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Something’s Causing That Gas! Are You Lactose Intolerant?: Health One Family Medicine: Family Medicine

Do you get gas every time you eat dairy? Did you know that this could be a sign of lactose intolerance?

Milk is the first food that babies are introduced to. Human stomachs are designed to digest this nutritious superfood to gain energy and strength. Yet, there are many people in the world whose bodies cannot digest dairy! We call such people lactose intolerant.

Lactose intolerance is a digestive disorder that is present in around 75% of the population in the world. In the US approximately 30% of the Americans are lactose intolerant.

What is lactose intolerance?

Lactose is the main component of dairy. It is a carbohydrate compound made of two glucose molecules.

Normally this substance is broken down into two smaller glucose and glycogen molecules after ingestion. The process is catalyzed by the enzyme lactase that is secreted by our stomachs.

People suffering from lactose intolerance are incapable of producing lactase. This insufficiency prevents the body from digesting lactose. The body reacts to this through various digestive problems.


How do you become lactose intolerant?

A recent research shows that human beings are bound to become lactose intolerant by the age of 90. The probability ratio is pretty high because with age our bodies gradually decrease the amount of lactase secreted.

Other than that:

  • Some people aren’t able to secrete lactase from an early age due to genetics or development issues
  • A gastrointestinal disease or bacterial infection may hinder the lactase production


Why does it cause gas?

As we mentioned earlier, the absence of lactase inhibits the body’s ability to digest the carbohydrate lactose. Due to this, the lactose passes through most of the digestive tract unaffected.

However, the bacteria inside the colon are capable of breaking the undigested lactose down into small chains of fatty acids and gas.   The fermentation process leads to a bloated stomach, flatulence, and pain.

Other symptoms include:

  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting

The extent of these signs may vary depending on the amount of dairy you have eaten and how much tolerance you have.

How do you make sure it is lactose intolerance? These symptoms are very common in many other health conditions. This is why you need to note if you have eaten any dairy product an hour or two prior to the occurrence of these symptoms.

If yes, then you are most likely lactose intolerant.


Does this mean no more dairy?

Dairy products (milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt) are the biggest source of calcium and vitamin D. It also contains nutrients and proteins that make your body stronger and healthier.

Therefore, we suggest that you don’t fully boycott dairy products. Instead, you should expose yourself to dairy in small amounts so that the body starts to adapt and improve the digestion situation.

Other than that you may consult your doctor and take enzyme supplements or probiotic that will help you to digest the lactose you consumed.


Health One Family Medicine

Managing Lactose Intolerance – Unlock Food

Do you get gas, bloating, cramps or diarrhea when you eat dairy products? You may have lactose intolerance. Read on to learn how to manage your symptoms and find foods you can eat.

What is lactose intolerance? 

Lactose intolerance is when your body has trouble digesting lactose, a sugar naturally found in milk and dairy products. This is because you do not have enough of an enzyme called lactase to break down lactose. As a result, undigested lactose sits in your large intestine (colon) and gets fermented by bacteria. This may cause gas, bloating, cramps, diarrhea and nausea. Lactose intolerance is different from a milk allergy. A milk allergy is when your body is allergic to a protein in milk.

What foods have lactose? 

Lactose is found mainly in milk and dairy products such as cow’s milk, goat’s milk, yogurt, cheese and ice cream. It can also be an ingredient in foods and beverages like bread, cereal, lunchmeats, salad dressings and mixes for baked goods. Read labels and look for ingredients such as:

  • Milk, cheese or yogurt

  • Milk solids or milk powder

  • Malted milk

  • Cream

  • Buttermilk

  • Curds

  • Lactose

  • Whey

Foods that contain lactic acid, lactalbumin, lactate and casein do not contain lactose.

Can I still eat foods with lactose? 

Most people with lactose intolerance can tolerate some lactose in their diet. This is because they still produce some lactose but not enough to digest large amounts. Foods like hard cheeses (cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss) and yogurt have lower amounts of lactose compared to milk and may be better tolerated. Having other foods when eating foods with lactose may also help. Start by eating a small amount and see how you feel. Keeping a food diary after eating foods with lactose to record your symptoms after can be helpful.

What foods are lactose free? 

Most fruits, vegetables, grains and meats are lactose free. These foods may contain lactose if prepared with milk-based ingredients (e.g. cream sauces, cheese sauces, breads made with milk, breaded and battered meats, etc). Most grocery stores now carry lactose-free milk, yogurt and cheese.  

Can I still get enough calcium if I’m lactose intolerant? 

Yes. There is lactose-free milk, yogurt and cheese available that have the same amount of calcium as the regular products. Choose these to get enough calcium. The following non-dairy foods and beverages are also sources of calcium:

  • Calcium-fortified soy, almond and rice beverages

  • Calcium-fortified orange juice

  • Vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, rapini, collards and kale

  • Canned fish with bones such as salmon, sardines and anchovies

  • Soybean-based foods such as edamame, soy nuts and tofu

  • Beans like chickpeas, kidney beans, white, navy and pinto beans

  • Nuts and seeds like almonds and sesame seeds

  • Blackstrap molasses 

Find more food sources of calcium here.

What about calcium supplements?

Speak to your health care provider or dietitian about calcium supplements if you think you are not getting enough calcium from food.

Are there medications that can help lactose intolerance? 

Lactase pills can be taken before eating meals containing lactose so you are less likely to get symptoms. There are also lactase drops that can be added to liquids like milk and cream. Speak to your pharmacist about the forms of lactase that are available. 

You may also be interested in: 

What You Need to Know About Calcium
Food Allergies & Intolerances
Understanding Non-Dairy Beverages
Lower Your Risk of Osteoporosis
7 Tips to Help Keep Your Bones Strong

Last Update – September 7, 2019

7 things nobody ever tells you about lactose intolerance

You might not know these surprising facts about lactose intolerance.

As a child, you guzzled litres of milk, but now, a number of years later, you start noticing that dairy doesn’t always agree with you.  

For some, however, it’s a lot more than a vague, unpleasant feeling and many people experience symptoms like bloating, stomach cramping and diarrhoea – all signs of lactose intolerance. 

This is probably the sum total of your knowledge about lactose intolerance. But, to increase your awareness of the problem, here are seven things you may not know about this common digestive ailment:

1. You could be heading towards lactose intolerance 

If you love ice-cream, the following news might be upsetting: Research shows that about 75% of the world’s population lose the ability to break down lactose at some point, which means that many people naturally become lactose intolerant over time. The prevalence of lactose intolerance in South Africa is estimated at 11.03%.

2. Some ethnicities are more likely to develop it than others 

Lactose intolerance is most prevalent among people of East Asian ancestry, affecting more than 90% of adults in some communities, according to the NIH.

The condition is also common in people who are of Jewish, Arab, West African, Greek and Italian descent. On the other hand, people with ancestors from Northern Europe, who consume mostly unfermented milk, have only a 5% rate of lactose intolerance.

3. Lactose intolerance affects everyone differently 

People with lactose intolerance have diverse reactions to consuming the offending dairy products. Tiny amounts of lactose may cause intense symptoms such as abdominal cramps and diarrhoea in some, while other might only experience gas.

It’s not entirely clear why symptoms vary so much from person to person – it might, however, have something to do with individuals’ gut bacteria. 

4. Certain types of cheese and yogurt may not trigger the disorder

In many cases, being lactose intolerant doesn’t mean you have to say goodbye to the goodness that is dairy. While some people cannot digest much of it, others have no trouble digesting yoghurt, which contains fermented milk, or cheeses such as Parmesan or cheddar. Those cheeses are aged and contain only trace amounts of lactose, making it easier to digest for those with an intolerance.

Here is an easy way to tell which cheeses have low lactose levels: Check the nutrition label. Since lactose is the sugar found in milk, the fewer grams of sugar on the label, the higher your chances of being to digest the product.

5. The symptoms waste no time 

The symptoms of lactose intolerance usually occur within 30 minutes to two hours after consuming milk-based products. The more milk products you ingest, the worse you will feel.

6. Babies can be lactose intolerant 

There have been cases of babies being born lactose intolerant. This happens when the baby has a mutation of the LCT gene, which normally delivers instructions for making that key enzyme. This results in the baby’s small intestine producing little to no lactase, making dairy “complicated”. 

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, children can inherit genes that cause congenital lactose intolerance from their parents. However, it’s extremely rare for babies to have this condition. 

7. You might be able to build up your tolerance 

While it does sound like an unpleasant experiment for anyone with lactose intolerance, studies argue that consuming small amounts of milk on a full stomach two to three times a day can help to recondition your digestive system to break down dairy without discomfort.  

However, if your small intestine does not make enough lactase, it will not suddenly start to do so. You should experiment and find out what works best for you instead of cutting dairy out completely. 

Image credit: iStock 

5 Hints You Could Be Lactose Intolerant

You’re madly in love with cheese, but your body? Not so much. In fact, every time you chow down on your fave fromage, the subsequent bloating and cramps make you wonder if your ass is about to explode. If strange symptoms are the status quo when you nosh on dairy, you could be dealing with lactose intolerance—an icky side effect that strikes when your small intestine doesn’t produce enough of an enzyme (lactase) that helps your body digest milk sugar (lactose).

“Lactose intolerance is extremely common and can go undiagnosed for a long period of time,” says gastroenterologist Niket Sonpal, M. D. Here are a few subtle hints your body might be throwing your way:

1. You Experience a Smorgasbord of Symptoms
“Common signs of lactose intolerance include bloating, gas, diarrhea, pain, rumbling or gurgling in the lower abdomen, and foul-smelling flatulence,” says Gina Sam, M.D., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at Mount Sinai Hospital. Less common symptoms include foamy stool and nausea—with or without vomiting—which may indicate that something else is brewing besides lactose intolerance, says Sonpal, who recommends checking in with your doc to evaluate the situation.

2. The Symptoms Strike Fairly Quickly
Most lactose intolerant people can handle a certain level of lactose in their diets without their bod retaliating, but exactly how much is a completely individual thing, says Sam. Once that line has been crossed, the severity of symptoms typically increases with how much lactose is consumed and can strike anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours after you ingest it.

3. You Belong to a Specific Ethnic Group
There are two kinds of lactose intolerance—primary and secondary, says Sonpal. Primary is the most common and involves a dramatic drop in your lactase reserve (that’s unfortunately irreplaceable), making milk products a nightmare to digest by adulthood. Primary lactose intolerance is connected to your genetic makeup and is very common among people with African, Asian, or Hispanic ancestry.

RELATED: 9 Struggles Only Girls Who Are Lactose Intolerant Understand

4. You’ve Had Tummy Troubles Recently
Secondary lactose intolerance, on the other hand, is a temporary sensitivity to lactose that’s triggered by an underlying intestinal issue—such as a life-ruining case of the flu, gastroenteritis, or Crohn’s disease, says Sonpal. Treating the underlying condition gives your intestines a chance to heal, and the ability to digest lactose is eventually regained, he adds. (For example, after a bout of food poisoning, it’s recommended you lay off dairy for a week or two. )

5. Certain Dairy Products Hit You Harder Than Others
While it might seem essential to ditch dairy altogether—especially if it triggers an apocalypse in your digestive tract—not all lactose intolerance is created equal, says Sonpal. You may be able to figure out how much lactose you can consume before discomfort sets in by experimenting with a variety of dairy products, all of which contain different amounts of lactose, and tracking how you feel post-binge.

Making a few simple swaps or additions to your diet may make all the difference. For example, goat’s milk contains about 10 percent less lactose than cow’s milk. (We’re fans of LaLoo’s Goat Milk Ice Cream, if dessert is your jam.) And hard cheeses like Swiss or cheddar have smaller amounts of lactose and typically don’t cause symptoms. Meanwhile, cultured milk products (such as yogurt) may be easier on your gut, since the bacteria used in the culturing process naturally produces the enzymes necessary to better digest lactose.

If you think you might be lactose intolerant and just can’t even, your doc can confirm your suspicions by completing a super-easy lactose intolerance test. Two hours after drinking a liquid that’s lactose-infused, a blood test is given to measure the amount of glucose in your bloodstream. If your glucose levels don’t budge, it means your bod isn’t digesting the lactose-filled drink properly. Bam.

Long story short: “The only way to avoid the symptoms associated with lactose intolerance is to avoid these products or take pills that contain lactase to help you digest lactose, which are available at any pharmacy,” says Sam. Similarly, you can switch to lactose-free dairy products or products that contain the added lactase enzyme, such as Lactaid milk. We also highly recommend the soy latte at Starbucks.

Krissy Brady
Krissy is a regular contributor to Prevention, and she also writes for Cosmopolitan, Weight Watchers, Women’s Health, FitnessMagazine. com, Self.com, and Shape.com. 

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Lactose Intolerance – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Lactose intolerance, or “lactase deficiency,” is a condition that causes discomfort in the upper abdomen, resulting in bloating, gas and diarrhea. Lactose intolerance is the result of a deficiency in an enzyme (lactase) that breaks down the sugar known as lactose that is found in milk. Although low lactase levels are fairly common, not everyone with low amounts of the enzyme is lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance most often occurs during or right after eating dairy products.

Intolerance to lactose is a common digestive problem in the United States. Varying degrees of lactose intolerance are common among adults. The disorder is more common in individuals of Asian, African, Native American, or Mediterranean ethnicity compared to those of Northern and Western European descent (Source:

Lactose intolerance typically develops in people over a period of time. Most commonly, people begin to experience symptoms of lactose intolerance later in childhood and onward, when the body begins to produce lower levels of lactase. For this reason, children younger than 6 years do not commonly show signs of lactose intolerance. Adolescents and adults are more likely to show signs of the disease.

If you are suffering from lactose intolerance, you will see signs and symptoms after consuming foods that contain dairy products. The manifestations of lactose intolerance vary among individuals. Some people with lactose intolerance have no symptoms at all, while others may have severe abdominal bloating, pain and diarrhea. Fortunately, lactose intolerance can be treated successfully with over the counter medications containing enzymes to break down lactose. Even better, you can reduce your symptoms of lactose intolerance by slowly adding dairy products into your diet to give your body time to build up its own lactase. Further, because dairy products contain important dietary elements, such as calcium, supplementation of calcium ensures that adequate levels are consumed.

Seek prompt medical care if you are being treated for lactose intolerance but mild symptoms recur or are persistent. In some cases, lactose intolerance can lead to low calcium intake, which can be a serious condition that should be evaluated immediately. Seek prompt medical care if you, or someone you are with, have easily fractured bones, muscle cramps, tooth decay, or unintentional weight loss.

Lactose Intolerance | Gastroenterology | JAMA

Lactose intolerance describes a group of symptoms caused by problems digesting and absorbing lactose.

Lactose is the main sugar found in dairy products. For lactose to be absorbed by the body, it must be broken down in the gut by a protein called lactase. If there is a shortage of lactase, lactose cannot be broken down, which can cause symptoms of lactose intolerance, such as abdominal discomfort, bloating or gas, cramping, and diarrhea.

Babies are usually born with enough lactase to digest the lactose in breast milk. However, by age 3, about two-thirds of the world’s population stops making high levels of lactase, leading to varying degrees of poor lactose absorption. Some populations, such as people of northern European descent, continue making enough lactase throughout their lives (lactase persistence), while other populations, such as Asians and certain African populations, do not. Factors that can affect the severity of symptoms include a person’s metabolism as well as gut microbiome, the collection of healthy bacteria living in the gut that helps digest foods. Sometimes, new or worsening lactose intolerance can occur as a result of other diseases such as celiac disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or viral or parasitic infections.

Diagnosis of lactose intolerance is usually made based on symptoms and testing. If someone experiences typical symptoms about an hour or 2 after eating dairy products and it can be confirmed that the symptoms are caused by dairy rather than other foods, lactose intolerance can be presumed. The diagnosis can be confirmed by several tests, such as a hydrogen breath test, which measures the level of hydrogen gas in a patient’s breath as a sign of bacterial breakdown of undigested lactose, or a lactose tolerance test, which measures a patient’s blood sugar (glucose) levels after they are given a dose of lactose. A patient who does not properly absorb lactose will not have as much of an increase in glucose, one of the by-products of lactose breakdown.

The mainstay of treating lactose intolerance is reducing lactose-containing foods in the diet. There is no universal amount of lactose that causes symptoms. Most clinicians and researchers agree that 12 to 15 g of lactose (about the amount in 1 to 2 cups of milk) is generally tolerated by people with lactose intolerance. Dairy products with the highest levels of lactose include milk and ice cream. Yogurt and cheeses, especially hard cheeses, contain much lower amounts. Eating small quantities of these products, especially with other products without lactose, can help reduce symptoms. Lactose-reduced products, such as lactose-reduced milk, are available. Patients are often advised to not completely eliminate dairy products, since they are important sources of calcium and vitamin D.

Another option is lactase replacement pills, which are taken immediately before consuming dairy products. These help the gut break down lactose, allowing for better absorption.

Colonic adaptation is a treatment currently being explored by researchers. A patient is instructed to slowly introduce more and more lactose into the diet. Although the body’s production of lactase will not increase, the gut may be able to become more tolerant to lactose by modifying its microbiome.

Box Section Ref ID

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Source: Micic D, Rao VL, Rubin DT. Clinical approach to lactose intolerance [published online September 26, 2019]. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.14740

Lactose Intolerance in Infants & Children: Parent FAQs

​​​By: Anthony Porto, MD, MPH, FAAP

It can be difficult to know whether your infant or child is having symptoms of lactose intolerance or whether he or she may have a milk allergy. 

The following frequently asked questions from parents will help you learn more about the common symptoms of lactose intolerance, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Is lactose intolerance the same thing as a milk allergy?

No. Many parents confuse the terms lactose intolerance and milk allergy. While they may share similar symptoms, they are entirely different conditions. Lactose intolerance is a digestive problem, while milk allergy involves the immune system. So, while lactose intolerance can cause a great deal of discomfort, it will not produce a life-threatening reaction such as anaphylaxis. 

Milk allergies tend to appear within the first year of life, while an infant’s digestive system is still quite immature. Lactose intolerance can start in childhood into adolescence and can become more noticeable into adulthood.

What is lactose?

Lactose is a sugar found in foods that many children love—milk and dairy products, such as frozen yogurt and cheeses. The list of other foods containing lactose is long and includes some breads, cereals, and frozen or canned foods.

Lactose is broken down by the lactase enzyme located in the small intestine—the organ where most food digestion and nutrient absorption takes place. When we eat lactose, lactase breaks lactose down into two simple sugars: glucose and galactose. The body then absorbs these simple sugars into our intestines. When there is a decrease or loss of the lactase enzyme, we cannot break down or absorb lactose. The unabsorbed lactose can lead to symptoms, which is called an intolerance.

In addition to milk, what other food products contain lactose?

Lactose is present in many food products and in some medications. Manufacturers also often add milk and milk products to boxed, canned, frozen, packaged, and prepared foods. People who have digestive symptoms after consuming a small quantity of lactose should be aware of the many food products that may contain even small amounts of lactose.

​You can check the ingredients on food labels and the nutrition facts to find possible sources of lactose in food products. If a food label includes any of the following words, the product contains lactose:

  • Milk

  • Lactose

  • Whey

  • Curds

  • Milk by-products

  • Dry milk solids

  • Nonfat dry milk powder

What are some key symptoms of lactose intolerance?

The symptoms of lactose intolerance depend on the amount of lactose that’s consumed. The more lactose your child consumes, the more symptoms he or she will experience. Symptoms of lactose intolerance can occur within minutes to hours after drinking milk or eating dairy products and range from mild to severe based on the amount consumed and the amount tolerated. Here are symptoms you should look out for:

  • Nausea

  • Abdominal pain, cramping, and bloating

  • Loose stools and gas

  • Watery diarrhea with gas

If I think my child might be lactose intolerant. How can I tell?

One way to check if your child has trouble digesting lactose is to take all the milk products out of your child’s diet for two weeks and to then see if his or her symptoms improve. After two weeks, slowly reintroduce the products in small amounts each day to see if symptoms return. Your pediatrician can also test your child for lactose intolerance with a hydrogen breath test.

I’ve heard lactose intolerance can sometimes be a temporary side effect when kids are sick.

Is that true?

Yes. Lactose intolerance can occur temporarily in children after a viral infection (that is why you may be told to avoid milk with lactose in it during a stomach bug) or it may be seen with conditions that lead to inflammation of the intestines, such as celiac disease.

Can infants be lactose intolerant?

Lactose intolerance is actually not very common in infants and typically only starts showing up after age three in children who were born full-term. All babies are born with lactase in their intestines. As they grow older, the lactase enzyme decreases.

  • Babies who were born premature are more likely to have a type of lactose intolerance called developmental lactase deficiency. This condition usually lasts only for a short time after birth. However, the majority of premature infants will be able to consume lactose-containing formula and breast milk.

  • Congenital lactase deficiency is a very rare disorder in which babies can’t break down the lactose in breast milk or formula. Genes inherited from parents cause this disorder. This type of intolerance results in severe diarrhea, and if not fed a lactose-free infant formula, those babies could develop severe dehydration and weight loss. 

If a mother is lactose intolerant, is it safe for her to breastfeed her baby?

It’s perfectly safe to breastfeed your child if you’re lactose intolerant. Breastfeeding does not put your baby at greater risk of becoming lactose intolerant, and it has important health benefits for your baby.

How can my child get enough calcium in her diet if milk or lactose are reduced?

If your child has lactose intolerance, he or she can still eat lactose-free dairy products including lactose-free milk, cheese, and yogurts—all are good sources of calcium. In addition, your child can get calcium from dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli and kale, nuts (almonds), beans (white beans), fish (sardines, salmon) and calcium-fortified orange juice. If you feel your child is not getting enough calcium, talk with your pediatrician about starting a calcium supplement.

Are soy or almond milks adequate substitutes for children who are lactose intolerant?

There are many milk substitutes that a child with lactose intolerance can drink, including soy, almond, rice, hemp, and oat milk. Soy milk is a popular milk alternative, because it is a good source of calcium and protein. Almond milk has also become a popular alternative and is safe for children with lactose intolerance or a cow’s milk protein allergy. Although almond is a good source of calcium, it is lower in protein and contains fewer calories than cow’s milk. Before starting any alternative milks, it is important to talk with your pediatrician about which may be best for your child.

How is lactose intolerance diagnosed?

Your pediatrician will take a medical, family, and diet history to help diagnose lactose intolerance in your infant or child. During this discussion, he or she will review your child’s symptoms with you.

  • In some cases, a hydrogen breath test is done to test for lactose intolerance. For the test, your child breathes into a container that measures breath hydrogen level before and after he or she drinks a beverage that contains a known amount of lactose. Normally, only a small amount of hydrogen is detectable in the breath when a person eats or drinks and digests lactose. An increase in hydrogen levels is considered a positive test for lactose intolerance.

  • Pediatricians check acidity in the stools of infants and young children who may be unable to properly do the hydrogen breath test. Acidic stool (low pH) may indicate lactose malabsorption. Another stool test (reducing substances) looks for the presence of glucose in the stool, which signifies undigested lactose.

  • ​If your child’s symptoms persist, he or she may be referred to a pediatric gastroenterologist (GI) for further evaluation. Depending on the severity of your child’s symptoms, the GI may perform an endoscopy to measure lactase levels directly from the intestine. This is done with a biopsy.

How much calcium and vitamin D are recommended for my child to eat each day?

The specific amount is based on your child’s age. Here is a breakdown of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium and vitamin D.

How is lactose intolerance treated?

How lactose intolerance is treated depends on the extent of your child’s symptoms. Some children with lactose intolerance may be able to have small amounts of dairy products without having symptoms.

  • To help alleviate symptoms if/when your child consumes lactose-containing food, your pediatrician may recommend an over-the-counter lactase enzyme supplement.

  • If your child’s symptoms are severe and warrant removing all lactose from his or her diet, your pediatrician may refer your child to a registered dietitian. Since dairy is a good source of calcium and vitamin D—which all kids need—a registered dietitian can suggest other foods to provide those nutrients and may suggest vitamin supplements.

Is lactose intolerance a lifelong condition?

In some cases, lactose intolerance is temporary—if lactose intolerance develops after a viral illness or if it is associated with other conditions, like celiac disease. For example, once celiac disease is treated, lactase levels can become in the normal range and lactose may be tolerated in the diet. More than likely, however, lactose intolerance is long-term and requires many older children and adults to alter their diet to avoid symptoms.

Additional Information & Resources:

About Dr. Porto:

Anthony Porto, MD, MPH, FAAP is a board certified pediatrician and board certified pediatric gastroenterologist. He is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Associate Clinical Chief of Pediatric Gastroenterology at Yale University and Director, Pediatric Gastroenterology at Greenwich Hospital in Greenwich, CT. He is also the medical director of the Yale Pediatric Celiac Program. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, Dr. Porto sits on the PREP Gastroenterology Advisory Board and is a member of the Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. He is also a member of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition’s Public Education Committee, a pediatric expert on nutrition for The Bump’s Real Answers, and is the co-author of The Pediatrician’s Guide to Feeding Babies and Toddlers. Follow him on Instagram @Pediatriciansguide.

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

90,000 Dioxins and their effects on human health


Dioxins are environmental pollutants. They are part of the “dirty dozen” – a group of hazardous chemicals known as persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins are of particular concern due to their high toxic potential. Experiments show that they affect a variety of organs and systems.

Once in the human body, dioxins remain in it for a long time due to their chemical stability and ability to be absorbed by adipose tissues, in which they are then deposited.Their half-life in the body is estimated at 7-11 years. In the environment, dioxins tend to accumulate in the food chain. The concentration of dioxins increases as you move along the food chain of animal origin.

The chemical name of dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxin (TCDD) . The name dioxins is often used for the family of structurally and chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) .Some dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with similar toxic properties are also referred to as dioxins. 419 types of dioxin-related compounds have been identified, but only 30 of them have significant toxicity, with TCDD being the most toxic.

Sources of dioxin pollution

Dioxins are mainly produced by industrial processes, but can also be formed by natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires.Dioxins are by-products of a number of manufacturing processes, including smelting, chlorine bleaching, and the production of certain herbicides and pesticides. The main culprits for dioxin emissions into the environment are often uncontrolled incinerators (for solid and hospital waste) due to incomplete incineration of waste. Technologies exist to allow controlled incineration of waste with low emissions.

Despite the local formation of dioxins, their distribution in the environment is global.Dioxins can be found anywhere in the world in virtually any environment. The highest levels of these compounds are found in soils, sediment and food, especially dairy products, meat, fish and shellfish. Minor levels are found in plants, water and air.

There are large stocks of PCB-based industrial waste oils around the world, many of which contain high levels of PCDF. Long-term storage and inappropriate disposal of these materials can result in dioxin releases into the environment and contamination of food for humans and animals.It is not easy to dispose of PCB-based waste without contaminating the environment and human populations. Such materials must be handled as hazardous waste and the best way to dispose of them is by incineration at high temperatures in specially equipped places.

Cases of dioxin contamination

Many countries monitor food for dioxins. This promotes early detection of contamination and often prevents large-scale impacts.In many cases, dioxin contamination occurs through contaminated animal feed, for example, cases of increased levels of dioxins in milk or animal feed have been linked to pellets of clay, fat or citrus used in animal feed.

Some cases of dioxin contamination were more significant, with wider consequences for many countries.

At the end of 2008, Ireland withdrew numerous tons of pork and pork products from the market as dioxin levels were found to be 200 times the safe level in pork samples taken.This led to the withdrawal from sale due to chemical contamination of one of the largest consignments of food. Risk assessments carried out by Ireland indicated that there was no public health problem. Contaminated feed was traced to the source of the contamination.

In 1999, high levels of dioxins were found in poultry and eggs from Belgium. Then, dioxin-contaminated animal products (poultry, eggs, pork) were found in several other countries.The source was animal feed contaminated from the illegal disposal of PCB-based industrial waste oils.

In 1976, large quantities of dioxins were released from a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy. A cloud of toxic chemicals, including TCDD, exploded into the air and eventually infected an area of ​​15 square kilometers, which was home to 37,000 people.

Extensive research in the exposed population is ongoing to determine the long-term health effects of this incident.

Extensive research is also underway on the health effects of TCDD due to its presence in some shipments of the herbicide Agent Orange, which was used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. Its connection with certain types of cancer, as well as diabetes, is still being investigated.

While all countries can be exposed to dioxins, most reported contamination cases come from industrialized countries where food contamination is monitored properly, better awareness of the hazard, and better regulatory tools to detect dioxin-related problems. management.

Several cases of deliberate human poisoning have also been reported. The most significant of these is the case of the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, whose face was disfigured by chloracne.

Consequences of exposure to dioxins on human health

Short-term human exposure to high levels of dioxins can lead to skin abnormalities such as chloracne and focal darkening, as well as changes in liver function. Long-term exposure leads to damage to the immune system, the emerging nervous system, the endocrine system and reproductive functions.

Some types of cancer develop in animals as a result of chronic exposure to dioxins. In 1997 and 2012, the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) assessed TCDD. Based on animal and human epidemiological data, TCDD has been classified by IARC as a “known human carcinogen”. However, TCDD does not affect genetic material, and there is a level of exposure below which the risk of developing cancer becomes negligible.

Due to the widespread distribution of dioxins, all people are exposed to it and have a certain level of dioxins in the body, which leads to a so-called stress on the body. The current normal background exposure has, on average, no health consequences. However, due to the high toxic potential of this class of compounds, measures must be taken to reduce background exposure.

Sensitive subgroups

The developing fetus is most sensitive to the effects of dioxin. A newborn baby with rapidly developing organ systems may also be more vulnerable to certain exposures. Some people or groups of people may be exposed to higher levels of dioxins due to their diet (for example, people in some parts of the world who eat a lot of fish) or some kind of activity (for example, workers in the pulp and paper industry, incinerators, hazardous waste landfills ).

Prevention and control of dioxin exposure

Proper incineration of contaminated materials is the best available method to prevent and control dioxin exposure.Waste PCB oils can also be disposed of with this method. The combustion process requires high temperatures – over 850 ° C. For the destruction of large quantities of contaminated materials, even higher temperatures are required – 1000 ° and higher.

The best way to prevent or reduce exposure to dioxins in humans is through source-oriented measures, such as strict control of industrial processes to keep dioxin emissions as low as possible. This is the responsibility of national governments. The Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted in 2001 the Code of Practice on Source-Based Measures to Reduce Chemical Contamination of Foods (CAC / RCP 49-2001) and in 2006 adopted the Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Contamination of Food and Feed dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (CAC / RCP 62-2006).

More than 90% of human exposure to dioxins occurs through food, mainly meat and dairy products, fish and shellfish.Hence, food protection is critical. In addition to adopting source-oriented measures to reduce dioxin emissions, secondary contamination of food in the food chain must also be avoided. Appropriate controls and practices during primary production, processing, distribution and sale are critical to the production of safe food.

As noted in the examples above, contaminated animal feed is often the root cause of food contamination.

Food contamination monitoring systems are needed to ensure that acceptable levels are not exceeded. Feed and food producers have a responsibility to ensure safe raw materials and safe production processes, and national governments must monitor the safety of the food supply and take measures to protect public health.

National governments must monitor food safety and take action to protect public health.Where contamination is suspected, countries should have contingency plans for the identification, containment and disposal of contaminated feed and food. The exposed population should be monitored in terms of the level of exposure (for example, measuring the level of contaminants in blood or breast milk) and its consequences (for example, establishing clinical observation for signs of ill health).

What should consumers do to reduce the risk of exposure?

Removing fat from meat and consuming low-fat dairy products can reduce exposure to dioxin compounds.A balanced diet (including adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and grains) also avoids over-exposure to dioxin from any one source. This long-term strategy is aimed at reducing the burden on the body and is of particular importance for girls and young women, as it helps to reduce the impact on the developing fetus, and then on the breastfed baby.

What is needed to identify and measure dioxins in the environment and food?

The quantitative chemical analysis of dioxins requires modern methods that are available only in a limited number of laboratories in the world.The cost of such analyzes is very high and depends on the type of sample – from over USD 1,000 for the analysis of a single biological sample to several thousand USD for a comprehensive assessment of emissions from an incinerator.

An increasing number of biological screening methods (based on cells or antibodies) are being developed. The use of such methods for examining food samples is not yet sufficiently legalized. Such screening methods will allow more tests to be performed at a lower cost.In the case of a positive screening test, more sophisticated chemical analyzes must be performed to confirm the results.

WHO dioxin-related activities

In 2015, WHO published for the first time estimates of the global burden of foodborne disease. In this context, the consequences of dioxin exposure on reproductive capacity and thyroid function were considered. Looking at these 2 dimensions alone suggests that in some parts of the world such exposure could contribute significantly to the burden of foodborne disease

Reducing dioxin exposure is an important public health goal.With the aim of developing guidance on acceptable exposure levels, WHO has held a series of expert meetings to determine the acceptable intake of dioxins for humans.

In 2001, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (FAO) conducted an improved comprehensive risk assessment of exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs.

To assess the long-term or short-term health risks associated with these substances, the total or average intake should be estimated over several months, and the acceptable intake should be assessed at least after one month. On a preliminary basis, the experts have established an acceptable level of monthly intake of 70 picograms / kg per month. This is the amount of dioxins that can enter the human body throughout his life without detectable health effects.

WHO, in collaboration with FAO through the Codex Alimentarius Commission, has developed a Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like PCB Contamination in Food and Feed. This document provides guidance for relevant national and regional authorities in taking preventive action.

WHO is also responsible for the Food Contamination Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the Global Environment Monitoring System. The program, known as GEMS / Food, provides information on levels and trends of contaminants in food through a network of participating laboratories in more than 50 countries. Dioxins are included in this program.

WHO also conducts periodic surveys of dioxin levels in human milk, mainly in European countries. These studies assess human exposure to dioxins from all sources. Recent evidence suggests that, over the past two decades, measures introduced in several countries to control dioxin emissions have led to significant reductions in exposure to these compounds. Data from developing countries are not sufficient to analyze trends over time.

WHO also conducts periodic surveys of dioxin levels in human milk. These studies assess human exposure to dioxins from all sources.Recent evidence suggests that, over the past two decades, measures introduced in several countries to control dioxin emissions have resulted in significant reductions in exposure to these compounds.

WHO is continuing this research in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), in the context of the Stockholm Convention, an international agreement to reduce emissions of certain persistent organic pollutants, including dioxins. The possibility of taking a number of measures to reduce the release of dioxins during combustion and production is being considered. WHO and UNEP are conducting global breast milk surveys, including in many developing countries, to monitor global trends in dioxin pollution and the effectiveness of measures under the Stockholm Convention.

Dioxins are present as a complex mixture in the environment and food. To assess the potential risk of an entire mixture in relation to this group of pollutants, the concept of toxic equivalence is applied.

WHO has established toxic equivalence factors (PTEs) for dioxins and related compounds and is regularly reevaluating them through expert consultations.The WHO-FTE values ​​have been established, which are used for humans, mammals, birds and fish.

Products causing strong gases

Probably many of you have heard about the characteristic properties of legumes that lead to certain gastrointestinal symptoms.

And you must have thought at least once about whether to cook this pea soup.

But the evidence suggests that if you find it difficult to control your urge to emit gas, even if you have not eaten peas, then you most likely have not heard that there are other foods that can lead to such phenomena.

This article will discuss what foods to avoid to get your gases under control.

So-called “sugar-free products”

Products containing sweeteners such as sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt and xylitol include, for example, some sweets and gum.

Dairy products

The body of most people eventually loses its ability to metabolize lactose, an important component of dairy products.

Lactose intolerance can lead to diarrhea, constipation, gas and bloating.

If you are concerned about a lack of calcium, do not worry, because foods such as barley, chickpeas, cabbage and others contain it.

Some people can easily tolerate low-lactose dairy products such as yoghurt, ricotta, cottage cheese and some types of cheese.

Cruciferous vegetables

Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and kale are delicious (and easy to prepare) and make great garnishes for a variety of dishes.

But because they are high in fiber, they can cause gas and bloating.

Cruciferous vegetables take longer to travel through the digestive tract, making them more susceptible to intestinal bacteria. The bacteria cause the fiber to ferment and gas.

Beer and other yeast products

If a cold beer is your way to unwind after a hard day, you should probably look for a replacement.

Beer emits carbon dioxide, which accumulates in the intestines and is later excreted from the body in the form of very stinking gases.

Other types of alcohol and fermented and pickled foods can cause bloating, cramping and excess gas.

In other words: an excess of yeast equals an excess of gases.


The meat remains in the stomach for a long time, which leads to the accumulation of sugars and bacteria. This, in turn, causes bloating and gas. Chewing the meat more thoroughly is one way to reduce this unpleasant effect.


Although nuts are an excellent source of protein, healthy fats and fiber, they are not easily digested and create gas in the process.

Be healthy!

For digestion | EUROAPTIEKA

Now, when the end of summer is approaching, I want to have time for everything – not only to enjoy the last berries from the bush, but also hearty dishes on the open terraces of restaurants or in the garden near the grill. Sometimes delicious food and sedentary behavior can make you feel heavy and uncomfortable – and bloating again. Why bloating occurs and how to prevent it, explains Euroaptieka pharmacist Zane Melberga.

Why is there bloating?

Various factors and physiological processes that occur on a daily basis in our body usually lead to bloating, for example, constipation, food intolerances and allergies, or the accumulation of gases in the digestive system. Increased levels of emotional stress can also contribute to discomfort and a feeling of heaviness – exposure to stress stimulates changes in the intestinal nervous system, causing too much gas to build up and bloating. Meanwhile, in women, bloating occurs before and during menstruation, due to hormonal changes and fluid retention. It is important to remember that if bloating is an integral part of everyday life, and this causes not only unpleasant sensations, but also pain, then you should definitely consult a doctor for timely prevention of a possible illness.

How diet can affect bloating?

Proper and balanced nutrition is predominantly an important preventive factor to help prevent bloating.If you eat unbalanced food every day, and the portions are too large and do not correspond to your daily energy and nutrient intake, then there is nothing surprising in the appearance of a feeling of heaviness.

Overeating causes the stomach to expand, which begins to press on the rest of the organs, causing discomfort. This can manifest itself in different ways – drowsiness, flatulence, belching and burning in the stomach are just some of these manifestations. Eating too much food can overload the body as it has to produce more hormones and enzymes to break down nutrients.

It is also important to find out which foods are causing allergies or intolerances, as they can also contribute to flatulence and bloating. The most common allergens include dairy products, eggs, soy, wheat, various nuts and seafood. For example, milk is one of the most common bloating foods – the digestive system is unable to break down the sugar or lactose in milk, which then remains in the intestines, releasing gases and hydrogen sulfide.To help break down lactose into its constituent parts – glucose and galactose – it is recommended to take lactase capsules.

Foods high in fiber can cause the human digestive system to produce unnecessarily large amounts of gas. The main foods that can cause bloating are broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, beans, apricots, apples, pears, and foods that contain whole grains. It is advised to avoid sweets and foods that contain fructose and gluten as these are more likely to cause bloating. In addition, excessively fatty foods and treats saturated with artificial sugar can cause bloating. To keep track of food intake and sensations after eating, anyone can keep a food diary that lists foods that have bloated after eating. In this way, they can be avoided in the future, reducing their number in the daily diet and preventing uncomfortable everyday situations.

Drinking enough water every day, which averages two liters for adults, can reduce bloating because it helps flush out the digestive system and relieve constipation.It is important to remember here that carbonated drinks and soft drinks do not help to eliminate excess gases and do not quench thirst, because they contain bubbles with carbon dioxide released from the liquid only after entering the stomach. As a result, the stomach boils and bloating begins. Chewing gum can also cause bloating – when chewing, air is swallowed, which accumulates in the abdomen and leads to new gas formation. Chewing gum should be taken after meals, and not “just like that” – if you have a desire for something to eat, then you can recommend candied fruit, fresh fruits and vegetables.

Physical activity will help to stir up the digestive tract

Physical activity, like nutrition, is important for helping the digestive tract and intestines work – when a person is in a supine position, more gas accumulates in the body, so it is important to move and find time for physical activity at least three to four times a week. An apparently sedentary lifestyle not only contributes to bloating, but also leads to other health problems.A 30-minute walk, exercise, or yoga is all you need to keep your digestive tract and intestines active. The best exercises are balasana or child’s pose, or squats, straightening the rectum and helping to remove all excess.

If there is a feeling that physical activity is not enough, it is recommended several times a week for no longer than ten minutes to massage the abdomen with a foam roller, which can be bought at the pharmacy. This will not only improve the digestive system, but it will also reduce the feeling of heaviness and help in the elimination of excess fluid. The foam roller can be used not only for massage of the abdomen – it is also suitable for massage of the back, and will also help to relax the tension in the muscles after physical exertion.

First aid alphabet to prevent bloating

gastrointestinal tract naturally or absorption through the intestinal wall.Medicines that contain digestive enzymes such as lipase, amylase, or trypsin help the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract and also provide a feeling of lightness in the stomach. In turn, drugs that contain activated carbon free from excess gases accumulating in the colon. Peppermint oil capsules, fennel, chamomile and ginger tea also support the functioning of the digestive tract and stabilize the intestines. It is important to remember that it is recommended that you consult your doctor or pharmacist when choosing and using the most suitable remedy for bloating.

90,000 How to treat flatulence? Talking about an awkward topic

It just so happened that it is customary to either joke or keep silent ABOUT IT. Although the release of gases is an absolutely natural and normal process. It happens, however, that it is accompanied by some inconvenience or discomfort. Gas in the body can accumulate in the stomach and intestines and elsewhere.

Why excessive gases are formed in the body, how to live with flatulence and whether it is possible to get rid of this problem – we will tell in the article.

How does flatulence appear?

Flatulence (or bloating) – excess gas in the intestines. How to treat flatulence – sooner or later literally everyone is interested.

Gas in the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines) is formed from two sources.

  • swallowed air;
  • Normal breakdown of certain undigested food by harmless bacteria that are naturally present in the large intestine.

Swallowing air (or aerophagia) is the most common cause of gas in the stomach. Each person swallows some air while eating or drinking. But eating or drinking quickly, talking while eating, chewing gum, smoking, or wearing loose dentures will cause some people to swallow more air.

The way most of the swallowed air leaves the stomach is by belching.The remaining gas travels to the small intestine, where it is partially absorbed. A small amount enters the large intestine and is excreted through the rectum. The stomach also releases carbon dioxide when stomach acid and bicarbonate are mixed, but most of this gas is absorbed into the bloodstream and does not reach the large intestine.

Bacteria Gases are formed as a by-product of the digestion of certain foods by bacteria in the large intestine.These bacteria are responsible for the digestion of complex carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber) and cellulose, which are usually not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Before we learn how to treat flatulence, let’s deal with gases.

Smell – what’s this?

The amount and mixture of gases depends on the types of bacteria in the colon. Everyone has a unique set of bacteria from the moment they are born. These gases include hydrogen, carbon dioxide and, in some people, methane. Trace gases such as hydrogen sulfide are responsible for the smell.Foods that cause gas in one person may not cause them in another.

The UK Department of Health claims that the odor of gases changes with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, for example), antifungal drugs, laxatives and statins. But it is not worth changing the treatment without discussing with the doctor.

How to treat flatulence and prevent excess gas production?

Here are 11 tips to avoid gassing:

  1. Eat smaller meals more often.
  2. Chew food slowly.
  3. Exercise regularly to improve food digestion.
  4. Drink mint tea.
  5. Do not chew gum.
  6. Do not smoke.
  7. Exclude: beans, peas, lentils, cabbage, onions, broccoli, cauliflower, whole grains, mushrooms, certain fruits, beer, and sodas.
  8. Read the labels. If dairy seems like a problem, you may have some degree of lactose intolerance.Try low-lactose or lactose-free foods.
  9. Certain indigestible carbohydrates in sugar-free foods (sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol) also cause gas.
  10. Eat less fatty foods. Fat slows down digestion, giving food more time to ferment. What to do if you ate something wrong and got poisoned, we have already told you.
  11. Temporarily reduce your intake of foods high in fiber. Fiber has many benefits, but it promotes gas formation.After taking a break, gradually add fiber to your diet.

When to see a doctor?

How to treat flatulence, if it often goes away on its own? This is not possible without changing your eating habits. If you do not feel any improvement or if you have something from this list, be sure to consult your doctor:

  • diarrhea;
  • persistent or severe abdominal pain;
  • bloody stools;
  • Changes in stool color or frequency;
  • unintentional weight loss;
  • chest discomfort;
  • Loss of appetite or feeling full quickly.

These signs and symptoms may indicate a digestive system disorder.

How does a doctor treat flatulence?

In people with any complaints associated with flatulence, doctors first find out the relationship between symptoms and food (both the timing of food intake and the type and amount of food) and bowel movements. Doctors ask questions about changes in the frequency, color and consistency of stool, whether there has been a decrease in body weight.

In flatulence, a physical examination examines the symptoms of an underlying physical disorder (such as ovarian cancer, for example).Doctors do examinations of the abdomen, rectum, and pelvis (in women).

Treatment of the digestive system in a sanatorium is a “vacation” that is so necessary for the gastrointestinal tract. The load from the gastrointestinal tract is relieved by special dietary food (tables No. 1-4) and procedures. The treatment program includes: climatotherapy, hydrotherapy, massage, physiotherapy exercises, mud therapy, hirudotherapy, bioresonance therapy, balneotherapy.

Subscribe to our blog to learn even more about how to stay healthy – methods of treatment, prevention of diseases, as well as relaxation in the Caucasian Mineral Waters.

90,000 What foods cause colic in newborns when breastfeeding?

At the moment there is no reliable data that certain foods in the mother’s diet cause colic in the baby when breastfeeding.

Therefore exclusion from the diet of cabbage, fresh vegetables and fruits and other products , for which the mother or grandmother is “afraid”, is a completely unnecessary measure . Of course, if these products cause bloating in the nursing mother herself, then they should not be consumed.But they are unlikely to somehow affect the child.

The World Health Organization methodological guide “Breastfeeding. How to Ensure Success” states that

“colic is a poorly understood condition when a child cries bitterly, clearly suffers from pain, but he has no clearly diagnosed pathology” .

Usually true colic can be identified by the following signs :

  • crying heavily, which lasts more than three hours in a row, usually in the evening.It starts suddenly and ends suddenly as well. The rest of the time, the child is calm and happy with life.

  • most often, such crying attacks occur after 2-3 weeks of a child’s life, intensify within two months, and then both the frequency and duration of such crying decrease, ending safely by 3-4 months.

  • during an attack of colic, the child, as a rule, does not help.

What worries the child during an attack of colic?

This still remains a mystery and the subject of heated debate and numerous studies.

“Old School” states that colic is a manifestation of the child’s immaturity , in other words, tummy pain. At the same time, in the first place, they usually recommend that the mother go on a strict diet.

Our experience and modern research show that there is no connection between the mother’s diet and colic in the child . Therefore, there is no point and no need in any special diet for nursing mothers. You can read more about nutrition for nursing mothers in the article by a pediatrician-allergist on our website.

Modern specialists (doctors, scientists) are increasingly coming to the conclusion that colic is a manifestation of “infant migraine” . That is, it is not the child’s stomach that hurts, but the head.

This pain can arise from the child’s fatigue, overexertion of the nervous system, overexcitation and difficulty falling asleep. It is difficult for children to survive the abundance of modern devices that constantly surround them (smartphones, tablets, computers, TV), the number of loud, sharp sounds, too bright colors, in the end, the nervous tension in which their modern parents live.

This point of view is once again confirmed by the fact that very rarely it is possible to cope with colic with the help of medicines “from the tummy” , but very well help means of calming the child and mom-dad, strengthening their natural closeness .

Another interesting observation – in the villages and villages where life is not so “nervous”, children suffer from colic much less often.

Colic or gas?

Parents often confuse the concepts of “colic” and “gaziki” (increased gas production in a child).

It is quite simple to distinguish one from the other:

  • With “gaziks” the child usually has a hard and swollen belly, “like a drum”, gases do not leave. If the child farts, then there are no problems with passing gas.

  • Abdominal bloating is usually not observed with “colic”.

Causes of colic

There are several reasons that can influence the onset of colic:

  • in premature babies or babies with low body weight (less than 2.5 kg) colic is more common, presumably , due to physiological immaturity.

  • the course of pregnancy is also of great importance . If mom was experiencing acute or chronic stress, the likelihood of colic increases 3 times!

  • The likelihood of a baby getting colic is influenced by the way the baby was born . Factors such as prolonged or rapid labor, the use of forceps, and the use of pain relieving techniques such as epidural anesthesia increase the risk of colic. In this case, an osteopathic doctor can help to cope with colic in a child.

The test on our website will help you determine if your child needs an osteopath.

  • it is proved that children of mothers who smoke, suffer from colic much more often . This, perhaps, will once again make you think about how to get rid of the bad habit for the benefit of yourself and your child.

  • also a huge influence on the likelihood of colic and the severity of their manifestation is exerted by the particulars of caring for a child . Carrying on hands or in a sling, soft adaptive care, sleeping together with a child, rejection of extreme methods of care (diving, dynamic gymnastics, hardening), in most cases, allows, if not completely prevent, then significantly reduce the likelihood and severity of colic in infants …

How can you help your baby with colic?

☑️First of all, it is imperative to adhere to the rules of successful organization of breastfeeding and make sure that you are applying the baby to the breast correctly. This is of great importance in the prevention of colic and other problems in the baby.

☑️Be sure to offer the baby breast during colic attacks. More often than not, this is what brings the baby significant relief.

☑️ Carry the baby in your arms, look for a position in which the baby will calm down and cry less.Well helps with colic to put the child on his stomach or in the “tiger on a branch” position.

☑️You can take a bath with your baby or organize adaptive bathing, which is very effective in relieving colic attacks.

☑️Try to avoid large amounts of “irritants” that can tire the baby and overexcite his nervous system (as little TV, loud harsh music and sounds, too bright colors and too strong impressions, guests).

When overexcited , swaddling, motion sickness and “white noise” (the noise of water, a hair dryer and just the usual “shhshshsh”) very well help to calm and relax the child.

We would like to draw your attention to the fact that:

Colic is never an indication for stopping breastfeeding! Artificial feeding can only worsen the situation and exacerbate the problem.

Colic cannot last all day . If “colic” is manifested in the fact that the child behaves restlessly at the breast, refuses it, and the rest of the time is calm, then you need to find out the reasons for this behavior. To do this, you need to contact a breastfeeding consultant.

If, in addition to colic, you notice the baby has severe regurgitation, constipation, or, conversely, too frequent loose stools (green or foamy), problems with weight gain, you should definitely consult a pediatrician.

What foods can cause flatulence and bloating

Starchy foods can cause flatulence and bloating: fresh bread, baked goods, fried potatoes, pasta, rice, legumes, corn and others.

The use of certain foods can lead to flatulence and bloating. Also, flatulence can be caused by a number of diseases of the digestive system, which interfere with the normal digestion and absorption of food. But in many cases, the causes of excessive gas formation and bloating in healthy people are the wrong diet and the diet itself.

Foods containing coarse fiber are more difficult for the body to assimilate and digest.For example, if you regularly eat a lot of beans and beans, seeds, nuts, cabbage and yeast products, and in addition, chew food badly, then you are guaranteed bloating. The habit of talking while eating and drinking cold carbonated drinks with food also leads to excess gas in the intestines.

The following can cause flatulence and bloating:

– starchy foods: fresh bread, baked goods, fried potatoes, pasta, rice, legumes, corn;

– vegetables, berries and fruits – that is, foods rich in fiber.Fiber itself is essential for proper digestion of food. But too much of it in the intestines can hinder the process of movement of plant fibers and cause bloating;

– milk and fresh dairy products, fatty cheeses. With a tendency to flatulence, it is better to use fermented milk products, granular low-fat cottage cheese. Also, do not eat cereals, baked goods, cookies and drink milk at the same time;

– carbonated drinks, especially sweet. If you eat a lot of vegetables or fruits along with pasta or potatoes, and then drink kvass or sweet cola, then a “revolution” may begin in your stomach;

– foods rich in protein: meat, fish, too rich soups.When overeating these products, not only flatulence can begin, but also the process of putrefaction in the intestines. Then a person suffers not only from gases, but also from toxins formed in the digestive organs.

Therefore, try to use fermented milk and dairy products separately, do not eat a hearty meal of meat broth, vegetable salad with chop – fruit. Fruit nutritionists recommend eating a couple of hours after eating. Also, do not rush or talk when you eat: Swallowed air and poorly chewed food contribute to excess gas formation and bloating.

90,000 Lactose-free dairy products for special diets

Lactose makes up about a third of the milk powder, but it cannot be directly absorbed by the digestive system. Carbohydrate is a disaccharide, which means it is made up of a two-component sugar, glucose and galactose. The digestive enzyme lactase, produced in the small intestine, is able to break down dietary lactose into glucose and galactose, which can then be absorbed by the intestines.People who do not produce enough lactase and therefore cannot break down all the lactose they consume may suffer from unpleasant abdominal symptoms when they eat or drink dairy products that contain lactose.

Lactose intolerance in adults most often occurs due to the fact that our body naturally begins to produce less lactase during adulthood, i.e. when our bodies rely less on milk as their main food source.In some cases, injury or illness can also temporarily stop the production of lactase in the small intestine. And in very rare cases, some babies are born with a defective lactase gene, so their body does not produce lactase and needs lactose-free formula from birth.

It is important to understand that lactose intolerance is not the same as milk allergy, which is an immunological reaction to cow’s milk protein. While the symptoms of lactose intolerance cause significant discomfort, they are not dangerous.Many people with some degree of lactose intolerance still produce small amounts of lactase and can therefore continue to consume a limited amount of dairy products without any pain. However, they may skip dairy altogether, which means they will be missing an important source of nutrition.

It is estimated that about two-thirds of the world’s people have a reduced ability to digest lactose at the end of early development 1 .There are trends related to ethnicity, with lactose intolerance most commonly seen in populations that traditionally do not consume a lot of dairy products. On the other hand, lactose intolerance is less common in populations with relatively high dairy diets1. Data from the US National Institutes of Health1 show that, for example, only about 5% of people in Northern Europe are lactose intolerant, while in some communities in East Asia, the disease can affect more than 90% of adults.