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Can flagyl be used for yeast infection: RxList Page Not Found

Generic Flagyl (Metronidazole) – Antibiotics -> gogetrxonline.com

Common use

Flagyl is an antibiotic used against anaerobic bacteria Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium sp., Bacteroides sp., Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Veillonella and certain parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis (vaginitis), Giardia intestinalis (lambliosis of bowels and liver), Entamoeba histolytica. This medication is used to treat such conditions: bacterial peritonitis, liver abscesses, abscesses of the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes.

Dosage and directions

Your dose should be administered by your physician depending on your condition, disease and age. Flagyl may be taken orally with or without food. In the hospital sometimes, Flagyl is prescribed intravenously to treat serious infections. Take the extended-release tabs of Flagyl at least 1-2 hours before or after a meal (on an empty stomach). Do not chew, break or crush extended-release tabs and swallow them whole. Do not stop to take this drug even if you feel fine and your symptoms disappeared unless your doctor recommended it.


Long treatment requires complete blood count on a regular basis. Avoid drinking alcohol. Intake of Flagyl in patients is not advised during first trimester of pregnancy. Let your doctor know if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, have liver disease, a stomach or intestinal disease such as Crohn’s disease, a blood cell disorder such as anemia or leukopenia, epilepsy or other seizure and nerve disorders.



Possible side effect

Nausea, taste of metal in mouth, anorexia, abdominal pain, vomit, diarrhea, headache, dizzying, allergy (rash, hives), leucopenia and brown-red color of urine in patients treated for long time with this medication. Serious side effects include seizures and damage of nerves resulting in numbness and tingling of extremities, if you experience this you need immediate help of your doctor.

Drug interaction

Flagyl is compatible with sulphanilamides and antibiotics. Its combination with disulphiram, indirectly-acting inhibitors of clotting and certain myorelaxants is not desired. Non compatible with alcoholic beverages. Flagyl increases levels of lithium in blood serum. Flagyl should not be co-administered with amprenavir for treating human immunodeficiency disease.

Missed dose

If you missed a dose take it as soon as you remember. If it almost time of your next dose just skip it and return to your regular schedule. Never double dose this medication.


In case of serious and persistent nausea, vomiting, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination, numbness and tingling, or seizures consult your doctor about medical attention.


Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets. Do not use after expiration term.


We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information at the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Which treatments are effective for bacterial vaginosis? – InformedHealth.org

Bacterial vaginosis can cause symptoms such as discharge with an unpleasant smell. The antibiotics clindamycin and metronidazole are both effective treatments for bacterial vaginosis. There has not yet been enough research on the possible benefits of lactic acid bacteria treatments.

Bacterial vaginosis is quite common and caused by changes in the vaginal flora that allow the rapid growth of specific types of bacteria (usually gardnerella).

The infection can cause a thin, grayish-white discharge with an unpleasant smell, but it often goes undetected. If it does produce symptoms, antibiotics can be used as an effective treatment, even during pregnancy. Treatment can help lower the slightly increased risk of miscarriage due to the infection, too.

How are antibiotics used?

Symptoms are usually treated with an antibiotic such as clindamycin or metronidazole – as a cream, vaginal suppositories or tablets, or oral tablets. Treatment can last one to seven days depending on the exact drug used, its form and the dose, and the severity of the symptoms. Your doctor can help you decide what type of treatment is most suitable for you.

If you’ve been prescribed antibiotics, it’s important to be careful about using them correctly. That especially means using the medicine regularly and for as long as prescribed: Stopping early, for instance if the symptoms have already cleared up, contributes to the development of resistant strains of bacteria.

How effective are antibiotics?

Clindamycin and metronidazole are very effective against vaginosis symptoms. Studies on clindamycin cream treatments have shown the following:

  • 50% of the study participants who didn’t use clindamycin had no symptoms one to two weeks after placebo treatment.

  • 88% of the study participants who used clindamycin had no symptoms one to two weeks after treatment.

Several studies have also shown that clindamycin and metronidazole are similarly effective: In the studies comparing these two antibiotics, over 90% of the women had no symptoms after treatment – regardless of which drug they had used.

It’s not uncommon for bacterial vaginosis to return after a few weeks. That happens quite often. About half of all women have symptoms again about one year after the first infection. If bacterial vaginal infections return more frequently, it may be a good idea to discuss options for preventive treatment with your doctor.

Studies have also looked into whether it’s a good idea for your partner to also take antibiotics. But that didn’t speed up the recovery time. It also hasn’t been shown that treating your partner would prevent the infection from coming back.

What are the side effects?

Antibiotic treatment kills not only gardnerella bacteria, but also useful bacteria in the vaginal flora that work to keep other germs in check. This means that antibiotic treatment can sometimes end up causing a vaginal yeast infection (candida fungus). This happens to about 10% of women who use clindamycin or metronidazole. Itching and a thick, white discharge are typical signs of a yeast infection, and it can also be treated with medication.

Other side effects may also occur. Metronidazole tablets leave behind a metallic taste in about 10% of women. Less commonly, they cause nausea and vomiting. Clindamycin is very well tolerated when used as a cream, and aside from yeast infections it has no other known side effects.

Could lactic acid bacteria help?

Lactic acid bacteria are believed to help restore healthy vaginal flora and suppress harmful bacteria, but treatments that use lactic acid bacteria are not as well tested as antibiotics. There are hardly any studies testing them on their own – they are usually used in combination with antibiotics. But no evidence has been found that vaginosis clears up any better with this combination. Little is known about possible side effects.

Can vaginosis be treated during pregnancy?

Bacterial vaginosis that develops during pregnancy can slightly increase the risk of premature birth. The risk of a late-term miscarriage or stillbirth (between the thirteenth and twenty-fourth week of pregnancy) is also higher. In miscarriage or stillbirth, the child dies while still in the mother’s body.

The advantages and disadvantages of antibiotic treatment were analyzed in a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review. Researchers analyzed 21 studies involving nearly 8,000 pregnant women. The results show that antibiotics can lower the risk of late-term miscarriages:

  • 2% of women who didn’t take antibiotics had a late-term miscarriage.
  • 0.3% of women who took antibiotics had a late-term miscarriage.

Antibiotics had no influence on the risk of premature births or on stopping a woman’s water from breaking sooner. About 2% of the women stopped treatment due to side effects. There is no evidence that antibiotics used to treat bacterial vaginosis have any long-term side effects or are harmful for the child.

Most study participants experienced no symptoms and their infection was detected during other routine pregnancy tests. If bacterial vaginosis starts causing symptoms during pregnancy, it is usually treated anyway.


  • IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping
    people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health
    care services.

    Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the
    German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual
    case can be determined by talking to a doctor. We do not offer individual consultations.

    Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a
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    health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can
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Vaginitis – Associated Women’s Health Specialists

Vaginitis is an inflammation of a woman’s vagina. As many as one third of women will have symptoms of vaginitis sometime during their lives. Vaginitis affects women of all ages but is most common during the reproductive years. There are many possible causes, and the type of treatment depends on the cause. This pamphlet will explain:

  • Symptoms of vaginitis
  • Types of treatment
  • How to reduce your risk
At the first sign of any abnormal discharge or symptoms of vaginitis, such as burning or itching, contact your doctor.

The Vagina

It is normal for a small amount of clear or cloudy white fluid to pass from a woman’s vagina. This keeps the tissue moist and healthy. The vagina holds organisms, such as bacteria and yeast, in balance so it can function normally. Some factors can upset this normal balance of the vagina:

  • Antibiotics
  • Changes in hormone levels
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding
  • Menopause
  • Douches
  • Spermicides
  • Sexual intercourse
  • Infection

A change in the normal balance can allow either yeast or bacteria to increase and result in vaginitis. This causes the lining of the vagina to become inflamed. Vaginitis may cause itching, a bad odor, or a large amount of discharge.


To diagnose vaginitis, your doctor will take a sample of the discharge from your vagina and look at it under a microscope. Your doctor also may suggest other tests. To ensure the results of the test are accurate, do not douche or use any vaginal medications or spermicide before you see your doctor.


Treatment will depend on the cause of the vaginitis. Treatment may be either with a pill or a cream or gel that is applied to the vagina.

It is important to follow your doctor’s instructions exactly, even if the discharge or other symptoms go away before you finish the medication. Even though the symptoms disappear, the infection could still be present. Stopping the treatment early may cause symptoms to return. If symptoms recur after the treatment is finished, see your doctor. A different treatment may be needed.

Types of Vaginitis

Yeast Infection

Yeast infection also is known as candidiasis. It is one of the most common types of vaginal infection.

Cause. Yeast infection is caused by a fungus called Candida. It is found in small numbers in the normal vagina. However, when the balance of bacteria and yeast in the vagina is altered, the yeast may overgrow and cause symptoms.

Some types of antibiotics increase your risk of a yeast infection. The antibiotics kill normal vaginal bacteria, which keep yeast in check. The yeast can then overgrow. A woman is more likely to get yeast infections if she is pregnant or has diabetes. Overgrowth of yeast also can occur if the body’s immune system, which protects the body from disease, is not working well. For example, in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yeast infections may be severe. They may not go away, even with treatment, or may recur often. In many cases, the cause of a yeast infection is not known.

Symptoms. The most common symptoms of a yeast infection are itching and burning of the area outside the vagina called the vulva. The burning may be worse with urination or sex. The vulva may be red and swollen. The vaginal discharge usually is white, lumpy, and has no odor. Some women with yeast infections notice an increase or change in discharge. Others do not notice a discharge at all.

Treatment. Yeast infections can be treated either by placing medication into the vagina or by taking a pill. In most cases, treatment of male sex partners is not necessary. You can buy over-the-counter yeast medication, but be sure to see your doctor if:

  • This is the first time you have had a vaginal infection
  • Your symptoms do not go away after treatment
  • Your vaginal discharge is yellow or green or has a bad odor
  • There is a chance that you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
What You Can DoThere are a number of things you can do to lower the risk of getting vaginitis:

  • Do not use feminine hygiene sprays or scented deodorant tampons.
  • Do not try to cover up a bad odor. It could be a sign of infection that should prompt you to see your doctor.
  • Do not douche. It is better to let the vagina cleanse itself.
  • Thoroughly clean diaphragms, cervical caps, and spermicide applicators after each use.
  • Use condoms during sex.
  • Check with your doctor about preventing yeast infections if you are prescribed antibiotics for another type of infection.

Sometimes a woman thinks she has a yeast infection when she actually has another problem. There are several conditions that cause itching and burning, just like yeast. If there is another cause, it may be harder to find if a woman is taking medication for a yeast infection.

Bacterial Vaginosis

Cause. The bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis occur naturally in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is caused by overgrowth of these bacteria.

Symptoms. The main symptom is increased discharge with a strong fishy odor. The odor may be stronger during your menstrual period or after sex. The discharge usually is thin and dark or dull gray, but may have a greenish color. Itching is not common, but may be present if there is a lot of discharge.

Treatment. Several different antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial vaginosis, but there are two that are most commonly used: metronidazole and clindamycin. They can be taken by mouth or inserted into the vagina as a cream or gel.

When metronidazole is taken by mouth, it can cause side effects in some patients. These include nausea, vomiting, and darkening of urine. Do not drink alcohol when taking metronidazole. The combination can cause severe nausea and vomiting.

Usually there is no need to treat a woman’s sex partner. But, if the woman has repeated infections, treatment of the partner may be helpful.

Bacterial vaginosis often recurs. It may require long-term or repeated treatment. In most cases, treatment works in time. Sometimes when bacterial vaginosis keeps coming back it may mean that you have an STD. Your doctor may test you for other infections.


Cause. Trichomoniasis is a condition caused by the microscopic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is spread through sex. Women who have trichomoniasis are at an increased risk of infection with other STDs.

Symptoms. Signs of trichomoniasis may include a yellow-gray or green vaginal discharge. The discharge may have a fishy odor. There may be burning, irritation, redness, and swelling of the vulva. Sometimes there is pain during urination.

Treatment. Trichomoniasis usually is treated with a single dose of metronidazole by mouth. Do not drink alcohol for 24 hours after taking this drug because it causes nausea and vomiting. Sexual partners must be treated to prevent the infection from recurring.

Atrophic Vaginitis

This condition is not caused by an infection but can cause a discharge and vaginal irritation. It may occur any time when female hormone levels are low such as during breastfeeding and after menopause. Symptoms include dryness and burning. Atrophic vaginitis is treated with estrogen, which can be applied as a vaginal cream, ring, or tablet. A water-soluble lubricant also may be helpful during intercourse.


At the first sign of any abnormal discharge or symptoms of vaginitis, such as burning or itching, contact your doctor. Although vaginitis can cause discomfort, it almost always can be treated once the cause has been found.


Bacterial Vaginosis: A type of vaginal infection caused by the overgrowth of a number of organisms that are normally found in the vagina.

Candidiasis: Also called yeast infection or moniliasis, a type of vaginitis caused by the overgrowth of Candida (a fungus normally found in the vagina).

Clindamycin: An antibiotic used to treat, among other kinds of infections, certain types of vaginitis.

Estrogen: A female hormone produced by the ovaries that stimulates the growth of the lining of the uterus.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Metronidazole: An antibiotic used to treat some vaginal and abdominal infections.

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD): A disease that is spread by sexual contact, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, genital warts, herpes, syphilis, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Spermicides: Chemicals that inactivate sperm. They come in creams, gels, foams, and suppositories. Some condoms are coated with spermicides.

Vulva: The lips of external female genital area.


Metronidazole: antibiotic to treat bacterial infections

Metronidazole tablets, liquid and suppositories are prescribed for a number of infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease. The form your doctor prescribes, the dose and how long you’ll need to take the medicine for depends on the type of infection and how serious it is.

Some infections can be treated with a single dose, while others may need a 2 week course. Children’s doses are lower and depend on the age or weight of your child. Follow the instructions from your doctor or pharmacist.

Metronidazole tablets should be swallowed whole with a drink of water, after you’ve eaten some food.

Metronidazole liquid does not need to be taken after food. This medicine comes with a plastic syringe or spoon to help you measure out the right dose. If you do not have one, ask your pharmacist for one. Do not use a kitchen teaspoon as it will not give the right amount.

Your doctor may prescribe metronidazole suppositories if you have difficulty swallowing medicines. Metronidazole suppositories are usually used 3 times a day. Follow the instructions that come in the packaging with your medicine.

If you need to take several doses of metronidazole a day, try to space them evenly. For example, if you take your medicine 3 times a day, this could be first thing in the morning, mid-afternoon, and at bedtime.

How long should I take it for?

It’s very important to keep taking metronidazole for as long as your doctor has prescribed it.

What if I forget to take it?

If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember, unless it’s nearly time for your next dose. In this case, just leave out the missed dose and take your next dose as normal.

Never take 2 doses at the same time. Never take an extra dose to make up for a forgotten one.

If you often forget doses, it may help to set an alarm to remind you. You could also ask your pharmacist for advice on other ways to remember your medicines.

What if I take too much?

Accidentally taking an extra dose of metronidazole is unlikely to harm you or your child.

Speak to your pharmacist or doctor if you’re worried or you take more than 1 extra dose.

Vaginitis – Student Health Service

Diagnosis and Treatment of Vaginitis/Vaginosis

Vaginitis refers to itching or burning in the vagina, and is often combined with an unusual smell or discharge. Two common types of vaginitis are Candida (yeast) infections and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), neither of which are sexually transmitted. Gynecologic Care to find the best time to see a provider. You may be seen for a “same day” appointment. The provider will typically perform a pelvic exam and take a small sample of vaginal secretions to look at under the microscope. Results are given at the visit. Treatment, which can include oral or vaginal medication, will be prescribed.

What is Vaginitis?Vaginitis refers to the symptoms produced when the normal vaginal environment, also called the vaginal flora, becomes unbalanced. The vagina is not a sterile environment, hosting normal bacteria and organisms, including lactobacilli, that allow the vagina to maintain a slightly acidic balance. A healthy vagina will normally produce vaginal discharge that is clear, non-odorous, and may change with the menstrual cycle.

Changes in the normal vaginal environment, especially with sexual activity, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, douching, wet clothing, tight pants, changes in diet, illness, some medications, and exposure to perfumes and other chemicals, such as bubble bath, can result in vaginitis. The two common types of vaginitis include Candida (yeast) and Bacterial Vaginosis (BV).

What are the Symptoms of Vaginitis?Several common symptoms of vaginitis include: increased vaginal discharge, a change in color or consistency of your normal vaginal discharge, odorous discharge, and vaginal itching and burning. Some may have all of these symptoms, while others may have none.

How is Vaginitis Diagnosed?Vaginitis is easily diagnosed by your health care provider. First an assessment of the specific symptoms you are having will aid in diagnosis. Additionally, any recent use of medications, including antibiotics and oral contraceptives will be explored. Recent use of perfumes and chemicals, such as bubble baths, deodorant tampons, douches, and spermicides will also be reviewed.

It is likely that a speculum exam will be performed. A small amount of vaginal discharge will be evaluated. First the healthcare provider will assess the pH and consistency of the discharge. Use of a microscope will allow for the provider to look for yeast buds and hypae, which are characteristic of Candida infections. Bacterial infections can also be diagnosed by looking under the microscope. Specifically, the provider will look for normal vaginal epithelial cells that are obscured by bacteria.

How is Vaginitis Treated?Vaginitis is usually treated very easily. Candida infections can be treated using intravaginal creams for a period of 3-7 days. Intravaginal creams can be either purchased over-the-counter at a pharmacy or can be prescribed by your healthcare provider. One day, over-the-counter treatments may work, but are not recommended for most patients due to increased side effects of vaginal burning and irritation.

Important: Latex condoms and diaphragms can be weakened when exposed to some creams used to treat candida infections.

If this is the first time you have ever experienced symptoms of a yeast infection, please see a healthcare provider at Gynecologic Care before you diagnosis and treat yourself. Additionally, an oral medication (Diflucan/Fluconazole) may also be used to cure certain strains of Candida. Click here for more information…

Bacterial vaginosis is also treated relatively easily through either intravaginal creams or oral medications. Vaginal creams and gels (Cleocin Vaginal and MetroGel) are used for 5 nights. Oral medication (Flagyl/Metronidazole) can be used in place of the cream and are taken twice a day for 7 days. Treatment for bacterial vaginosis is only available from your healthcare provider. Click here for more information…

Important: Alcohol and products containing alcohol MUST be avoided when using medications to treat bacterial vaginosis

How Can I Prevent Vaginitis?1. Avoiding tight fitting clothing, like spandex and pantyhose
2. Avoiding perfumed and scented tampons/maxi-pads
3. Avoiding use of mini-pads on non-menstrual days
4. Not douching
5. Limiting bubble baths and use of perfumed shower gels
6. Limiting time spent in wet work-out clothing or swim suits
7. Wiping from front to back after using the bathroom
8. Wearing cotton underwear

What Should I do if I think I Have Vaginitis?Stop suffering! Make an appointment with a Gynecologic Care provider by calling 215.746.3535.

Metronidazole vaginal gel

What is this medicine?

METRONIDAZOLE (me troe NI da zole) VAGINAL GEL is an antiinfective. It is used to treat bacterial vaginitis.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): MetroGel, MetroGel Vaginal, MetroGel-Vaginal, NUVESSA, Vandazole

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • Cockayne syndrome
  • history of blood diseases, like sickle cell disease or leukemia
  • history of yeast infection
  • if you often drink alcohol
  • liver disease
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to metronidazole, nitroimidazoles, parabens, or other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

This medicine is only for use in the vagina. Do not take by mouth or apply to other areas of the body. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Wash hands before and after use. Screw the applicator to the tube and squeeze the tube gently to fill the applicator. Lie on your back, part and bend your knees. Insert the applicator tip high in the vagina and push the plunger to release the gel into the vagina. Gently remove the applicator. Wash the applicator well with warm water and soap. Use at regular intervals. Finish the full course prescribed by your doctor or health care professional even if you think your condition is better. Do not stop using except on the advice of your doctor or health care professional.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug maybe prescribed for children as young as 12 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, use only that dose. Do not use double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

Do not take this medicine with any of the following medications:

  • alcohol or any product that contains alcohol
  • cisapride
  • disulfiram
  • dronedarone
  • pimozide
  • thioridazine

This medicine may also interact with the following medications:

  • amiodarone
  • birth control pills
  • busulfan
  • carbamazepine
  • cimetidine
  • cyclosporine
  • fluorouracil
  • lithium
  • other medicines that prolong the QT interval (cause an abnormal heart rhythm) like dofetilide, ziprasidone
  • phenobarbital
  • phenytoin
  • quinidine
  • tacrolimus
  • vecuronium
  • warfarin

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse.

You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells.

Ask your doctor or health care professional if you should avoid alcohol. Many nonprescription cough and cold products contain alcohol. Metronidazole can cause an unpleasant reaction when taken with alcohol. The reaction includes flushing, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and increased thirst. The reaction can last from 30 minutes to several hours.

If you are being treated for a sexually transmitted disease, avoid sexual contact until you have finished your treatment. Your sexual partner may also need treatment.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • confusion
  • fast, irregular heartbeat
  • fever, chills, sore throat
  • fever with rash, swollen lymph nodes, or swelling of the face
  • pain, tingling, numbness in the hands or feet
  • redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth
  • seizures
  • sign and symptoms of liver injury like dark yellow or brown urine; general ill feeling or flu-like symptoms; light colored stools; loss of appetite; nausea; right upper belly pain; unusually weak or tired; yellowing of the eyes or skin
  • vaginal discharge, itching, or odor in women

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • changes in taste
  • diarrhea
  • headache
  • nausea, vomiting
  • stomach pain

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Do not freeze. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

Vaginal bacteria can trigger recurrent UTIs, study shows – Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

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Findings help explain UTI link to sexual activity

M. Joens, J. Fitzpatrick and N. Gilbert

A kind of bacteria found in the vagina may trigger recurrent UTIs, according to a new study at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. In the image, a bladder cell (blue) that has been exposed to G. vaginalis is dying and detaching from its neighboring cells (teal), revealing immature cells below (purple).

About half of all women will experience urinary tract infections in their lifetimes, and despite treatment, about a quarter will develop recurrent infections within six months of initial infection.

A new study at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has uncovered a trigger of recurrent UTI infections: a type of vaginal bacteria that moves into the urinary tract.

The research, in mice, is published March 30 in PLOS Pathogens.

UTIs most often occur when bacteria that live inside the bowel make their way into the urinary tract. The infections can occur anywhere along the urinary tract but commonly develop in the bladder. UTIs are treated with antibiotics, but each time a UTI comes back makes it even more likely the infection will recur yet again.

In young, sexually active women, about 80 percent of UTIs are caused by E. coli. Conventional thinking holds that recurrence occurs when E. coli is reintroduced into the urinary tract. But the new research suggests another way for a subsequent UTI to develop: The vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis triggers E. coli already hiding in the bladder to cause another UTI. G. vaginalis also may be a contributor to more serious – and potentially deadly – kidney infections, the study suggests.

“We found that a particular vaginal bacterium, Gardnerella vaginalis, did not cause infection during exposure to the urinary tract, but it damaged the cells on the surface of the bladder and caused E. coli from a previous UTI to start multiplying, leading to another bout of disease,” said the study’s senior author, Amanda Lewis, PhD, an assistant professor of molecular microbiology and of obstetrics and gynecology at Washington University.

Related: Novel approach shows promise against UTIs

Small molecules block bacteria from attaching to, infecting bladder

Previous studies already had established that E. coli bacteria can create dormant hiding places for E. coli in the bladder and later be reactivated to cause infection. But this is the first study to identify a plausible trigger.

The reasons why UTIs recur is not fully understood, but the researchers, including obstetrics and gynecology instructor Nicole Gilbert, PhD, and graduate student Valerie O’Brien, saw a clue in bacterial vaginosis, which is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria, resulting in vaginal odor and discharge. The condition is associated with UTIs.

As part of the study, the researchers infected the bladders of female mice with E. coli, initiating UTIs, and then let them recover. One month after infection, no E. coli was detected in the animals’ urine. However, previous studies had shown that a small population of E. coli can persist in the bladder at levels undetectable in the urine.

Next, the researchers introduced into the bladders of the mice either Lactobacillus crispatus, a normal vaginal bacterium; G. vaginalis, which is associated with bacterial vaginosis; or sterile saltwater, as a control. Both kinds of vaginal bacteria were eliminated from the bladder within 12 hours, but this short sojourn in the bladder was enough for E. coli to reappear in the urine of more than half of the mice exposed to G. vaginalis, indicating a recurrent UTI. Mice given the normal vaginal bacteria or sterile saltwater were about five times less likely to develop another UTI compared with those given G. vaginalis.

“The mice are not being reinoculated with E. coli,” O’Brien said. “Instead, the bacterial reservoirs already in the bladder emerge out of the tissue, multiply and cause another infection.”

Moreover, in some of the mice with G. vaginalis, bacteria traveled from the bladder up the urinary tract to the kidneys. In women, kidney infections are rare – just 1 percent of women with bladder infections go on to develop one – but serious. Kidney infections involve back pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, and can be deadly.

“When we looked, we could see that this severe kidney damage was almost exclusively happening in the G. vaginalis group,” Lewis said.

All of the mice that had either G. vaginalis or E. coli in their urinary tracts showed some degree of kidney damage. But of the mice that had both species, 6 percent showed severe kidney damage, high levels of E. coli in the kidney and signs that E. coli had moved from the kidney to the bloodstream, a form of UTI that can kill. In other words, the presence of G. vaginalis made E. coli more likely to cause severe kidney disease.

The researchers said G. vaginalis is not normally a concern for women with UTIs but that perhaps it should be.

“If a clinical lab finds G. vaginalis in a UTI sample, perhaps they shouldn’t assume it’s just a contaminant from the vagina,” Gilbert said. “Our results suggest it could be contributing to the disease.”

The researchers suggest that new clinical studies are needed to inform doctors treating women for UTIs – especially kidney infections – to look at whether bacterial vaginosis may put some women at greater risk for this severe form of UTI. Both UTIs and bacterial vaginosis are treatable with antibiotics, but different kinds are required. Standard UTI antibiotics will not rid a patient of G. vaginalis.

The findings also may explain why some women experience recurrent UTIs after having sex.

“A lot of women swear that every time they have sex they get a UTI, and obviously that’s a huge burden,” Lewis said. “We don’t doubt that re-infection with E. coli is partly responsible, but we think we’ve found another pretty compelling reason why the connection between sexual activity and recurrent UTI might exist: Vaginal bacteria like G. vaginalis are moved into the urinary tract during sex.”

Gilbert NM, O’Brien VP, Lewis AL. Transient microbiota exposures activate dormant Escherichia coli infection in the bladder and drive severe outcomes of recurrent disease. PLOS Pathogens. March 30, 2017.

This work was supported by the Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research at Washington University School of Medicine; the American Heart Association, grant numbers 12POST12050583 and 14POST20020011; the National Science Foundation; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, grant number AI114635; and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, grant numbers R21 DK092586 and P50 DK064540-11.

Washington University School of Medicine‘s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked seventh in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

90,000 48 reviews, instructions for use

When used simultaneously with antacids containing aluminum hydroxide, with cholestyramine, the absorption of metronidazole from the gastrointestinal tract is slightly reduced.

With the simultaneous use of metronidazole potentiates the action of indirect anticoagulants.

With simultaneous use with disulfiram, the development of acute psychosis and impaired consciousness is possible.

It is impossible to exclude an increase in the concentration of carbamazepine in the blood plasma and an increase in the risk of developing toxic effects when used simultaneously with metronidazole.

With simultaneous use with lansoprazole, glossitis, stomatitis and / or the appearance of a dark color of the tongue are possible; with lithium carbonate – an increase in the concentration of lithium in the blood plasma and the development of symptoms of intoxication is possible; with prednisone – the excretion of metronidazole from the body increases due to the acceleration of its metabolism in the liver under the influence of prednisone. A decrease in the effectiveness of metronidazole is possible.

With simultaneous use with rifampicin, the clearance of metronidazole from the body increases; with phenytoin – a slight increase in the concentration of phenytoin in the blood plasma is possible, a case of the development of a toxic effect is described.

With simultaneous use with phenobarbital, the excretion of metronidazole from the body is significantly increased, apparently due to the acceleration of its metabolism in the liver under the influence of phenobarbital. A decrease in the effectiveness of metronidazole is possible.

When used simultaneously with fluorouracil, the toxic effect is enhanced, but not the effectiveness of fluorouracil.

A case of the development of acute dystonia after taking a single dose of chloroquine in a patient receiving metronidazole is described.

With simultaneous use with cimetidine, it is possible to inhibit the metabolism of metronidazole in the liver, which can lead to a slowdown in its excretion and an increase in plasma concentration.

With the simultaneous use of ethanol in patients receiving metronidazole, disulfiram-like reactions may develop.

City pharmacy – medicines, health products in Smolensk at competitive prices


Onychomycosis caused by dermatophyte fungi;
mycoses of the scalp;
fungal infections of the skin – treatment of dermatomycosis of the trunk, legs, feet, as well as yeast infections of the skin caused by fungi of the genus Candida (for example, Candida albicans) – in cases where the localization, severity or prevalence of the infection determines the advisability of oral therapy. Unlike lek. topical forms of oral terbinafine are not effective for versicolor versicolor.

The duration of treatment depends on the indication and the severity of the course of the disease.
Adults are prescribed 250 mg 1 time / day.
Children from 2 years old are prescribed 1 time / day. A single dose depends on the child’s body weight: less than 20 kg – 62.5 mg; from 20 to 40 kg – 125 mg; more than 40 kg – 250 mg.The recommended duration of treatment for dermatomycosis of the feet (interdigital, plantar or sock-like) is 2-6 weeks; with dermatomycosis of the trunk, legs 2-4 weeks; with candidiasis of the skin – 2-4 weeks.
The recommended duration of treatment for mycosis of the scalp is 4 weeks.
In onychomycosis, the duration of treatment is 6 (onychomycosis of the hands) to 12 weeks (onychomycosis of the feet). Patients who have a reduced rate of nail growth may require longer treatment.

Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug.
It is not recommended to prescribe the drug to patients with chronic or active liver disease. Before prescribing terbinafine tablets, it is necessary to determine whether the patient has a history of liver disease. Hepatotoxicity can occur in patients with or without prior liver disease.Patients who are prescribed terbinafine should be warned to immediately inform the attending physician if symptoms such as persistent nausea, lack of appetite, fatigue, vomiting, pain in the right hypochondrium, jaundice, dark urine or light stool occur while taking the drug … If such symptoms appear, it is necessary to immediately stop taking the drug and conduct a study of liver function.
Since the use of the drug in patients with impaired renal function (CC <50 ml / min or serum creatinine concentration> 300 μmol / L) has not been sufficiently studied, the drug is not recommended for use in this category of patients.

[B49] Mycosis, unspecified [B35.1] Mycosis of nails [B37.2] Candidiasis of the skin and nails [B35.0] Mycosis of the beard and head


Some types of infectious diseases of the genital organs, unlike sexually transmitted diseases, which will be discussed in the next chapter, are not only sexually transmitted.We will try to analyze diseases that can be sexually transmitted and in many cases are characterized by unpleasant symptoms that significantly affect the sexual pleasure and emotional state of the patient. Fortunately, most of these diseases are treatable and pose no health risks. We consider these diseases separately so that the reader does not get the impression that they are transmitted only through sexual contact.


Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa caused by infection, allergic reaction, estrogen deficiency or chemical irritation.Vaginitis causes sexual dysfunctions, expressed in painful sensations during intercourse or an unpleasant smell, which embarrasses the woman and reduces the desire for intimacy on the part of the man. We will consider only the most common forms of vaginal infections.

Trichomoniasis vaginitis is a disease caused by a single-celled microorganism called Trichomonas vaginalis, usually present in small amounts in the vagina.If conditions are created in the vagina for the rapid multiplication of these microorganisms or if they are introduced during sexual intercourse, then an unpleasant, foul-smelling, greenish and yellow foamy discharge appears, causing irritation and burning in the vagina and external genitalia. To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to examine this discharge under a microscope. Flagyl (metronidazole) is considered to be the most effective drug for treating this condition and must be taken by both the woman and her partner.Flagil should not be given to nursing mothers, as it can pass into breast milk; according to some reports, this drug is not entirely safe, as it turned out that it promotes the development of tumors in mice. Fungal vaginitis is caused by a type of fungal or yeast infection caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans, a microorganism commonly found in the vagina. With this disease, the discharge is a thick white curdled mass and is accompanied by severe itching. This type of vaginitis occurs most often in pregnant women, in patients with diabetes mellitus, as well as in those women who use birth control pills or take antibiotics.Treatment is with special creams or beads inserted into the vagina containing the following medications: Monistat (rniconazole), Mycostatine (nystatine), or Mycelex-G (clotrimazole). The course of treatment lasts from one to two weeks.

Since yeast infections often “mask” the presence of such serious diseases as gonorrhea and syphilis, in this case it is necessary to make an analysis to identify their pathogens. In women with sexually transmitted diseases, genital yeast infections were found in 25% of cases.

Hemophilic vaginitis is another unpleasant type of vaginitis. Its causative agent is a small bacterium Hemophilus vaginalis. A brownish-white or gray discharge usually has a strong, unpleasant odor and is accompanied by burning and itching. Treatment involves oral medications such as ampicillin and tetracycline, and vaginal pastes and beads. A man should undergo treatment with his sexual partner, as it is very likely that the bacteria that cause hemophilic vaginitis are present in his urethra.

Before moving on to considering measures to prevent vaginitis, it is important to understand that up to seven different types of bacteria are usually present in the vagina of a healthy woman, as well as

microorganisms such as yeast and viruses. Some of them, apparently, play an important role in the physiology of the vagina, maintaining the desired degree of acidity, while others – with excess reproduction – cause the development of the disease. Until now, it is unclear why some women (in the absence of an obvious infection) develop pain and itching, while others (with obvious signs of infection) do not.Nevertheless, vaginitis is a very unpleasant disease for both the woman herself and her partner, and in order to reduce the risk of developing it, the following precautions are recommended.

Wear only cotton panties. Nylon and synthetic fibers retain heat and moisture, which creates a good breeding ground for bacteria.

Avoid frequent vaginal douching, as this irritates the mucous membrane and flushes out bacteria that are beneficial to the body (many recommend that women give up daily douching and use it only in cases of special need).

After washing, wipe the genitals towards the anus, otherwise bacteria from the anus may enter the vagina.

Avoid long-term use of antibiotics: this reduces the number of bacteria normally present in the vagina and promotes the growth of yeast microorganisms.

Regularly wash the genitals and anus with soap and water, avoid using so-called women’s deodorants, which can irritate the skin.

If your partner has a genital infection, try to avoid having sex with him or, as a last resort, use a condom.

After intercourse through the anus (anal intercourse), do not insert the penis into the vagina, as this encourages the entry of “foreign” bacteria into the vagina.

Avoid forms of sexual intercourse that cause vaginal discomfort.


Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, is a disease that is closely related to the sexual activity of women.Sexual intercourse increases the number of bacteria in the urine, possibly due to pressure on the urethra during intercourse. Since the urethra of a woman (2.5 cm) is much shorter than the urethra of a man (more than 15 cm), women are more likely to get cystitis (since bacteria in this case must “pass” a smaller distance). Signs of cystitis are burning at

urination, frequent urination, cloudy or bloody urine, pain in the lower abdomen.The diagnosis is made on the basis of microscopy of urine and its culture, which makes it possible to identify the bacteria that caused the disease. Treatment is performed with various antibiotics, often such as tetracycline and ampicillin.

A specific type of this disease is the so-called “honeymoon” cystitis, which develops in women after the first intercourse (not necessarily during the honeymoon) or after a long break in sexual activity.

Toxic shock

Toxic shock was first discussed in 1980.when there were numerous reports of a fatal disease that suddenly struck perfectly healthy women with regular menstrual cycles who used hygienic vaginal tampons. Although the name “toxic shock” was first used in 1978 by Todd and his colleagues, who named the small number of cases reported in children so, it is now clear that it was then a rare form (variety) of scarlet fever, which was first described in 1927(Stevens, 1927; Reingold, 1983).

Toxic shock is accompanied by high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain and redness of the skin resembling a sunburn. Fainting, low blood pressure, and dizziness are typical symptoms. Toxic shock is caused by toxins, or poisonous substances secreted by the bacteria staphilococcus aureus.

Most often this disease occurs in women who use tampons during menstruation. Most of the diseases reported in 1980, associated with the use of “Rely” tampons.

It was subsequently found that the morbidity with the use of tampons of this type is 11 times higher than with the use of Playtex tampons, 28 times higher than with the use of OB tampons, 39 times higher than with Kotex tampons, and 77 times higher than for Tatra tampons. After the release of Rely tampons, the number of cases of toxic shock dropped significantly, and in 1983, 15% of cases of this disease were no longer associated with the use of tampons.It has now been found that toxic shock affects not only women, but also men of all age groups, including children and the elderly, but the high-risk group is still white women using tampons between the ages of 15 and 25.

Although women who use tampons are most at risk of toxic shock (several

cases of this disease were reported in connection with the use of contraceptive sponges and diaphragms), the likelihood of developing this disease is very low.You can reduce the risk of illness by the following preventive measures:

abandon tampons and replace them with hygienic sanitary napkins or special padding;

change napkins or liners several times a day;

change tampons at least 3-4 times a day.

If you develop symptoms of toxic shock during your period, see your doctor immediately, as toxic shock is a rapidly progressive disease that is fatal in 4% of cases.Fortunately, at present – with the right treatment, including hospitalization, intensive therapy with powerful antibiotics – toxic shock is not as dire as it initially seemed.


Prostatitis, or inflammation of the prostate gland, can occur in two forms: acute and chronic. The causative agent of this disease is E. Coll, a common intestinal bacterium. Symptoms of acute prostatitis include fever, chills, pain in the perineum and rectum, frequent and painful urination, and impaired sexual function (painful ejaculation is especially common).Chronic prostatitis can be asymptomatic or with minor pain in the sacrum and perineum. Chronic prostatitis is sometimes the cause of premature ejaculation with blood. Antibiotic treatment usually cures acute prostatitis, but is ineffective in chronic prostatitis.

Chlamydia. Symptoms and treatment of chlamydia in women and men. Analysis during pregnancy

Chlamydia during pregnancy

Chlamydia and pregnancy – This topic is of concern to many pregnant women and families planning a pregnancy.Chlamydia (Chlamydia) – a genus of microorganisms of the family. Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales), uniting immobile coccal-like intracellular parasites living on the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system (Chlamydia trachomatis), in more rare cases – on the conjunctiva of the eye (conjunctivitis and trachoma). Chlamydia variants such as Chlamydia pneumonia Chlamydia psitachi can also settle in the lungs (bronchitis and pneumonia) and in the lymph nodes (benign lymphoreticulosis or cat scratch disease).

A feature of chlamydial infection is, firstly, a frequent latent course, when the disease does not manifest itself in any way, and only exacerbations lead to the appearance of mucopurulent discharge, sometimes pulling pains in the lower abdomen. In the last decade, urologists and gynecologists literally all the problems that arise during pregnancy have been associated with chlamydia. Here there is a clear overdiagnosis of this genital infection, created by pharmaceutical giants in need of antibiotic markets.The danger of intrauterine damage to the embryo and / or fetus is exclusively genital chlamydia. At the same time, genital chlamydia does not cause diseases of the bronchi and lungs.

Diagnostics of chlamydia – blood test for IgG antibodies

Laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of chlamydia today is the detection by ELISA of specific antibodies in the blood of IgG, IgM and / or IgA to chlamydia, as well as positive results of PCR studies of scrapings from the urethra, cervical canal, mucus from the vagina, urine, ejaculate, prostate juice (with genital chlamydia), in sputum, throat swab (with pulmonary chlamydia), from a tear or in a scraping from the conjunctiva (with eye damage).

The results of laboratory studies and clinical manifestations of genital chlamydia are not always complete and logical. In cases of a paradoxical humoral immune response, it is possible that there is no production of antibodies to chlamydia with confirmed by PCR and clinically manifest chlamydia genitalia. At the same time, a long-term (sometimes lifelong) persistence of IgG antibodies in low titers has been established after an infection that was once transferred earlier, which the patient did not even know about.It is not uncommon to note unstable results of PCR studies: in one material or in one scraping of DNA chlamydia was found, in the other not. There are options when a positive result today or in one laboratory after a while (without treatment!) Or in another laboratory may turn out to be negative. With epidemiologically motivated genital chlamydia, laboratory confirmed, there may be a complete absence of clinical symptoms followed by spontaneous recovery (without treatment).”Blooming” chlamydia in one of the sexual partners and the complete absence of clinical and laboratory signs of infection in the other with regular unprotected sex. The interpretation of these complex cases and the decision on the appointment of treatment is always individual and is the prerogative of an experienced attending physician. The use of such previously fashionable routine methods of confirming the diagnosis of chlamydia as “detection of key cells” or “characteristic inclusions” is morally outdated and cannot serve as a reason for establishing a diagnosis and, moreover, for prescribing treatment.The method of immunofluorescent detection of chlamydia (PIF, etc.) in smears initially gives up to 50% of false positive results, and in “experienced” hands – up to 90%.

Symptoms and signs of chlamydia

The most common manifestation of genital chlamydia is inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system: colpitis, cervicitis, adnexitis, cystitis; in men – urethro-prostatitis. These inflammatory processes, occurring in a chronic form, often lead to impaired reproductive function in both women and men.Genital chlamydia refers to TORCH infections and can be dangerous for the intrauterine development of the child, causing miscarriages in pregnant women, pregnancy fading, and premature birth. Infection of a child while passing through the birth canal can lead to the development of chlamydial conjunctivitis. Therefore, both acute and chronic clinically manifest chlamydia, laboratory confirmed, including during pregnancy, are subject to treatment.

How to cure chlamydia

Treatment is carried out both local and general.When choosing a medicine for pregnant women, it is advisable to prescribe those antibiotics, the side effects of which on the child are less pronounced. However, the adverse effect of antibiotics on the fetus is still possible, therefore, short courses of treatment are carried out. You can prescribe drugs of the widest spectrum of action and the latest generation, if there is data on the safety of their use in pregnant women. Of course, both sexual partners undergo treatment, using protected sex, otherwise a new reinfection is possible.The cure efficiency of acute genital chlamydia after the first course of therapy in pregnant women and outside of pregnancy approaches 100%. Conversations about “life-long”, “incurable”, etc. chlamydia associated with initially inadequately prescribed antibacterial treatment, failure to comply with the necessary protection measures during treatment against new infection. In some cases, due to incorrect laboratory diagnostics before treatment and false-positive results of control studies after treatment, patients have been trying unsuccessfully for years to get rid of what they never had.

The Vitacell Clinic specializes in the treatment of chlamydia. If necessary, you can contact in Kiev directly to the clinic or get an individual online consultation .

Attention !!! In this section you can read the answers of Dr. I. Markov. to questions from patients on the topic “Symptoms and treatment of chlamydia”. If the answers do not help you, then you can contact in Kiev directly to the Markov clinic or get an individual online consultation .Our clinic specializes in the treatment of infectious diseases, including chlamydia.

Question 1. Hello! I have the following question: during the examination, I was diagnosed with urethroprostatitis of chlamydial etiology (in the CMD clinic). At the same time, my wife has nothing, I have sex only with her. Question 1. As far as I understand, we need to carry out the treatment together? Question 2. I was prescribed medications (I apologize if I wrote it wrong): Wobenzim, Vilprofen, Tsiprobay, Amiksin, Legalon 140, Prostovit, Fluconazole, yogurt.Interested in: the adequacy of drugs to the diagnosis (there is information that they “recommend” drugs for which they have%). If so, is it possible to come with the results of their analysis to another doctor for consultation about the course of treatment?
Answer 1. In monogamous intercourse, in about 3-5% of cases, urogenital sexually transmitted infections occur in only one partner. However, the diagnosis of chlamydia in such cases, in addition to isolating chlamydia DNA by PCR analysis, must also be confirmed by enzyme immunoassay: the presence of antibodies to Chl.Trachomatis in the blood. Before starting treatment, it is advisable to confirm the diagnosis of chlamydia with an alternative examination in two different laboratories. According to our clinic, today in about 1/3 of cases, the established diagnosis of chlamydia is the result of overdiagnosis, i.e. erroneous. And the prescribed treatment, respectively, is not justified.

Question 2. Good afternoon, dear doctor! In connection with the planned pregnancy, she was examined. As a result, during cytoscopic examination, inclusions characteristic of chlamydia were revealed in the scraping from the cervix, and during PCR analysis, chlamydia from the cervical canal was revealed.But Ig G and Ig M were not detected: (titers to both immunoglobulins are almost three times less than the permissible norm. All analyzes were performed simultaneously and in the same laboratory. There were no clinical manifestations. Other infections were not detected by the listed methods. Please help to figure out if there is chlamydia or No? And do I and my husband need to be treated immediately for chlamydia? I am very grateful in advance for the answer.
Answer 2. Good evening, dear patient! Thank you for your question. clinical manifestations.And if it is still possible to admit a clinically asymptomatic course of chlamydia (at a certain stage of infection), then the presence of chlamydial infection in the absence of antibodies in the blood, which in this case are strictly specific, is practically excluded. Some results (either ELISA or PCR) are deliberately erroneous. My personal experience and international practice in these cases suggest that it is necessary to repeat the study in another laboratory. First, do tests for antibodies of the Ig A classes (if a fresh infection is suspected – 2-3 weeks) and Ig G (3-4 weeks or more) to chlamydia in another laboratory.If the tests turn out to be negative – with a clear conscience, you can stop further examination. So there is no chlamydia. Only in severe, clinically advanced stages of irreversible immunodeficiency, the human body does not produce antibodies to infections that have entered it. This axiom, unfortunately, is sometimes easier to explain to interested patients than to uninterested doctors.

Question 3. Dear doctor! The result of the analysis for chlamydia was obtained: IgG – 32.917 U / ml.How bad is it? What is a titer in relation to the analysis of chlamydia.
Answer 3. You need to know the positive indicator of the test system used to study your blood: if it is 11 IU / ml (or below 30), then your result is positive. This means that there was an infection with chlamydia, apparently (this is not indicated in the question) – through sexual contact. In this case, it is necessary to pass additional tests – scraping for DNA of chlamydia for PCR research. And also examine the sexual partner. After effective treatment, the positive titer of antibodies to chlamydia should disappear within 6–12 months.

Question 4. Hello! A year ago she was treated for chlamydia. After a course of treatment for chlamydia IgG – 11.5. The doctor did not prescribe a second treatment. A month ago I had the flu and took antibiotics. After the illness, there was a small discharge from the vagina. The result of the analysis for chlamydia IgG is 32.917. Could the flu cause a relapse of chlamydia? My husband and I really want a child, is it possible to get pregnant or do we need to undergo another course of treatment? And finally – which method of research for chlamydia is the most accurate: IgG, IgM or PCR? What is the difference?
Answers 4.Severe infectious diseases, including influenza, due to a suppressive (suppressive) effect on the immune system, can indeed provoke an exacerbation of chronic infections, to which in most cases chlamydia can also be attributed. But! During these very diseases, the level / titer of IgG antibodies to other infections, especially recently transferred ones, can simply increase amicably, without the re-development of the disease itself. T.N. nonspecific immune response. Therefore, for a diagnostic clarification of the situation and solving the issue of the need for a repeated course of treatment, it is necessary to do the following: 1) repeat the test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia in 2 different laboratories 1 month after the result “32.917 “; 2) make scraping from the urethra and cervical canal for chlamydial DNA by PCR; 3) examine the sexual partner in a similar way. A test for antibodies of the Ig M class in chronic infections is not always informative – it can be negative in case of clinical exacerbation / relapse of the disease. Antibodies of the IgG class to chlamydia in low titers can be detected for a long time (up to 6–12 months) in the blood of a recovered person even after successful treatment. However, in more distant terms, they should still disappear.Chlamydia DNA test by PCR (i.e. the causative agent of the infection itself) should remain negative. If it is necessary to prescribe a second course of treatment for chlamydia, it should be carried out before the planned pregnancy.

Question 5. Good afternoon! Please tell me the most effective way to check if there is chlamydia. The ELISA method was negative in three different laboratories. The UIF method is positive (2 months after the previous analyzes). I would like not to throw money down the drain and check somehow else.How can this be done more precisely so that the result does not depend on reagents, on the laboratory, on the experience of the laboratory assistant? Which method is generally the most accurate?
Answer 5. If the ELISA method in three different laboratories gave a negative result (although one would be enough in a high-quality laboratory), then you need to stop and stop this “tormenting”, moreover, at your own expense. There are two main messages: 1) the mutual fund method is routine and gives up to 35–40% of pseudo-positive results. It is checked by PCR (epithelial scraping from the urethra and / or cervical canal) and blood ELISA; 2) there is no chlamydial infection without the presence of specific IgG antibodies in the blood.That is, an axiom: if there are no specific antibodies to chlamydia in the blood, then there are no chlamydia in the body either. Even after successful treatment, antibodies continue to circulate for the next 6–12 months. Therefore, if someone, with negative ELISA results, continues to insist on the need for treatment of chlamydia or assert that the treatment prescribed 2-3 months ago was justified, this is either an unprofessional or commercially interested opinion.

Question 6.Hello. My young man was diagnosed with chlamydia. We underwent a course of treatment: flagil, sumamed, unidox, cycloferon, lidase, aminocaproic acid and supportive therapy. Recently, we passed a PCR analysis and a general smear. Everything is normal, no infections were found. But my boyfriend complains that his jaw joint hurts. Could it still be an untreated infection? How well does it heal? Maybe we need to pass some more tests?
Answer 6. It is unlikely that after such a course of treatment, even if chlamydia remains in the urogenital area, generalization of the infection may occur with the formation of extragenital foci and damage to the joints.This is not usually seen. After 2 weeks, you can make a control PCR analysis for DNA of chlamydia in a smear from the urethra and test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia in the blood. This test should remain moderately and monotonically positive with a gradual decrease in antibody titer over 6–12 months even after successful treatment. If antibodies are already absent in the blood during the first 3-4 months after treatment, it means that there was no chlamydia at all. Therefore, it is better to take control tests in another laboratory.

Question 7. A girl with whom I had an intimate relationship said that she had chlamydia. I passed a blood test for chlamydia, the result is negative. Is the blood test data sufficient, or do you need to do other tests to identify chlamydia?
Answer 7. 2 weeks after the first test, donate blood for IgG and IgA antibodies to chlamydia and scraping from the urethra (in the morning before urination) for chlamydia DNA by PCR. With negative results (this is quite possible even after unprotected contact with a partner infected with chlamydia), you can put an end to this issue for yourself.And recommend to your girlfriend to be tested for chlamydia before starting the prescribed treatment again, but in another laboratory. Maybe her diagnosis will be wrong. Unfortunately, this is also possible.

Question 8. I was diagnosed with chlamydia. Is it possible to recover from this disease if antibiotics are contraindicated.
Answer 8. Unfortunately, traditional medicine does not have such methods (without antibiotics). Some of my patients with chlamydia, who for various reasons did not take antibiotics, received homeopathic treatment and, it seems, even successfully.I can recommend contacting the well-known homeopathic doctor Dergacheva Zoya Nikolaevna (tel. In Kiev 455? 9993, www.homeopat-ua.org).

Question 9. Hello! Explain, please, how can there be such results of a blood test (chlamydia) – IgG is not detected, IgA is not detected? Are there really no antibodies at all, does this happen? Does this mean a completely weakened immune system? (I don’t get sick once a year, besides, in December I took a course of echinacea and my immunity should have been normal).Does it make sense to be treated, will the disease be cured? The treatment was completed 4 months ago. Such results were always for two years in different laboratories, and the PIF is always positive, PCR too. Sometimes PCR is positive in one laboratory and negative in another. The last time a negative PCR was obtained on the last day before menstruation, the flora is normal, on the 10th day of the cycle, approximately PCR was obtained positive and gardnerella was found (no symptoms).
Answer 9. Hello! Conceptually, this does not happen.If antibodies to chlamydia are absent, and PCR for chlamydia DNA is positive, then one of the two results is definitely erroneous. This is usually a DNA test. UIF generally gives up to 40% of pseudo-positive results and is an indirect diagnostic method. Therefore, you need to re-test in another laboratory for IgG antibodies to chlamydia. If the result is negative again, stop all tests for chlamydia DNA, because you do not have chlamydia. Gardnerellosis without clinical manifestations also cannot be treated.

Question 10. Hello! Such a problem: rashes appeared on the body, I passed a smear, found a yeast fungus. The doctor suspected chlamydia, I had to do PCR, the diagnosis was confirmed and I was prescribed the following treatment: Tsiprinol 500 mg 2 times a day – 14 days; Cycloferon 2 ml / m 1st, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20 and 23rd days; Cycloferon liniment – from the 2nd day every other day 10 times intraurethrally; Tinidazole 1st, 2nd days 2 tons 3 times a day; Fromilid 500 mg from the 3rd to the 16th day, 1 t.2 times a day after meals; Nystatin 1 t. 2 times a day – 21 days; Terbizil cream 1% – 14 days. Before that, two and a half years ago, I underwent a course of treatment for trichomoniasis / chlamydia (with other drugs). After that, he periodically passed control tests, but nothing was found. Can you please tell me 1. Have I been prescribed a good course of treatment (all drugs have already been purchased)? 2. Ozone therapy is offered additionally, is it necessary? 3. Can I give injections myself, and which is better, IM or IV? 4. Do I need to repeat the course of treatment in a month? Thanks in advance!
Answer 10.Since the diagnostic information given by you is somewhat contradictory, to begin with, take the tests again for chlamydia DNA (scraping from the urethra for a full bladder) and the presence of IgG antibodies in the blood to chlamydia (mandatory!) In another laboratory, without making any complaints. Check your regular sexual partner for chlamydia. If the results of your studies in two laboratories coincide, treat with your sexual partner. Although I usually use other antibiotics to treat chlamydia.If antibodies are not found in the blood, it means that you do not have chlamydia (which, based on your story, is more likely), and, therefore, you do not need to treat it.

Question 11. In the clinic, a smear analysis showed a suspicion of chlamydia. In the clinic, the PCR method did not find anything. Chlamydia Ig G antibodies showed a 1:20 positive result. Concerned about itching and vaginal discharge. What course is advisable to take?
Answer 11. Your test results do not confirm the diagnosis of chlamydia.The antibody titer 1:20 is low, on the verge of negative and does not correspond to the clinic of acute or chronic chlamydia in the stage of exacerbation. “Suspicious” smears under a microscope are false-positive in almost half of the cases. And the main test – PCR analysis – is negative for you. Moreover, the complaints are not typical either. If you start taking antibiotics now, which, apparently, is recommended for you, then after a couple of weeks after a slight improvement, your well-being may worsen even more. A second course of antibiotics will follow due to the “ineffectiveness” of the first, then again and again.A vicious circle. Now, first of all, you need to do bacterial cultures: vaginal discharge, smear from the urethra and cervical canal, as well as urine (the last portion). Store the isolated cultures of bacteria in the laboratory (as a rule, this is a nonspecific intestinal bacterial infection) – they will be necessary for the preparation of an autovaccine. And write to me again – it will be clear how to treat. But in any case – without local or systemic antibiotics.

Question 12.The wife was diagnosed with chlamydia. How and with what will I be cured?
Answer 12. First, you need to confirm the presence of chlamydia in you: ELISA blood test for antibodies to chlamydia and PCR analysis of scraping of epithelium from the urethra. If the results are positive, then it will not be necessary to “heal”, but to be treated for real. If necessary – write again, I advise. If the result is negative, prophylactic treatment is not necessary.

Question 13. Good afternoon! Has passed the analysis by ELISA for venereal diseases.A study for chlamydia showed a dubious result (+/-), for other types of infection – not found (-). Further, it is illegible: recommend. repeat … over time … How would you comment on this answer? Is the ELISA method reliable? Why can you get a dubious result?
Answer 13. Good day! In case of a dubious (or weakly positive) result for chlamydia and other infections, it is recommended to repeat the same study after 2 weeks using the same ELISA method (this is a reliable method if it is performed correctly).If this infection and the infection progresses in the body, the titer / level of antibodies will rapidly increase. If the result remains also doubtful or becomes generally negative, then there is no infection and both results are considered negative.

Question 14. Good afternoon, Igor Semenovich! I ask you to advise an infectious disease specialist in Dnepropetrovsk. I turned to you, the question was about chlamydia, IgG and IgA were not detected, PCR most often shows the presence of infection. There are no symptoms.Another question – which PCR tests should be used, which companies, countries? There is only Russia in Dnepropetrovsk. We want a child. Now they stopped all attempts to get treatment and decided to get pregnant. But already 4 cycles do not work. According to BT, there is ovulation.
Answer 14. I repeat once again: in the absence of IgG and IgA antibodies to chlamydia in the blood, there can be no question of any chlamydia – this is a fiction, a chimera, the result of a poor-quality or incorrect examination. Therefore, you can safely plan a pregnancy.Russian PCR tests work quite well if used professionally. In Dnepropetrovsk, on my behalf, you can contact the head of the Department of Children’s Infectious Diseases, Professor Shestakovich-Koretskaya Lyudmila Romanovna (infectious diseases hospital on Kanatnaya street).

Question 15. After childbirth (cesarean) I was diagnosed with chlamydia. During pregnancy, I was tested – the result was negative. Could my child (11 months old) be infected in utero? What clinical signs of the disease can a child have? And what to do ???
Answer 15.First of all, you need to try to figure out: did you have chlamydia? Is there an epidemiological anamnesis: could you have contracted chlamydia sexually after childbirth? It is necessary to look at the test results, by what methods you were examined, what were the results of your husband, whether you have chlamydia today. When this diagnosis is confirmed (the probability can be estimated at no more than 50%), the child’s blood can be examined for antibodies to chlamydia. Typical clinical manifestations in a child are conjunctivitis, in a girl – vulvovaginitis.In the absence of any clinical manifestations (if the child is outwardly healthy), this diagnosis is usually not confirmed.

Question 16. Please help me figure it out. Before the planned pregnancy, my husband and I passed tests for STDs. The situation with chlamydia is as follows: husband – IgM – neg., IgG – positive result 27, 548 U / ml with a value of 16.0 – 30.0 U / ml weakly positive. I handed it over in the laboratory of DILA. I did not donate blood, as scraping (PCR method) gave a negative result (DILA). Yes, even my husband, before donating blood, was tested by PCR in a dubious, according to reviews, laboratory.There, the PCR result was positive, and the IgG and IgM results were negative. I don’t know if I should donate blood. If my husband is sick, am I sick? I don’t want to be poisoned with drugs. Who knows how to interpret these results? Help me please. The doctor is going to poison us. Thanks.
Answer 16. You have no indications for the treatment of chlamydia yet. It is necessary to further examine my husband, but in another, third laboratory. Donate blood for IgG antibodies and scraping from the urethra for chlamydial DNA.P.ch. in a “dubious” laboratory and the result turned out to be “left”: with positive PCR results in the scraping, antibodies to chlamydia should be detected in the blood in 100% of cases. And they are not! If, during the next examination of the husband, DNA is not found, and the antibody test remains doubtful (the result in Diel was not positive, but doubtful – this is how the result from the “gray zone” from 16 to 30 U / ml should be interpreted), then according to the instructions for the diagnostic test system considers both results to be negative and it means that your husband is healthy.Fight!

Question 17. How is chlamydia manifested in men, after what time? What is the likelihood of infection through unprotected sex? What are the consequences?
Answer 17. In a man, chlamydia can manifest itself a few days after contact with itching, burning sensation in the urethra, discharge from the canal in the morning. Or it may not have primary clinical symptoms at all. In the longer term, in the chronic course of the disease, chlamydia can affect the prostate, eyes and joints.The probability of infection with a single unprotected sexual intercourse is approximately 30-40% (for comparison with gonorrhea – 25%). With constant sexual intercourse with sexual partners – no more than 90%. Those. at least 10% of spouses or regular sexual partners remain healthy. The correct diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia by the ELISA method + examination of scraping from the urethra (in the morning before the first urination) for chlamydia DNA by PCR.

Question 18.Hello! My child is 7 years old, he was diagnosed with chlamydia. Please advise which treatment to choose.
Answer 18. Hello! Before prescribing treatment, the situation requires clarification: what kind of chlamydia in a 7-year-old child (pulmonary, urogenital) are we talking about? By what method and on the basis of the study of what biomaterial (blood, sputum, etc.) was this diagnosis made? Only after excluding laboratory errors will it be possible to give treatment recommendations.

Question 19. Good afternoon! Please tell me, I have treated chlamydia and Trichomonas.After the tests, everything was fine. A year later, I passed the PCR test and they were found again. The doctor said it was dead DNA and there was no need to treat it. But I’m still worried, because I am planning a pregnancy. Tell me what to do.
Answer 19. The concept of “dead DNA” simply does not exist, even at the everyday level. Take DNA tests for chlamydia and Trichomonas in scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal again, but in another laboratory. And also blood for antibodies to chlamydia of the IgG class. Examination of the sexual partner is also shown.If you don’t understand, come to my clinic.

Question 20. What is the best method to test for chlamydia and what to donate (blood, smear), provided that there have never been any symptoms of the disease. How likely is it that only one spouse has chlamydia in the body? And yet, since each method can show a false positive result, how much to trust this or that method, how to double-check.
Answer 20. The most reliable method for diagnosing chlamydia is an ELISA blood test for antibodies to chlamydia of the IgG class (the duration of the disease is more than 3-4 weeks) or IgA (fresh infection).You can double-check the result by repeating the same study in another laboratory. If the results are positive for one or both classes of antibodies, it is necessary to conduct a PCR study of scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal (women) or prostate juice (men). Negative results do not refute the diagnosis of chlamydia, but may serve as a reason for postponing treatment (taking into account the height of the detected antibody levels), which will need to be carried out at the time of exacerbation. Examination of the partner is necessary, p.h. there are up to 10% of cases when one of the partners for some more or less long time remains healthy and does not fall ill with chlamydia even after a possible sexual infection.

Food 21. Say, be weasel, if blood is donated on cold IgG, the result: negative 10.441 U / ml. reference value <12.8 U / ml. What is the practical need for such values?
Suggestion 21. With such values, the IPA test does not need any treatment, and no additional information is needed (PLR for DNA trash).

Question 22. Good day !!! I would like to ask what is the best way to treat chlamydia for a man ??? Thanks.
Answer 22. The most effective is a sequential combination of tetracycline antibiotics (eg, vibramycin 0.1 g 2 times a day – 10 days) and macrolides (eg sumamed on the 1st day 1 g + 4 more days for 0.5 g once in the morning). But it is still desirable to prescribe the treatment of chlamydia “live”, and not virtually. P.ch., at least, it is necessary to be absolutely sure that the diagnosis of chlamydia is confirmed correctly – by detecting antibodies to chlamydia in the blood by ELISA + isolation of chlamydia DNA from the urethra or prostate juice by PCR.All other methods are only conditionally correct, and it is not advisable to prescribe treatment based on their results.

Question 23. Good afternoon! I am addressing you on the following question. My analyzes showed that I have some substances similar to chlamydia. The doctor prescribed treatment for me: taking antibiotics, injections, instillation, etc. And the doctor insists that my husband should also undergo similar treatment with him. But the husband passed the analysis, and nothing was found on him. And his doctor said that it was enough for him to drink some antibiotics for prophylaxis for 10 days.I’m at a loss. Tell me, please, which doctor’s advice to listen to: is it right to treat a husband if he is absolutely healthy? And does not the fact that he will not undergo the same course of treatment threaten me with the fact that I can later get sick with it again? Thank you for your attention and advice.
Answer 23. Good afternoon! Establishing the diagnosis of chlamydia on the basis of detecting “inclusions similar to …” or using the PIF method can give up to 40% of erroneous results. Moreover, my husband’s test is negative.Therefore, before starting treatment, you and your husband need to donate blood for antibodies to chlamydia. If there are no antibodies, then it means that the person does not have this infection, the first result is indeed erroneous and antibiotics, like the rest of the treatment, are not needed. If you don’t understand – write again, but do not become hostage to incorrect examination and incompetent consultation.

Question 24. Good night! I passed a PIF smear for chlamydia (negative) and an ELISA for IgG immunoglobulins (also negative).Plus a normal smear (normal), there are no elevated leukocytes. Do I need to retake it for PCR or 2 analyzes cannot be mistaken (i.e. if there are chlamydia, then they would be visible either on the PIF or on the ELISA in the credits?). I would not like to spend more money on unnecessary tests, and there are so many expenses … But if it is necessary – then … Now we are planning a pregnancy, we will be examined. Sexual acts are protected by a condom. My husband seems to have been diagnosed with chlamydia (but he has now passed PCR tests to make sure that it is present before treatment).It was detected by ELISA smear and ELISA blood for IgG immunoglobulins. What can you recommend? How often can UIF smears (methods) be mistaken and how informative is ELISA for immunoglobulins? Thank you.
Answer 24. Good night! You do not need to retake the tests – a negative ELISA test in the blood excludes the presence of chlamydia. ELISA smear on chlamydia is not performed – there is no such test. The mutual fund gives up to 40% of false positive results. But a positive ELISA test for blood from a husband needs to be repeated in another laboratory and an assessment of all the results obtained taking into account the confidence intervals in the test system used – here the doctor may misinterpret the correct results.If necessary – write again or come for a “live” consultation at the clinic

Question 25. Good afternoon! Chlamydia was found in my smear. The problem is that the baby is one year and three months old, and I am still breastfeeding. Are there any antibiotics compatible with HB, provided that the child eats no more than one or two times a day (only at night). Or do you still have to end up with GW?
Answer 25. First, do additional tests for antibodies (IgG and IgA) to chlamydia in the blood. If they turn out to be negative, it means that your smear result is lying and you can calm down.If antibodies are still detected in diagnostic titers, then it is better to stop breastfeeding and undergo a full course of antibiotic treatment for you and your husband (preferably also after the examination).

Question 26. Good afternoon! Please answer this question. Is it possible during the course of treatment for chlamydia to enter into intimacy with my husband if you are using a condom to protect yourself? Or is it fraught with something for me? Moreover, he is absolutely healthy. Thanks.
Answer 26.Good afternoon! For you, this is fraught with a 25-30% decrease in the expected effectiveness of the treatment.

Question 27. Hello! Please explain why the treatment of such infections as ureaplasmosis and chlamydia is not always justified, in your opinion? If, indeed, 60% of the population has these microorganisms on the mucous membranes, including in the oral cavity, from where I picked up this muck from my girlfriend during oral sex. And how do people coexist with this at all? Carriers or what? One detail is absolutely unclear: my ex-girlfriend was examined by the PCR method and for a smear – the analysis is normal, that is, she seems to have nothing.But the fact is obvious – I only got infected from her during oral sex, since I never cheated on her. Why do I say so? Because the first symptoms appeared on the 6th day after the last contact with her. The analysis revealed chlamydia and ureaplasma in me. It turns out that the PCR did not “detect” chlamydia and ureaplasma in the girl ??? And another question: can the production of antibodies on chlamydia be considered a reliable “indicator”? The doctor said that antibodies are not produced in weakened people (old people, alcoholics, drug addicts).It’s like I’m fine with this: I don’t smoke, I don’t drink, I eat normally. By the way, the doctor does not look like a “greedy charlatan”, since he is clearly not interested in my visits to him. I bought the drugs from another pharmacy and used the services of an independent laboratory. Thank you very much for your answers. Do not blame me for my importunity, there are simply disappointments in my life … Maybe it is better to engage in masturbation? All the best!!!
Answer 27. Ureaplasmas and chlamydiae do not live in the oral cavity and are not transmitted during oral sex.Including your test results are not all right. Moreover, talking about “weakened immunity” when antibodies are not produced is just nonsense, regardless of what your attending physician is or is not interested in. If a person does not have antibodies to chlamydia in the blood, then he does not have chlamydia either. And all the positive results in this case for the detection of chlamydia themselves, wherever there may be, are a 100% error or a commercial “divorce”. Including either it is necessary to find a decent doctor, or it is better to really engage in masturbation, so as not to run into such “troubles”.

Question 28. Hello! Explain, please. As far as I understand now, you can be a carrier of chlamydia and live peacefully at the same time? And they will not affect tissues, joints, eyeballs, ovaries, as described in the medical literature? It turns out – this is a chronic infection, a “sleeping monster” that can wake up? Then a passing question arises: what then, when creating a family and reproduction of offspring, being a carrier of chlamydia? It turns out that the future wife and the future child are infected? Just some kind of horror! Thank you very much! All the best.
Answer 28. No, you get it wrong now. You cannot be a “healthy” carrier of chlamydia and “live peacefully” at the same time. Although it really is, it is usually a chronic infection. But which sooner or later still needs to be treated with antibiotics, choosing the right moment. Preferably, before the “reproduction of offspring.” Otherwise, really “some kind of horror.” Please, great.

Question 29. Good afternoon! I am planning a pregnancy and, on the advice of a doctor, passed tests for mycoplasma, upeoplasma, gonorrhea, various fungal, etc.Everything is negative, only the level of leukocytes in the smear is 40. The local gynecologist says that it can be chlamydia and advises to pass this test as well. Nothing bothers me and my husband, my cycle is regular, there is no discharge (except for transparent in the middle of the cycle), the sexual partner is the first and only one, me too – this is 100%, both did not hurt anything. My question is: can other factors affect the level of leukocytes (for example, a cold on the day of the test or the day of m.c. – by the way, it was exactly the middle of the cycle, etc.)NS.)? If you take this test, will the blood from the vein show the presence of chlamydia or only a smear is needed for this? Thanks.
Answer 29. Good afternoon! The other listed factors cannot influence the test result. If you have a trusting relationship with your husband, then there can be no genital chlamydia – they are transmitted by 99.9% sexually. Although a blood test for antibodies to chlamydia is more reliable. There are no antibodies – and there is no such infection either, so that they would not be found in the smear. With this, some high-spirited doctors have it easily.Most likely, your leukocytosis is associated with urogenital dysbiosis caused by a non-specific bacterial infection, which can even be found in girls who are not sexually active. It is necessary to make bacterial cultures from the urethra, vagina and cervical canal. If such bacteria are isolated, they must be treated as dysbiosis – without the use of antibiotics. This is a categorical condition that the gynecologist should not advise you.

Question 30. Tell me which test will better determine chlamydia.I passed an IgG blood test, the result is 1:10 – weakly positive. My boyfriend donated sperm, the result is completely negative. How can this be? After all, if one has chlamydia, then there is another. How can we clarify this?
Answer 30. Your result is weakly positive or, more correctly, questionable (the so-called “gray zone”). According to the instructions for all test systems, such a result cannot be considered positive and treatment should not be prescribed. After 10–12 days, this study must be repeated. If the result is again weakly positive, then both tests are considered negative.So your boyfriend donated sperm early – most likely both of you are healthy.

Question 31. Hello! I have a question regarding the discrepancy between the opinions of classical and alternative medicine: tests in the laboratory for TORCH infection showed an excess of the IgG antibody titer to chlamydia by 64 times (1: 320 with a diagnostic titer of 1: 5), and the homeopath’s diagnosis showed the absence of chlamydia. Regarding the large number of antibodies to chlamydia, the doctor said that this is a high immunity to them. In turn, the doctor who gave the analysis from the laboratory said that an increase in antibodies indicates an inflammatory process.Which one is right? Thank you in advance!
Answer 31. Hello! The detection of high titers of antibodies to chlamydia indicates the presence in the body of an infectious (inflammatory) process caused by chlamydia. and not about “high” immunity to this infection. Treatment may be indicated. The homeopath is wrong. However, before starting treatment, it is necessary to carry out an additional PCR study of scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal for chlamydial DNA and, just in case, repeat the test for IgG to chlamydia (in the blood), but in another laboratory and preferably not in titers, but in international units of activity.

Question 32. Please tell me, can chlamydia in a non-acute state be the only cause of early miscarriages (1st – at 6 weeks, 2nd – at 3 weeks)? Thank you in advance for your response.
Answer 32. The answer is no – no, they cannot. The most thorough examination for herpes viruses is necessary. At such an early date, it is viruses that are the main cause of miscarriages, not chlamydia.

Question 33. Hello! I was found to have high titers of antibodies to chlamydia (IgG-1: 512, at the norm – 1:32, IgA – neg.) and immediately prescribed the antibiotic vibramycin. I don’t buy it yet. 1) IgA – neg.; 2) I heard that before prescribing an antibiotic, you need to check several antibiotics for sensitivity and choose the one that will immediately kill the infection, and not test all the means on me in turn; 3) passed the bacterial culture and no intracellular inclusions were found there (and chlamydia is like an intracellular parasite) and nothing bad was found at all.
Answer 33. Before starting treatment, take tests again, but in another laboratory: blood for IgG antibodies and scraping for PCR.It is advisable to confirm the diagnosis of chlamydia before treatment in different laboratories or in different clinics: today there are too many accidental or deliberate mistakes. Bacterial culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia is not used, incl. your argument is off the mark. Determination of sensitivity is also not necessary, p.p. the sensitivity of chlamydia to antibiotics is well studied and is the same in different countries and in different patients. Also check for chlamydia in your perennial partner, if any. Then you can get an idea of ​​whether or not you need to be treated with antibiotics.

Question 34. Hello! I was tested for antibodies to chlamydia with a break of about 1 month. First time: IgA – neg, IgG – 1: 320 (diagnostic titer 1: 5), second: IgA – neg, IgG – 1: 512 (at a rate of 1:32). Does this mean that the number of antibodies is reduced and you do not need to take antibiotics? Thank you in advance.
Answer 34. With such a high activity of the infectious process, a slight decrease in antibody titer is not an indication for refusing antibiotics. Such chlamydia will not go away on its own, but will only turn into a chronic form, which will be more difficult to treat.It is advisable to conduct a PCR study of urogenital scrapings for chlamydial DNA before starting treatment and deal with a permanent sexual partner, if there is one: examine, treat? So that after the end of your treatment there is no re-infection afterwards.

Question 35. Good afternoon, I just have some nonsense going on. Underwent a long, serious course of treatment for chlamydia (initial IgA – 8, IgG – 256)? At the next test: IgA – no, IgG – 128, and then dropped to 64.After that, we decided to adjust the titer drop process a little and were treated again, but not for so long. Has passed the tests: IgA – again 8, and IgG – again 128. How can this be ??? !!! There were NO connections !!! Generally. maybe it is overdone with antibiotics or is it being treated again? I’m really looking forward to your answer, thank you very much.
Good afternoon (continuation of the question). This is me again (question about chlamydia, increase in titer after a second course of treatment). Sorry for such persistence, but circumstances are compelling.You advise to wait 1-2 months and retake the tests. So the question itself is: is it possible to have sex all this time? More precisely, will a condom protect me from re-infection or someone that I would not infect him? And is chlamydia transmitted through kissing? I’m really, really looking forward to your answer. Thanks in advance.

Answer 35. The dynamics of your analyzes is really illogical. A repeated course of antibiotics cannot lead to such a result, although it should not have been prescribed to “catch up” and to “speed up” it.Only re-infection could explain such analyzes. But you didn’t have that. Therefore, there is no need to be treated again now. After a couple of months, it is necessary to take tests in another laboratory or at the same time in two different laboratories. In addition, in addition to blood tests, make scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal for chlamydial DNA by PCR. Then the picture will clear up. Maybe the problem is not in you, but in the quality of the work of this laboratory. You can engage in vaginal sex with a condom – there is practically no infection.With oral sex, chlamydia, if transmitted, but do not cause disease, also with kissing. Dare to fight.

Question 36. Hello! Analyzes for chlamydia showed the presence of antibodies of the IgG class, and analysis for RIF (immune-fluorescence reaction) showed the presence of single reticular bodies in single cells. Please tell me is it dangerous? If you keep chlamydia under control (in order to prevent the inflammatory process), then how often do you need to be tested (including during pregnancy)?
Answer 36.It is necessary to compare the height of the levels of antibodies of the IgG class with the results of PCR studies of scrapings. RIF is an incorrect method today in confirming this and other diagnoses in infectious diseases. Keeping chlamydia “under control” is difficult: they can exacerbate at the most inopportune moment. Therefore, they must either be treated, or, within 3-4 months of observation and periodic examination, the issue of infection should be removed from the agenda, considering the presence of antibodies as a post-infectious reaction of the immune system (maintaining a low titer of antibodies in the absence of the pathogen itself).Pregnancy and chlamydia are not a very desirable combination.

Question 37. Hello! Help me to understand. The analysis for STDs showed that the girl had candidiasis, and I had chlamydia. A year ago, I underwent a course of treatment for chlamydia (after a course of treatment for trichomoniasis, after which chlamydia was found: a single luminescence was found). I passed 2 controls (one – after 1.5 months, the other – after another month). All is clear. The doctor said that I was cured. Nothing was found with the former sexual partner.After the cure, the connections were only with their girl! And here it is again! There is only one sexual partner. And the questions are as follows: 1) Is it possible that the treatment was ineffective? But what about 2 controls (and with provocation)? 2) Why didn’t the analysis reveal chlamydia in the girl (general analysis for STDs – immunofluorescence analysis)? My doctor advised me to wait for my girlfriend’s cure for candidiasis – it seems like chlamydia is often hidden behind it (difficult to identify). And then get tested again. Is it so? 3) Further delay in the treatment of chlamydia in a girl – how seriously can it affect the results of treatment, are complications possible? 4) A scheme was prescribed (cycloferon – 10 injections, unidox – 1 t 2 r / d 10 days, then fromilid 1t 2 r / d 7 days, flucostat – 1t 1 r / d 7 days) and bifidoc for maintaining the gastrointestinal tract.In addition to bifidoc, what else can I take – I develop dysbiosis while taking antibiotics.
Answer 37. Your diagnosis of chlamydia causes me serious doubts on the following points. Firstly, the research method itself – “glow” occurs only with the immunofluorescence method, in which up to 40% of pseudopositive results are possible. Secondly, there is no epidemiological anamnesis for repeated (after 2 negative controls!) Infection – you have a regular sexual partner. Thirdly, the absence of chlamydia in a sexual partner.Therefore, for a start, it is necessary to correctly confirm or remove this diagnosis (IgG antibodies in the blood and PCR study for DNA of chlamydia scraping from the urethra and prostate juice). A girl with negative test results is definitely not needed to be treated for chlamydia. If you don’t understand – come to my clinic.

Question 38. Within 3 years in sowing – chlamydia and Trichomonas. She underwent 7 courses of treatment with antibiotics and other drugs (in total – 12-15 names for each course). In culture – the same, although all tests for antibodies are negative.Communication with only 1 person, always with a condom. I feel normal, small white discharge and sometimes itching (maybe from thrush?). All this time – erosion, but not a single doctor prescribed treatment. Maybe these tests are false? Are there really so many antibiotics, etc. didn’t help? Thank you!
Answer 38. Unfortunately, I have to confirm your fears: these analyzes are really false. There is no such chlamydia in which there are no antibodies in the blood. This means that the method by which chlamydia was “detected” (in your case, it is similar to immunofluorescent), either gives a consistently erroneous result, or was determined by commercial considerations of the laboratory or the cleans who conducted the study and prescribed the treatment.And seven courses of antibiotic treatment – not every healthy organism can withstand it. If you don’t understand, please contact me at the clinic.

Question 39. A blood test for antibodies to chlamydia showed a result of 2.07 at a rate of up to 10 units. Does this mean that I had chlamydia or is at the moment? Can chlamydia affect the oral cavity? Thanks a lot!
Answer 39. No, this result is negative and means that you were not infected with chlamydia not earlier, not today in any form.False alarm due to incorrect statement of the analysis result. According to the instructions for such test systems, all results below the control line (in this case – 10 units) should be written out as “negative” or “negative”. Chlamydiae do not affect the oral cavity. They can affect the conjunctiva of the eyes, joints, according to some sources – the nervous system. But this, thank God, has nothing to do with you.

Question 40. Tell me, how much can treatment for chlamydia cost?
Answer 40.Treatment for chlamydia, if it is really shown, can cost from 200 to 2000 UAH (with exactly the same effectiveness) – depending on the imagination of the attending physician and your apparent financial capabilities, which the doctor will be able to assess by your appearance.

Question 41. As a result of a blood test by ELISA, I was found to have chlamydia: IgG – the result is weakly positive 1:16. Please recommend what to do next. Is treatment necessary for such a result. Best regards, Nikolay
Answer 41.Nikolay, in 2 weeks it is necessary to take a second blood test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia. If it again, like this first one, turns out to be in the gray zone (weakly positive), then both results are regarded as negative. The person is healthy, no treatment is needed.

Question 42. Good afternoon! My brother’s blood test showed chlamydia (IgM). His girlfriend has negative results (IgG and IgM in small titers, IgG more than IgM). However, she took norfloxacin for 2 weeks before the test for cystitis.They live together for about 1 year. Is it possible? The analyzes were done in Diel. Is it possible to take a second test if both have already been taking antibiotics for a week. The girl’s gynecologist recommended stopping the treatment, as she believes that she is healthy. According to the girl, she has been sick for a year with cystitis, resistant to therapy, in addition, frequent inflammatory diseases of the internal genital organs. But she was tested for STIs for the first time. Thanks for the answer.
Answer 42. The analyzes are contradictory. If these results are to be believed, your brother is suffering an acute infection with chlamydia, which is not related to sexual contact with his girlfriend of whom you know.Can this be? In any case, to clarify the situation, it is necessary to pass the tests again (IgG and IgA), but in another laboratory and if they turn out to be negative, close this topic altogether. Repeated tests for chlamydia can be taken within at least 6 months after antibiotic treatment: if chlamydia really was, and not invented in the laboratory, then even after successful treatment, IgG antibodies to chlamydia will not disappear from the blood earlier than this period. Your brother’s girl is shown to make bacterial cultures of smears from the urethra, vagina, cervical canal and urine culture to establish the etiological factor of this focus of chronic bacterial infection (cystitis), which has nothing to do with STDs.In addition, in Ukraine, it is legally prohibited to receive medical advice regarding the health status of their adult relatives without their consent. I hope you have such consent of your brother?

Question 43. I was diagnosed with ureaplasma and chlamydia. But I am not yet sexually active. The mother never had such infections. Please tell me how you can get infected with these infections in another way. Thank you in advance. I am waiting for an answer
Answer 43. If you are not mistaken about the initiation of sexual activity and observe the norms of personal hygiene (lack of a common washcloth, a common towel and other common personal hygiene items with a sick person), then you are brazenly “bred” in the laboratory or just the tests are done not professional.In any case, miracles do not happen and there are no other ways of infection with these STDs. Every week I “shoot” as erroneous diagnoses of non-existent chlamydia, trichomoniasis and other STDs. It looks like you have the same story.

Question 44. I have chlamydia and ureaplase. The husband did an analysis – nothing of the kind was found in him. How can this be explained? Despite the fact that I have not slept with anyone other than my husband. What are the ways of transmission of these infections, other than sexual transmission? This is important to me because he doubts me.I really need advice.
Answer 44. There is no way to explain this. The route of transmission is either sexual or household (common washcloth, common towel, etc. common personal hygiene items with a sick person). If you have not forgotten anything, then it looks like either you are simply deceived or hack tests were done, or the husband is still the source of these infections and his tests are not correct. During this week alone, I made 3 diagnoses of chlamydia, which were also not correct as yours. If you don’t understand, come with your husband to the clinic for an appointment.Or we will rehabilitate you, or we will find something from your husband.

Question 45. Good afternoon. Confused. Help. I had chronic chlamydia, diagnosed 5 years ago. It proceeded without symptoms. Analyzes a year ago showed titers of 10, the gynecologist said it was not necessary to treat, you can plan a pregnancy with this. A year later, my husband and I decided to undergo treatment in order to exclude the slightest danger to our unborn child. They gathered their will (and finances) into a fist and underwent a course of treatment. 2 weeks after the end of the course, they passed PCR tests for DNA of chlamydia in a smear from the urethra and cervical canal.Showed that it was clean. But I decided to undergo a full examination, donated blood for chlamydia, Trichomonas, mycoplasma, ureaplasma. Everything is clean, but chlamydia (antibodies, as I understand it) – 63.9. The doctor says, you need to treat, you can’t get pregnant with this. Doctor, why did the indicators jump so much? Where? We were treated: 1. injections of cycloferon 2. ciprofloxacin 3. malavit cream 4. for immunity and microflora (echinacea, riboxin, linex). Now I see, after reading your materials, that we could not cure with one antibiotic.But why did it get worse? There were no other partners either there or there. Thanks for the answer! Victoria.
Answer 45. Good day, Victoria! Something in your story doesn’t match. If a year ago the titers were so low, and there were no other partners in your marriage, then the last tests for antibodies to chlamydia are lying. Moreover, the PCR tests are negative and you do not report anything about the presence of positive titers in your husband. Therefore, together with your husband, you need to pass an analysis for antibodies to chlamydia in an independent laboratory, and if the city in which you live is small, it is better in another city.You cannot prescribe a new course of antibiotics without absolute certainty that you really have chlamydia that needs to be treated (not all titers are an indication for treatment!) – this can only aggravate the situation. Now I am observing a patient whose titer of antibodies to chlamydia (with a negative PCR test) dropped from 130 IU to 31 in 2 months without prescribing antibiotics. Isn’t that bad? There are many such examples. In addition, before the planned pregnancy, you personally (without a husband!) Need to be screened for more serious TORCH infections than chlamydia: herpes viruses (type 4), toxoplasmosis and rubella (if not in childhood).If you don’t understand, call the clinic.

Question 46. Good afternoon, Igor Semenovich! Please help me figure it out. In the summer I took tests in your clinic when planning a pregnancy, in particular for chlamydia. By the Vector Best method, the IgG result was 2.07 at a rate of up to 10 units, i.e. negative, on which I calmed down. Now my husband has started the examination (since we have a problem in the male factor). And the results surprised me: no infections were detected by the PCR method, and by the PIF method – inclusions characteristic of chlamydia (scraping from the urethra).I am concerned about the question of whether this can be and how much you can trust this method. I would very much like to hear your advice on what to do in this case, to trust the results or to double-check and to whom exactly. I would not like to be treated “just in case”. Third parties, such as sexual partners, are excluded. I would be very grateful for your answer. Best regards, your patient Lyudmila.
Answer 46. Hello, Lyudmila! This method (PIF) cannot be trusted – it gives up to 40% of nonspecific false positive results.Additional examination is shown to her husband – it is necessary to do a blood test by ELISA for antibodies to chlamydia. But not in the laboratory in which the “inclusions” were found by the UIF method.

Question 47. Hello, can you explain the following phenomenon? Five years ago, my wife and I were treated for chlamydia, every year they were tested for a relapse – everything is OK. Once again, having passed the tests, we learned that we have different results: I have mycoplasma, and she has chlamydia. With all this, we live a sexual life, without protection.Why don’t we have the same diseases? Or go to another laboratory?
Answer 47. Hello, you understood everything correctly. It is necessary to go to another laboratory and take the “correct” tests: first, an ELISA blood test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia. If the result is negative, the end of the unrest You don’t have chlamydia at all. If positive (taking into account the height of the antibody titer!) – PCR study of scrapings for chlamydial DNA. Mycoplasma should not be treated as an infection at all. It is worth starting to take antibiotics – and you are a lifelong patient of a uroologist, and your wife is a gynecologist.If you don’t understand – come to my appointment.

Question 48. Hello! My boyfriend and I were diagnosed with chlamydia. Where could he come from if: 1) before him I used condoms with young people, but I was still tested for infections and was healthy; 2) a month before we met, he twice made a provocation for STIs and was also healthy. Where did the infection come from? Thanks in advance
Answer 48. Hello. This infection occurs as a result of a sexually transmitted infection.Another thing is how correctly this diagnosis was confirmed in you? The diagnosis of chlamydia can be considered confirmed by detecting high titer / level of antibodies in the blood by ELISA and detecting chlamydia DNA by PCR in scrapings from the urethra and / or cervical canal. In the absence of epidemiological prerequisites for infection (monogamous intercourse, like yours), it is recommended to retest anonymously or (even better) in another laboratory.

Question 49. Hello. Recently I had tests: complex (by PCR method) and separately for chlamydia (IgG).Several years ago I already had chlamydia, but I underwent treatment and, it seemed, everything was fine. PCR tests were all negative, but for IgG they were in the gray zone 1.1 (negative: 0.0 – 0.8, gray zone: 0.9 – 1.1, positive: over 1.1). The doctor advised to retake blood in 2 weeks to see if there is any dynamics. Two weeks later, the analysis showed 1.3, i.e. rose. Does this really mean that an infection is present in the body and treatment is needed (as the doctor advises), or does it still take another test? And what can provoke IgG growth? Thanks for the answer
Answer 49.Hello! If a fresh infection with chlamydia cannot be ruled out, it is necessary to additionally pass a blood test for IgA antibodies to chlamydia. If this option is excluded, it is necessary to retake the IgG test again, but in a different laboratory. It is advisable to conduct a study on the French test system of the firm “BioRad” (or on the American one) – they give better results than the Russian one. This test is extremely specific in nature, and nothing but the chlamydia itself can lead to the appearance and increase in the level of these antibodies.But you have it too low both for an acute process (there is no diagnostic 4-fold increase), and for an exacerbation of a chronic one. Moreover, if after treatment this test was already negative – in this case, a long-term chronic chdamydia infection is excluded. For all these indications, it is highly likely that your results may turn out to be a common laboratory error.

Question 50. Hello. My wife was prescribed treatment for chlamydia: Medomycin, 1 capsule 4 r / day for 14 days; Efloran 1 tab.3 r / day 10 days; Cycloferon 4 tablets (once) days: 1,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20; Clerimed 1 tab. 2 business days up to 10 days, starting from 11 days. I am interested in the following questions: 1. Is this treatment regimen effective? 2. Can I be treated according to the same scheme? Thanks a lot. Sergei.
Answer 50. Hello Sergey. The scheme can be effective – antibiotics are selected correctly. But I advise you to start with something else. Out of 10 visits to me for an appointment about chlamydia, which was initially detected or “resistant” to the therapy, this diagnosis can be confirmed in 2-3 cases with an independent repeated laboratory examination.Not more! Therefore, I advise you to start a second study in another laboratory or in another clinic: IgG antibodies to chlamydia in the blood and DNA of chlamydia (PCR method) in the urethra and cervical canal (wife), you – in the urethra and prostate juice or semen. Then it will be possible to discuss the treatment in more detail, or even forget about it altogether.

Question 51. Hello! I want to know if I have chlamydia. What types of analyzes are there now, which of them give more reliable results? How to test, is the day of the cycle important, abstinence, etc.d? Maybe there are some other nuances? We will hand over it together with my husband. Thanks in advance.
Answer 51. Hello! It is better to start the examination for chlamydia with a blood test for IgG antibodies to chlamydia by the ELISA method and better with the use of the diagnostic test system “BioRad” (France), which gives the most accurate results. Without any preparation and not even necessarily on an empty stomach. If you cannot exclude the possibility of a “fresh” infection within the last 2 weeks – additionally for IgA antibodies.If the results are negative, there is no chlamydia and other studies can be omitted. If positive, it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of chlamydia by detecting chlamydia DNA by PCR in scrapings of epithelial cells from the urethra (you and your husband) and the cervical canal.

Question 52. Hello, I have tested for chlamydia. According to the PCR method, the result is negative, in the blood titers are 1:20. Which of these methods is more effective and should treatment be prescribed? Intestinal E.coli and enterococci. She took tests after the treatment of adnexitis. Thanks in advance.
Answer 52. Hello. These are different tests and have different diagnostic values. The absence of chlamydial DNA by PCR does not exclude the presence of chlamydia. However, low titers of antibodies in the blood (1:20) do not warrant immediate treatment. After 1 month – repeated PCR determination of chlamydial DNA in scrapings from the urethra and cervical canal and ELISA for antibodies in the blood. If PCR tests remain negative and titers are monotonically low, then treatment is not indicated.The presence of Escherichia coli and enterococci indicates that you have urogenital dysbiosis with the formation of a secondary bacterial inflammatory focus (adnexitis), in which antibiotics are absolutely contraindicated – only eubiotic treatment (eg, vagilac suppositories, phages) and an autovaccine. Please.

Question 53. Good afternoon. Please tell me the address and telephone number of a medical institution in Kiev that can analyze the sensitivity of chlamydia to antibiotics. Thanks in advance.
Answer 53. This analysis does not need to be done at all. All chlamydiae in any country in the world are sensitive to antibiotics of two classes: tetracyclines and macrolides. It is written in any therapeutic or microbiological reference book. But if your chlamydia “does not respond” to treatment with such antibiotics, then with the probability of more than 50% you did not have them. Or laboratory error, or medical intent. To clarify the situation, you can contact me at the clinic.

Continued. Chapter 11.Urogenital dysbiosis. Thrush (question 1? 52)