Can blood clots resolve on their own: The request could not be satisfied
Blood clots – Mayo Clinic
Blood clots are gel-like clumps of blood. They are beneficial when they form in response to an injury or a cut, plugging the injured blood vessel, which stops bleeding.
Some blood clots form inside your veins without a good reason and don’t dissolve naturally. These may require medical attention, especially if they are in your legs or are in more critical locations, such as your lungs and brain. A number of conditions can cause this type of blood clot.
Get the latest health information from Mayo Clinic’s experts.
Sign up for free, and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips and current health topics, like COVID-19, plus expertise on managing health.
Learn more about Mayo Clinic’s use of data.
To provide you with the most relevant and helpful information, and understand which
information is beneficial, we may combine your email and website usage information with
other information we have about you. If you are a Mayo Clinic patient, this could
include protected health information. If we combine this information with your protected
health information, we will treat all of that information as protected health
information and will only use or disclose that information as set forth in our notice of
privacy practices. You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on
the unsubscribe link in the e-mail.
Thank you for subscribing
Our Housecall e-newsletter will keep you up-to-date on the latest health information.
Sorry something went wrong with your subscription
Please, try again in a couple of minutes
Feb. 25, 2021
- Blood clots. American Society of Hematology. http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Blood-Disorders/Blood-Clots/5233.aspx. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Your guide to preventing and treating blood clots. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.ahrq.gov/patients-consumers/prevention/disease/bloodclots.html. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Bleeding and thrombosis. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Understand your risk for excessive blood clotting. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Understand-Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- What causes excessive blood clotting? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ebc/causes. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Preventing blood clots in the veins and lungs. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Arterial and venous thrombosis. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Blood vessel & lymphatic disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2016. 56th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2016. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- Lip G, et al. Overview of the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 18, 2016.
- AskMayoExpert. COVID-19: Myocardial injury (adult). Mayo Clinic; 2020.
Embolism NHS – NHS
An embolism is a blocked artery caused by a foreign body, such as a blood clot or an air bubble.
The body’s tissues and organs need oxygen, which is transported around the body in the bloodstream.
If the blood supply to a major organ – such as the brain, heart or lungs – is blocked, the organ will lose some or all of its function.
2 of the most serious conditions caused by an embolism are:
- stroke – where the blood supply to the brain is cut off
- pulmonary embolism – where a foreign body blocks the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs (the pulmonary artery)
Symptoms of an embolism
The symptoms of an embolism depend on the particular type of embolism involved.
The main symptoms of a stroke are drooping of the face, weakness or numbness in one arm, and slurred speech, or an inability to talk or understand what is being said.
Dial 999 immediately to ask for an ambulance if you suspect that you or someone else is having a stroke.
If you have a pulmonary embolism you’ll have a sharp or stabbing chest pain that starts suddenly or comes on gradually. Shortness of breath, coughing up blood and feeling faint or dizzy, or passing out are also common symptoms.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins of your leg. It’s one of the main causes of pulmonary embolisms.
DVT sometimes doesn’t cause any symptoms. However, symptoms can include:
- pain, swelling and tenderness in one of your legs (usually your calf)
- a heavy ache in the affected area
- warm skin in the area of the clot
- red skin, particularly at the back of your leg below the knee
Get immediate medical help if you have pain, swelling and tenderness in your leg and you develop breathlessness and chest pain.
You may have a DVT that’s developed into a pulmonary embolism.
Divers should always be carefully monitored by their colleagues and supervisors so any air or gas embolism can be identified and treated immediately. Read about the warning signs of an air embolism.
A foreign body is any object or substance which shouldn’t be in your blood. Foreign bodies that cause embolisms are known as emboli – a single emboli is called an embolus.
Some common causes of an embolism are outlined below.
Blood contains natural clotting agents which help prevent you bleeding excessively when you cut yourself.
Certain health conditions – such as obesity, heart disease, cancer and pregnancy – can cause blood clots to form inside your veins even where there’s no bleeding.
A clot can travel in the bloodstream before it gets stuck and starts to block the blood flow to an organ or a limb.
A fracture to a long bone, such as a thigh bone, can lead to fat particles within the bone being released into the bloodstream. Fat particles can also sometimes develop following severe burns or as a complication of bone surgery.
Embolisms can also occur if air bubbles or other gases enter the bloodstream.
Air embolisms are a particular concern for scuba divers. If a diver swims to the surface too quickly, the change in pressure can cause nitrogen bubbles to form in their bloodstream and become trapped in a blood vessel. This blockage can cause decompression sickness, which is often referred to as “the bends”.
In people with severe atherosclerosis (narrowed arteries caused by a build-up of cholesterol), small pieces of cholesterol can sometimes break away from the side of a blood vessel, resulting in an embolism.
In rare cases, amniotic fluid – which surrounds and protects a baby inside the womb – can leak into the mother’s blood vessels during labour, causing a blockage. This can lead to breathing problems, a drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness.
Your risk of getting an embolism is increased if you:
How an embolism is treated will depend on:
- what caused the blockage
- the size of the blockage
- where the blockage is in the body
A surgical procedure called an embolectomy is sometimes carried out to remove an obstruction. During the operation, the surgeon makes a cut in the affected artery so that the foreign body causing the blockage can be sucked out in a process known as aspiration.
Medication may be used to dissolve embolisms (thrombolysis) caused by blood clots. Anticoagulant medication, such as warfarin, heparin and low-dose aspirin, can help make the blood less sticky and stop further clots forming.
Embolisms caused by air bubbles are usually treated in a hyperbaric chamber. The air pressure inside the chamber is higher than the normal air pressure outside, which helps reduce the size of the air bubbles inside the diver’s body.
It isn’t always possible to prevent embolisms, but there are things you can do to significantly reduce your risk. For example, you can:
Page last reviewed: 17 February 2020
Next review due: 17 February 2023
Are You At Risk for Clots?
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), also known as blood clots, is a serious, growing public health issue that everyone should know about. Blood clots are preventable, yet an estimated 900,000 Americans are affected each year by a blood clot, resulting in nearly 100,000 deaths.
It is important to understand your risk for a blood clot and to know the signs and symptoms in order to seek treatment early and prevent death from a blood clot. Learn more about blood clots and read how the Stop the Clot, Spread the Word®external icon campaign is raising more awareness about blood clots.
What is a blood clot?
A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that occurs in a deep vein, usually in the lower leg, thigh, pelvis, or arm. A DVT can occur without any symptoms, but it is often accompanied by swelling, pain, and redness of the skin. If a DVT is not treated, a part of the clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a blockage in the lungs called a pulmonary embolism (PE). A PE can cause symptoms such as chest pain, difficulty breathing, coughing, coughing up blood, and irregular heartbeats. It is important to seek immediate medical treatment when experiencing any of these symptoms. A DVT does not go away on its own. Only a healthcare provider can diagnose and treat a blood clot with medicine or in rare cases, surgery.
Who is at risk for a blood clot?
Blood clots can affect anyone at any age, but certain risk factors, such as surgery, hospitalization, pregnancy, cancer and some types of cancer treatments can increase risks. In addition, a family history of blood clots can increase a person’s risk. The chance of a blood clot increases when you have more risk factors.
Why is there limited awareness about blood clots?
Many people do not know much about blood clots and are not familiar with the signs and symptoms until it happens to them or someone they know. In addition, the signs and symptoms of a DVT and PE are similar to other health problems and can be misdiagnosed as other health conditions. A misdiagnosis can lead to delayed treatment of a DVT, resulting in a PE or even death. Understanding your risk for a blood clot and the signs and symptoms can help you seek treatment at the earliest sign of a blood clot to protect your health.
What is the
Stop the Clot, Spread the Word® campaign?
Stop the Clot, Spread the Word®external icon is a digital campaign aiming to address the limited awareness about blood clots. Developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Blood Clot Alliance (NBCA)external icon, the campaign builds public health awareness about VTE to prevent and reduce the occurrence of life-threatening blood clots. The campaign includes a suite of online resources on VTE available on the campaign’s web portal that can easily be accessed and shared with friends and family on social media. Campaign materials include educational tools, such as informative infographics, videos, and downloadable risk factor checklists that encourage you to ask yourself whether you might be at risk for a blood clot and to start a conversation with your healthcare provider.
Since the campaign’s launch in 2015, Stop the Clot, Spread the Word® remains at the forefront of highlighting VTE as a public health issue and in building awareness about the condition. The campaign reaches various groups, including those unaware of blood clots and its complications and people at high risk for developing a blood clot. The Stop the Clot, Spread the Word® campaign has been nationally recognized for its important educational materials, which have been included in a toolkit or “compendium” of VTE resourcespdf iconexternal icon compiled by The Joint Commission, an organization that accredits and certifies nearly 21,000 healthcare organizations and programs in the United States.
The final phase of the campaign will be a public service announcement (PSA), for radio and television that will be available for approximately twelve months. This PSA will share crucial information on the signs, symptoms, and risks for blood clots.
Are You At Risk?
Being aware of blood clots and knowing your risk can help save your life from a dangerous blood clot and its related health problems. Take action to protect your health.
Learn more information on blood clots at CDC’s webpage.
Visit Stop the Clot, Spread the Word®external icon web portal to learn more about your own personal risk, and share materials with your friends and family on social media to help stop the clot, spread the word.
What are the consequences of DVT?
After a blood clot starts to form, another series of reactions almost immediately begins to dissolve (lyse) the clot. The purpose of this process is to confine the clot to the injured area of the blood vessel, limit the size of the clot, and prevent it from growing too large. Sometimes DVT can be completely dissolved or lysed by the body’s own natural processes. Even under these circumstances, however, the clot is likely to cause permanent damage to the vein and its valves. In fact, 5 to 30 percent of individuals who experience DVT develop a second or recurrent DVT within five years of the first episode.
Sometimes, a clot serves as a surface on which another clot forms, so that the clot continues to grow. As it increases in size, blood flow may be completely blocked within a vein. The clot may even extend into the larger vein to which the present vein is connected. In this case, circulation to a leg, arm, or other organ may be so impaired that the limb, organ, or person’s life may be threatened.
In one of every five cases, the clot (or a piece of it) breaks free and travels through progressively larger veins, through the vena cava, and through the right side of the heart, and then wedges into one of the pulmonary arteries or its branches, resulting in pulmonary embolism (PE). As many as 600,000 Americans are hospitalized each year for DVT and its primary complication, PE. In the United States, DVT and PE account for as many as 300,000 deaths per year.
Three to four percent of all patients who experience PE suffer from chronic (persistent) obstruction of blood flow through the lungs—a condition known as
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)
High blood pressure in the lungs that occurs in a small percentage of patients who have had pulmonary embolism. The most common symptom is shortness of breath. This problem usually progresses but may be cured with surgery.
chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The obstruction of this blood flow increases the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. CTEPH therefore strains the right side of the heart, causing symptoms of heart failure including shortness of breath. (See Questions 80 and 81.)
Pulmonary Embolism | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is a pulmonary embolism?
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel in the body
(often in the leg). It then travels to a lung artery where it suddenly blocks blood
A blood clot that forms in a blood
vessel in area of the body, breaks off, and travels to another area of the body in
blood is called an embolus. An embolus can lodge itself in a blood vessel. This can
block the blood supply to an organ. This blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
called an embolism.
The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins make up the body’s circulatory system.
Blood is pumped with great force from the heart into the arteries. From there blood
flows into the capillaries (tiny blood vessels in the tissues). Blood returns to the
heart through the veins. As it moves through the veins back to the heart, blood flow
slows. Sometimes this slower blood flow may lead to clot formation.
What causes a pulmonary embolism?
Blood clotting is a normal process
to prevent bleeding. The body makes blood clots and then breaks them down. Under certain
circumstances, the body may be unable to break down a clot. This may result in a serious
When blood clots in a vein, it may
be due to the slowed blood flow, an abnormality in clot forming, or from an injury
the blood vessel wall.
Blood clots can form in arteries
and veins. Clots formed in veins are called venous clots. Veins of the legs can be
superficial veins (close to the surface of the skin) or deep veins (located near the
bone and surrounded by muscle).
Venous clots most often happen in
the deep veins of the legs. This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Once a clot
formed in the deep veins of the leg, there is a potential for part of the clot to
off and travel through the blood to another area of the body, often the lung. DVT
most common cause of a pulmonary embolism.
Other less common causes include:
- A fat embolus (often due to the breaking of a large bone)
- Amniotic fluid embolus
- Air bubbles
- Deep vein thrombosis in the upper body
- Clots on an indwelling (IV) intravenous catheter that break off
and travel to the lungs
Who is at risk for a pulmonary embolism?
Risk factors for pulmonary embolism include:
- Genetic conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation
- Family history of blood clotting disorders
- Surgery or injury (especially to the legs) or orthopedic surgery
- Situations in which mobility is limited, such as extended bed rest, flying or riding
long distances, or paralysis
- Previous history of clots
- Older age
- Cancer and cancer therapy
- Certain medical conditions, such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), high blood pressure, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease
- Certain medicines, such as birth
control pills and estrogen replacement therapy
- During and after pregnancy, including after cesarean section
- Enlarged veins in the legs (varicose veins)
- Cigarette smoking
What are the symptoms of a pulmonary embolism?
Each person may experience symptoms
differently. The most common symptoms include:
- Sudden shortness of breath (most common)
- Chest pain (usually worse with breathing)
- A feeling of anxiety
- A feeling of dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
- Irregular heartbeat
- Palpitations (heart racing)
- Coughing or coughing up blood
- Low blood pressure
You may also have symptoms of deep
vein thrombosis (DVT), such as:
- Pain in the affected leg (may happen only when standing or walking)
- Swelling in the leg
- Soreness, redness, or warmth in the
- Redness and/or discolored skin
If your healthcare provider thinks you have a PE, he or she will check your legs for
signs of deep vein thrombosis.
The type and extent of symptoms of
a PE will depend on the size of the embolism and whether you have heart or lung
The symptoms of a PE may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always talk
with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is pulmonary embolism diagnosed?
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is often
difficult to diagnose because the symptoms of PE are a lot like those of many other
conditions and diseases.
Along with a complete medical history and physical exam, tests used to look for a
PE may include:
This imaging test is used to assess the lungs and heart. Chest
X-rays show information about the size, shape, contour, and anatomic location of the
heart, lungs, bronchi (large breathing tubes), aorta and pulmonary arteries, and
mediastinum (area in the middle of the chest separating the lungs).
Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q scan). For this nuclear radiology
test, a small amount of a radioactive substance is used to help examine the lungs.
ventilation scan evaluates ventilation, or the movement of air into and out of the
bronchi and bronchioles. A perfusion scan evaluates blood flow within the lungs.
This X-ray image of the blood vessels is used to evaluate
various conditions, such as aneurysm (bulging of a blood vessel), stenosis (narrowing
of a blood vessel), or blockages. A dye (contrast) is injected through a thin
flexible tube placed in an artery. This dye makes the blood vessels show up on
This is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make
detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and
organs. CT with contrast enhances the image of the blood vessels in the lungs.
Contrast is a dye-like substance injected into a vein that causes the organ or tissue
under study to show up more clearly on the scan.
MRI. This imaging test uses a combination of a magnetic field, radio
waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures within the
body without the use of X-rays.
This type of vascular ultrasound is done to assess
blood flow and the structure of the blood vessels in the legs. (Blood clots from the
legs often dislodge and travel into the lung.) US uses high-frequency sound waves
a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs.
Blood tests are used to check the blood’s clotting status,
including a test called D-dimer level. Other blood tests may include testing for
genetic disorders that may contribute to abnormal clotting of the blood. Arterial
blood gases may be checked to see how much oxygen is in the blood.
Electrocardiogram (EKG). This is one of the simplest and fastest
tests used to evaluate the heart. Electrodes (small, sticky patches) are placed at
certain spots on the chest, arms, and legs. The electrodes are connected to an EKG
machine by lead wires. The electrical activity of the heart is measured, interpreted,
and printed out.
How is a pulmonary embolism treated?
Treatment choices for pulmonary
embolism (PE) include:
Anticoagulants. Also described as blood thinners, these medicines
decrease the ability of the blood to clot. This helps stop a clot from getting bigger
and keep new clots from forming. Examples include warfarin and heparin.
Also called clot busters, these medicines are given
intravenously (IV or into a vein) or a catheter is used to deliver the medicine
directly to the clot to break down the clot. These medicines are generally used in
more severe cases due to risk of bleeding.
A small metal device placed in the vena cava (the large blood
vessel that returns blood from the body to the heart) may be used to keep clots from
traveling to the lungs. These filters are generally used when you can’t get
anticoagulation treatment (for medical reasons), develop more clots even with
anticoagulation treatment, or when you have bleeding problems from anticoagulation
Rarely used, this is surgery done to remove a PE. It is
generally done only in severe cases when your PE is very large, you can’t get
anticoagulation or thrombolytic therapy due to other medical problems or you haven’t
responded well to those treatments, or your condition is unstable.
A long, thin, hollow tube (catheter) can be threaded
through the blood vessel to the site of the embolism guided by X-ray. Once the
catheter is in place, it’s used to break up the embolism, pull it out, or dissolve
using thrombolytic medicine.
An important aspect of treating a
PE is treatment to prevent more embolisms.
What are possible complications of a pulmonary embolism?
A pulmonary embolism (PE) can cause
a lack of blood flow that leads to lung tissue damage. It can cause low blood oxygen
levels that can damage other organs in the body, too.
A PE, especially a large PE or many
clots, can quickly cause serious life-threatening problems and even death.
Treatment of a PE is often done
with anti-coagulation medicines or blood thinners. These medicines can put you at
for excessive bleeding if they thin your blood too much. Excessive bleeding is bleeding
that won’t stop after you apply pressure for 10 minutes. Other symptoms of bleeding
watch for include:
Signs of bleeding in the digestive system:
- Bright red vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds
- Bright red blood in your stool or black, tarry stools
- Abdominal pain
Signs of bleeding in the brain:
- Severe headache
- Sudden vision changes
- Sudden loss of movement or feeling in your legs or arms
- Memory loss or confusion
If you have any of these symptoms,
you need to get medical care right away.
What can I do to prevent a pulmonary embolism?
You can help prevent a PE by:
- Having regular exercise
- Keeping a healthy weight
- Eating a healthy diet
- Taking medicines as prescribed
- Not smoking
You can help prevent DVT with:
Compression stockings. These
are elastic stockings that squeeze or compress the veins and prevent blood from
Pneumatic compression devices.
These are sleeves on the legs that are connected to a machine that provides
alternating pressure on the legs to keep blood moving.
Getting up and moving. Do this
as soon as possible after surgery or illness. Movement can help keep clots from
forming by getting blood moving.
Medicine. Anticoagulants and
aspirin are often given to help prevent DVT.
Many people are still at risk for DVTs for a time after they go home
from the hospital. It is important to continue treatment to prevent DVTs until this
goes away. That usually takes about 3 to 6 months.
Key points about pulmonary embolisms
- A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere
in the body (often the leg), travels to an artery in the lung, and suddenly forms
a blockage of the artery.
- Abnormal blood clots can form due to
problems such as “sluggish” blood flow through the veins, an abnormality in clot
forming factors, or an injury to the blood vessel wall.
- A wide variety of conditions and risk factors have been linked to PEs.
- Sudden shortness of breath is the most common symptom of a PE.
- PE is often difficult to diagnose because the signs and symptoms of PE are a lot like
those of many other conditions and diseases. Imaging tests and blood tests are used
to look for a PE.
- An important aspect of treating a PE is preventing additional clots. Medicines, filters
to keep clots from getting to the lungs, and surgery are used to treat PEs.
- A PE, especially a large PE or many
clots, can quickly cause serious life-threatening consequences and death.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment
is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are and when
they should be reported.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Deepak Sudheendra MD
Medical Reviewer: Rita Sather RN
Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
Not what you’re looking for?
Blood Clots and Cancer: A Closer Look
Jul 14, 2021 10:00 AM
Read time: 4 minutes
Yazan Abou-Ismail, MD
Yazan Abou-Ismail, MD, assistant professor of hematology and hematologic malignancies at the University of Utah, specializes in bleeding and clotting disorders. He explains how bleeding and clotting disorders can affect people with cancer.
What is a blood clot?
A blood clot is a clump of blood that has formed a gel-like mass blocking blood flow. If it occurs in an artery (the vessels that supply blood to the organs), it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, organ damage, or limb damage.
Another type of clot is called deep vein thrombosis. This occurs when a clot forms in a vein deep inside the body. It can cause a pulmonary embolism, when the clot travels to a lung and blocks an artery.
What are the signs of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism?
Signs of deep vein thrombosis include the following:
- Swelling in one of the legs
- Pain or tenderness not caused by injury
- Warmth of the skin
- Redness or discoloration of the skin
Signs of a pulmonary embolism include the following:
- Shortness of breath or hard time breathing
- Sudden chest pain that worsens with a deep breath or cough
- Irregular or fast heartbeat
- Coughing up blood
If you experience any of these side effects, call 911 or go straight to the emergency department.
How are blood clots treated?
There are different ways blood clots are treated:
- Anticoagulants, commonly called blood thinners, help prevent clots from getting larger or travelling in the body. They help lower the risk of new blood clots from forming. The body then dissolves the clot on its own.
- Compression socks
- These socks or stockings help reduce the risk of developing blood clots in the leg veins. This treatment reduces the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome.
- An embolectomy is surgery to remove a blood clot from an artery or vein.
- Filter placements help prevent blood clots from travelling to the lungs.
Most people do not require surgery. These procedures are only used in very special situations.
Is deep vein thrombosis serious?
It can be. Usually, blood clots that form in the leg veins remain stuck to the wall of the vein. With appropriate treatment (as noted above), blood clots usually resolve on their own. However, in some cases, these issues are possible:
- Part of the blood clot breaks off and travels in the blood stream. It may reach the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening.
- Ongoing issues happen in the calf, known as post-thrombotic syndrome or post-phlebitic syndrome. These may include calf pain, swelling, rashes, or ulcers.
Can cancer cause blood clots?
Yes, cancer is a known risk factor for blood clots. Certain types of cancer pose a greater risk for blood clots than others. These cancers increase the risk for blot clots:
Usually, the later the stage of the cancer, the greater the risk of blood clots.
Can cancer treatment cause blood clots?
Some types of chemotherapy or hormone therapy used in cancer treatment can increase the risk of blood clots. Other parts of cancer treatment, such as surgery, being in a hospital bed for long periods of time, and placement of catheters in the veins, can increase the risk of blood clots. Talk to your care team if you have any concerns about your risk for blood clots.
I recently had a blood clot. Does that mean I have cancer?
No. Having a blood clot does not mean you have cancer. There are many causes of blood clots. Clots are usually caused by triggers such as surgery or lack of body movement. In rare cases, blood clots can be due to cancer. Stay up to date on cancer screenings, whether or not you have ever had a blood clot.
How common are blood clots?
In the United States, an estimated 900,000 Americans a year get a blood clot. This results in around 100,000 deaths. Worldwide, blood clots are a leading cause of death and disability, with 1 in 4 people dying of conditions caused by blood clots.
What can I do to lower my risk of a blood clot?
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Eat a healthy diet
- Stay active
- Exercise regularly
- Do not smoke
- Avoid sitting for long periods
- If you are going on a road trip, stop to take breaks and walk around.
- If you are flying, move your legs regularly, stand up from time to time, and try to move around the plane. Flex your calf muscles while sitting.
If you have a strong family history of blood clots, talk with your doctor. They can help decide if testing or medications are safe and right for you. Some medications, such as oral contraceptives, may increase the risk of blood clots.
This Philly Doctor Invented a Way to Dissolve One of the Most Dangerous Types of Blood Clots
For blood clots that cause heart attack and stroke, immediate treatment through surgical removal or dissolution with blood thinners can be life-saving. But what happens when a blood clot that causes blockage to the blood flow in the lungs grows too large to safely remove through either method? Until recently, there was no clear solution—and the problem occurs more often than you might think.
Pulmonary embolism is the third most deadly cardiovascular condition, along with a related clotting condition called Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), after heart attack and stroke. Both conditions involve blood clots and affect 900,000 people and cause approximately 100,000 deaths annually in the U.S. alone.
But unlike the clots that are usually responsible for heart attacks and strokes, clots in patients with DVT and PE are normally far too large to be effectively and safely dissolved using medication or minimally invasive surgery. No perfect, widespread solution for this deadly condition exists.
And yet there’s hope in Philly. A Temple Health cardiologist, Dr. Riyaz Bashir, has invented a groundbreaking new treatment for blood clots in large veins, and for the treatment of DVT and PE, one that uses the body’s own blood to help dissolve clots with greater success rates and less medication. So far, it’s been used on less than 200 patients. But as it expands globally, the treatment could change the way physicians treat blood clots.
The best treatment for blood clots is already inside your body.
As a cardiologist, Bashir was dissatisfied with current treatment options for DVT and PE, which primarily consisted of medication or suboptimal removal of blood clots. When you try to remove a massive clot with a catheter, you risk sending debris from the clot deeper into the patient’s veins and arteries. However, if you try to dissolve the clot using medication, you risk potentially deadly side effects, including internal bleeding into the major organs, even the brain.
But Bashir, after years of observing clotting behavior in the body, had a critical insight.
“The patient’s own blood has a lot of clot-dissolving chemicals in it that can rapidly dissolve the clot. The most potent clot dissolving medicine in the body are enzymes in its own blood,” Bashir says. While clots are composed of a material called fibrin that resist the blood’s natural tendency to break things down, once the fibrin comes into contact with a small amount of a clot-dissolving medicine called a thrombolytic, it activates the enzymes in the blood to break down the blood clot.
“Once you combine them [medicine and the patient’s blood], there is a dramatic synergistic effect between the two,” Bashir says.
So Bashir set about designing a catheter that would send a small amount of medicine directly into the clot while opening a channel through it to allow blood to flow in—enabling the body to heal itself with minimal risk of side effects.
The result was surprisingly intuitive. The BASHIR™ Endovascular Catheter has a collapsible basket at its tip that can be expanded once inside a clot. This fissures into the clot, opening it up to allow blood to pass through. The physician can then deliver clot dissolving medicine from each limb of the basket. Thanks to the opening action of the basket and the medicine, blood goes to work dissolving the clot on its own.
“It brings the patient’s own blood into the clot,” Bashir says. “It then saturates the clot with the clot dissolving medicine, and let’s the blood dissolve the clot.”
Thanks to a doctor’s insight, blood clots once thought untreatable can now be safely dissolved.
The arrival of a catheter with the ability to restore blood flow through a clot instantly has important implications for the future of treatment. Bashir’s approach allows him to tackle the numerous challenges traditionally posed by blood clots.
Bashir’s first concern when working on a patient with a blood clot is restoring blood flow to critical areas as quickly as possible. His catheter makes that possible.
“A lot of these patients can get very, very sick very quickly—within minutes,” Bashir says. Upon the basket’s expansion, some amount of blood flow Is immediately restored, limiting potential damage from lack of oxygen. “The ability to open up a basket and have blood flow restored can be the difference between life and death for some of these patients.”
Bashir then wants to dissolve as much of the clot as possible. At the heart of Bashir’s design is the simple fact that other catheters, which are also placed inside of blood vessels, aren’t big enough to affect the bulk of the clot without a dangerous dose of medicine.
“One of the main inspirations for the development of this catheter was these blood vessels. Their diameter is 25 to 30 millimeters, and we were using devices that were made for 5 millimeter vessels,” Bashir says. “No wonder they weren’t doing a good job! So what I tried to develop was a device that can be used in larger vessels.”
The device’s ability to expand in size and break through these large clots allows a much larger surface area of the clot to get exposed to the clot dissolving medicine. Investigational device studies, including the ongoing RESCUE trial, show that the catheter reduces the dose of medicine needed by a third or more, and reduces treatment time from 12 hours to five hours, showing greater overall success rates in dissolving clots. That lowers long term risks of thromboembolic disease, lung hypertension and other symptoms, in addition to increasing survival rates.
The small change could impact thousands of lives.
Its efficiency was critical for Marc Gilliard, a 55-year-old Philadelphia resident and one of Bashir’s early patients.
This past February, Gilliard’s legs doubled in size. He couldn’t stand, and the chest pain made him believe he was having a heart attack.
Gilliard was taken by ambulance to the closest hospital available, which fortunately happened to be Temple. DVT clotting ran throughout his legs. It was so extensive, he had to remain in his hospital bed with catheters in his veins for two days. At one point, he told his doctors he was afraid he was about to die.
But thanks to the treatment by the BASHIR™ catheters, his physicians were able to clear all of the clots in his abdomen’s main vein and veins of both legs without the use of drugs that could have further damaged his kidneys. Two weeks later, he was able to walk again.
“I was blessed, because I had a good team, I had good doctors,” he says. His doctors told him if he hadn’t received appropriate treatment when he did, he would’ve died. “I believe God blessed me to go there because they have it all in place already.”
Bashir hopes that stories of recovery like Gilliard’s will soon be standard. He thinks use for DVT and PE will grow. The device is currently in clinical trial for pulmonary embolism, which affects half a million Americans each year. The journey he started as a cardiologist looking for a better way to treat his patients is nearing its end.
“I always think of cases I have treated in the past where I think, my goodness, I wish we had this device at the time,” Bashir says. “There are a lot of patients that are suffering because they didn’t have treatment like this.”
Editor’s Note: Dr. Bashir is a co-founder and has equity interest in Thrombolex, Inc. a medical device company developing interventional catheter-based therapies for the rapid and effective treatment of acute venous thromboembolic disorders. Temple University also holds a financial interest in Thrombolex, Inc., pursuant to the license granted to Thrombolex for the University’s interest in the patent filed for the experimental catheter device developed by Dr. Bashir and Nicholas Green.
Temple licensed Dr. Bashir’s patent to Thrombolex, Inc., a Pennsylvania medical device company, so they could develop the actual product, named the BASHIR™ Endovascular Catheter and secure the FDA clearances to market and commercialize the initial product and its subsequent versions.
This is a paid partnership between Temple Health and Philadelphia Magazine’s City/Studio90,000 Can a blood clot dissolve on its own and what can be done for this?
The question of whether a blood clot can dissolve worries many people. Sometimes blood clots can form in a completely healthy person. This process does not affect the health or well-being of the patient. In most cases, the formed blood clots dissolve on their own without harm to the vascular system. The exceptions are clots, which, under the influence of pathological factors, attach to the vascular network, clogging it.
Causes of occurrence
The formation of blood clots is a normal process in the human body. Its functionality is to protect against severe blood loss during trauma. Pathological abnormalities in this process can lead to impaired blood circulation or complete blockage of blood vessels. The following factors can trigger the pathology development mechanism:
- incorrect operation of the coagulation system;
- insufficient production of anticoagulants;
- disorder of hemodynamics of the body;
- Mechanical damage to the vascular system.
Certain processes in the body contribute to the formation of blood clots. These include:
- unstable psychoemotional state;
- arterial diseases;
- malfunctions of the heart muscle;
- immunopathological vascular inflammation;
- hormonal disruptions;
- blood pressure instability.
Pathological formation of blood clots in a vein is called thrombophlebitis.
Back to the table of contents
Symptoms of the disease
The development of the disease may be accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
Symptoms depend on the location of the pathology. The main manifestations of the disease:
- Edema. The swelling forms on the affected area; after pressing, a small depression may remain on the skin, which disappears after a couple of seconds.
- Discomfort. In the area of damage, there is a feeling of bloating and soreness.
- Changes in skin color. The skin becomes bluish in color.
- Pathological dilatation and protrusion of veins.
- Increased body temperature.
Back to the table of contents
Can it dissolve?
The body has a system for monitoring the rheological properties of blood. If a person is healthy, then after the formation of a blood clot, a special protein called plasmin is produced, which promotes the cleavage of the fibrous clot. Collagen structures and microvessels also help dissolve the thrombus. They gradually penetrate the pathological formation, providing it with a good blood supply. After a while, the clot dissolves completely or decreases in size.Thanks to the well-coordinated work of these mechanisms, the human body is able to independently dissolve a blood clot.
Back to the table of contents
What should be done to make the thrombus dissolve on its own?
In such a situation, you can only take the medicines prescribed by the doctor.
Sometimes the body is unable to cope with the problem on its own, which may be due to various factors. In such cases, it is necessary to resort to medication. It is very important to remember that taking medications can only be carried out after the appointment of a specialist.Medicines carry out the following effect on the body:
- resorption of blood formations;
- regulation of blood circulation;
- adjustment of the blood coagulation process.
The following drugs are used for treatment:
|Thrombolytics||Substances thin the blood||Urokinase|
|Anticoagulants||Expand blood vessels and relieve spasms||Kurantil|
|Phlebotonics||Eliminate inflammation, strengthen the walls||Troxevasin|
Thrombolytics are taken only in a hospital under medical supervision.
Back to the table of contents
A ginger drink will help get rid of blood clots.
Alternative medicine methods can be used in case of non-started forms of pathology. Resorption of blood clots occurs gradually, in a natural way without harm to human health. The following recipes are effectively used:
- Ginger root drink. Peel a small amount of root, cut into small slices. Place the pieces in a heat-resistant mug and pour boiling water over.The tea should be infused for 15 minutes. To enhance the therapeutic effect, add honey, cinnamon or lemon.
- Chestnut tincture. Fresh flowers and fruits of the plant are poured with 1 liter of vodka. The mixture must be infused for 7 days in a dark, cold place. After the expiration date, the tincture is drunk 40 drops 2 times a day before meals.
- Onions and honey. You must first squeeze out 200 ml of onion juice. The finished liquid is mixed with the same amount of honey. The mixture is placed in a refrigerator for 2 weeks.Drink 1 teaspoon before meals.
Back to the top
Diet for blood clots
It has been scientifically proven that the food that a person eats can affect the condition and properties of the blood. To speed up the process of resorption of blood clots in the legs, you must adhere to certain dietary rules. A sick person should include the following foods in his diet:
|Cereals||They contain antioxidants that strengthen the walls of blood vessels and thin the blood|
|Seafood||Unsaturated acids improve blood fluidity|
|Dairy products||Protein takes part in the regulation of blood coagulation|
|Raspberry||Provide vascular tone|
Back to the table of contents
Leeches for thrombosis
Hirudotherapy will help get rid of blood clots quickly.The course of treatment consists of 5-10 sessions. If necessary, it can be repeated after a month. During the procedure, medicinal leeches are applied to the affected areas. When bitten, the worms secrete the substance hirudin, which reduces the viscosity of the blood, helps dissolve clots, renews the composition of the lymph and stimulates the production of hormones. Before undergoing a course of treatment, it is necessary to seek the advice of a specialist, since there is a possibility of an individual intolerance to hirudin.
Treatment of hemorrhoidal thrombosis in Kazan – “Alan Clinic”
How is the diagnosis carried out?
Initial appointment takes about 40 minutes. It takes place in 3 stages.
1st stage – a conversation between the doctor and the patient
The patient talks about how his problem manifests itself, for example:
- how long ago the symptoms appeared,
- what preceded their appearance,
- what sensations the patient is experiencing,
- how often disturbed symptoms of illness (constantly or only after using the toilet).
The doctor can ask clarifying questions, which are recommended to be answered as honestly as possible.
If you have any chronic diseases, allergic reactions, if you are taking any medications, it can also be important for the doctor – both for establishing a diagnosis and for identifying contraindications to certain methods of treating thrombosis.
2nd stage – ensuring the most comfortable conditions
The patient goes behind the screen, undresses and puts on special disposable underwear with a small hole.The shorts completely hide everything except the problem area. Wearing clothes creates a sense of calm and confidence.
Please note that in our clinic, examination and treatment are carried out exclusively in a lying position on a couch, on the left side. This position is as comfortable as possible for a person.
Help at all stages
At the reception of the proctologist, there is always a nurse who helps not only the doctor, but also the patient.If you find it difficult, the nurse will help you change and lie on the couch, cover with a disposable blanket, and after the procedures, help you get up and get dressed.
Before starting the examination, the anal area is treated with an anesthetic gel. The doctor starts the examination only after the onset of the maximum anesthetic effect.
3rd stage – hardware diagnostics
The clinic has modern equipment from well-known manufacturers.The devices undergo timely maintenance and, if necessary, are replaced with new ones. Doctors regularly undergo additional training and practice.
High sensitivity video sensors
To conduct an examination in a lateral lying position, equipment with the ability to display an image on the screen is required. Both the doctor and the patient see the image on the monitor in video broadcast mode, at multiple magnification.
Comprehensive information for making a diagnosis
The cost of the initial appointment includes examination with an anoscope and a sigmoidoscope.Such a diagnosis allows you to identify any diseases of the rectum at a depth of 25 centimeters. Including cancer.
As a rule, other types of diagnostics are NOT required for diagnosis and treatment. Additional examination may be required only in two cases – if cancer is suspected and if treatment is required at a depth of more than 7 centimeters.
In all other cases, the doctor can diagnose, determine the stage of the disease, identify the size, number and location of nodes on the day of the first visit. Therefore, the treatment can also be carried out on the day of the first visit. Immediately after the examination. And without even getting up from the couch.
Dissolve a blood clot without harming the body
Chemists from St. Petersburg have developed a new method of treating patients with vascular thrombosis – they have increased the effectiveness of the drug and reduced its side effects.
There is such a very stubborn thing as statistics. She impartially operates with a set of numbers that reflect our life.Statistics can tell us how many citizens have been on summer vacations in Turkey or how the price of buckwheat has gone up, but it can also reveal not so happy data. For example, the number of deaths in the last year and the reasons behind these sad numbers. For example, the risk of dying in a car accident is 50 times less likely to die from cardiovascular disease, which accounts for the largest number of deaths in a year. In order to make traffic as safe as possible, people have come up with rules that must be followed, and in the event that an accident does occur, various protective mechanisms, such as airbags and seat belts, come into play.The situation is much the same with heart disease. It is known that alcohol, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle are far from useful, but people still continue to drink, smoke, move a little and thereby create all the conditions for the development of diseases. And when a misfortune does occur, doctors have to step in and are already trying to cope with its consequences.
Crystal structure of tissue plasminogen activator. This is a protein that converts plasminogen into its active form – plasmin, which is capable of destroying blood clots formed on the walls of blood vessels.Photo: wikipedia.org
Scheme of action of the developed drug: the proenzyme plasminogen penetrates into the pores of the aluminum oxide matrix, in which the tissue plasminogen activator is located. After their reaction, the plasmin enzyme is released into the blood, which dissolves the previously formed
If the cause of cardiovascular diseases is extremely difficult to eliminate, then you can at least minimize their consequences, create something like an airbag that will help save more lives when an accident has already occurred.In case of a heart attack, thrombolytic therapy is such a lifesaver. How does it work and what new ideas have been proposed by Russian researchers?
Blood clots can form on the walls of blood vessels – blood clots. A growing thrombus reduces the lumen in the vessel and less and less blood passes through it, and the lack of blood supply turns out to be detrimental to the tissues of the heart. There is a special enzyme, plasmin, that is able to dissolve the formed blood clots.Thrombolytic therapy is just based on the introduction into the blood of substances that lead to the activation of this enzyme. One of these substances, which is actually used to treat patients, is called tissue plasminogen activator. Everything would be good, but it is very quickly removed from the blood, so you have to use long-term administration of the drug and its large doses. And this is often accompanied by serious negative consequences – allergic reactions and hemorrhagic complications.
A group of chemists from ITMO University has found a way to dissolve blood clots and not harm the body.They placed tissue plasminogen activator inside porous alumina nanoparticles. Inside the pores, the activator is reliably protected from rapid destruction in the human body. At the same time, the porous structure allows the proenzyme plasminogen to penetrate into the particles, react with the activator and form the enzyme plasmin itself, which destroys blood clots. The value of the new development is that the drug can become a “biorobot” that travels through the blood, which, having found a thrombus, gets rid of it and continues its service for a long time without causing side effects. ”
Based on materials from ITMO
90,000 There is a cork in the vessel. Where does the child get thrombosis? | Child health | Health
Our expert – assistant of the pediatric faculty of the Russian National Research Medical University named after NI Pirogova, hematologist of the highest category of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution “Morozovskaya Children’s City Clinical Hospital” Pavel Svirin.
Pain has occurred
Does the child have pains in the leg or arm, a feeling of fullness, the limb is swollen, has acquired a blue-red tint, has the temperature increased? Most likely, this is a venous thrombosis – a blockage of a vein by a blood clot.
If the baby suddenly stopped performing the usual actions, his facial expressions or speech were disturbed, nausea with dizziness appeared – perhaps this is an ischemic stroke. The picture is similar to the manifestations of a concussion, only the headache with this type of thrombosis rarely torments. The child may fall, cry, then fall asleep – then you will see the symptoms of cerebrovascular accident after waking up.
The most dangerous is arterial thrombosis, when a leg or arm turns white, becomes cold and painful.
Particularly insidious are thrombosis of arteries of internal organs, well known to older family members: myocardial infarction, blockage of the pulmonary artery, infarctions of internal organs … These disorders are accompanied by severe pain, disguising themselves as appendicitis or pancreatitis, but a qualified ultrasound diagnostician recognizes a violation of blood flow.
Early treatment can significantly reduce the consequences of thrombosis, therefore, at the slightest suspicion, parents should urgently call an ambulance.
To diagnose this disease, doctors use ultrasound (triplex or duplex ultrasound scanning), contrast-enhanced CT, angiography. The head is examined using MRI, CT, ultrasound of the vessels of the neck is done.
In case of any damage to the vascular wall that can cause bleeding outside a vein or artery, a healthy body turns on the mechanism of blood clotting, forming a blood clot, which closes the damage with a neat plug. The blood clot has done its job – it must dissolve.On one’s own. But if something is wrong in the body, the blood clot begins to grow, blocking the vessel. An organ or a piece of tissue along the path of blocked blood flow will not receive normal nutrition, the deprived segment may die. And if it is a heart or a brain, a person can die too …
Sometimes a blood clot breaks off and moves along the vessel along with the blood flow, and then clogs an artery in another place, often in the lungs. Here, without urgent help from doctors, death can also occur.
What is the reason?
Thrombosis from stale milk, bad mood, a pinch of a classmate or an unsuccessful injection does not occur.The child’s body is designed for insect bites and hamster-dogs, for falls, breaking noses and bruising after a firefight with chewed paper from slingshots.
The causes of thrombosis can be: major trauma, volumetric surgery followed by a long bed rest, prolonged catheter stays in the central veins, severe dehydration, serious infections, tumors, rheumatism, heart and vascular malformations, diabetes, chronic inflammation of the kidneys or liver, coagulation disorders blood.
Excess weight in “dressing babies” does not increase the risk of thrombosis as much as in adults, but it is better to get rid of obesity.
It is worth taking a closer look at those children whose blood relatives have experienced strokes, heart attacks, thrombosis before the age of 55. There may be a hereditary predisposition.
The main thing in the treatment of thrombosis is the effect on the blood coagulation system. Vascular surgery is rarely necessary for children. Help will be provided by a pediatric hematologist.But not every hospital has such a specialist, then a vascular surgeon or cardiologist can take on a young patient. The task of parents is to understand that thrombosis of old and young is fought in different ways and that the treatment of a child requires constant laboratory monitoring.
Pulmonary embolism is a blockage (blockage) of one or more arteries in the lungs.In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots (thrombi) that travel from other parts of the body, most often from the lower extremities.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is predominantly a complication of deep vein thrombosis.
PE can occur in relatively healthy people. Common symptoms include sudden and unexplained shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough, which may be accompanied by bloody sputum.
PE can be life-threatening, but immediate treatment with antithrombotic drugs can reduce the risk of death to a minimum.Taking steps to prevent blood clots in your lower extremities can also protect you from thromboembolism.
Symptoms of thromboembolism can vary depending on the number of arteries involved, the size of the clot, and overall health.
- Shortness of breath. This symptom usually comes on suddenly and is not related to physical activity.
- Chest pain , similar to a heart attack.The pain is worse with deep breathing, coughing, bending over or eating. The pains are aggravated by exertion and do not go away with relaxation.
- Cough. Cough may be accompanied by bloody sputum.
Other symptoms that may accompany PE
- edema of the lower limbs, usually of one lower limb;
- cyanosis of the skin;
- fast and irregular heartbeat;
- weak pulse;
- dizziness or fainting.
Thromboembolism occurs when a pulmonary artery is blocked by a blood clot (thrombus). These blood clots usually form in the deep veins of the lower extremities, although embolism from other parts of the body is possible. This condition is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, not all DVTs result in pulmonary embolism.
Sometimes pulmonary embolism occurs due to:
- adipose tissue, with bone fractures;
- parts of a disintegrating tumor.
90,011 air bubbles;
The lesion is rarely solitary, as a rule, blockage occurs with several clots at the same time. Lung tissue supplied by a blocked artery is deprived of nutrients, which can lead to its death. This, in turn, creates difficulties in supplying oxygen to other parts of the body.
Anyone can develop a thrombosis leading to PE, but certain factors increase the risk of this disease.
Prolonged immobilization. Blood clots are more likely to form in the lower limbs during periods of inactivity, such as:
- Prolonged bed rest. If you are bedridden for an extended period after surgery, heart attack, broken leg, or any other serious medical condition, you become more susceptible to blood clots in your lower extremities.
- Long journeys. Sitting in a cramped position during long flights or travel by car slows down the blood flow in the veins, this contributes to the formation of blood clots in the vessels of the lower extremities.
Age. The elderly are more prone to blood clots.
Varicose veins. Thin valves located inside the large veins allow blood to flow in the correct direction. However, these valves are prone to deterioration with age. If their work is disrupted, the blood stagnates in the legs, which leads to thrombosis.
Dehydration. The elderly are at higher risk of dehydration, which increases the risk of thrombosis.
Other diseases. Older people are also prone to other comorbidities that can increase the risk of blood clots, such as joint replacements, tumors, or heart disease.
Heredity. High risk of thrombosis if you or your next of kin have had this disease in the past. This is how hereditary disorders of the blood coagulation system can manifest, which can be detected in special laboratories.Be sure to tell your doctor if your family members are ill in order to perform certain tests.
Surgical treatment. Surgery is one of the most important causes of blood clots, especially knee or hip replacement. During the preparation of bones for artificial joints, the surrounding tissue is damaged and can enter the bloodstream and stimulate blood clots. Prolonged immobilization after any surgery can contribute to thrombosis.Also, the risk increases with the duration of the anesthesia.
The risk of thrombosis is higher at:
- Heart disease. High blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases contribute to thrombosis.
- Pregnancy. The weight of a child compressing the veins of the pelvis can slow down blood flow in the veins of the lower extremities, which increases the risk of thrombosis.
- Tumor. Certain tumors, in particular cancer of the pancreas, ovaries and lungs, increase the concentration of substances in the blood that stimulate thrombosis, which is also aggravated by subsequent chemotherapy.
- Recurrent cases of thrombosis. If you have had deep vein thrombosis in the past, then you are at an increased risk of blood clots.
The risk of thrombosis is increased:
- Smoking. Tobacco smoking predisposes to increased blood clotting, which in turn can lead to thrombosis.
- Overweight. Being overweight increases the risk of thrombosis, especially in hypertensive women who smoke.
- Estrogen preparations. Estrogen in oral contraceptives and substitution medications increases the risk of thrombosis, especially if you smoke or are obese.
PE can be difficult to diagnose, especially in patients with heart or lung disease. This may require research such as:
Chest X-ray. This non-invasive examination allows you to assess the condition of the lungs and heart in the image. Despite the fact that a chest radiograph cannot be used to diagnose PE and the image may even look normal if present, radiography is necessary to rule out diseases that mimic embolism.
Spiral computed tomography. Conventional computed tomography records X-rays from different angles and then compares them into a two-dimensional image of internal organs.For spiral CT, the scanner rotates around your body to create a 3D image. This type of CT can detect abnormalities with much greater accuracy and speed than conventional CT. If PE is suspected, an intravenous injection of contrast agent is usually given and a spiral CT scan is immediately taken.
Angiography of the pulmonary arteries. In this test, a soft tube (catheter) is inserted into a large vein — usually in the groin — and passed through the right atrium and ventricle into the pulmonary arteries.Then a special dye is injected into the catheter, the movements of which are recorded on X-rays. During pulmonary angiography, it is possible to measure the pressure in the right heart, where, in the case of pulmonary embolism, it will be increased. This test is highly skilled and carries potential risks, so it is usually performed when other testing methods have not provided the necessary information.
Blood test for D-dimer. This test detects a protein that is synthesized when a blood clot breaks loose from anywhere in the body.A negative result is a good marker that the thrombus is not fresh. A positive result suggests a fresh embolism, but more research is needed for a definitive diagnosis.
Ultrasound examination. This non-invasive test, known as a duplex vein scan, uses high-frequency sound waves to detect blood clots in the veins. During this exam, the doctor uses a device called a transducer that emits sound waves to visualize the veins.These waves are reflected and translated into a moving picture using a computer.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) . MRI uses radio waves and a powerful magnetic field to form detailed images of internal organs. MRI is indicated for pregnant women to minimize exposure to the fetus and in patients with renal failure.
Immediate treatment of pulmonary embolism is essential to prevent serious complications and even death.
Drugs for the treatment of PE include:
Anticoagulants. Heparin works rapidly when given intravenously. Warfarin and rivaroxaban are available in tablet form. These drugs prevent new blood clots from forming, but they take several days before they take effect.
Thrombolytics. While blood clots usually resolve on their own, there are drugs that speed up the process.Since these drugs can cause sudden and severe bleeding, they are only used in life-threatening situations.
Surgical and other procedures
In some cases, the doctor may decide to carry out one of the following procedures:
Thrombus removal. If you have a large blood clot in your pulmonary artery, your doctor may pass a thin tube (catheter) through the blood vessels and aspirate (extract) the clot. It can be difficult to remove a blood clot, thus, and this procedure is not always successful.
Installing a filter in the inferior vena cava. The catheter can also be used to place a filter in the main vein — the inferior vena cava — that carries blood from the lower extremities to the right heart. This filter catches blood clots that travel to the lungs.
Surgical treatment. If you are in shock and do not benefit from thrombolytic therapy, you may need emergency surgery. The goal of the surgery is to remove as many blood clots as possible, especially if there is a large clot in the main pulmonary artery.
Prevention of PE includes the prevention of deep vein thrombosis.
Tactics for preventing thrombosis in the hospital include:
Anticoagulant therapy. An anticoagulant such as heparin is given to anyone at risk of blood clots after surgery, as well as to people with certain heart conditions, heart attacks, complications of tumors, or burns. You may be given warfarin by mouth for a few days before your major surgery to reduce your risk of blood clots.
Compression hosiery. Compression stockings constantly compress the legs, helping the veins and muscles move blood more efficiently. It is a safe, simple, and inexpensive way to prevent blood stasis.
Pneumatic compressions. This treatment includes a thigh or calf cuff that automatically inflates every few minutes to massage and compress the veins in the lower extremities to improve blood flow.
Physical activity. Early activation after surgery helps prevent PE and accelerates overall recovery. This is one of the main reasons the nurse takes you for a walk as soon as possible after surgery.
Travel prophylaxis. Prolonged sitting during a flight or car trip increases the risk of developing thrombosis of the veins of the lower extremities. To prevent this:
Take a walk. Walk along the plane once an hour. If you are driving, make stops at the same frequency. Do some deep squats.
Seated exercises. Bend, extend and rotate the ankle, press your feet on the seat opposite you, raise and lower your feet on your toes. Do not sit cross-legged for long periods of time.
Anticoagulants , as recommended by a physician. If you have a history of deep vein thrombosis, talk to your doctor about long-term travel options, for which you can self-administer long-acting heparin the day before your trip.Also talk with your doctor about the need for heparin on the way back.
Drink plenty of water. Water is the best liquid to prevent dehydration, which promotes blood clots. Avoid drinking alcohol and caffeine, which can lead to fluid loss.
A way has been found to completely restore the heart after a heart attack
A way has been found to completely restore the heart after a heart attack
A way has been found to completely restore the heart after a heart attack – RIA Novosti, 29.09.2019
A way has been found to completely restore the heart after a heart attack
According to the World Health Organization, almost 18 million people die from cardiovascular diseases every year. This is a third of all deaths in … RIA Novosti, 09/29/2019
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
world heart day
/ html / head / meta [@ name = ‘og: title’] / @ content
/ html / head / meta [@ name = ‘og: description’ ] / @ content
https: // cdnn21.img.ria.ru/images/155921/54/1559215444_0:220:3072:1948_1920x0_80_0_0_52cc3995dd24ec50e26acc7d504c455a.jpg
MOSCOW, September 29 – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva. Nearly 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease every year, according to the World Health Organization. This is one third of all deaths in the world. Most are associated with recurrent vascular disorders following a heart attack or stroke. According to experts, up to 75 percent of these complications could be avoided with proper treatment, smoking cessation and alcohol cessation.If the lifestyle is completely on the conscience of patients, then therapy is the prerogative of scientists. On World Heart Day, RIA Novosti talks about new methods of treating heart attacks, which will soon become available to everyone. What happens during a heart attack In most people, sooner or later, atherosclerotic plaques appear on the vessels of the heart – deposits of cholesterol and its esters in the thickness of the arterial wall. How this happens, scientists generally figured out. The main reasons are: smoking, being overweight, high blood pressure.But why the blood vessels of the heart are mainly affected is still not clear. These atherosclerotic plaques grow over time and begin to interfere with the normal flow of blood through the heart muscle. Large deposits can cause discomfort behind the breastbone and even lead to angina pectoris. A real catastrophe occurs when such a plaque ruptures, damaging the walls of the vessel, and its contents are in the blood of a person. At this moment, platelets are activated, they accumulate at the site of the rupture, and a thrombus forms there.Normally, this approach should be life-saving for bleeding, but in the case of heart muscle, it can be fatal. The human heart constantly needs an influx of large amounts of blood, and even short interruptions in this process are dangerous. So, within half an hour after the thrombus appeared, the cells of the heart muscle begin to die. This process is called a heart attack. In place of the dead heart tissue, a scar is formed, formed with the help of fibroblasts that are unable to contract.As a result, the heart can no longer work as well as it used to. Finding a heart gene Today, treatment of a heart attack is mainly aimed at lowering the heart rate (this reduces the heart’s need for oxygen, which means that the heart muscle has more chances to survive) and dissolving blood clots. But the real dream of almost all scientists working in this field is to find a way to completely restore the heart so that new ones appear in the place of dead cells. It is most logical to use the forces of the organism itself for this, regulating the activity of genes that may be associated with the formation of heart cells.According to researchers from the Weizmann Institute (Israel), the most suitable candidate for the role of the “heart gene” is Erbb2. Its blockage in mice resulted in babies being born with thin and stretched heart walls. With an increase in the activity of this gene in rodents, on the contrary, a giant heart with an insufficient number of chambers grew. However, when scientists increased the expression of Erbb2 only for a time and immediately after a heart attack, the animals’ hearts completely returned to their physiological norm. In this case, in mice that had a heart attack, which were not subjected to gene therapy, scars appeared on the heart muscle.Scientists from the Baylor College of Medicine and the Texas Heart Institute (USA) suggest using another gene, Salvador (Salv), to regenerate the heart muscle. It is associated with blocking the process of division and proliferation of cardiomyocytes – the muscle cells of the heart. The researchers turned off this gene in mice during or immediately after a heart attack, and then periodically monitored their hearts using echocardiography. Six weeks after Salv blockage, cardiac activity in rodents was close to that of healthy relatives.And the scar on the heart was significantly smaller than that of the mice from the control group. Russian scientists from the Moscow State University and the National Medical Research Center of Cardiology also managed to completely restore the heart muscle of experimental rats who had suffered a heart attack. They created a special DNA molecule – the so-called plasmid, isolated from chromosomes and capable of replicating on its own. It contained two very different genes, VEGF165 and HGF. The first stimulated the growth of new blood vessels, and the second forced the heart stem cells to turn into new muscle fibers.The molecule penetrated into the damaged cells of the heart muscle and restored their vital activity. In addition, it promoted the growth of new blood vessels needed to supply it with oxygen and nutrients. So, injected into rats during a heart attack, it significantly slowed down the rate of death of cardiac muscle cells. Moreover, after about two weeks after suffering a heart attack, almost all traces of the disease on the heart tissue disappeared. The authors of the study note that people who have had myocardial infarction could be treated in this way, but preclinical and clinical studies must first be carried out, and this can take several years.Tested in humans At least one recently developed drug capable of restoring, if not completely, heart muscle cells has already passed the first phase of clinical trials. This biomaterial VentriGel, created by scientists at the University of California, San Diego, is made from pig myocardium cells, the muscular middle layer of the heart. Extracellular matrix is isolated from them – a three-dimensional structure, which consists of macromolecules, including proteins and glycoproteins. It is necessary for the normal functioning of cells.Studies have shown that the developed drug promoted the growth of cells that form blood vessels and stimulated the transformation of stem cells into myocardial tissue in rats. As a result, the experimental animals reduced the size of the scars on the heart muscle, and the heart itself worked much better. About the same results were shown by the first 15 patients who received VentriGel for several weeks. In total, the volunteers received no more than 18 injections. Before each injection, as well as three and six months after them, the subjects underwent an MRI of the heart and checked how much distance they can walk in a certain time.Participants also answered questions about their quality of life. A year later, all patients began to tolerate physical activity better and walked a greater distance during the test time. In addition, their symptoms of heart failure were reduced. In the near future, the second phase of clinical trials will begin, in which more patients will participate.
7 495 645-6601
FSUE MIA “Russia Today”
https: //xn--c1acbl2abdlkab1ai.x / awards /
7 495 645-6601
FSUE MIA Russia Today
https: //xn--c1acbl2abdlkab1og.xn--p1ai/ awards /
https: // ria.ru / docs / about / copyright.html
7 495 645-6601
FSUE MIA ” Russia today ”
https://cdnn21.img.ria.ru/images/155921/54/1559215444_0 0:2731:2048_1920x0_80_0_0_0_d23850af4pg RIA Novosti
7 495 645-6601
FSUE MIA “Russia Today”
https: // xn – c1acbl2abdlkab1og.xn – p1ai / awards /
7 495 645-6601
FSUE MIA Russia Today
https: //xn--c1acbl2abdlkab1og.xn--p1ai / awards /
israel, usa, cart, moscow state university named after m. v. Lomonosov, health, heart attacks, world heart day
MOSCOW, September 29 – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease every year.This is one third of all deaths in the world. Most are associated with recurrent vascular disorders following a heart attack or stroke. According to experts, up to 75 percent of these complications could be avoided with proper treatment, smoking cessation and alcohol cessation. If the lifestyle is completely on the conscience of patients, then therapy is the prerogative of scientists. On World Heart Day, RIA Novosti talks about new methods of treating heart attacks, which will soon become available to everyone.
What happens during a heart attack
In most people, sooner or later, atherosclerotic plaques appear on the vessels of the heart – deposits of cholesterol and its esters in the thickness of the arterial wall.How this happens, scientists generally figured out. The main reasons are: smoking, being overweight, high blood pressure. But why the blood vessels of the heart are mainly affected is still not clear.
These atherosclerotic plaques grow over time and begin to interfere with the normal flow of blood through the heart muscle. Large deposits can cause discomfort behind the breastbone and even lead to angina pectoris. A real catastrophe occurs when such a plaque ruptures, damaging the walls of the vessel, and its contents are in the blood of a person.
At this moment, platelets are activated, they accumulate at the site of the rupture, and a thrombus forms there. Normally, this approach should be life-saving for bleeding, but in the case of heart muscle, it can be fatal. The human heart constantly needs an influx of large amounts of blood, and even short interruptions in this process are dangerous. So, within half an hour after the thrombus appeared, the cells of the heart muscle begin to die. This process is called a heart attack. In place of the dead heart tissue, a scar is formed, formed with the help of fibroblasts that are unable to contract.As a result, the heart can no longer work as well as it used to.
Find the heart gene
Today, heart attack treatment is mainly aimed at lowering the heart rate (this reduces the heart’s need for oxygen, which means the heart muscle has more chances to survive) and dissolving blood clots. But the real dream of almost all scientists working in this field is to find a way to completely restore the heart so that new ones appear in the place of dead cells. It is most logical to use the forces of the organism itself for this, regulating the activity of genes that may be associated with the formation of heart cells.
According to researchers from the Weizmann Institute (Israel), the most suitable candidate for the role of the “heart gene” is Erbb2. Its blockage in mice resulted in babies being born with thin and stretched heart walls. With an increase in the activity of this gene in rodents, on the contrary, a giant heart with an insufficient number of chambers grew. However, when scientists increased the expression of Erbb2 only for a time and immediately after a heart attack, the animals’ hearts completely returned to their physiological norm.In this case, in mice that had a heart attack, which were not subjected to gene therapy, scars appeared on the heart muscle. Scientists from the Baylor College of Medicine and the Texas Heart Institute (USA) suggest using another gene, Salvador (Salv), to regenerate the heart muscle. It is associated with blocking the process of division and proliferation of cardiomyocytes – the muscle cells of the heart.
Researchers turned off this gene in mice during or immediately after a heart attack, and then periodically monitored their hearts using echocardiography.Six weeks after Salv blockage, cardiac activity in rodents was close to that of healthy relatives. And the scar on the heart was significantly smaller than that of the mice from the control group.
September 29, 2018, 08:00 Science “This is the most effective method.” The scientist told how to avoid a heart attack
Russian scientists from Moscow State University and the National Medical Research Center of Cardiology also managed to completely restore the heart muscle of experimental rats who had suffered a heart attack. They created a special DNA molecule – the so-called plasmid, isolated from chromosomes and capable of replicating on its own.It contained two very different genes, VEGF165 and HGF. The first stimulated the growth of new blood vessels, and the second forced the heart stem cells to turn into new muscle fibers.
The molecule penetrated into the damaged cells of the heart muscle and restored their vital activity. In addition, it promoted the growth of new blood vessels needed to supply it with oxygen and nutrients. So, injected into rats during a heart attack, it significantly slowed down the rate of death of cardiac muscle cells.Moreover, after about two weeks after suffering a heart attack, almost all traces of the disease on the heart tissue disappeared.
The authors of the study note that it would be possible to treat people with myocardial infarction in this way, but first it is necessary to conduct preclinical and clinical studies, and this can take several years.
2 July 2018, 11:14 …We are talking about the VentriGel biomaterial, created by scientists at the University of California, San Diego.
It is made from the cells of the pig myocardium – the muscular middle layer of the heart. Extracellular matrix is isolated from them – a three-dimensional structure, which consists of macromolecules, including proteins and glycoproteins. It is necessary for the normal functioning of cells.
Studies have shown that the developed drug promoted the growth of cells that form blood vessels and stimulated the transformation of stem cells into myocardial tissue in rats.As a result, the experimental animals reduced the size of the scars on the heart muscle, and the heart itself worked much better.
19 July 2019, 02:08 In total, the volunteers received no more than 18 injections. Before each injection, as well as three and six months after them, the subjects underwent an MRI of the heart and checked how much distance they can walk in a certain time.Participants also answered questions about their quality of life.
A year later, all patients began to tolerate physical activity better and walked more distance during the test time. In addition, their symptoms of heart failure were reduced.