines, including neurology, gastroenterology, pulmonology and primary care, Drs. Rouse and Wodziak wrote. There are no formal guidelines for treating intractable hiccups. Many treatments are founded merely on a physician’s own experience or anecdotal evidence.

“There is a lack of good quality evidence to recommend specific treatment for hiccups,” Drs. Rouse and Wodziak wrote.

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7 Fascinating Things That Happen In Your Body When You Get Hiccups

Hiccups can run the gamut from funny — especially when they happen at an inopportune times — to slightly annoying, uncomfortable, and even a bit painful. You might hiccup once and then move on with your day. Or you might be plagued by hiccups that last for hours. There are many possible causes for hiccups, and many things going on in the body when they occur.

“Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm, which is [the] muscle below your lungs,” Adrian Cotton, MD, chief of medical operations at Loma Linda University Health, tells Bustle. “When the muscle spasms, it tightens, and that constriction causes the vocal cords [to] close.” Which results in the classic hiccup sound.

“Usually, hiccups last only a few minutes, but they can last for years,” Dr. Cotton says. (Though this is rare.) “If hiccups last for more than 48 hours you should see your doctor,” he says. “If hiccups persist, there are medications and surgeries [your doctor] can discuss with you.”

There are also many tricks to make hiccups go away, that you can try at home. But the good news is, they usually stop all on their own. Read on for a few of the main causes of hiccups, as well as what’s actually going on in your body when you have them, according to experts.


Your Diaphragm Is Irritated

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

Hiccups occur when there’s irritation of the diaphragm, which is the muscle you use to breathe. “This results in spasms of that muscle, which causes a sudden sucking in of air,” Dr. Richard Honaker, MD, tells Bustle. “That causes a click of the vocal cords as they close quickly.”


Your Vocal Cords Are Closing

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

When your vocal cords close quickly due to this spasm, it “makes the ‘hic’ sound,” Dr. Cotton says. “The ‘tightening’ sensation people feel in their throats during a hiccup is their vocal cords closing. ” Many people say they feel pressure right before the hiccup, and this is why.


You’re Swallowing Air

Hannah Burton/Bustle

If you’re in a rush to finish lunch, and end up eating too quickly, don’t be surprised if you get hiccups afterward.

“Eating too fast results in air swallowing which distends the stomach,” Dr. Honaker says. “The diaphragm is a domed-shaped muscle that separates the abdominal organs from the chest organs. Thus, the stomach lies right under the left diaphragm. When it is distended it pushes on the diaphragm, causing muscle spasm due to the irritation.”


Your Emotions Are Running High

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

If you feel like you get hiccups whenever you’re surprised or upset, you’re definitely not alone. “It’s not always about the way we drink or eat — hiccuping can also be triggered by […] emotional situations,” Caleb Backe, a health and wellness expert at Maple Holistics, tells Bustle.

This is why having someone scare you is a common “cure” for hiccups. It’s all about the change in emotion, Backe says, so “getting a shock can sometimes get rid of them.”


You’re Anxious

Hannah Burton/Bustle

“Anxiety also results in air swallowing in some people as they may have subtle, mild hyperventilation,” Dr. Honaker says. When you’re breathing rapidly, or having a panic attack and taking in a lot of hair, you may get hiccups as a result.

“We all know how anxiety can make neck muscles tight [and] the same things happens in abdominal muscles,” he says. “When that happens it puts pressure on the abdominal organs and they are pushed up inside the abdomen, putting pressure on and irritating the diaphragm.”


Your Nerves Aren’t Communicating Properly

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

“Hiccups are the most common abnormality of the diaphragm,” chiropractor Keith Sparks, DC, tells Bustle. “The diaphragm is innervated by the nerves of the lower neck. Hiccups occur when the diaphragm and these nerves are no longer communicating correctly. As a result, we feel a temporary spasm in the diaphragm which we call a hiccup.”

It’s not a permanent situation, however. As Sparks says, “Most of the time, the brain-body connection will figure out this solution subconsciously before a conscious solution is found.” You can try a trick or two to get rid of hiccups, but time tends to be the best remedy.


You Might Have Another Health Issue

Ashley Batz/Bustle

In rare cases, hiccups that last long-term may be a sign of an underlying health issue, like diabetes. “Diabetes can lead to periods of stomach paralysis, which can cause a variety of uncomfortable symptoms, including abnormal abdominal bloating,” Samantha Morrison, a health and wellness expert for Glacier Wellness, tells Bustle. “In turn, your bloated stomach can put pressure on your diaphragm for extended periods of time and lead to persistent hiccups.

Hiccups happen to pretty much everyone, at one point or another. They may be the result of eating too quickly, or swallowing too much air, and as a result usually sort themselves out on their own. Unless you have them for more than 48 hours, hiccups — and the way they affect the body — are nothing more than an inconvenience.

Why Do You Get Hiccups? (And How to Stop Them) – Cleveland Clinic

Q: I seem to get hiccups often and they’re very annoying. Why does this happen? And what can I do to get rid of them? 

A: Most people have experienced the annoying, sometimes quite noisy condition known as hiccups. Why do they happen? And more importantly, what can you do to get rid of them? 

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Centuries ago, people claimed hiccups meant a growth spurt for children. Today, we understand the mechanics of a hiccup: When the diaphragm — a muscle situated between the lungs and the stomach — becomes irritated, it begins to spasm. This spasm causes what is commonly known as hiccups.

Hiccups happen when there’s a disturbance in the nerve pathways that lead from the brain to the diaphragm. This helps explain why they sometimes occur during emotional situations or temperature changes.

They can also kick in after you swallow too much air, eat too quickly or too much, or experience excitement or anxiety. It is unclear if hiccups have a physiologic role. In the womb, hiccups may be a programmed exercise of the lungs to help with breathing. Other causes of hiccups may include acid reflux and drinking carbonated beverages.

The good news is that hiccups are usually short lived. If you have persistent hiccups that last for several days or more, see a doctor. This may indicate the presence of a medical issue that needs attention. Sometimes, certain diseases or even a medical procedure, especially those involving anesthesia, can cause prolonged bouts of hiccups.

You’ve probably heard about numerous remedies for curing hiccups, but none of these has any scientific basis, experts say. However, some anecdotal evidence suggests that an increase in carbon dioxide may help.

Holding your breath or breathing into a paper bag increases carbon dioxide levels in the lungs and may relax the diaphragm, stopping the spasms and, thus, the hiccups.

— Family medicine physician Daniel Allan, MD

What causes hiccups? | Ochsner Health

What causes hiccups? It all starts with your diaphragm. Your diaphragm is the muscle located just below the lungs and heart and separates the abdomen from the chest. It plays an important role in breathing by pulling down air when you inhale and then relaxing so air can flow out.

Hiccups are a result of involuntary contractions of the diaphragm, which cause you to suck air down into your throat. When the sudden intake of air hits your voice box, your vocal chords close suddenly, causing the “Hic!” sound.

Common reasons you may be hiccuping:

  • Eating a large meal
  • Consuming alcohol
  • Drinking carbonated beverages
  • Strong emotions such as excitement or anxiety
  • Swallowing air while chewing gum or sucking on candy

Medications that may cause hiccups:

  • Acid reflux medications
  • Benzodiazepines such as anxiety and seizure medications
  • Levodopa and other common Parkinson’s medications
  • Ondansetron and other anti-nausea medicines

Hiccups are also common after undergoing surgeries that require anesthesia or procedures that involve your abdominal organs.

Hiccups can be caused by any number of things and are usually nothing to worry about. However, if they persist, they can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition such as nerve damage, central nervous system disorders, metabolic disorders or drug use. If you ever find yourself with persistent hiccups, lasting more than three hours, affecting sleep patterns or interfering with eating, you may need to contact your doctor.

For your more run-of-the-mill hiccups, you can try a home remedy. Holding your breath is a common method thought to help the body retain carbon dioxide, which can stop the spasms of the diaphragm. Other methods are meant to stimulate the nerves that run from your brain to your stomach to help decrease hiccups. These home remedies include:

  • Drinking a glass of water
  • Pulling on your tongue
  • Biting a lemon
  • Gargling with water
  • Placing sugar on the back of your tongue.

Hiccups // Middlesex Health


Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. Each contraction is followed by a sudden closure of your vocal cords, which produces the characteristic “hic” sound.

Hiccups may result from a large meal, alcoholic or carbonated beverages or sudden excitement. In some cases, hiccups may be a sign of an underlying medical condition. For most people, a bout of hiccups usually lasts only a few minutes. Rarely, hiccups may persist for months. This can result in weight loss and exhaustion.

Hiccups are caused by involuntary contractions of your diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. This involuntary contraction causes your vocal cords to close very briefly, which produces the characteristic sound of a hiccup.


Hiccupping is a symptom. It may sometimes be accompanied by a slight tightening sensation in your chest, abdomen or throat.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment to see your doctor if your hiccups last more than 48 hours or if they are so severe that they cause problems with eating, sleeping or breathing.


The most common triggers for hiccups that last less than 48 hours include:

  • Drinking carbonated beverages
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Eating too much
  • Excitement or emotional stress
  • Sudden temperature changes
  • Swallowing air with chewing gum or sucking on candy

Hiccups that last more than 48 hours may be caused by a variety of factors, which can be grouped into the following categories.

Nerve damage or irritation

A cause of long-term hiccups is damage to or irritation of the vagus nerves or phrenic nerves, which serve the diaphragm muscle. Factors that may cause damage or irritation to these nerves include:

  • A hair or something else in your ear touching your eardrum
  • A tumor, cyst or goiter in your neck
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Sore throat or laryngitis
Central nervous system disorders

A tumor or infection in your central nervous system or damage to your central nervous system as a result of trauma can disrupt your body’s normal control of the hiccup reflex. Examples include:

  • Encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Tumors
Metabolic disorders and drugs

Long-term hiccups can be triggered by:

  • Alcoholism
  • Anesthesia
  • Barbiturates
  • Diabetes
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Kidney disease
  • Steroids
  • Tranquilizers

Risk factors

Men are much more likely to develop long-term hiccups than are women. Other factors that may increase your risk of hiccups include:

  • Mental or emotional issues. Anxiety, stress and excitement have been associated with some cases of short-term and long-term hiccups.
  • Surgery. Some people develop hiccups after undergoing general anesthesia or after procedures that involve abdominal organs.


Prolonged hiccups may interfere with:

  • Eating
  • Sleeping
  • Speech
  • Wound healing after surgery


During the physical exam, your doctor may perform a neurological exam to check your:

  • Balance and coordination
  • Muscle strength and tone
  • Reflexes
  • Sight and sense of touch

If your doctor suspects an underlying medical condition may be causing your hiccups, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests.

Laboratory tests

Samples of your blood may be checked for signs of:

  • Diabetes
  • Infection
  • Kidney disease

Imaging tests

These types of tests may be able to detect anatomical abnormalities that may be affecting the vagus nerve, phrenic nerve or diaphragm. Imaging tests may include:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Computerized tomography (CT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Endoscopic tests

These procedures utilize a thin, flexible tube containing a tiny camera, which is passed down your throat to check for problems in your esophagus or windpipe.


Most cases of hiccups go away on their own without medical treatment. If an underlying medical condition is causing your hiccups, treatment of that illness may eliminate the hiccups. The following treatments may be considered for hiccups that have lasted longer than two days.


Drugs that may be used to treat long-term hiccups include:

  • Baclofen
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Metoclopramide

Surgical and other procedures

If less invasive treatments aren’t effective, your doctor may recommend an injection of an anesthetic to block your phrenic nerve to stop hiccups.

Another option is to surgically implant a battery-operated device to deliver mild electrical stimulation to your vagus nerve. This procedure is most commonly used to treat epilepsy, but it has also helped control persistent hiccups.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Although there’s no certain way to stop hiccups, if you have a bout of hiccups that lasts longer than a few minutes, the following home remedies may provide relief, although they are unproven:

  • Breathe into a paper bag
  • Gargle with ice water
  • Hold your breath
  • Sip cold water

If you have chronic hiccups, lifestyle changes may help:

  • Avoid carbonated beverages and gas-producing foods
  • Eat smaller meals

Alternative medicine

When long-term hiccups don’t respond to other remedies, alternative treatments, such as hypnosis and acupuncture, may be helpful.

Preparing for an appointment

While you may initially consult your family doctor about your persistent hiccups, he or she may refer you to a specialist if you have persistent or severe hiccups.

What you can do

You may want to write a list that includes:

  • Detailed descriptions of your symptoms
  • Information about medical problems you’ve had
  • Information about the medical problems of your parents or siblings
  • All the medications and dietary supplements you take
  • Questions you want to ask the doctor

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask:

  • When did your hiccups start?
  • How often do they occur?
  • Is there anything that worsens or alleviates them?
  • What medications are you taking?
  • Have you had a sore throat or earache?
  • Do you have indigestion symptoms or bloating?
  • Have you had a sore throat or changes in your voice?
  • Have you had chest pain, a cough or difficulty breathing?
  • Do you have headaches or other neurological symptoms?

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Breathing Labs – What are hiccups and how do I get rid of them?

This is a question that everyone asks at some point in their lifetime. Exactly. What are hiccups?

Hiccups are an uncontrollable contraction in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen.

The diaphragm plays a considerable role in your breathing. When you have hiccups, the contractions cause your vocal cords to close and open.

What Are Hiccups Exactly?

The sound that comes from this opening and closing is the “hic” sound. This is why these are called hiccups.

Hiccups occur for several reasons. If you eat too quickly, hiccups can develop. If you are nervous or excited, you could get hiccups too.

When you have ever had a too much-carbonated drink or alcohol, you may have gotten hiccups directly. Swallowing a piece of candy and chewing gum can cause these issues.

Being stressed out in life may cause chronic hiccups. If they are established, seeking medical treatment may be the only way to treat and rid yourself of them.

Related Article: What Temperature is A Fever?

Generally, they only last only for a few minutes. If you have hiccups for a month or longer, this can cause exhaustion and weight loss. Persistent hiccups typically do not last anymore than 48 hours. If they do, this could cause shortness of breath or keep you from sleeping.

Long term, they can cause other severe conditions if not seen by a doctor. It could be the body telling you something is wrong, possibly an underlying medical condition. In this case, seeking medical advice is suggested.

What are Hiccups a Symptom of?

If they do not go away, there could be damage to the vagus nerve or irritating the phrenic nerves. This damage could be from hair touching your eardrum, cyst or tumor in the neck, reflux, or a sore throat.

When you have a tumor or infection in the central nervous system due to trauma, there may be a development of hiccups. This is quite common in trauma patients.

If you have had meningitis, a stroke, or Multiple sclerosis, this could be another reason you have this issue. Emotional and mental issues such as stress, anxiety, excitement, shock, and surprise can bring on hiccups.

Related Article: Coolest Male Dog Names

How to Get Rid of the Hiccups

If your hiccups have not ended after a few days, you might be ready to scream. However, we have some tips and remedies to help you eliminate them.

Here we have remedies to get rid of hiccups include old wives ’ tales, home remedies, and suggestions from others. You may have a secret way to get rid of them that works for you.

On a positive note, many of these work. We cannot guarantee they all work. Being startled can help get rid of the “hic” feeling. Find something to distract you. Taking your attention away from the hiccups could help them go away.

  • Relax. Try taking a bath or lying down. When you eructate air out of your chest, your breathing slows down. Typically holding your breath is a sure-fire way to remedy the situation. Whether you are breathing into a bag or holding your breath, one of these can work for you.
    • When you breathe into a paper bag, it is simply taking your carbon dioxide and recycling it. Taking your mind off of the situation could be helpful. Breathing correctly could help stop the contractions of the diaphragm.
  • Eat a teaspoon of honey or try some spicy food. Speaking of food, if this does not work, try a lemon. Some people suggest that you eat a spoonful of sugar.
  • Try to eat at a decent pace when you have a meal. Do not overeat or eat too fast either. You are making sure that you chew all of your food carefully. All of these can cause these contractions to occur.
  • If different foods do not help, try putting pressure on your chest. Simply hold your knees up against your chest. For this to work, we suggest sitting on the floor and somewhere flat. This pressure will help relieve your diaphragm and end the hiccups.

The symptoms should last no longer than 48 hours. If they do, contact your physician. Long-term hiccups are very rare, and it may be nothing, but if you can get some relief, it would be a life-changer. There have been some cases of it causing brain tumors. Visiting your physician about this could save your life.

Related Article: Best Places to Travel During COVID


Hiccups can cause an annoying jump in your body and irritate you when you have them. You may have tried to get rid of the hiccups every time you have had them. Gaining control of your breathing is a great way to begin.

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Treatment of persistent postoperative hiccups with stellate… : Medicine

1 Introduction

Hiccups can be defined as an involuntary and persistent contraction of the diaphragm and respiratory muscles, followed by sudden closure of the glottis.[1] Based on the duration, hiccups can be categorized as temporary (<48 h), persistent (48 h–1 month), or intractable (≥1 month).[2] Despite the low prevalence in general hospitalized patients (54 per 100,000, 0.054%), hiccups are relatively common symptoms in progressive cancer patients, with reported prevalence of 3.9% to 4.5%.[3,4] Temporary hiccups are not very harmful and remedies such as drinking water or holding the breath can alleviate the symptoms. However, persistent or intractable hiccups can induce sleep disorders, exhaustion, fatigue, depression, malnutrition, weight loss, and dehydration. Furthermore, hiccups may induce opening of abdominal or thoracic open surgical wounds, and these patients require active treatment for hiccup symptoms.[5,6] Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been used to treat hiccups. Nonetheless, there is no clear guideline for treatment of hiccups in these patients.

Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been used for treatment of not only traditional symptoms (i.e., angioneurotic disorders and reflex sympathetic dystrophy) but also various other clinical symptoms of unknown origin (including ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and other diseases, as well as facial, upper limb, and chest pain).[7] To our knowledge, this is the first case report (with literature discussion) on multiple patients with persistent postoperative hiccups who were successfully treated with SGB. All patients in this case report agreed with the content and provided written consent for publication.

2 Case presentation

2.1 Case 1

A 70-year-old male (weight 71.7 kg, height 174.4 cm) began experiencing hiccups 1 day after posterior sectionectomy for liver metastasis from rectal cancer, with persistence for 3 days. Consequently, the patient was transferred to the department of anesthesiology and pain medicine. The frequency of hiccups was 10 to 15 times per minute, and the patient had pain induced by persistent hiccups to the extent that he could not sleep. Drinking warm water only alleviated the symptoms for about 30 min. He had undergone a Miles’ operation for rectal cancer a year prior, as had hypertension and diabetes. However, he did not experience hiccups after previous surgery. Results of preoperative physical examinations, laboratory findings, simple chest X-ray, an electrocardiogram (EKG), pulmonary function testing (PFT), and echocardiography were normal, and hypertension and diabetes were well managed with medication. There were no abnormalities observed during surgery, and the patient was transferred to the ICU for general postoperative care, where vital signs remained normal. On postoperative day 1, the L-tube inserted for surgery was removed and the patient was transferred to the general ward.

At the time of consultation, the patient was experiencing pain at the surgery site and sleep deprivation caused by hiccups, but did not exhibit anxiety about the surgical outcome. He was diagnosed with persistent hiccups that required active medical treatment, and was given oral baclofen 10 mg twice daily and left SGB was planned. The surgical risks were explained to the caregiver, who gave consent.

For the SGB procedure, the patient was placed supine with the neck slightly elevated and head slightly rotated to the right. A large skin area was sterilized to prevent infection. To avoid pleural damage, a 25-G butterfly needle was inserted between the trachea and carotid sheath at the height of the anterior tubercle at the left transverse process of the 6th cervical vertebra (C6) and cricoid cartilage. When inserting the needle, we palpated the anterior tubercle of C6, simultaneously pushed the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid artery outward, and inserted the needle toward the C6 vertebral body. When the vertebral body was reached, we withdrew the needle 1 to 2 mm and ensured that no blood was being aspirated. After injecting 0.5 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine for initial testing, we confirmed no abnormalities and injected 8 mL in total. Immediately after the procedure, we observed Horner syndrome – an indication that SGB was successfully completed – on the same side that was treated. The patient was placed in supine position for pain management (1 h), and we confirmed that there were no complications such as phrenic nerve or recurrent nerve injury. Two hours after the procedure, the hiccups stopped but recurred for about 30 more minutes. However, the frequency and duration gradually decreased, and the patient eventually stopped hiccupping.

Although his symptoms did not recur, we repeated left SGB on the following day for prevention and stopped baclofen. The patient was discharged after 1 week and reported on a follow-up phone call that he had not experienced any hiccups since being discharged. At his outpatient clinic visit 3 months after the procedure, he reported that he had not experienced recurrent hiccups.

2.2 Case 2

A 68-year-old male (weight 69.4 kg, height 167.4 cm) who underwent distal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy for gastric cancer developed hiccups on postoperative day 2, when he was transferred to the department of anesthesiology and pain medicine. The frequency of hiccups was about 40 per minute, and the patient was experiencing disrupted sleep and sometimes nausea and vomiting when the hiccups became severe. His history of hypertension was managed with oral medication, and he had undergone spinal stenosis surgery 10 years prior. Results of preoperative physical examinations, laboratory findings, simple chest X-ray, EKG, PFT, and echocardiography were normal and no abnormalities were observed during or after surgery. Starting the day that hiccupping began, he was given oral chlorpromazine 25 mg once daily for 2 days but the frequency and duration of hiccups did not improve. Despite increasing the dose to 50 mg, his symptoms did not improve after 4 days. At the time of consultation, he reported slightly reduced frequency and duration of hiccups compared to the day before. Nonetheless, he was still experiencing disrupted sleep, nausea, and vomiting. He was diagnosed with persistent hiccups, and underwent left SGB with 0.2% ropivacaine 8 mL using the same method as described above. After the procedure, we observed Horner syndrome, suggesting successful procedure completion. Although his symptoms stopped immediately, the hiccups returned about 2 h after the procedure – along with resolution of ptosis – with reduced frequency (about 10 times per minute) but increased intensity. For additional treatment, oral baclofen 10 mg twice daily was given.

The patient experienced intermittent hiccups until the next morning, and we performed a second SGB on the left side. Similar to the day before, the hiccups stopped immediately after the procedure, but recurred with resolution of ptosis. However, the frequency was reduced and the intensity was weakened to an extent where the patient felt much more comfortable. He experienced intermittent hiccups until the next morning, but had no trouble with sleep. Another SGB was performed, but on the right side this time. Hiccups stopped immediately after the procedure, returned 2 to 3 h later, and eventually resolved after several hours. We stopped baclofen and the patient was discharged after 3 days without hiccups. At the outpatient clinic visit 4 months later, he reported that he had not experienced recurrent hiccups.

2.3 Case 3

A 44-year-old male (weight 75.4 kg, height 170.3 cm) who underwent a Whipple procedure with small bowel resection and anastomosis for duodenal cancer began experiencing hiccups immediately after surgery, and was transferred to the department of anesthesiology and pain medicine. The frequency of hiccups was 10 to 20 times per minute, and the intensity worsened if he consumed food or drank water. This patient had no other medical history. Results from preoperative physical examinations, laboratory findings, simple chest X-ray, EKG, PFT, and echocardiography were normal and no abnormalities were observed during or after surgery. After consultation, the patient preferred pharmacological treatment and was given oral baclofen 10 mg twice daily. By the next day, hiccups stopped after dosing, but resumed an hour later. We then increased the baclofen to 10 mg 3 times daily.

Despite 3 days of baclofen, the frequency and intensity of hiccups remained unchanged. Because of persistent hiccups, the patient underwent left SGB with 0.2% ropivacaine 8 mL and we observed Horner syndrome. The frequency and intensity of hiccups were reduced, and the patient stopped hiccupping 2 days after the procedure. We stopped baclofen the day after the procedure, after confirming that hiccups did not recur.

However, on day 10 after the procedure, the hiccups resumed at lower frequency and intensity. We restarted baclofen 10 mg 3 times daily and performed a right SGB. After the procedure, the intensity of hiccups worsened but the frequency decreased. Additional left SGB was performed 2 days later, and the hiccups disappeared, although baclofen was continued for 3 additional days. The patient was discharged a week later, and did not experience recurrent hiccups during a year of follow-up.

3 Discussion

Hiccups can develop – even without specific underlying disease – from stimulation of nerve branches above the vagus or diaphragm. Stomach expansion caused by excessive eating, spicy food, liquid consumption, ingestion of air, or stress-related factors (i.e., anxiety) can be contributory.[8] Persistent hiccups can arise from psychological or idiopathic causes, but are mostly associated with underlying diseases. These include central nervous system lesions or tumors, esophagitis, stomach expansion, ileus, infection, and stimulation of the peripheral nervous system in the head and neck, chest, or abdomen due to surgery or other procedures.[9] In other words, all events that lead to stimulation of the vagus nerve can cause hiccups.[10] Although a definite pathophysiological mechanism of hiccups is yet to be discovered, based on previous studies, it is thought that the hiccup reflex arc plays an important role.

The hiccup reflex arc is composed of afferent, central, and efferent limbs. The afferent limb includes the vagus nerve, phrenic nerve, and the sympathetic chain in the lower chest (T6–T12). The central limb – surrounded by the brainstem, midbrain, reticular formation, and hypothalamus – connects the afferent and efferent limbs. The efferent limb consists of the phrenic nerve (C3–C5), anterior scalene muscle innervation (C5–C7), recurrent laryngeal nerve (branching from the vagus nerve of the glottis), and accessory nerves leading to the intercostal muscles (T1–T11).[11] Under conditions that stimulate the reflex arc, the patient may experience persistent hiccups. Hansen and Rosenberg[12] reported that patients often developed hiccups within 1 to 4 days after abdominal surgery, and that persistent postoperative hiccups could develop if a patient experienced stimulation or expansion of the stomach, a metabolic disorder, electrolyte imbalance, subphrenic abscess, or infection near the reflex arc (i.e., pneumonia). The patients in this case developed hiccups within 4 days of surgery, suggesting that direct damage or morphological changes in the stomach due to surgery may have stimulated the afferent limb of the hiccup reflex arc and caused persistent hiccups. Furthermore, for the patient with worsening symptoms after food or water consumption, expansion of the esophagus or stomach may be the main contributor.

Treatment of persistent hiccups is nonspecific. Nonpharmacological treatments involve stimulation and suppression of the vagus nerve, with tongue lifting, ingestion of highly concentrated sugar water, stimulation of the pharynx, compression over the eyeball or carotid artery, a valsalva maneuver, and rebreathing. Pharmacological treatments include anticonvulsants (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid), gamma-aminobutyric acid analogues (i.e., baclofen and gabapentin), and dopamine receptor antagonists (i.e., haloperidol, metoclopramide, and chlorpromazine). If these fail, nerve blocking procedures and surgical treatments can be performed.[2] Nonetheless, no treatment method ensures complete cure for the majority of patients.[13]

Although the mechanism of action of SGB in our patients with persistent postoperative hiccups is unclear, some potential mechanisms are suggested. First, SGB may have blocked the sympathetic nerve in the afferent limb of the hiccup reflex arc, which may have effectively alleviated the symptoms. SGB causes blockade of the lower or upper cervical vertebral sympathetic nerves through perineural injection of local anesthetic, with spread of the anesthetic into nearby structures to induce cervicothoracic denervation.[14] Thoracic sympathetic nerve fibers originating from the spinal cord enter into the sympathetic nerve branch leading to the brain through the cervicothoracic ganglion, and SGB may have blocked this pathway.[15] The mechanism is similar to that of thoracic epidural nerve block, which is used to block the afferent limb of the hiccup reflex arc. Second, SGB may have affected the central limb of the hiccup reflex arc to alleviate the symptoms. The mechanism is similar to that of SGB for treatment of facial flushing, complex regional pain syndrome, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain increases in response to acute or chronic stress. The NGF diffuses back toward the cervicothoracic ganglion and promotes growth of sympathetic nerve terminals. Consequently, the level of norepinephrine (NE) in the brain increases, inducing various diseases. SGB acts against this mechanism and reduces the levels of NGF and NE to alleviate the symptoms.[16] This mechanism is associated with the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for hiccups. When patients with persistent hiccups were treated with acupuncture, the secretion pattern of neurotransmitters and neurohormones (i.e., NE, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin in the brain) was altered.[2] The central limb of the hiccup reflex arc is affected by neurotransmitters in the brain, and control of the neurotransmitters in the brain by SGB may have alleviated persistent hiccups. Third, SGB may have affected the efferent limb of the hiccup reflex arc including the phrenic nerves (C3–C5) and anterior scalene muscle innervation (C5–C7). Ganglia of the sympathetic nerve trunks are interconnected and this complex is connected to spinal nerves through gray rami communicantes. Therefore, blockade of the cervicothoracic sympathetic ganglion may have affected the phrenic nerve and anterior scalene muscle innervation which is connected to the spinal nerves.[17]

In this case report, we performed SGB using a blind method and injected a relatively greater amount of local anesthetic compared to that used in ultrasound-guided injection. Kapral et al[18] found that ultrasound-guided SGB, as compared with the blind technique, used a lower volume of local anesthetics (5 mL rather than 8 mL). Left SGB was preferred by practitioner. One time right SGB was performed, because patient felt uncomfortable for the left side. The injected drug spread to the vagus nerve and may have caused direct blockade of nearby phrenic nerves, anterior scalene muscle innervation, and recurrent laryngeal nerves, consequently stopping hiccups in these patients. However, the patients did not experience typical symptoms that can occur after phrenic nerve or recurrent laryngeal nerve blockade (i.e., hoarse voice or discomfort during respiration), suggesting that the above scenario is an unlikely explanation.

In conclusion, additional studies should be performed to clarify the mechanism of action for SGB. However, the procedure is a convenient, safe, and effective method that can be considered in parallel with other treatments for persistent hiccups. Clinicians should be aware of the negative effect of persistent hiccups on the quality of life, and should provide adequate and active treatment if necessary.

Author contributions

Conceptualization: Yong Joon Shin, Il Sang Han.

Data curation: A Ran Lee, Hyung Kwan Lee.

Formal analysis: Yong Joon Shin, Il Sang Han.

Investigation: Hyung Kwan Lee.

Methodology: Il Sang Han.

Supervision: A Ran Lee, Young Woo Cho, Jae Min Lee.

Visualization: Jae Min Lee, Hyung Kwan Lee.

Writing – original draft: Jae Min Lee.

Writing – review & editing: A Ran Lee.

A RAN LEE orcid: 0000-0003-1045-2644.


[1]. Krakauer EL, Zhu AX, Bounds BC, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 6-2005. A 58-year-old man with esophageal cancer and nausea, vomiting, and intractable hiccups. N Engl J Med 2005;352:817–25.

[2]. Chang FY, Lu CL. Hiccup: mystery, nature and treatment. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012;18:123–30.

[3]. Cymet TC. Retrospective analysis of hiccups in patients at a community hospital from 1995-2000. J Natl Med Assoc 2002;94:480–3.

[4]. Porzio G, Aielli F, Verna L, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment of hiccups in patients with advanced cancer: a 5-year experience. Clin Neuropharmacol 2010;33:179–80.

[5]. Howard RS. Persistent hiccups. BMJ 1992;305:1237–8.

[6]. Santos G, Cook WA, Frater RW. Reclosure of sternotomy disruption produced by hiccups. Chest 1974;66:189–90.

[7]. Chung JW, Chun HJ, Lee MS, et al. Effect of stellate ganglion block on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Korean J Anesthesiol 2013;64:439–42.

[8]. Pollack MJ. Intractable hiccups: a serious sign of underlying systemic disease. JClinstroenterol 2003;37:272–3.

[9]. Kolodzik PW, Eilers MA. Hiccups (singultus): review and approach to management. Ann Emerg Med 1991;20:565–73.

[10]. Smith HS, Busracamwongs A. Management of hiccups in the palliative care population. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2003;20:149–54.

[11]. Steger M, Schneemann M, Fox M. Systemic review: the pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment of hiccups. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42:1037–50.

[12]. Hansen BJ, Rosenberg J. Persistent postoperative hiccups: a review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1993;37:643–6.

[13]. Moretto EN, Wee B, Wiffen PJ, et al. Interventions for treating persistent and intractable hiccups in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;1:CD008768.

[14]. Elias M. Cervical sympathetic and stellate ganglion blocks. Pain Physician 2000;3:294–304.

[15]. Mulvaney SW, McLean B, de Leeuw J. The use of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of panic/anxiety symptoms with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder; preliminary results of long-term follow-up: a case series. Pain Pract 2010;10:359–65.

[16]. Lipov EG, Joshi JR, Sanders S, et al. A unifying theory linking the prolonged efficacy of the stellate ganglion block for the treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS), hot flashes, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Med Hypotheses 2009;72:657–61.

[17]. Glick DB. Miller RD, Cohen NH, Eriksson LI, et al. The autonomic nervous system. Miller’s anesthesia 8th edn.Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2015. 346–86.

[18]. Kapral S, Krafft P, Gosch M, et al. Ultrasound imaging for stellate ganglion block: direct visualization of puncture site and local anesthetic spread. A pilot study. Reg Anesth 1995;20:323–8.

90,000 what to do, reasons and how to get rid of


How to get rid of hiccups in newborns: pediatrician advice

Hiccups in newborns after feeding: what to do, reasons and how get rid of

How to get rid of hiccups in newborns: advice from a pediatrician

Hiccups in newborns can begin as a child’s reaction to overeating after breastfeeding. About what to do during an attack in an infant, the reasons for the appearance of RIA Novosti, 16.09.2021

2021-09-16T17: 21

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2021-09-16T23: 48


Health – Society



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MOSCOW, September 16 – RIA Novosti. Hiccups in newborns can begin as a baby’s reaction to overeating after breastfeeding.About what to do during an attack in an infant, the reasons for the appearance of hiccups, how to get rid of it and reduce the risk of new attacks – in the material of RIA Novosti. What is hiccups? what air enters from the environment into the lungs and back with a specific “hiccuping” sound. This is a physiological reaction that can occur not only in adults, but also in newborns. Moreover, scientists from University College London in 2019, as a result of a study, found that hiccups in newborns are an important element in the development of the brain.Every time a child hiccups, a wave of brain signals is triggered, which helps him learn to regulate breathing. Causes of the onset The diaphragm, which causes hiccups, is extremely sensitive in childhood to various stimuli. In addition, hypothermia, feeding breastfeeding, overeating, bloating in an infant, fright, disruption of the nervous system, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, a sharp change in air temperature, thirst.Situations of Hiccups In children, hiccups are usually a normal reaction to external or internal stimuli. To understand the exact cause of the seizures, you should carefully monitor the baby and the situations in which the hiccups occur. After breastfeeding, breastfeeding should take place in a calm environment, where nothing distracts the baby from eating. A few rules. With hypothermia Hypothermia is a common cause of hiccups in a newborn, so when ventilating the room, children should be removed from it.It is also important that the hardening is in moderation and does not lead to severe freezing, which can also threaten with colds. In addition, newborns have impaired thermoregulation, so they need to be dressed twice as warm as adults outside. If the seizure persists or is anxiety-provoking, a few simple steps can help: Another option is to bring the baby to your chest to relax a little.If the cause of the hiccups is bloating, massage may help. To do this, you need to place your palm on your stomach or back and make light strokes in a clockwise direction. When the hiccups are caused by fright, you can distract your baby with a toy or play with him, and during the attack, you should eliminate all annoying factors, such as the TV, so that the baby calms down. In case of hypothermia, the child should be dressed warmer. If none of the above has helped and the hiccups do not stop, you should immediately contact your pediatrician.What is forbidden to do During hiccups, you should not scare the child, because this can injure the psyche and later cause stuttering, it is forbidden to tap on the baby’s back or chest so as not to cause pain. too often and bothers the baby. It is also necessary to contact a medical institution as soon as possible: It is important for parents to monitor the child’s condition and his breathing: if it whistles during hiccups, it is imperative to inform the attending physician about this.Prevention of hiccups After breastfeeding, the baby can be held in a “column” for a few minutes to let the air out. This will help prevent hiccups. It is also important to monitor your baby’s nutrition: Usually, the number of hiccups decreases with age, especially when the baby gets used to breastfeeding.




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society, health – society, health, babies

MOSCOW, September 16 – RIA Novosti. Hiccups in newborns may begin as a baby’s reaction to overeating after breastfeeding. About what to do during an attack in an infant, the reasons for the appearance of hiccups, how to get rid of it and reduce the risk of new attacks – in the material of RIA Novosti.

What is hiccups

Hiccups are a breathing disorder that occurs with a sudden contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, after which air flows from the environment into the lungs and back with a specific “hiccup” sound.

This is a physiological reaction that can occur not only in adults, but also in newborn children. Moreover, scientists from University College London in 2019, as a result of a study , found that hiccups in newborns are an important element in the development of the brain.Every time a baby hiccups, a brain wave is triggered to help him learn to regulate his breathing.

December 18, 2020, 20:58

What to do if a child starts vomiting: instructions for parents

Reasons for the appearance

The diaphragm, which causes hiccups, is extremely sensitive in childhood to various stimuli.

“The reasons for the appearance of hiccups lie in the autonomic nervous system,” Galina Shestakovskaya, a pediatrician, told RIA Novosti.“Newborns have an increased excitability of the parasympathetic nervous system, so hiccups may occur.” intestinal tract, sudden change in air temperature, thirst

Situations of hiccups

As a rule, hiccups in children are a normal reaction to external or internal stimuli.To understand the exact cause of seizures, you should carefully monitor the baby and the situations in which hiccups occur.

After Feeding

Breastfeeding should take place in a calm environment where nothing distracts the baby from eating.

“Hiccups can occur during feeding because there is a vagus nerve in the autonomic nervous system that irritates the gastrointestinal tract,” explained the pediatrician. “This can happen when the stomach is full.In addition, when the baby suckles at the mother’s breast, air also gets inside the milk, which can cause hiccups. In general, such a reaction in children occurs quite rarely – they spit up more often. “

To avoid such a reaction during or after feeding, several rules should be followed.

  1. 1

    practically on the same line.The head of the baby should be tilted back a little so that he can breathe calmly while eating.If the baby hiccups frequently after feeding, it may be due to improper attachment.

  2. 2

    It is important for your baby to choose the right nipple for artificial feeding. If the hole is too large, then the child will not have time to swallow milk, air will enter the lungs, and then hiccups will begin.

  3. 3

    It is important not to overfeed your baby because a full stomach can put pressure on the diaphragm, which causes hiccups.

  4. 4

    If there is an excess of milk, it must be expressed to make it easier to breastfeed without overfeeding.

With hypothermia

Hypothermia is a common cause of hiccups in a newborn, therefore, when ventilating the room, children should be removed from it. It is also important that the hardening is in moderation and does not lead to severe freezing, which can also threaten with colds. In addition, thermoregulation is impaired in newborns, so they need to be dressed outdoors twice as warm as adults.

How to get rid of hiccups

Hiccups in babies can go away on their own and usually do not require any additional measures.If the attack persists or is anxiety-provoking, a few simple steps can help.

“To remove the hiccups, the child needs to be given a little drink, then hold it in a” column “, that is, vertically for 15 minutes, – advises Galina Shestakovskaya. – This will leave excess air, and the contraction of the diaphragm will stop. regurgitation if the stomach is very full. ”

Alternatively, place the baby to the breast to relax a little.If the cause of the hiccups is bloating, massage may help. To do this, you need to place your palm on your stomach or back and make light strokes in a clockwise direction. When the hiccups appear as a result of fright, then you can distract the baby with a toy or play with him.

February 8, 18:09

How to bathe a newborn: features of water procedures

Also, during an attack, you should exclude all irritating factors, for example, a TV, so that the baby calms down. In case of hypothermia, the child should be dressed warmer.If none of the above has helped and the hiccups do not stop, you should immediately contact your pediatrician.

What is forbidden to do

During hiccups, you must not frighten the child, because it can injure the psyche and later cause stuttering, it is forbidden to tap on the back or chest of the baby so as not to cause painful sensations to him.

“If you have hiccups, do not put your child on his back, because if he spits up, he may choke,” emphasizes the pediatrician.- Children should be placed on their side. To avoid hiccups, the baby needs to be fed a little bit. Overeating will lead to stomach irritation and frequent hiccups. ” as soon as possible:

  • for gastroesophageal reflux;

  • for restless hiccups;

  • for attacks that do not stop during the day.

It is important for parents to monitor the condition of the child and his breathing: if it whistles during hiccups, it is imperative to inform the attending physician about this.

12 November 2019, 12:08 ScienceScientists have found that hiccups are very important

Prevention of hiccups

After breastfeeding, you can hold the baby for a few minutes to let the air out. This will help prevent hiccups. It is also important to monitor the baby’s nutrition:

  • servings should be small;

  • The baby must be properly applied to the breast and ensure that the nipple is properly gripped;

  • if the child can already eat on his own, he must do it in a sitting position;

  • The teat and bottle must be washed regularly;

  • if the child is artificially fed, then the recommended food intake should be strictly observed.

Usually, the number of hiccups decreases with age, especially when the baby gets used to breastfeeding.

Myths and Science: How to Defeat Hiccups?

  • Claudia Hammond
  • BBC Fututre

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Sticking out your tongue as much as possible – this also often helps

exotic and rude way? BBC Future talks about how to stop hiccups on your own and why these methods work.

As soon as someone starts to hiccup, everyone starts to scare the unfortunate person, offer him to hold his breath and give a lot of other advice. What are the ways to beat hiccups supported by scientific evidence?

Hiccups are a consequence of a spasm of the diaphragm, causing air to flow into the lungs, which, in turn, causes a sharp closure of the vocal cords with a characteristic “hic” sound. There are more than a hundred reasons for hiccups – in most cases, quite harmless. For example, it can be medication-related – some anesthetics and steroids, drugs prescribed for Parkinson’s disease, and chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer can provoke hiccups.But, as a rule, this is not the case. Laughter, alcohol abuse, and hasty gulping of food or soda can also lead to hiccups – and sometimes it even occurs on its own, without any reason.

It doesn’t do without extremes. It is believed that the world record for the duration of hiccups belongs to an American named Charles Osborne: an attack of hiccups began in 1922 (according to available data, at that time he was trying to weigh a pig), and stopped only 68 years later – in February 1990.

Fortunately, hiccups can usually be stopped using simpler methods – however, the debate over which one is the most effective is still ongoing.

The bulk of folk remedies affect one of two mechanisms. The first group includes methods aimed at increasing the level of carbon dioxide in the blood, which is designed to weaken the spasm of the diaphragm, for example, holding your breath or breathing through a paper bag.

Sometimes these methods are effective, but scientists still do not really understand what their effect is.Some believe that this allows you to switch attention to the problem of increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide, while others suggest that it is the lack of this gas that is one of the causes of hiccups, therefore, its replenishment allows you to stop the attack.

Nervous IR

An alternative way to combat hiccups is to stimulate the vagus nerve, which connects the head to the abdominal region and is responsible for coordinating breathing and swallowing. This nerve is involved in the hiccuping process, which can be interrupted by a certain action on the nerve, as a result of which it begins to send signals to the brain about the appearance of a new sensation.

This group includes tips for drinking water, chewing lemon or putting crushed ice in your mouth. To stimulate the vagus nerve, you can also stick out your tongue, insert your fingers into your ears, or apply light pressure to your eyeballs. In essence, this is an attempt to distract the body from the hiccups by switching attention to some unexpected event. Attempts to stop the hiccups by scaring the sufferer are based on the same logic.

Author of the photo, Thinkstock

Pidpis to photo,

There are also such radical means of fighting hiccups that are not suitable for use at home.Or is it just the opposite?

There is one more radical remedy, which, perhaps, is not suitable for use at home. It was introduced by Francis Fesmire, a professor at the University of Tennessee School of Medicine (USA). The essence of the method is clear from the title of his scientific work, published in 1988, – “Termination of intractable hiccups by massage of the rectum.”

It all started when a man came to the emergency room with a complaint of hiccups, which lasted for three days with an interval of two seconds.The doctor forced the patient to open his mouth wide, pressed on his eyeballs, but nothing helped. After trying all the remedies, Fesmire remembered the material he read last year about how the doctor managed to stop the accelerated heartbeat in a 71-year-old woman by inserting a finger into her anus. This remedy also helped the hiccuping patient.

However, having received a parody Shnobel Prize for his discovery, Fesmire stated that the same effect can most likely be achieved through orgasm, and most patients would probably prefer this method.Both of these approaches also aim to stimulate the vagus nerve.

Most of the folk remedies for getting rid of hiccups do not really have scientific evidence. However, the mechanisms on which they are based are consistent with our knowledge of her physiology; moreover, all of these methods are considered harmless. None of them are universal, which is why they are so numerous, but all of them are not just idle fiction. Start to hiccup – feel free to try any of them.

  • Limitation of Liability.All information contained in this article is provided for general information only and should not be considered as an alternative to the advice of your healthcare professional or other healthcare professional. The BBC is not responsible for the information posted on external sites linked to in this article and does not endorse any commercial products or services mentioned or recommended on any of these sites. If you have any health problems, contact your physician immediately.
  • Read

    the original of this article in English can be found on the website

    BBC Future.

10 REASONS TO Worry You Shouldn’t Worry About

NEWBORN CARE: 10 REASONS TO Worry You Shouldn’t Worry About

Every minute a newborn baby not only gives you great joy, but also gives you many reasons to worry. We decided to do a little research to understand what new parents should be concerned about and what should be left out.

  1. Touching the fontanelle – the wide, soft area on the baby’s head. It doesn’t matter if you touch the fontanelle, it will not harm the child in any way. Don’t feel like touching the fontanelle is directly touching your baby’s brain. So what are you touching? To a tight protective shell. Thanks to the fontanelles, the head of the baby passing through the birth canal contracts without damaging the brain. By about a year, the fontanelles overgrow.
  2. Distinct fontanel pulse . Do not be alarmed if you can literally observe the pulsation of the blood in the fontanel area of ​​the newborn – this indicates the normal functioning of the baby’s circulatory system. Since fontanelles are located in places of incomplete fusion of bones, they have a soft structure, therefore, veins and arteries are visible on them.
  3. Blood on the diaper of a newborn girl . During pregnancy, a surge in the production of the hormone estrogen from the mother can stimulate the uterus of the female fetus.During the first weeks of a girl’s life, they often have so-called. “Mini-menses”, when there is bloody discharge from the uterus.
  4. Small chest cavity, infant . Relax, your child is not sick. According to experts, the sternum consists of three parts. It is possible that the depression you see is the lowest point pointing backwards. As the baby grows, his ribcage and abdominal muscles will gradually align this cavity.However, even before this time, layers of baby fat that are pleasing to the eye will hide this completely normal feature of the structure of newborns.
  5. Soft, watery stool after each feeding . When breastfeeding, newborns often poop after each feed. There is no pathology in this, just breast milk is absorbed very quickly (with artificial feeding, babies poop less often). And the watery consistency of their bowel movements is due to the liquid nutrition of newborns.
  6. Permanent hiccups . Experts cannot say with certainty why babies hiccup so often. Some believe that this is due to a still poorly established connection between the brain and the diaphragm – a muscular septum that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and regulates breathing. Whatever the reason, hiccups are completely harmless and integral to infancy.
  7. Tears and screams. The nervous system of newborns is extremely irritating.Newborns are easy to scare. These two reasons are enough to explain why babies cry so many. Screaming is the only way an infant can communicate his or her needs. Simply put, newborns are simply supposed to cry and scream a lot, so don’t worry too much – your baby is unlikely to be threatened by something serious.
  8. Small pimples on the face . Because of the maternal hormones that are still in the infant’s body, acne often develops between 2 weeks and 2 months of age.This rash is completely harmless and requires only the smallest cleansing. No need to wipe it with Clearasil.
  9. Swollen breasts in girls … and boys ! Hormones that stimulate mini-menstruation in newborn girls also cause slight breast enlargement in babies of both sexes. Unusual? Yes. Temporarily? Exactly. Should you worry? In no case.
  10. Constant sneezing . Babies have such tiny noses! Even the smallest drop of mucus makes you want to sneeze.And since your little one has only recently left their cozy, watery home in your womb, they cannot avoid even minor inconveniences, which can cause several sneezes. If sneezing is not accompanied by the release of yellowish thick mucus, indicating a cold, you just need to wish him good health. Sneezing will stop by itself soon

90,000 Should newborn hiccups be a concern and how to stop them

There are several ways to stop or prevent newborn hiccups, such as using breaks from feeding to belching or using a dummy.It is important to remember that most babies have hiccups in their first year of life, and this is usually not a cause for concern.

What causes hiccups in newborns?

Researchers speculate that the hiccup reflex may serve to remove excess air from the stomach. However, the medical community is still not sure if hiccups have a “special” purpose.

Hiccups occur when something causes a spasm in the diaphragm, the vocal cords quickly close. Air is forced out through the closed vocal cords, creating the characteristic hic sound.

Infant hiccups usually occur for no apparent reason, but feeding can sometimes cause diaphragm spasm. They can happen when the child:

– overeat;

– ate too quickly;

– swallowed too much air.


These factors can cause the baby’s stomach to expand. As it expands, it is “pushed” towards the diaphragm, causing spasms that lead to hiccups.

If hiccups are frequent and uncomfortable, may be due to an underlying health condition such as gastroesophageal reflux.This happens when partially digested food and stomach acid return through the food tube, and as these fluids pass through the diaphragm, they can irritate it and cause cramping.

Feeding or stomach problems may not always cause hiccups. Spasms may appear in the diaphragm for unknown reasons.

How to stop hiccups in a newborn?

Hiccups are usually not harmful to the baby. While adults may find that hiccups are uncomfortable, they tend to be of little concern to the little one.If the hiccups last for a long time and cannot be stopped, only in this case you should consult a doctor.

How you can stop a newborn’s hiccups on your own:

– Take a break for the baby to burp

When the stomach fills with air, it can press on the diaphragm, causing spasms. Taking a break during feeding to burp so the baby can reduce the amount of air in the stomach, which will prevent hiccups.

– Use a teat

A teat can help relax the diaphragm and stop hiccups.

– Use water

A mixture of herbs and water is traditionally used to treat colic and other stomach problems. Herbal tinctures usually include: ginger, dill, chamomile, cinnamon.

– Rub the baby’s back

Rubbing the back and rocking the baby back and forth can help the baby relax. This can stop the cramps that cause hiccups.


What can not be done in case of hiccups:

– make you jump;

– pull the tongue;

– make you swallow water, bending over;

– Don’t try unverified home remedies on your child.

Methods of prevention

Hiccups are often not preventable, but the following strategies can help:

– feed the baby before he gets very hungry;

– feed the baby often, but in small quantities;

– let the baby sit for half an hour after each feeding;

– hold the bottle so that the air is not close to the nipple.


When to see a doctor?

Hiccups are usually not a concern in children under 12 months of age.But, it is necessary to consult a doctor if hiccups are frequent, or bothers the child himself, because this may indicate any health conditions.

Gastroesophageal reflux can cause frequent, uncomfortable hiccups. A child may have GER if he also:

– cries more often than usual, especially during feeding;

– spins strongly during or after feeding;

– Spits more often than usual.

Anyone who suspects a child may have GER should talk to a doctor – the condition can be easily treated.


Hiccups in a child: reasons and how to get rid of

From time to time, all babies hiccup. There is nothing unusual about this, and there is no need to worry about hiccups. As a rule, hiccups will go away on their own after a few minutes, but there are simple ways to stop a child’s hiccups faster. You will learn about them from this article.

Hiccups: Causes of Newborns and Young Children

Children begin to hiccup in their mother’s tummy. If during pregnancy you periodically feel rapid rhythmic tremors in the uterus, most likely your baby was hiccuping at that moment.There is no need to worry about a child’s hiccups.

Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle in the lower chest that relaxes and contracts to help the baby breathe.

The diaphragm may contract in response to irritation, and air is inhaled more intensively than usual. The air “hits” the vocal cords, the glottis closes, and a characteristic “hic” sound is produced. The diaphragm can be irritated when a child eats too fast or too much, is agitated or agitated.

Hiccups: How to Get Rid of

If your baby starts to hiccup while feeding, stop, let it burp, or change your feeding position. Overall, try to help him relax.

Usually the hiccups go away on their own, but if after 5-10 minutes the baby is still hiccupping, continue to feed him. This usually helps. The kid does not experience much discomfort from hiccups. Nevertheless, try to calm him down: play with him a little, shake him and check if his diaper is dry.

Hiccups Prevention

If your baby hiccups most often during feedings, try to start feeding your baby before he gets very hungry and nervous. This usually helps prevent hiccups during feedings.

Your pediatrician can also advise you on what to do to avoid hiccups in your baby.


  • What is a hiccup?

    When a sudden stream of air hits the vocal cords and the glottis closes, a characteristic hiccup sound is produced.Hiccups are common in newborns and young children.

  • How to stop a child’s hiccups?

    If your baby starts to hiccup during or after feeding, try changing the position. Hiccups usually go away on their own. If that doesn’t work, keep feeding your baby – sometimes it can also help stop the hiccups. Try to feed your baby when he is calm.

When your little one has a hiccup, remember not to worry. Try to feed him slowly and only when he is calm and relaxed.You can put your baby on his tummy for a while until the hiccups go away.

And in order not to worry about the necessary products for caring for your baby, it is convenient to have a stock of everything you need at hand. Making purchases in advance can be beneficial as well as beneficial – for example, if you buy Pampers diapers at a discount.

Dog hiccups: what to do?

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90,000 Scientists have figured out how to defeat hiccups

The device to combat hiccups was developed by an international group of scientists.A special drinking tube allows you to simultaneously stimulate the phrenic and vagus nerves, which are involved in hiccups, and with this help stop the attack. Although the straw has been shown to be effective, not all experts agree that such an invention is generally needed.

There are many popular methods to get rid of hiccups, ranging from simple and popular – holding your breath, drinking water – and ending with quite extravagant, for example, rectal massage.However, there are no clinically confirmed ones among them.

Hiccups occur with sharp contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. In this case, air is sharply drawn in between the vocal folds with a characteristic sound. Hiccups can occur if you swallow food too quickly, drink too much, or simply freeze. Prolonged unreasonable hiccups can also be a symptom of various diseases, from encephalitis to heart attacks and brain tumors, so if hiccups occur frequently and does not go away for a long time, you should consult a doctor.

Neurosurgeon Ali Seifi from the University of Texas wondered how to beat chronic hiccups while observing patients in the intensive care unit.

“Hiccups affect many patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke and cancer chemotherapy patients,” he says.

So, one of the patients began to hiccup after brain surgery, the nurses tried to help him with folk methods, but this did not help much, and the patient only became more upset.And a few days after that, Seyfi himself faced a bout of hiccups, speaking to students. At this point, he decided that he needed to find a simple and effective solution.

Seifi and colleagues developed the HiccAway drinking device, a rigid L-shaped tube with a mouthpiece at one end and a small hole pressure valve at the other.

When hiccupping, you need to drink water through this tube – as conceived by the creators, the effort applied to drink activates the phrenic nerve, and the subsequent swallowing – the vagus.They are both associated with hiccups, and if you act on them at the same time, the hiccups should stop.



Alvarez, JAMA Network Open, 2021

“Hypothetically, when these two nerves are busy, they don’t have time to get confused and cause hiccups,” says Seifi.

To assess the effectiveness of the straw, the scientists invited 249 volunteers, who, according to them, hiccuped at least once a month.It turned out that it allows you to stop hiccups in 92% of cases. More than 90% of participants reported that the tube was more comfortable than traditional methods they knew, with most of them also adding that it gave better results. A detailed report has been published in Jama Network Open magazine .

“The device works instantly and the effect lasts for several hours,” says Seyfi.

However, the participants assessed their condition themselves, and there was no control group in the study, so the results have yet to be double-checked.

“Future studies will need to evaluate the effectiveness of the tubule in randomized clinical trials,” the researchers said. They note that such tests have already begun in the United States, Japan and Switzerland.

Most likely, the device will be useful and safe in terms of the risks of the spread of COVID-19, said neurologist Rhys Thomas of Newcastle University. However, the need for a straw is questionable.

“I think this is a solution to a problem that nobody asked for,” he said, adding that there are other effective and inexpensive options.For example, in case of hiccups, he himself plugs both ears tightly and drinks a glass of water through a regular straw.

“Anything that allows you to expand and swallow will work,” Thomas says.

Andrei Pichugin from Buryatia would hardly agree with Thomas – the man has been struggling with incessant hiccups for two years now. She does not allow him to eat and sleep normally, and retreats only during heavy physical exertion. Recently, he managed to achieve admission to the N.N.Vishnevsky in Moscow. Pichugin hopes that he will be helped at least here.

Earlier, Briton Chris Sands was able to recover from hiccups, which lasted for several years, . In his case, it was associated with a brain tumor and stopped when doctors removed about 60% of the tumor.

American Charles Osborne became the record holder for hiccups. He began to hiccup in 1922 and did not stop for the next 68 years. Over the years, the frequency of hiccups decreased, but the hiccups stopped only a year before his death.Nevertheless, Osborne led a normal life, worked, and even got married and had children.