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Can yeast infection cause vomiting: Yeast Infection Treatment, Symptoms, Medicine, Causes


Symptoms & Complications of Yeast Infections: What They Feel Like

It can feel like itching or maybe even burning. Or you may have swelling so extreme, it leads to sores. Whether your symptoms are mild or severe, a yeast infection can be uncomfortable.

Also known as vaginal candidiasis, yeast infections are caused by a fungus. It generally causes your vagina and vulva (the tissues at the opening of the vagina) to itch. You may also have a discharge.

Yeast infections are common. Three of every four women get one in their lifetime. And many women have more than one.

Knowing how to spot the signs and symptoms of a yeast infection can help you get the most effective treatment.

Common Symptoms in Women

If you have a vaginal yeast infection, you’ll most likely have extreme itching in and around your vagina; this is the most common symptom. Aside from itching, you might also have:

  • A burning feeling, especially when you urinate or during sex
  • Swelling and redness around your vulva
  • Pain and soreness in your vagina
  • A vaginal rash

You might also have a vaginal discharge. It could be:

  • Watery
  • Thick, white, and odorless, resembling cottage cheese

Common Symptoms in Men

Men can get yeast infections too. They can happen when there’s an overgrowth of fungus (candida) on the skin. This can happen if a man has sex with a female partner who has a vaginal yeast infection. It’s more common in men who aren’t circumcised. The symptoms include:

  • Itching, burning, or redness on the penis
  • A thick, white substance in the skin folds of the penis, and moistness
  • Shiny, white areas on the penis

Signs of a Complicated Infection

Sometimes the symptoms of a yeast infection can be more serious and require extra care. You might need a longer course of treatment or a plan to keep the infection from coming back.

You can get a more complicated infection if:

Your infection might also be more complicated if it’s caused by a different type of fungus than what commonly causes yeast infections.

Signs of a complicated infection include:

  • Symptoms (such as redness, swelling, and itching) so severe that it causes tears or sores
  • A recurrence of yeast infection four or more times in a year

When to See a Doctor

Call your doctor if you have any signs of a complicated infection.

You should also make an appointment with your doctor if:

  • You’ve never had a yeast infection before.
  • Signs or symptoms of a yeast infection didn’t get better with after treatment with an over-the-counter cream or suppository.
  • You have new or unusual pain or discharge in your genital area.
  • You get other symptoms.
  • You have pain during sex.

If you think you have a yeast infection but aren’t sure, it’s important to see a doctor for a proper diagnosis. A doctor can also let you know if something else may be causing your problems.

Treatment can help relieve symptoms and prevent you from spreading any potential infections during sex.

Can a Yeast Infection Cause a Fever? It’s Rare, but Yes

  • Yeast infections don’t usually cause a fever.
  • But if you are immunocompromised, then you are at a higher risk for an infection called invasive candidiasis. 
  • Invasive candidiasis happens when a yeast infection spreads to other organs of the body and must be treated in a hospital.
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

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A yeast infection is pesky, yet very common. It’s estimated that about three out of four women will experience at least one vaginal yeast infection in their lifetime. 

Yeast infections are caused by yeast overgrowth of a fungus called candida. This can lead to several uncomfortable symptoms, however, in most cases, yeast infections are not dangerous. 

But if your yeast infection is accompanied by a fever, there are some things that you should know. 

Most yeast infections don’t cause fever

A fever does not usually accompany a vaginal yeast infection. 

“Typical isolated, uncomplicated yeast infections do not cause a fever,” says Evelyn Mitchell, MD, obstetrician and gynecologist at Keck Medicine of USC.

However, there are other tell-tale signs of a yeast infection. Mitchell says some symptoms include:

  • Itchy skin of the vulva and vaginal region
  • Redness in the vulva and vaginal region
  • White, thick vaginal discharge that may resemble cottage cheese.

A typical yeast infection lasts about a week and can be treated with:

  • Over the counter antifungal creams such as Monistat
  • Prescription antifungal creams or oral pills such as Diflucan

When yeast infections can cause fever

In rare cases, a yeast infection may be accompanied by a fever. Mitchell says this is an indication that the infection has spread. This typically occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, meaning they are at higher risk for infection. 

Invasive candidiasis is the term for when a yeast infection has spread to other organs of the body. “This induces an inflammatory response and activates your body’s immune system to try to clear the infection. The process involved in this response causes fever,” says Mitchell.

The main symptoms of invasive candidiasis are fever and chills, on top of the typical yeast infection symptoms such as an itchy vulva. However, Mitchell says it can also be associated with:

  • Ocular (eye) lesions
  • Skin lesions
  • Muscle pain or soreness
  • Multi-organ failure

Since invasive candidiasis is very serious, it must be treated seriously and diligently. It can spread to major organs, cause organ failure, sepsis, and possible death if untreated, Mitchell says. It can also lead to lasting organ damage. Treatment typically involves admission to the hospital with the administration of IV anti-fungal treatments, Mitchell says.

Medications that are usually administered intravenously for the treatment of invasive candidiasis are:

  • Caspofungin
  • Micafungin
  • Anidulafungin

However, having a fever along with your yeast infection does not automatically mean that you have invasive candidiasis. Mitchell says another reason may be that you have a co-occurring bacterial or another type of infection present that can be causing your fever. 

For example, you might have an infection such as the flu or a UTI causing the fever. Regardless, you should get checked out by your doctor to figure out what’s going on. 

Insider’s takeaway

Yeast infections are very common and typically harmless to your overall health. However, if your yeast infection is accompanied by a fever, it’s important to seek medical attention as soon as possible in case it is invasive candidiasis, since it’s a very serious condition. 

Fluconazole: medicine to treat fungal infections including nail infections

Follow the advice from your doctor. If you buy fluconazole in a pharmacy, follow the instructions that come with the medicine.

It’s important to complete the course of medicine even if you feel better.

You can take fluconazole capsules and liquid with or without food.

Fluconazole capsules are either 50mg, 150mg or 200mg. Swallow the capsules whole with a drink of water. It is best to take your capsules at the same time each day.

The liquid usually comes in 2 different strengths:

  • 50mg fluconazole in a 5ml spoonful (50mg/5ml)
  • 200mg fluconazole in a 5ml spoonful (200mg/5ml)

Use the plastic spoon that comes with your medicine to measure your dose. Do not use a kitchen teaspoon, as this will not give you the right amount.

Dosage for capsules or liquid

These are the usual doses for adults:

  • oral (mouth) thrush – 50mg a day, taken for 7 to 14 days
  • vaginal thrush or balanitis – 150mg, taken as a single dose
  • vaginal thrush that keeps coming back – 150mg, taken once every 72 hours for the first 3 doses, then take 150mg once a week for 6 months
  • candida infections (in your blood or elsewhere in your body) – 200mg to 800mg a day for several weeks
  • cryptococcal meningitis – 200mg to 800mg a day for several weeks
  • to stop cryptococcal meningitis coming back – 200mg a day, taken long term
  • to prevent fungal infections if you have a weakened immune system (a low white blood cell count) – 50mg to 400mg a day, until your white blood cell count improves

For children, your doctor will work out the right dose depending on the infection and your child’s age and weight.

If you take your fluconazole once every 72 hours, or once a week, it may help to use a calendar and mark the days when you need to take it.

What if I forget to take a dose?

If you forget a dose, take it as soon as you remember, unless it’s nearly time for your next dose. In this case, just skip the missed dose and take your next one as normal.

Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed dose.

If you forget doses often, it may help to set an alarm to remind you. You could also ask your pharmacist for advice on other ways to remember your medicines.

What if I take too much?

Accidentally taking 1 or 2 extra doses is unlikely to harm you.

AIDS Signs and Symptoms | UCSF Health

Opportunistic Infections

Below is a list of infections and how they affect different parts of the body.


Cryptoccoccal Menigitis – This is a
yeast-like fungus infection that usually involves the brain and lungs,
although it can affect almost any organ. The fungus that causes this
condition is found in soil throughout the world. It is most common in
soil contaminated by bird droppings. This disease most often occurs when
a person’s CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter
of blood.

HIV-related Encephalopathy
Encephalopathy is a term for diseases that alter brain function or
structure, leading to problems with cognitive function, or mental
processes, and memory. In people with HIV and AIDS, encephalopathy is
usually caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacteria, virus or

Encephalopathy most often occurs when a person’s CD4+T cell count
falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Toxoplasma-seropositive patients who have a CD4+T cell count of less
than 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood should be treated with
prophylaxis to prevent developing encephalopathy.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
– Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare disorder of the
nervous system caused by a common human polyomavirus, JC virus. It leads
to the destruction of the myelin sheath that covers nerve cells. The
myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve
fibers in the brain. Symptoms include mental deterioration, vision loss,
speech disturbances, inability to coordinate movements, paralysis and
ultimately coma. In rare cases, seizures may occur.

This disease can occur when the CD4+T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Toxoplasmosis – This condition occurs
when a parasite infects the brain. Symptoms include confusion or
delusional behavior, severe headaches, fever, seizures and coma. It can
affect the eye, causing eye pain and reduced vision.

Toxoplasmosis most likely occurs when the CD4+ T cell count falls
below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment –
usually with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra and
Bactrim – may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 100
cells per cubic millimeter of blood.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) – Although this virus can affect the entire body, it commonly affects the eye’s retina, causing blurry vision and in severe cases, blindness. Other common symptoms include chronic diarrhea and nerve problems. It is most likely to occur when a person’s CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Gastrointestinal Tract

Cryptosporidiosis – This is a parasite that can cause chronic diarrhea. Other symptoms include stomach cramps, nausea, fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, vomiting and dehydration.

This infection is difficult to treat and there is no definitive effective treatment. Symptom control and treatment of HIV are necessary.

Cytomegalovirus – Although this virus can affect the entire body, it commonly occurs in the stomach, causing fever, diarrhea and stomach pain. It most likely occurs when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Mycobacterium Avium Complex – This is a bacterial infection that can cause persistent fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, abdominal pain, dizziness, diarrhea and weakness. The bacteria that cause this infection is found in water, dust, soil and bird droppings.

This disease most likely occurs when the CD4+T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventive treatment, usually with azithromycin, is administered when CD4+ T cells are less than 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.


Candidiasis – Candidiasis is an infection caused by the candida fungi. Also known as a yeast infection, it’s the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth, called thrush, or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast in the vagina can cause irritation, itching, burning and thick white discharge.

Herpes Simplex – This virus causes genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area, or cold sores. Severe conditions are more common in the advanced stage of AIDS.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) – This condition is considered the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States. It can cause warts on the anus, cervix, esophagus, penis, urethra, vagina and vulva. Studies have shown that certain types of HPV can contribute to the development of cervical and anal cancer. Individuals with HIV and AIDS are at increased risk for developing precancerous and cancerous lesions.


Liver Disease – Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death among AIDS patients, especially liver disease caused by the hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Many drugs used in the treatment of HIV and AIDS can cause liver disease or hepatitis. It is important that patients infected with hepatitis receive treatment and follow-up care.


Coccidiomycosis – This infection is caused by inhaling an infective fungus called Coccidioides immitis, found mainly in contaminated soil in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America and parts of South America. The lungs are most commonly affected by this infection. In severe cases, it can involve the kidneys, lymph system, brain and spleen. Symptoms include cough, weight loss and fatigue. Meningitis is a common complication when left untreated.

Histoplasmosis – This infection almost always involves the lungs, although other organs may be affected. The fungus that causes this condition is found in southern parts of the United States and South America. It is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings and must be inhaled to cause infection.

Signs and symptoms include high fever; weight loss; respiratory complaints; an enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes; depressed production of white cells, red blood cells and platelets from the bone marrow; and life-threatening, unstable, low blood pressure.

Pneumocystis Carinii – This condition occurs when a fungus infects the lungs. Symptoms may include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue.

It is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Treatment is usually trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra or Bactrim, dapsone or atovoquone.

Recurrent Pneumonia – People with AIDS are at risk for recurrent bacterial pneumonia. Bacteria can infect the lungs, which may lead to problems ranging from a mild cough to severe pneumonia. Recurrent pneumonia is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Tuberculosis (TB) – This is a serious, and often deadly, bacterial infection that primarily infects the lungs. TB is transmitted when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes, releasing microscopic particles into the air. If inhaled, these particles may transmit the condition.

Once infected by TB, most people remain healthy and develop only latent infection. People with latent infection are neither sick nor infectious. However, they do have the potential to become sick and infectious with active TB. It can occur at any CD4+ T cell level but especially when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 350 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Lymphatic System

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma – Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a disease in which tumors develop from white blood cells in the lymphatic system. It is another common disease associated with AIDS. See AIDS-related lymphoma.

Mouth and Throat

Candidiasis – This is the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth (thrush) or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast causes white patches on gums, tongue or lining of the mouth, pain, difficulty in swallowing and loss of appetite. Candida in the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs is AIDS defining.


Herpes Simplex – This virus causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area. Chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions and severe mucocutaneous HSV disease are common in the advanced stages of AIDS.

Kaposi’s Sarcoma – This is the most common AIDS-related cancer. It causes reddish-purple lesions that usually appear on the skin. They also can appear on the lymph nodes, mouth, gastrointestinal tract and lungs.

Shingles – Shingles are caused by a reactivation of the chicken pox virus. It may cause a painful rash or blisters that follow the path of nerves.

Antibiotics for urinary tract infections in older people

When you need them—and when you don’t

Antibiotics are medicines that can kill bacteria. Doctors often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). The main symptoms of UTIs are:

  • A burning feeling when you urinate.
  • A strong urge to urinate often.

However, many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms.  This can do more harm than good. Here’s why:

Antibiotics usually don’t help when there are no UTI symptoms.

Older people often have some bacteria in their urine. This does not mean they have a UTI. But doctors may find the bacteria in a routine test and give antibiotics anyway.

The antibiotic does not help these patients.

  • It does not prevent UTIs.
  • It does not help bladder control.
  • It does not help memory problems or balance.

Most older people should not be tested or treated for a UTI unless they have UTI symptoms. And if you do have a UTI and get treated, you usually don’t need another test to find out if you are cured. You should only get tested or treated if UTI symptoms come back.

Antibiotics have side effects.

Antibiotics can have side effects, such as fever, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, tendon ruptures, and nerve damage.

Antibiotics can cause future problems.

Antibiotics can kill “friendly” germs in the body. This can lead to vaginal yeast infections. It can also lead to other infections, and severe diarrhea, hospitalization, and even death.

Also, antibiotics may help “drug resistant” bacteria grow. These bacteria are harder to kill. They cause illnesses that are harder to cure and more costly to treat. Your doctor may have to try several antibiot­ics. This increases the risk of complications. The resistant bacteria can also be passed on to others.

Antibiotics can be a waste of money.

Prescription antibiotics can cost from $15 to more than $100. If you get an infection from resistant bacteria, you may need more doctor visits and medicines that cost more.

When should older people take antibiotics for a UTI?

If you have UTI symptoms, antibiotics can help.

  • The most common UTI symptoms are a painful, burning feeling when you urinate and a strong urge to “go” often.
  • Other UTI symptoms in older people may include fever, chills, or confusion. Along with these symptoms, there is usually pain on one side of the back below the ribs or discomfort in the lower abdomen. There may be a change in the way the urine looks or smells.

Some kinds of surgery can cause bleeding in the urinary tract—for example, prostate surgery and some procedures to remove kidney stones or bladder tumors. If you are going to have this surgery, you may need testing and treatment for bacteria in urine.

This report is for you to use when talking with your health-care provider. It is not a substitute for medical advice and treatment.  Use of this report is at your own risk.

© 2017 Consumer Reports. Developed in cooperation with the American Geriatric Society.


Chlamydia Infections | Chlamydia | Chlamydia Symptoms

What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat.

How do you get chlamydia?

You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman can also pass chlamydia to her baby during childbirth.

If you’ve had chlamydia and were treated in the past, you can get re-infected if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it.

Who is at risk of getting chlamydia?

Chlamydia is more common in young people, especially young women. You are more likely to get it if you don’t consistently use a condom, or if you have multiple partners.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia doesn’t usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse

If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, nausea, or fever.

Symptoms in men include

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)

If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

There are lab tests to diagnose chlamydia. Your health care provider may ask you to provide a urine sample. For women, providers sometimes use (or ask you to use) a cotton swab to get a sample from your vagina to test for chlamydia.

Who should be tested for chlamydia?

You should go to your health provider for a test if you have symptoms of chlamydia, or if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to their first prenatal visit.

People at higher risk should get checked for chlamydia every year:

  • Sexually active women 25 and younger
  • Older women who have new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)

What other problems can chlamydia cause?

In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications.

Men often don’t have health problems from chlamydia. Sometimes it can infect the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm). This can cause pain, fever, and, rarely, infertility.

Both men and women can develop reactive arthritis because of a chlamydia infection. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that happens as a “reaction” to an infection in the body.

Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. It may also make it more likely for your baby to be born too early.

Untreated chlamydia may also increase your chances of getting or giving HIV/AIDS.

What are the treatments for chlamydia?

Antibiotics will cure the infection. You may get a one-time dose of the antibiotics, or you may need to take medicine every day for 7 days. Antibiotics cannot repair any permanent damage that the disease has caused.

To prevent spreading the disease to your partner, you should not have sex until the infection has cleared up. If you got a one-time dose of antibiotics, you should wait 7 days after taking the medicine to have sex again. If you have to take medicine every day for 7 days, you should not have sex again until you have finished taking all of the doses of your medicine.

It is common to get a repeat infection, so you should get tested again about three months after treatment.

Can chlamydia be prevented?

The only sure way to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading chlamydia. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

clotrimazole vaginal | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about clotrimazole vaginal?

Follow all directions on your medicine label and package. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What is clotrimazole vaginal?

Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus.

Clotrimazole vaginal (for use in the vagina) is used to treat vaginal candida (yeast) infections.

Clotrimazole vaginal may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using clotrimazole vaginal?

You should not use clotrimazole vaginal if you are allergic to it.

If this is the first time you have ever had symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection, ask your doctor before using clotrimazole vaginal.

Tell your doctor if you have had more than 3 vaginal infections within 6 months. Frequent vaginal yeast infections that do not clear up with treatment may be a sign of a more serious condition.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use this medicine if you have other medical conditions, especially:

  • fever, chills, pain in your back or shoulder;
  • stomach pain, vomiting;
  • foul-smelling vaginal discharge;
  • diabetes; or
  • HIV or AIDS.

FDA pregnancy category B. Clotrimazole vaginal is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

Do not use clotrimazole vaginal without medical advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give this medicine to a child younger than 12 years old without medical advice.

How should I use clotrimazole vaginal?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Wash your hands before and after using this medication.

Insert the tablet, suppository, or cream into the vagina using the applicator as directed.

Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time, even during your menstrual period. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. If the infection does not clear up, or if it appears to get worse, see your doctor.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 3 days of treatment, or if they last longer than a week. Tell your doctor right away if you have a skin rash or hives, stomach pain, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, or foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

You can use a sanitary napkin to prevent the medication from staining your clothing but do not use a tampon.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Use the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while using clotrimazole vaginal?

Do not have sexual intercourse. This medicine will not prevent the infection from spreading to your partner. Clotrimazole topical can also cause damage to a condom or a diaphragm. These forms of birth control may be less effective if you use them during treatment.

Avoid getting this medicine in your eyes, nose, or mouth.

Avoid wearing tight-fitting, synthetic clothing that doesn’t allow air circulation. Wear clothing made of loose cotton and other natural fibers until the infection is healed.

What are the possible side effects of clotrimazole vaginal?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have new or worsening vaginal symptoms.

Common side effects may include:

  • slight increase in vaginal discomfort (burning, itching, irritation).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect clotrimazole vaginal?

There may be other drugs that can interact with clotrimazole vaginal. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about clotrimazole vaginal.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 5.01. Revision date: 11/25/2014.

90,000 Scientists have named life-threatening signs of diabetes – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

Diabetes can cause a number of serious complications, from cardiovascular disease to blindness. One of the most acute is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which can be life-threatening. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a form of diabetes mellitus with an increase in blood glucose and ketone bodies, which occurs when blood sugar levels are consistently too high because the body does not have enough insulin to process it.If DKA is not treated on time, it can lead to diabetic coma or death. Doctors at the American Mayo Clinic and experts from the Royal College of Nursing in Great Britain have named the dangerous signs of diabetes, which should be paid special attention to.

Severe fatigue, felt to the point of being very emaciated, may be a sign of DKA. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot produce or the body cannot process enough insulin to deliver sugar (glucose) to the body’s cells for energy.Bad breath is one of the first symptoms doctors look for when they suspect someone might have diabetic ketoacidosis. Too much ketones in the blood can cause acetone breath, fruity odor, or nail polish remover odor. If you have diabetes and smell acetone in your mouth, follow your doctor’s advice. If you have not done so, make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible. Excess blood sugar is transported to the kidneys, which work overtime to flush it out, causing frequent urination.Intense thirst is also a prominent symptom of uncontrolled diabetes. This happens when there is more sugar in the blood than the kidneys can handle and effectively remove it from the body. Excess sugar remains in the bloodstream, flushing fluids out of the tissues and causing thirst.

Losing weight is the most common symptom of diabetic ketoacidosis, found in about 80 percent of people with the condition, according to a study published in the American Family Physician.Ketosis – a condition caused by the burning of fat instead of carbohydrates – can cause rapid weight loss in a person on a keto diet. High blood sugar and a weakened immune system, both of which can be caused by uncontrolled diabetes, are two of the most common causes of so-called oral thrush, an overgrowth of yeast in the mouth. A yeast infection elsewhere in the body that persists may also indicate DKA. Too high blood sugar levels can cause muscle wasting or muscle contraction.This could be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis. Finally, excess acid in the blood can cause abdominal pain or vomiting, which is often a late sign of diabetic ketoacidosis. Vomiting can exacerbate the causes of dehydration caused by DKA, exacerbating symptoms such as excessive thirst. If several of these symptoms appear, experts advise that you seek immediate medical attention.

Acute intestinal infections. – Children’s city polyclinic in Belaya Kalitva

What can be attributed to diseases of dirty hands?

Diseases of “dirty hands” include:

• Acute intestinal infections (viral and bacterial): dysentery, salmonellosis, cholera, typhoid fever, rotavirus infection.
• Hepatitis A.
• Stomatitis.
• Helminthic invasions.
• Giardiasis.


Dysentery is characterized by severe intoxication of the child (general weakness, lethargy, pallor of the skin), an increase in temperature over 38 ° C. Babies have nausea, frequent vomiting and diarrhea. The wide variety, non-specificity of the symptoms of dysentery complicates its early diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by bacteriological analysis of the child’s feces.
Rotavirus infection is popularly called “intestinal flu”. For her, as for ordinary flu, a rise in temperature, redness and sore throat, a runny nose, body aches, sometimes conjunctivitis is characteristic. Unlike common flu, with a rotavirus infection, the child is also worried about severe abdominal pain, frequent loose stools and vomiting. The main danger of this infection is the rapid dehydration of the child’s body. Therefore, if the loss of fluid in a child with stools, vomiting and high fever cannot be replenished (drinks little or indomitable vomiting occurs), then you should immediately go to the hospital.The baby in this case needs intravenous administration of glucose-salt solutions.
Salmonellosis is characterized by severe intoxication of the child, frequent diarrhea with bloody blotches, fever above 39 ° C, vomiting. Even loss of consciousness is possible. A sharp dehydration of the body develops. A child can catch salmonellosis from a sick person or from contact with contaminated food. The causative agents of the disease are Salmonella bacteria. They can be found most often in eggs, dairy and meat products that are not sufficiently cooked or consumed raw.Eggs are especially dangerous, for example, in creams on pastries and cakes, as well as poorly cooked or fried chicken products.


This disease has many names: Botkin’s disease, hepatitis A. Commonly known as “jaundice”. This is the most common form of viral hepatitis. It is the most favorable in terms of outcome (does not have a chronic form). Susceptibility to the hepatitis A virus is universal. Moreover, children suffer from Botkin’s disease three times more often than adults.The incubation period, that is, the time from the moment of meeting with the pathogen to the onset of symptoms, lasts 7-50 days (usually 15-30 days). The water route of transmission of this infection predominates. Also, the infection is often transmitted through dirty hands and inadequately processed foods. Symptoms of hepatitis A include weakness, vomiting, nausea, yellowing of the skin and sclera, discoloration of feces, and dark urine (beer-colored). There is also an anicteric form of hepatitis A, when symptoms are mild and there is no jaundice.A child with any form of hepatitis A should be hospitalized. Recovery occurs in 4-6 weeks. Immunity after the disease is formed persistent and lifelong. Prevention of hepatitis A consists of hygiene and vaccination.


This disease of “dirty hands” is typical for young children and is a kind of indicator of the state of the child’s immune system. In other words, children with a reduced immune response are sick with this disease.Therefore, stomatitis can develop in a child who is already suffering from any disease, for example, a cold. The first manifestations of stomatitis are small redness on the mucous membrane of the mouth or tongue. Then a shallow ulcer forms at this place. The ulcers have smooth edges surrounded by a reddish halo. The rest of the mucous membrane has a healthy appearance. In the center of the ulcer there is a thin, loose film of grayish-white color. With stomatitis, the child is worried about the high temperature. Children often refuse to eat, are forced to move their tongue and lips less, and saliva flows from their mouths.After all, ulcers with stomatitis are very painful.


Worms are otherwise called helminths. There are many types of them. Let’s consider several main diseases caused by worms.

The name “enterobiasis” is terrible and incomprehensible to many. But everything is simple. This is a disease when small parasites from the group of roundworms – children’s pinworms – settle in the child’s body. In connection with the anatomical features and with the peculiarities of the lifestyle, helminthic invasions are more common in children than in adults.Enterobiasis is the most common helminthic infestation among children of primary school age. Almost every child has had enterobiasis at least once in his life. Pinworms are predominantly nocturnal. The female pinworm leaves the rectum at night and lays eggs around the anus. Eggs are glued to the skin with a substance that causes severe itching in the child. The child scratches itchy areas. Helminth eggs fall under the nails, and then with dirty hands fall back into the digestive tract.And the cycle repeats again.
If children’s pinworms are small white worms about 0.5 cm long, then roundworms are 7-10 cm long roundworms similar to them in the development cycle.Eggs of this helminth enter our body with unwashed vegetables and fruits, with food , through dirty hands. Make sure children wash their hands after contact with animals. The child can lose weight, symptoms of “chronic fatigue” appear. Teeth grinding in a dream is a possible, but insufficiently reliable sign of helminthic invasion in a child.Among the symptoms is a cough that does not go away with the treatment of a cold. But there are also differences. Pinworm eggs do not have a ripening period in the ground; infection occurs upon contact with a patient. Both adults and children are infected, so the whole family needs to treat worms at once. It is better to do this periodically 2 times a year, even if you do not notice any noticeable symptoms of worms, especially if the child is attending a children’s team. And if there are the above-described problems with a cough or other signs of worms, or the child during the game or in a dream began to scratch the bottom suspiciously often, then unscheduled treatment against worms is needed.
This is not helminthic, but protozoal invasion, that is, caused by the simplest unicellular organisms – lamblia. Giardia infection in children most often occurs through dirty hands, household items, toys. The leading role as a source of the causative agent of the disease belongs to humans. Mature cysts of lamblia are excreted with feces. Pets (rats, rabbits, dogs, cats) can also be a source of infection. This disease occurs mainly with the defeat of the small intestine, and sometimes with allergic and neurological symptoms.The diagnosis is confirmed by a venous blood immunoassay.

Prevention of Dirty Hand Diseases

Prevention of these diseases involves simple and accessible rules.
• Wash hands thoroughly before eating and after each visit to public places, contact with animals.
• Wash fruits, berries, vegetables and herbs properly.
• Drink only purified water (do not drink tap water).
• Do not drink or eat from the same dish with other people.
• Do not wear someone else’s clothing and do not use someone else’s personal hygiene products.
• Cut short nails for children, wean them from chewing on various objects.
Carry out wet cleaning in the house every day or every two days.
• Iron baby clothes after washing.
• Periodically wash personal hygiene products with soap.
• It is necessary to separate the storage of household and outdoor things, shoes. Take care of the health and hygiene of your pets.

90,000 Pau d’arco – nutritional benefits, cancer fighting and body strengthening benefits, possible side effects

Pau d’arco: health benefits

Pau d’arco comes from South America, where it is used to treat a wide variety of diseases.There are records of the use of pau d’arco tea for medicinal purposes, dating back to 1873.

Pau d’arco is also called Tabebuia Avellanedae (Tabebuya). It is a tree of the Bignoniaceae family ( Bignoniaceae ) with a very hard wood. Its Portuguese name translates as “bow stick”, which suits him well, since the indigenous people of South America used the tree to make hunting bows.

The bark and wood of the tree have been used to treat arthritis, pain, inflammation of the prostate gland, fever, dysentery, boils, ulcers, and various types of cancer.The easiest way to use pau d’arco is to drink tea from the inner bark of a tree or to apply a bandage soaked in the infusion to the skin.

What is pau d’arco?

Pau d’arco is an evergreen tree with pink flowers. There are about 100 varieties of pau d’arco or tabebuis, but only a few produce high quality material. Moreover, only experienced pickers can name the most effective varieties.

For medical purposes, the bark of a tree is used, or rather its inner surface, called “phloem”.Unfortunately, many companies use all the bark, including dead wood, which affects the activity of the material.

Scientists have identified two active ingredients in pau d’arco called naphthoquinones: lapachol and beta-lapachone. These chemical compounds are capable of killing bacteria, fungus, viruses and parasites. They also have anti-inflammatory properties needed to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Nutritional properties

Tabebui tea contains several ingredients, including quinoids, benzenoids, and flavonoids.These compounds actively fight against harmful organisms. Pau d’arco also contains a significant amount of lapachol, which is present in the trunk of the tree. The USDA states that lapachol is toxic and resistant to almost all types of disease-causing organisms.

A 2005 study published in the journal Oncology Reports found that lapachol may be effective in combating metastases (the spread of cancer throughout the body).Since metastases are the leading cause of death in cancer patients, this study may provide a reason for further research.

Lapachol also has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, one study suggests that high doses of this compound can lead to dangerous side effects such as reproductive toxicity. Beta-lapachone in pau d’arco also shows negative effects on disease-causing organisms, similar to lapachol.

Another powerful element found in tabbuey, selenium, is an antioxidant that can destroy free radicals that damage cells and promote inflammation. Selenium is very important for the human body.

This trace element is able to strengthen the immune system, participate in the work of antioxidants, protecting the body from free radicals and inflammation, it also plays a key role in starting the metabolism.

Consuming large amounts of dietary selenium has antiviral effects, has positive effects on fertility and reproductive health in men and women, and lowers the risk of cancer, autoimmune diseases and thyroid disease, according to a study by the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Surrey, UK.Low selenium levels in the body are associated with an increased risk of death, low immunity, and cognitive distortions.

Health Benefits

1. Relieves pain

Research suggests that tabbui tea can naturally relieve pain in patients with cancer and other serious health problems. It has the ability to relieve pain associated with arthritis and certain cancers such as prostate, liver and breast cancers.

A 2001 study published in the journal BMC Pharmacology examined the antinociceptive (pain relieving) and decongestant effects of the d’arco’s inner cortex in mice experiencing pain by stimulating nerve cells. The aqueous extract of the inner cortex, when taken orally at three different concentrations, reduced the sensory process leading to pain.

2. Fights fungus

Pau d’arco helps the body fight the fungus.The fungus, also known as candidiasis, is a common yeast infection that can cause a variety of problems, from sore throats to severe stomach upsets.

The body produces yeast in the mouth, vagina, rectum, and digestive tract in quantities that are safe for the body. However, if the pH level is disturbed, then the fungus quickly gets out of control.

3. Relieves inflammation

An overly active immune system results in too many protective cells and hormones that attack tissues.Toxins from food and the environment accumulate in the body, thus triggering immunity. He begins to react actively, which leads to inflammation, the cause of most diseases.

In 2014, a study was published in the journal The Journal of Toxicological Sciences , according to which the pau d’arco cortex is able to increase the expression of the gene Nrf 2 in the intestine. Nrf 2 is a protein that regulates the expression of an antioxidant protein that protects against oxidative stress caused by trauma and inflammation. The results of this study indicate that activation of Nrf 2 may mediate the beneficial effects of tabebui in the intestines, which can be severely affected by inflammation.

4. Helps to cure ulcers

An ulcer is a kind of “burn” on the lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract.It can also appear in the stomach or in the upper part of the small intestine, the duodenum.

Peptic ulcer disease occurs when the stomach or intestines are weak, when acid creates erosion or inflammation on the surface. The American Gastroenterological Association calls it the most common stomach ailment. Ulcers are caused by an increase in the amount of acid in the stomach, which can be caused by stress, medication, diet, smoking, alcohol or bacteria, such as H . pylori . The most common symptom of an ulcer is burning pain, aggravated by acid contact with the area of ​​the ulcer.

A 2013 study published in the journal Phytotherapy Research found that pao d’arco extract significantly accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced stomach ulcers in rats by increasing mucus and cell proliferation. Thus, pao d’arco can become part of the treatment of peptic ulcer diseases in humans.

5. Fights cancer

Pao d’arco tea is especially famous for its ability to treat cancer and relieve pain associated with cancer. A study by the Dana-Farber Cancer Research Institute in Boston, USA, found that beta-lapachone, one of the main compounds in pao d’arco tea, could be a potent component of anti-cancer chemotherapy, particularly in prostate cancer.

Another 2002 study concluded that beta-lapachone is one of the few new anticancer agents currently under active research.It can be effective in chemotherapy as a stand alone agent or in combination with other substances. This potent compound caused cancer cell death in mice, while the treatment itself did not appear to adversely affect the rodents.

6. Possesses antiviral and antifungal effects

Pao d’arco has been used as an antiviral agent for thousands of years. Pao d’arco tea has devastating effects on many different viruses, from those that cause the common cold to those associated with dangerous HIV.It is known to effectively slow down, kill and stop the growth of a number of dangerous viruses, including herpes, polio, vesicular stomatitis, avian myeloblastosis, leukemia, or Rous sarcoma.

Beta-lapachone, present in pao d’arco, inhibits enzymes in viral cells that directly affect DNA and RNA synthesis. In this case, the virus can no longer control the reproductive processes of the cell, which means it can neither reproduce itself nor infect other cells.

Pao d’arco tea can speed up the healing of skin wounds and fight infections. It is often used to relieve redness and swelling associated with skin infections and irritation. All this demonstrates the antifungal and antibacterial properties of the plant.

7. Removes toxins from the body

Pao d’arco tea promotes detoxification and the elimination of harmful substances from the body (heavy metals, pesticides, preservatives and even chemotherapy residues).

The detoxifying effect of pao d’arco is due to its laxative effect. So, this plant relaxes the intestines, which aids digestion and regularity of stools. Everyone knows the importance of proper movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract. The large intestine is a kind of sewage system in our body, which must be emptied on time and kept in good condition.

When we consume processed foods or processed foods, the colon quickly fills up with harmful residues.For this reason, it is so important to consume detoxifying foods and drinks in order to cleanse your body in time.

Consuming pao d’arco tea is an effective way to remove all harmful substances. Timely cleansing of blood vessels, lymphatic system, cells, tissues and organs allows all body systems to work properly and efficiently.


When purchasing products with Pao d’arco added, please read the label carefully.Finding a really useful product is quite difficult. Sometimes the names “pao d’arco” or “lapacho” hide something that does not contain the pao d’arco plant (plant of the Tabebuya genus). In some cases, these preparations contain the related plant Tecoma curialis.

Some supplements may say on the labels that they contain the healthier inner bark of pao d’arco, when in reality only the outer layer is present.For this reason, we advise you to buy supplements from trusted companies that provide the exact composition of the products. To get the most out of the bark, the inner bark of the tree must be used immediately after harvest, however many companies are trying to sell the outer bark or start harvesting from the young tree.

Consuming large doses of Pao d’arco can lead to nausea, diarrhea and dizziness, so we recommend starting with a small dose and observing the body’s response.

If you are sensitive to tea or pao d’arco dietary supplements, you can still use the plant topically to treat infections.

Pao d’arco tea is used for:

  • Treating candidiasis or thrush by rinsing
  • Treating skin infections by applying a cloth soaked in tea to the affected area

Method of making tea with pao d’arco

  1. Put 2 teaspoons of bark in a kettle and pour 4 cups of boiling water over it.
  2. Let the bark steep for 20 minutes.
  3. Remove the lid and cool the drink.
  4. Strain the water.
  5. Tea should be drunk in small portions throughout the day. It can also be used for external use.

Pao d’arco tea can be purchased at a health food store or online.

Side effects and interactions with other drugs

Pao d’arco can be unsafe in high doses and can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and internal bleeding.When consuming pao d’arco, keep track of its amount and consult with a specialist if any unpleasant side effects appear.

Women during pregnancy and lactation should stop using pao d’arco, as scientists do not have sufficient information about the safety of this plant.

Pao d’arco can affect blood clotting and reduce the effectiveness of treatment for patients with bleeding disorders, it can also increase the risk of bruising.The plant can contribute to increased bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using pao d’arco at least two weeks before the proposed operation, and you should also not use it together with drugs for blood clotting, such as anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.

You can leave a request for planned hospitalization on our website and we will contact you.

90,023 90,000 What Causes Blisters on the Penis?

Blisters of the penis can have a variety of causes and must be evaluated by a physician to ensure an accurate diagnosis.Some of the possible causes include genital herpes, syphilis, or scabies. A type of infection known as folliculitis can also lead to the development of blistering of the penis. Less common causes may include a yeast infection or cancer. Any questions or concerns about penile blisters in your particular situation should be discussed with your doctor or other healthcare professional.

Genital herpes is one of the most common causes of blistering of the penis.It is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by a virus and causes blistering in the genital area. Blisters can be painful in some cases and may break and release fluid. Flares tend to come and go without a visible pattern. Although the disease is most contagious during an outbreak, it can be transmitted to a sexual partner even if there are no blisters on the penis.

Syphilis is another type of sexually transmitted disease that can cause blistering of the penis.This disease is caused by a bacterial infection and often goes unnoticed because many of the symptoms mimic those of other diseases. In addition to genital sores or blisters, syphilis can cause skin rashes, swollen glands, and hair loss.

Scabies is a type of infectious skin infection caused by a parasite. The most common symptoms are itching and rashes, which can lead to blistering. Although topical medications are available to kill these parasites, symptoms can persist for days or weeks after all the parasites have been killed.

Yeast infections are more common among women, although men can also infect them. In men, a yeast infection usually causes redness and itching on the glans of the penis. In some cases, small white blisters may appear. The main method of transmission is sexual activity with an infected partner. Without treatment for both partners, it is possible for the yeast infection to be transmitted back and forth indefinitely.

Follicilitis is a type of skin infection caused by inflammation of the hair follicles.This is one of the most common causes of blistering on the penis and is usually treated with antibiotics. Penile cancer is a relatively rare cause of blistering on the penis, although early detection is paramount. Symptoms may include redness or irritation of the penis and the presence of one or more blisters or sores.


Medical center “Doctor” – Treatment of thrush in women

What is thrush

Thrush, or vaginal candidiasis, is an ailment caused by the multiplication of Candida fungi.These yeast-like fungi are normally found in a healthy person: on the genitals, on the mucous membrane in the oral cavity, intestines. Living on the vaginal mucosa, the fungus of the genus Candida does not cause any trouble. But when a situation arises that is favorable for their reproduction, Candida colonies cause a number of unpleasant sensations, accompanied by itching and characteristic discharge. In addition, thrush negatively affects the normal course of sexual activity. Vaginal candidiasis is not a sexually transmitted disease and is not considered a dangerous infection, but this situation cannot be started, since prolonged thrush can cause serious complications.


Many believe that the cause of thrush is the very presence of Candida in the body, but this is not the case. Candidiasis occurs when a situation develops in the human body that is favorable for the reproduction of the fungus, and the main reason for the increase in their number is the weakening of the body, which arose as a result of the following factors:

  • impaired metabolism;
  • antibiotic treatment;
  • the presence of certain sexually transmitted diseases;
  • colds;
  • after taking hormonal drugs;
  • pregnancy.


It is important to understand that the presence of a fungus is not yet a symptom of the disease. Vaginal candidiasis can be identified by signs such as:

  • white, curdled vaginal discharge with a sour odor;
  • redness of the genital mucosa;
  • itching on the affected genitals.


is transmitted

A fungus of the genus Candida is present in the body of any healthy person, but the disease can occur when the fungus is introduced into the human body from the outside.This usually happens:

  • during intercourse with an infected partner;
  • at home (through personal hygiene items).

Candida can be passed from mother to child in utero.



It is quite simple to diagnose candidiasis in women – it is enough to identify the above manifestations of thrush – itching, burning and characteristic discharge. In any case, you should definitely visit a gynecologist in order to find out that you really have thrush, because some sexually transmitted diseases have similar symptoms.The specialist will determine the type of fungus and prescribe the correct and suitable treatment for you.

For accurate diagnosis, a smear is taken from the walls and fornix of the vagina. The resulting material is examined on a glass slide using a microscope – if cells of the fungus of the genus Candida are found, then the diagnosis of “vaginal candidiasis” is confirmed. To determine the genus of the fungus, sowing is done and the grown culture of the fungus is observed.

Possible complications

If thrush is not prevented, when it occurs in an acute form, it can become chronic and subsequently cause some complications.Colonies of the fungus of the genus Candida, if untreated, affect other organs – the intestines, bladder, etc., causing diseases such as stomatitis, urethritis, and digestive disorders. One of the main problems, why complications arise with such a seemingly harmless disease, is a late visit to the doctor.

Acute and chronic forms of the disease

Candidiasis in women occurs in two forms – acute and chronic. All signs of the disease appear in an acute form, which lasts no more than 2 months.It is at this time, without delay, that treatment should be started – then it will take only a few days. Signs of candidiasis may disappear even after one day of taking medication, but treatment should not be interrupted. If you do not fight the disease, it can become chronic (relapsing thrush).

Treatment of thrush

General principles of treatment

Before taking medications, consult a specialist – only he will prescribe the correct treatment. Treatment of thrush in women is complicated by drug resistance.There is no single treatment regimen for candidiasis, all cases are different. But there are general principles, following which will help to cope with the disease as quickly as possible and make sure that it does not arise in the future. The principles are simple, and together they will be an excellent defense against fungus.

  • compulsory medical appointment;
  • full course of treatment;
  • general and local treatment;
  • diet;
  • hygiene;
  • prevention.

Many women are frustrated when they learn that thrush treatment requires a more serious approach.

Oral preparations

Only the gynecologist decides how to treat thrush. Local preparations are prescribed – these are various creams, ointments, vaginal suppositories, as well as oral preparations – tablets and capsules. An integrated approach will make the treatment of thrush in women more reliable, and the result – fixed.

There are now a lot of antifungal drugs that are intended for oral administration – they are quickly absorbed, providing an instant effect.Almost all tablets contain the antifungal drug fluconazole (a group of triazole derivatives). Usually one tablet of “Fluconazole” (150 mg) is enough to disappear all visible signs of thrush.

There are many analogues of fluconazole on sale, in which it acts as an active ingredient:

  • “Mikosist”;
  • “Flucostat”;
  • Mikomast;
  • Diflucan;
  • Mikoflucan and others

Such an abundance of drugs confuses many patients, therefore, in order not to doubt the choice, it is better to contact a specialist who, after the examination, will select the best option.

External preparations

External (local) remedies for thrush are used in combination with oral medications. The most popular of them are Clotrimazole ointment and vaginal suppositories, antifungal vaginal tablets Tarzhinan, Klion. In the treatment of thrush in women preparing to become mothers, Hexicon suppositories are used, which gives excellent results, as well as Livarol antifungal suppositories with the active substance ketoconazole (the use of this drug in the first trimester of pregnancy is contraindicated).

Like all medicines, antifungal drugs used to combat candidiasis can have side effects. In particular, fluconazole can cause nausea and vomiting, as well as impaired renal function. Other drugs can cause an allergic reaction. Nobody is safe from the fact that at one moment side effects will appear on your body. But to eliminate the risk of such troubles, consult your doctor.

Folk remedies

The most important thing when treating thrush in women with folk remedies is not to harm and prevent the infection from spreading further through the body.Of course, traditional medicine recipes can be effective, but it is better to use them in conjunction with medicines, and not as an independent remedy.

Many people use a weak solution of soda, extracts of chamomile, juniper, birch buds for hygiene procedures. These funds are safe and have no contraindications during pregnancy.


For the period of treatment of candidiasis in women, sweets, too spicy and spicy dishes should be abandoned. You should also limit the amount of salt consumed, exclude alcohol and smoking.Floury products are under a special ban. Any yeast dough bun will promote infection.

Fermented milk products should be prescribed in the diet, since a woman’s body always needs beneficial bacteria, and during the period of the spread of yeast-like fungi, they are simply necessary! Garlic is suitable as a product that increases the body’s defenses.


Careful hygiene of the genital area should always be carried out, but during the period of treatment for candidiasis, this should be given special attention.Good hygiene includes the following points:

  • Daily water procedures using special products with lactic acid, but not containing soap, dyes and perfumery fragrances (morning and evening, as well as after sexual intercourse).
  • Lingerie – only made from natural fabrics. It should not be synthetic and too cramped, since all this together impedes air circulation and only enhances the reproduction of bacteria.
  • Too frequent washing with special products and douching can only aggravate the situation, since
  • Doctors recommend eliminating the use of antibacterial soap for thrush completely, since not only yeast fungi are destroyed, but the beneficial microflora is also disturbed.
  • Refusal to use tampons.

Strengthening immunity

Measures to improve immunity are associated with the intake of vitamin complexes containing vitamins of group B, as well as A, E and C. It is necessary to pay attention to nutrition – garlic, onions and other natural antibiotics contain healing enzymes that help the body to cope with microbes and viruses. It is useful to include fresh vegetables, herbs, and especially beets in the diet – it has such a useful property as cleansing the blood from toxins, which are far from the best effect on immunity, especially for women.

Strengthening the immune system is impossible without sports and walking in the fresh air. You can start hardening procedures, but only if the body is healthy and the person does not currently suffer from colds.

In order to avoid re-infection with thrush, one must not forget about the treatment of the sexual partner. For this purpose, not only antifungal drugs are suitable, which the doctor will advise, but also special ointments – “Clotrimazole” and others.

The timing of the treatment of thrush depends primarily on when the treatment was started.If you do not start the situation and start treatment for the acute form of candidiasis, then 7-10 will be enough to completely suppress the spread of the fungus. In the chronic course of thrush, treatment is delayed up to six months. During this time, the patient takes medications – usually the doctor prescribes a Fluconazole capsule once a week.

Treatment of thrush during pregnancy should be carried out with caution. Of course, the treatment of candidiasis in women cannot be postponed, but taking certain medications, especially in the first trimester, is associated with a risk to the health and life of the unborn child.There are medicines that are allowed and even indicated during pregnancy – these are Hexicon candles, Livarol and others.

Benefits of treatment in the clinic “Lekar”. The danger of self-treatment.

A woman’s health is comparable to a fragile flower that can be easily destroyed with improper care and insufficient attention. A delicate approach can only be provided by qualified specialists who can correctly diagnose and select a safe and effective treatment.Such specialists work in the medical center “Lekar”!




Gershanovich M.L.
FSBI NMITs of Oncology named after N.N. Petrov “Ministry of Health of Russia, St. Petersburg

The main complications from the gastrointestinal tract during chemotherapy of malignant tumors are vomiting and nausea, diarrhea, less often, stool retention and mucositis with lesions of the oral mucosa greatly aggravate the patient’s condition and often serve as an obstacle to continuing treatment with the proper intensity, requiring correction.Particularly dangerous is the combination of these side effects with each other with a unidirectional trend towards disturbances in water-electrolyte and energy balance, absorption in the intestine, as a consequence of leading to weight loss, cachexia, decreased immune defense, the risk of serious infections and a weakening of the response to chemotherapy. The closest mechanisms of the mentioned complications can be different, reflecting, to one degree or another, the peculiarities of the toxic effect of individual groups of cytostatics, which necessitates a separate approach to their prevention and correction.

One of the earliest manifestations of dyspeptic syndrome, complicating the use of cytostatics, is acute vomiting and nausea that occurs within 24 hours from the start of chemotherapy, which often become delayed and continue for several days, despite stopping treatment. The pattern (frequency) of occurrence, intensity and duration of vomiting and nausea depend on the emetogenic potential of cytostatics or their combination, which can be divided into several groups for this feature (see.Table 1). After the role of serotonin as a mediator of the gag reflex in the central structures was established, the previous methods of pharmacological correction of vomiting with antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, and even inhibitors of D2 dopamine receptors (phenothiazine derivatives – meterazine, with the exception of ethaperazine, butyrophenolamines, and haropoperidolomines) , possibly metoclopramide (raglan, cerucal), whose mechanism of action is associated in part with blocking serotonin receptors, has generally lost their significance.

The listed pharmacological agents have given way to much stronger antiemetics from the type 3 serotonin receptor blockers – 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, which include tropisetron (navaban), ondansetron (zofran, latran, emeset-4 and 8), granisetron (citril ) in dosage forms for injection and oral administration (ondansetron is also in suppositories), as well as dolasetron mesilat (anzemet), which has not found widespread use in domestic practice. Navoban, Zofran and Kitril have similar antiemetic activity when used in different doses and modes (in 80-90% of patients with moderately emetogenic and 49-72% in the case of highly emetogenic chemotherapy with cisplatin).

Table # 1:
Characteristics of the emetic action of the main anticancer drugs (modified according to Fischer D.S., Knobf M.T., Durivage H.J. The Cancer Chemotherapy Handbook.-Fifth edition.-Mosby.-St. Louis, Baltimore, Boston etc.-1997).

Drug name Frequency of vomiting (% of all patients) Time of onset of vomiting (in hours) Duration of vomiting (in hours)
Cisplatin > 90 1-4 12-20
Dakarbazine > 90 1-3 1-8
Mechlorethamine (Mustargen) > 90 0.5-2 2-24
Cytarabine (high doses) > 90 1-3 3-8
Carboplatin 60-90 1-6 4-24
Carmustine (BCNU) 60-90 2-4 4-12
Cyclophosphamide (high doses) 60-90 4-8 4-24
Dactinomycin 60-90 2-5 4-24
Procarbazine (Natulan) 30-90 24-27 2-6
L-asparaginase 30-90 3-8 4-24
Daunorubicin (Rubomycin) 30-60 1-3 4-24
Doxorubicin 30-60 1-3 4-24
Topotecan 30-60 1-3 2-4
Ifosfamide 30-60 2-3 4-24
Mitoxantrone 30-60 2-6 6-24
Melphalan 10-30 2-6 2-4
5-fluorouracil 10-30 3-6 2-12
Tomudex 10-30 3-6 2-4
Mitomycin C 30-60 1-2 3-4
Bleomycin 10-30 3-6 1-4
6-mercaptopurine 10-30 1-2 1-4
Bleomycetin 10-30 3-6 1-4
Cytarabine (small doses) 10-30 6-12 3-5
Etoposide 10-30 3-8 1-4
Teniposide 10-30 2-4 1-4
Methotrexate 10-30 4-12 3-12
Fludara 10-30 2-4 1-4
Vinblastine 10-30 4-8 1-4
Vincristine 4-8 1-4
Paclitaxel (Taxol) 4-8 1-2
Docetaxel (Taxotere) 4-8 1-2
Leukeran (chlorbutin) 4-8 1-2
Ftorafur (Tegafur) 4-8 1-2
Thiophosphamide (ThioTef) 2-4 1-2
Navelbin (vinorelbine) 2-4 1-2
Irinotecan (CAMPTO) 2-4 1-2

In the studies carried out at the N.I.N.N. Petrov “of the Ministry of Health of Russia with 274 cycles of highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy of the same type, complete control of acute vomiting could be achieved as a result of intravenous injection of nauvoban in 92.5-97.7% of patients, zofran (or emeset-4) – 97.7% of treated and kitril – 97.3% of the time.

Differences not only in the value of daily doses, allowing to obtain approximately the same antiemetic effect (for navoban – 5 mg, kitril – 2-3 mg, zofran – 32 mg, anzemet – 150-200 mg), but also in activity in acute and delayed vomiting, seen only in randomized, double-blind trials.These differences were found to be more pronounced between Kitril and Zofran than in comparison with Navaban. With the help of kitril, it was possible to completely prevent vomiting from relatively high doses of cisplatin (> 50 mg / m 2 ) in an average of 64% of patients, while a similar effect of zofran was observed in 49% of cases. Recent comparative studies (Yalzin S., et.al., 1999) under the conditions of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy made it possible to register complete control of acute vomiting with Zofran, Navaban and Kitril, respectively, in 38.8%, 58.8% and 73.7% of patients. and delayed – in 38.8%, 52.9% and 73.7% of observations.In the sums of indicators of complete and partial prevention of vomiting (82.3-89.5%), statistically significant differences were not observed.

The effectiveness of the antiemetic action of the listed 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, which is not always satisfactory against the background of chemotherapy with cisplatin, increases when combined with dexamethasone (10-20 mg intravenously) or, which is less rational, with very high doses (250 mg) of methylprednisolone. This principle has already found use in pediatric oncology practice with a new dosage form of ondansetron in syrup.Own experience of research carried out in the Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology of the N.N. N.N. Petrov ”of the Ministry of Health of Russia shows that as a result of ingestion of ondansetron in syrup (8 mg / day) against a background of 4-8 mg / day. dexamethasone, complete control of vomiting with combined chemotherapy with highly and moderately emetogenic cytostatics was achieved in children in 92.3% of cases, nausea – in 69.3% of cases with practically no side effects. There, the previously studied navoban (5 mg / m2 2 , but no more than 5 mg intravenously without dexamethasone before chemotherapy) led to complete prevention of acute vomiting in 68.7% and partial prevention in 25% of children.

Given the safety of the use of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, comparable in the case of use with dexamethasone, the question of choosing the best one remains. To resolve this issue, other factors have to be involved: ease of use – fast intravenous jet injection or a longer infusion, the possibility of ingestion without loss of effectiveness and, last but not least, economic feasibility. The combination of many indicators makes it possible to highlight the advantages of Kitril and Navoban in relation to Zofran, and, in terms of the economic factor, apparently, Kitril.In the same aspect, attention is drawn to the results of a recently completed multicenter randomized study conducted by the Mayo Clinic (USA) with the participation of 1085 patients and found that ingestion of 2 mg of Kitril and intravenous administration of 32 mg of Zofran against the background of corticosteroids and combined chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (500- 1200 mg / m 2 ) and carboplatin (300 mg / m 2 or more) gives the same antiemetic effect, but with large side effects of zofran (dizziness – in 9.6% of patients versus 5.4% in Kitril, and visual impairment – in 4.2% and 0.6%, respectively).In order to make the optimal choice of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, mention should be made of the not so long ago established (albeit in need of replication) fact of complete control of vomiting with Kitril (Granisetron) in 53-60% of 456 patients who received high- and moderate chemotherapy. emetogenic cytostatics after ineffective use of metoclopramide with dexamethasone and zofran (Carmichael et.al., 1998).

New perspectives for overcoming refractoriness to 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are evidently opened by the data just published (Gralla R., 1999) on the combined use of the latter with dexamethasone and compounds from a new class of neurokinin receptor antagonists (NK-1 receptors), which is involved in the mechanisms of vomiting.

Not all anticancer drugs cause diarrhea, another complication of chemotherapy, although it is generally believed that it occurs in 75% of those undergoing chemotherapy. Diarrhea is completely uncommon for hormone therapy. In addition to estracite, which causes diarrhea, apparently due to the alkylating effect of the bis- (b-chloroethylamine) residue, in about 50% of patients, other estrogens, antiestrogens, drugs of the “second” and “third” line of hormone therapy (aromatase inhibitors and progestins), LHRH analogues and antiandrogens rarely show similar properties.In particular, according to summary statistics, the probability of diarrhea is: for octreotide (sandostatin) – 13%, flutamide – 12%, casodex – 10%, arimidex – 8%, aminoglutethimide (orimethene) – 3.9%, tamoxifen – 2.0 %, zoladex – 2.0%, femara – 1.0%. Progestins (Provera, Megais) cause diarrhea only in very high doses; this complication has not been described for diethylstilbestrol and the antiandrogen androcur.

Cytostatic therapy is associated with diarrhea at a much higher frequency.From the data analyzed on the side effects summary of 43 cytostatics currently used in oncological practice, diarrhea with a frequency of more than 10% of patients is recorded as a result of the use of 18 drugs. Idarubicin (20-73%), tomudex (60%), 5-fluorouracil (12-57%; higher in combination with calcium folinate), topotecan (25-42%, of which grade IV – 5%), navelbine (18-38%), teniposide (33%), gemzar (8-31%), irinotecan (15-25% grade IV), oxaliplatin or eloxatin (12-25%, grade III-IV – 3-7%; in combination with 5-fluorouracil and calcium folinate – 84%, incl.hours III-IV degree – 25%), cytarabine (especially in combination with doxorubicin), dactinomycin and methotrexate (mostly when taken orally). At the same time, there are cytostatics for which complications in the form of diarrhea are rare: bleomycin, bisulfan, leukeran (chlorbutin), etoposide, lomustine, thiophosphamide, vinblastine, hydroxyurea, but unexpectedly, some of them are sharply more frequent when used in liposomes ( from isolated cases to 38% for rubomycin) or very slightly decreases (for doxorubicin – from 10% to 8%).

In the overwhelming majority of cases, diarrhea is caused by the direct toxic effect of cytostatics on one of the most actively proliferating tissues – the epithelium of the small and large intestine, and is less often associated with the cholinergic mechanism (irinotecan) or the development of pathogenic flora in the intestine (with febrile neutropenia). The damage is often accompanied by a kind of inflammatory reaction and the formation of ulcers (ulcerative enterocolitis, which takes a very severe course). However, most often diarrhea against this background is the result of an imbalance between the absorption of nutrients, bile salts, pancreatic secretions and reabsorption (decreased reabsorption) of electrolytes and water in the distal intestines.

Based on the mechanisms of toxic diarrhea common to almost all cytostatics, measures for its correction consist, first of all, in rehydration with restoration of the balance (replenishment of the loss) of electrolytes, the process of reabsorption of the latter, regulation of flora (except for antibiotics used only in the case of febrile neutropenia). The simplest and most effective way of rehydration, which in many cases avoids parenteral administration of electrolyte solutions, is drinking plenty of fluids (up to 2-3 l / day.when vomiting is controlled), a simple iso-osmolar composition of 1 teaspoon of table salt, 1 teaspoon of baking soda, 4 tablespoons of granulated sugar, 1 glass of fruit juice (preferably apple, blackcurrant, chokeberry or grapefruit juice) is sufficient for 1 liter of water. An effective remedy for correcting complications is loperamide (imodium), which, taken several times a day as a synthetic opiate, not only inhibits increased intestinal motility and soothes associated abdominal pain, but also suppresses excess secretion and stimulates reabsorption in the villi of the damaged mucosa.More frequent than usual use of loperamide, in particular, is the main means of stopping irinotecan-induced diarrhea (CAMPTO). It is reported that in most cases of ineffective use of loperamide, due to the hyposecretory effect, diarrhea caused by 5-fluorouracil is able to stop, subcutaneous injections of a synthetic derivative of the natural hormone somatostatin – octreotide (sandostatin), albeit in large doses – from 0.25 to 0.5 mg three once a day (Maule WF, 1996).

Additional factors in the correction of diarrhea are the intake of anti-inflammatory astringents and, at the same time, caloforming agents (for example, in the recipe: calcium carbonate 1.5 g + bismuth nitrate basic 0.5 g + dermatol 0.5 g) and herbal decoctions, extracts or infusions (chamomile, St. John’s wort, oak bark, nutmeg powder, decoction of pomegranate bark, etc.), as well as one of the biological products – colibacterin, lactobacterin, bifikol, bifidumbacterin or bactisubtil. The principles of diet and regimen retain their importance: predominantly slag-free (poor in fiber) high-calorie, high-protein food at room temperature or warm, taken in small portions and often, avoiding carbonated drinks, milk and dairy products, raw vegetables and fruits (with the exception of bananas and asparagus, which are high in potassium, like baked potatoes), bed rest, sitz warm baths.

In contrast to diarrhea, stool retention is a rare complication of cytostatic therapy and is characterized mainly by the neurotoxic effect (intestinal atony) of the vinca alkaloids vincristine and navelbine (8-18%), chemotherapy with gemzar (6-30%) and even irinotecan (13%) … Of the hormone therapy, only arimidex (7%) and casodex (7-17%) cause such a complication. Factors contributing to stool retention – hypodynamia, old age, taking diuretics, anticholinergic drugs, phenothiazines, antidepressants, iron preparations, calcium, calcium channel antagonists, antiparkinsonian drugs, antacids containing aluminum hydroxide, food, poor in fiber and, first of all, the use of narcotic analgesics.

In the absence of aggravating factors, stool retention is not a big problem in the prevention and correction of a diet rich in fiber (vegetables, fruits, especially prunes, nuts, raisins), adequate fluid intake, light exercise, herbal laxatives (preparations of senna, buckthorn, rhubarb), bisacodyl in tablets and suppositories with the abolition of funds, half the possibility listed above. The use of saline laxatives is an extreme and undesirable measure.

Almost only stool retention, occasionally reaching the degree of partial obstruction and caused by vinca alkaloids (mainly vincristine and mostly in case of overdose), requires special “pathogenetic” detoxification measures: ingestion of glutamic acid, which has neurotransmitter properties and promotes the synthesis of acetylcholine (up to 3- 4 g per day), large doses of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) 1000 mcg daily intramuscularly for 7-10 days, injections of proserin or galantamine in usual doses.As a rule, these measures are in the overwhelming majority of cases successful, but the very fact of the occurrence of a complication makes one refrain from repeated courses of chemotherapy with vincristine or reduce its single dose.

A separate problem is the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis (oropharyngeal region), arising as a result of the direct damaging action of cytostatics on intensively proliferating mucosal cells, usually within 5 to 16 days after the start of chemotherapy and lasting 10-14 days after its completion.Docetaxel (56%, of which 9% grade III-IV), idarubicin (50%), teniposide (76%), tomudex (48%), L-asparaginase (15% ), doxorubicin (about 10%), as well as busulfan (mileran, mielosan), 5-fluorouracil, dactinomycin and bleomycin. Oral mucositis, incl. and ulcerative, involving the tongue, the mucous membrane of the cheeks, lips, gums and less often the hard palate, can be accompanied by xerostomia (dry mouth) ulcerative necrotizing gingivitis, angular cheilitis and superinfections – from bacterial to yeast and viral, which sharply complicates their course.Factors contributing to the development of oral mucositis and delaying its course are the initial state of the local flora (insufficient hygiene measures), vomiting (irritating effect of gastric juice), toxic neutropenia (absolute number of neutrophils <1000 per 1 mm 3 ).

The possibilities of preventing this severe in terms of subjective symptoms (pain syndrome) and objective significance (refusal to eat, generalization of infection, the need to stop chemotherapy, a high probability of recurrence with repeated cycles of the latter) complications are minimal.Hopes for a preventive effect of local applications of a solution of allopurinol, beta-carotene, sucralfate, which forms a protective layer on the mucous membrane, did not come true. A reduction in the frequency and severity of the course of oral mucositis, most likely due to the prevention of infections, was obtained in a randomized “double-blind” study with placebo only with contact use (frequent irrigation) of 0.1-0.12% solution of a strong antiseptic chlorhexidine in patients with leukemia and myelodepression.

Palliative treatment of complications involves the intake of soft-textured food with refusal of spicy, salty, sour and hot foods, treatment of the oral cavity with local anesthetics before meals (1-5% lidocaine solution, preferably only damaged areas to avoid complete loss of taste), “low microbial diet “known for use in bone marrow transplantation and febrile neutropenia, milkshakes with ice cream, rinsing with antacid solutions (sodium bicarbonate).There are no specific medicines for the treatment of oral mucositis, but the use of applications on the affected mucous membrane of sea buckthorn oil, a weak solution of propolis in milk, vitamin B12 from ampoules, rinsing with 2% methyluracil solution (2% sodium bicarbonate solution) promote the healing of ulcers, regression of inflammation and epithelialization. Local infection control (most often – Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherihia coli) can be carried out using the above chlorhexidine solutions, rinses with soluble antibiotics (gentamicin, lincomycin, etc.)), applications of tetracycline suspension to ulcers under conditions of neutropenia. In addition, with concomitant neutropenia, systemic use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antifungal drugs (nystatin, levorin cheek tablets), stimulation of leukopoiesis and immunity with drugs of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (leukomax, neupogen, granocyte) is necessary.

Attention is not always paid to the accompanying mucositis xerostomia. However, dry mouth due to the lack of adequate salivation dramatically limits the quality of life of patients, causing difficulties in communication (speech and nutrition) and, at the same time, a decrease in the barrier function of the mucous membrane against infection.The regression of these phenomena is facilitated by rinsing with sterile water or saline, sodium bicarbonate solution, which reduces the viscosity of saliva, and sugar-free chewing gums, diluted lemon juice with artificial sweeteners, sucking pieces of ice that promote salivation. Application of saliva substitute preparations in aerosols (Xerolube, Glandosane Saliva Substitate), which are lubricants for mucous membranes, but do not perform natural antimicrobial functions, are effective.In some cancer centers in the UK, the so-called “Connecticut recipe” is used as a lubricant for xerostomia, consisting of 12 g of methylcellulose, 0.2 ml of lemon essence (flavor and stimulant of salivation) and 1200 ml of water, used in small portions of 3.