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Can You Live With One Lung?

Cancer or other health problems could lead you and your doctor to decide to remove one of your lungs. In most cases, one healthy lung should be able to deliver enough oxygen and remove enough carbon dioxide for your body to stay healthy.

Doctors call the surgery to remove a lung a pneumonectomy.

Once you’ve recovered from the operation, you can live a pretty normal life with one lung. You’ll still be able to do normal, everyday tasks without a problem. The surgery doesn’t seem to cause any issues for the remaining lung.

Still, your lung capacity will be half of what it was, so you may notice that you get breathless more easily, especially when you exercise. You’re also more likely to have pain, tiredness, heart problems, and some other health issues. And if you have a condition that affects your remaining lung, like emphysema or chronic bronchitis, you’ll likely find it harder than before to catch your breath. You’ll need to talk with your doctor about any symptoms that you notice and treatments that can help you breathe easier.

Why You Might Need a Lung Removed

Lung cancer is the most common reason. Usually it’s cancer that starts in the lungs, but it could also happen when tumors spread there from another part of your body.

Not everyone with lung cancer will need to have a lung removed. It may be an option for people with tumors that are especially large or grow near the center of the lung.

Other health problems that may need treatment with a pneumonectomy include:

What Happens During a Pneumonectomy?

You’ll get medicine to put you completely to sleep for the operation.

A surgeon will cut into the side of your chest closest to the lung that needs removal. They will collapse your lung, close off the larger blood vessels around it, cut the main bronchial tube as close to your windpipe as possible, and remove the lung. Then they’ll close what remains of the cut bronchial tube and make sure it doesn’t leak air.

In an “extrapleural” pneumonectomy, the surgeon will also remove the lining of your chest wall (called the pleura) along with parts of other nearby tissue, and patch them with strong, sterile, man-made materials.

What Happens After a Pneumonectomy?

You will typically need to stay at the hospital for a week or two after surgery so your medical team can watch your heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure and check you for infection.

Though you may be sore, you shouldn’t have serious pain. Tell your doctor if you feel any, especially if it comes on suddenly.

You may work with a trained professional called a respiratory therapist to learn special breathing exercises, which you’ll need to do a few times a day. These help you strengthen your breathing and remove fluid that builds up from the surgery.

You’ll need someone to drive you home from the hospital and help you around the house in the first several days. Take it easy at first — no heavy lifting. You will get tired more easily, but your strength and stamina should return over the next few weeks or months.

Call your doctor if you notice anything that looks like infection or you have fever, cough, swelling, or pain that gets worse. Call 911 if you have chest pain, pain when you breathe, shortness of breath, or other trouble breathing.

What Organs Can You Live Without? | Pope Francis

Newly elected Pope Francis had part of a lung removed as a teenager, according to the Vatican, but it shouldn’t be a significant health issue for him now, experts say.

The pontiff, 76, had part his lung removed to treat an infection he had about 40 years ago, according to NBC News. At that time, it was more common to treat infections, such as tuberculosis, this way because antibiotics were not widely used.

People can survive even if an entire lung is removed. When one lung is removed, the remaining lung inflates to take up some of the extra space. Living with one lung doesn’t usually affect everyday tasks or life expectancy, though a person with one lung wouldn’t be able to exercise as strenuously as a healthy person with two lungs, said Dr. Len Horovitz, a pulmonologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

Although you’d probably like to keep all your organs if you can, here are others you can live without:

Kidney: As you’re probably aware, humans have two kidneys, but need only one to survive. People may be born with just one kidney, or have one removed after injury or for a donation. In general, people with one kidney have few or no health problems, and have a normal life expectancy, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Technically, people can live with no kidneys, but require dialysis.

Spleen: The spleen filters blood and helps the body fight infections, but it’s not essential for survival. The spleen can be removed if, for instance, it’s damaged. However, people without a spleen are more prone to infections.

Reproductive organs: Women can have their uterus removed in a hysterectomy as a treatment for cancer, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic pain, or other reasons. About 1 in 3 women in the United States had had the procedure by age 60, according to the National Institutes of Health. Men may have their testicles removed as a treatment for testicular cancer.

Stomach: The whole stomach is sometimes removed as a treatment for stomach cancer, a procedure called a total gastrectomy. In this procedure, the small intestine is connected to the esophagus. People who’ve had a total gastrectomy receive nutrition through a vein for a few weeks while they recover. After that, they are able to eat most foods, but may need to eat smaller meals, and take dietary supplements if they have problems absorbing vitamins, according to the National Health Service of England.

Colon: People may have their colon removed as a way to treat colon cancer or Crohn’s disease, or in some cases, to prevent colon cancer. People can live without a colon, but may need to wear a bag outside their body to collect stool. However, a surgical procedure can be performed to create a pouch in the small intestine that takes the place of the colon, and in this case, wearing a bag is not necessary, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Appendix: The appendix is a small, tube-shaped organ that juts out from the first part of the large intestine. It’s unclear what its function is, but it can be removed if it becomes inflamed or ruptures.

Pass it on: People can live without a number of organs.

Editor’s note: A previous version of this article incorrectly stated that Pope Francis has one lung. He had just part of one lung removed.

Follow Rachael Rettner @RachaelRettner. Follow MyHealthNewsDaily @MyHealth_MHND, Facebook & Google+.

Body Organs You Can Lose and Still Survive

  • Every organ in the human body has a specific function and purpose.
  • Not all organs, however, are needed for survival.
  • Some people have organs removed because of diseases or injuries
  • From the liver gallbladder, spleen, and ovaries, here are 12 organs you can get by without.

The human body is a marvelous machine. With more than 600 muscles, approximately 206 bones, and thousands of tendons, there are a lot of moving parts that go into keeping a person alive. Our organs are at the center of all this action. Each one is a part of a larger system and has a specific purpose that allows our bodies to perform many of life’s basic functions.

But did you know that the body is capable of carrying on without some of them?

It turns out that you don’t actually need all of your organs to live.

Due to a combination of evolution and medical advancements, countless humans have lived and are currently living without several organs that were once thought of as vital.

Here’s a list of the organs you could get by without.

The gallbladder isn’t completely necessary for digestion

The gallbladder helps digest fatty foods like grilled cheese.

jeffreyw/Wikimedia Commons

The gallbladder is a small sac-shaped organ whose main gig involves storing and concentrating bile (aka the yellowish enzymes that help the body digest fatty foods like cheese sandwiches).

Although the presence of a gallbladder is key for optimizing digestion, you don’t actually need a one for your intestines to do their thing. And sometimes solid deposits of digestive fluid called gallstones can form in the gallbladder, which can cause people to feel a lot of discomfort. If the stones become too large and too frequent, a person may have their entire gallbladder surgically removed.

The only concern a person without a gallbladder needs to be wary of is their diet and possibly avoiding those high-fat foods. It won’t hurt them, but they could experience digestive issues since the level of bile in their intestines will be far less concentrated.

The body can carry without the spleen

One of the spleen’s primary jobs is producing blood and defense cells in developing fetuses. But after a baby is born, the spleen’s function shifts to storing blood platelets, making antibodies, and destroying abnormal cells in the blood.

Since there’s a lot of blood passing through the spleen at any given moment, any injuries that occur to it can be potentially fatal. Often times it is a wiser decision for a person to remove their spleen entirely before it bursts and causes internal bleeding.

Although you’re more likely to develop certain infections when you don’t have a spleen, you could technically carry on without ever replacing it.

Many people don’t have an appendix and are doing just fine

According to John Hopkins Medicine, doctors still aren’t 100% certain why we need appendixes in the first place. So far they know the appendix produces immunoglobulins, which are proteins that help the immune system fight infection. However there are other organs in the body that produce lymphatic tissue for a similar reason, so the appendix isn’t completely necessary for survival.

In fact, a high number of adults and children have their appendix removed due to appendicitis. This is dangerous infection that can cause someone’s appendix to burst if it isn’t removed, almost like a ticking time bomb.

Dialysis can keep you alive if you lose your kidneys

Dialysis can filter your blood the way kidneys do.

Joe Amon / Contributor

The kidneys are a pair of distinctly shaped organs in the urinary system. They play a critical role in filtering toxins out of the bloodstream and producing hormones to regulate blood pressure, which means if you lose both of them, your chance of survival is very slim.

However the same is not true if you were to lose only one. This is why it’s possible to donate a kidney while you’re still alive.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, one of the only concerns associated with only having a single kidney center around the possibility of something going wrong with it later in life, because you wouldn’t have a backup.

Moreover, it is possible to live with no kidneys, but it can be challenging since it requires a person to go on dialysis. This is a form of medical treatment that substitutes the job of the kidneys by filtering out toxins and excess water from the body. A person without functional kidneys needs to remain on dialysis indefinitely, or until they can get kidney donation.

This is one reason why people who are born with certain conditions that affect the kidneys, like polycystic kidney disease, seek a kidney donation.

Currently, there are thousands of people on the waiting list for a kidney transplant.

One lung is enough to keep you breathing

Our lungs deserve full credit for keeping every cell in the body alive. Essentially, their main job is to take the oxygen we inhale and transfer it to the bloodstream, as well as expel the carbon dioxide waste gas from the body. While both lungs take part in this 24/7 process, each individual lung is equipped with all the parts needed to function without the other. This is why you can survive with only one of them. Many people do.

In fact, Pope Francis has lived without one lung since he was a teenager.

Reproductive organs aren’t vital for survival

Although you won’t be able to naturally conceive a child without some key reproductive organs, you can totally live just fine without them. For some people, getting rid of them might be beneficial for other health reasons.

For instance, people with uteruses have hysterectomies (surgery to remove the uterus) to treat underlying conditions like endometriosis or uterine fibroids. They could also have an oophorectomy, which is the removal of one or more ovaries. Some people call this surgical menopause because a lack of ovaries means a person will no longer experience a menstrual cycle. Likewise, a person could have their testicles removed due to testicular cancer.

The primary concern with the loss of either reproductive organs is a dramatic decrease in sex hormones, like estrogen and testosterone. This is because their presence influences a lot of things that happen to the body.

For example, according to Mayo Clinic in people with female sex hormones, estrogen helps maintain bone density, regulate hot flashes, and reduce vaginal dryness.

By the same token, in people with male sex hormones, testosterone helps maintain bone strength, muscle tone, and hair growth, among other things.

However, both testosterone and estrogen replacement therapies are available for people who need them.

The colon is a piece of the digestive system that you could lose

Whenever you eat a piece of food, several organs have to work to move it through your body.

Max Pixel

After your food makes the journey from the mouth to the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine, it enters the large intestine (also known as the colon). By the time your food reaches this point, nearly all of the nutrients have been absorbed and all that’s left are usually salts and undigestable fibers. The colon helps to form and push along solid waste that can be passed in the form of what we will politely refer to as “number two.”

In effect, this makes it a very important organ. But thanks to numerous advances in medical technology and surgery, it is possible for a person to live without part or even all of their colon.

In fact, colectomies (surgery to remove part or all of the colon) are fairly common. According to Medscape, this procedure accounts for approximately 10% of all surgeries performed in the US. The UCSF Center for Colorectal Surgery says people may remove their colon to treat diverticulitis, cancer, ulcerative colitis, polyps, Crohn’s disease,  as well as bowel perforations and obstructions.

Generally, a surgeon will make an opening in the small intestine (called an ileostomy) and attach it to a bag outside the body, so the person can continue to remove waste without their colon.

You don’t need your bladder to get rid of waste

You might assume it’s impossible for a person to survive without a bladder, which serves as a major organ in the urinary tract. After all, everyone needs to urinate to expel waste from the body, right?

It turns out, like many other organs on this list, the bladder is often (safely) removed from the body when it presents (a serious risk of) cancer or inflammatory disorders in a person.

According to Mayo Clinic, when a person has their bladder removed, they may need to wear a special bag attached to the outside of their abdomen in order to remove their urine. This procedure is called a urostomy, and it works by allowing urine to drain constantly from the body.

In some cases, a doctor may be able to create a pouch using tissue from the intestine that can hold urine after it passes through the kidneys. This urine can then be drained from the body via catheter without having to pass through an actual bladder.

You can still eat regular food without a stomach

You may be surprised to learn that a person can survive without a stomach, but it is very possible.

Certain cancers and genetic disorders may leave a person with no choice but to remove their stomach. And some people who are predisposed to certain diseases can have their stomach removed as a preventative measure.

When a patient has a full gastrectomy (removal of their stomach) they connect esophagus directly to the small intestine. Since this shortens the length of the overall digestive path, most people who undergo the procedure usually have to make changes to their diet. But in general, people without stomachs are perfectly capable of eating and digesting solid food.

You probably wouldn’t notice if your tonsils were gone

Tonsils are small tissues that you can find in the back of your throat.

SuperFantastic/flickr

Like other organs in the lymphatic system, their main job is to support immune functions that keep you from getting sick.

They work by catching germs that enter the body through the mouth and alerting the body to produce white blood cells. But since they aren’t the only defender the body has, they can easily be removed without causing a person to experience any health issues. In addition, Mayo Clinic notes that tonsils slow down performing those immune system functions in adulthood anyway, so it’s really not a big loss if you have to let them go.

You can live without a thyroid if you take certain medications

Nearly every other organ in the body depends on the thyroid (aka the butterfly-shaped neck gland) to function. The thyroid is responsible for producing hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism (or tell the cells how to use energy.)

Since the thyroid plays such a key role in the body’s metabolism, one might assume there’s no way they could live without it. But thanks to modern medicine, this is not the case. According to Mayo Clinic, a person can take synthetic hormones that replicate the same ones the thyroid makes.

You don’t need eyes to survive

Many of us take our eyes for granted, thinking of them as a given. However, they are not essential for human existence.

Some people may lose an eye due to an injury or have one removed because of cancer. In rare cases, a person could be born without them.

While a lack of eyes can create many challenges for a person, they technically aren’t a vital organ for survival.

Visit INSIDER’s homepage for more.

7 Body Parts You Can Live Without, From Stomachs To Penises

Not all organs are created equal. Our body parts aren’t just different shapes and sizes — some of them are also far more necessary than others. Amputees live without their extremities, blind people can go on without eyes, many people have had their tonsils removed, and others can survive without a rib or two. The internal body parts, the core organs, seem more indispensable. But they are not.

It’s common knowledge that removing the appendix is no big deal. Doctors aren’t even really sure what it does, and it sometimes becomes infected and inflamed, making it dangerous if it is not removed. There are, however, numerous other internal body parts we can all live without — not the kind of living in which you have to be hooked up to a machine in a medical facility for the rest of your life, but largely unrestrained living.

One lung

Surely if our bodies have two of something, it means we need two, right? Well, no. Slate points out that living with just one lung, or maybe one and a half lungs, is not that much different from having two whole ones. “One might suspect that losing one of two lungs would cut respiratory capacity in half, but it doesn’t because the human body has significant reserves.” Someone who has a lung surgically removed retains between 70 to 80 percent of their respiratory function: “The surviving lung soon expands to compensate for its missing mate, and regular exercise speeds the process.” Strenuous activity might be more difficult, but ordinary exercise is not affected if one of these breathing organs is removed.

You don’t need both your lungs. There are, in fact, multiple organs you can do without. Image courtesy of Pixabay, public domain

One main side effect is lopsidedness, because a missing lung leaves behind a void. “The chests collapses slightly; the heart, liver, and remaining lung drift toward the void; and fluid fills the remainder of the cavity. Eventually, that fluid gelatinizes into a proteinaceous goo. As a result of all this movement, the spine can curve 15 to 30 degrees toward the lungless side, which is often noticeable to an observer standing behind. ” In some cases, the lopsidedness can obstruct breathing.

One kidney

While we are on the subject of needing only one, it is entirely possible to live a full life with only one of your two kidneys, the organs that filter waste out of the blood. Whether the deficit is because one was removed surgically or because one was donated to another person, “Most people live normal, healthy lives with one kidney,” according to the National Kidney Foundation. There are risks in the long term of a slight loss in kidney function or developing high blood pressure, but generally “one healthy kidney can work as well as two.” And if there are no medical complications like kidney disease, you probably will not even have to change your diet.

Stomach and small intestine

Speaking of diet, that is something that may have to change if you remove your stomach, unfortunately. But you will still go on living. According to Live Science, the whole stomach can be removed, with the esophagus instead connecting the throat directly to the small intestine. After a recovery period, the patient may have to eat smaller meals and take supplements if they are not absorbing enough vitamins. There are often similar results in the removal or partial removal of the small intestine, which breaks down food the most in the digestive system.

Colon

When the large intestine, or colon, is removed the patient may need to wear an exterior bag to collect their stool. Since the stool can’t move through the body toward the anus as it would normally, the Colostomy Association notes, surgeons will create a new opening on the abdomen that the bag will cover. “These bags or pouches are about the size of your hand,” the association says, and while it will take time to get used to, “having a colostomy will not mean that you have to make significant changes to your lifestyle.” Most people will not have to change their diets or their clothing. “There are people who have had colostomies for many years. They have led normal lives, had careers, have partners and children, take part in sport, and travel all over the world.

Pieces of your digestive tract can be removed and not much will change. Image courtesy of Pixabay, public domain

Private parts

People can become quite attached to their penises, vaginas and other reproductive organs, but it turns out they are not that necessary. For example, to treat cancer men may have their testicles removed or women their uterus. And there are some women who are born without certain pieces of their reproductive system, including portions of their vaginas. One woman with the rare Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome wrote in Cosmopolitan that she was born without a uterus or the upper two-thirds of the vagina. She explains that she doesn’t have a period, and thus can never get pregnant, but she still has a hormonal cycle — “I have no uterus and no lining to shed every month. … I release eggs every month, but instead of the eggs traveling into fallopian tubes, they just disintegrate upon leaving my ovaries.”

One man born without a penis, according to the Independent, has lived a largely normal life and has still been intimate with dozens of women by doing everything but traditional penetration.  

Thyroid gland

Located in the neck, the thyroid gland governs growth, development, metabolism and other functions. It can also be excessed. The American Thyroid Association says some people may have to be treated with thyroid hormone, especially if the whole gland has been removed and not just a piece of it, but they can continue living normal lives.

Spleen

If the spleen ruptures, it may need to be removed. But that’s not a problem. The Mayo Clinic says if there is no other health condition involved, “other organs in your body take over most of the functions previously performed by your spleen.” However, because the spleen helps protect against infection, the patient is at a higher risk of becoming ill, particularly right after the procedure. Vaccines, like those against influenza, could help matters.

Lung Transplant Surgery Procedure & Steps

Lung transplant is a complex, but often life-saving, surgery for people with lung failure. The procedure involves removing one or both diseased lungs and replacing them with new healthy ones.

When You Get the Call That a Lung Is Available

Your UPMC transplant coordinator will call you when a donor lung or lungs become available.

Before coming to UPMC for your lung transplant:

  • Do not eat or drink anything.
  • Take an antimicrobial shower.
  • Pack your cell phone and charger.
  • Bring all your medications as well as medications for your caregiver, family, and support group.

The surgeon will evaluate the donor lung or lungs to make sure they are the right size and type and that the antibody panel is a match.

Lung Transplant Surgery: What to Expect When You Arrive

When you arrive at UPMC, we will admit you to a patient room where you will:

  • Have basic testing.
  • Have a history and physical done.
  • Sign consent forms for the lung transplant surgery.
  • See an anesthesiologist.

We will prep you for lung transplant surgery and give you general anesthesia.

The duration of lung transplant surgery depends on the complexity of your case.

  • For a single-lung transplant, surgery will take between 6 and 8 hours.
  • For a double-lung transplant, surgery will take 8 to 12+ hours.

What Happens During Lung Transplant Surgery?

During a lung transplant procedure, your surgeon will perform the following steps:

  • Make an incision in your chest.
  • Cut off the airways and blood vessels to your diseased lung.
  • Remove the diseased lung and replace it with the healthy donor lung.
  • Reattach the airways and blood vessels.
  • Close up the incision.

Your coordinator or surgeon will be able to provide more details about your specific surgery.

During the procedure — most often with a double-lung transplant — we may connect you to a heart-lung machine.

This machine supports your heart and lungs during surgery. It oxygenates your blood outside your body and pumps it back into your body.

Advanced techniques for complex lung transplants

UPMC’s team of lung transplant experts performs many complex lung transplant operations. We’re equipped to handle the risks of surgery and address any complications.

To expand the pool of suitable donor lungs, we use a process called ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), which keeps a pair of lungs alive outside the body so that a surgeon can evaluate them for transplant.

We use special techniques and surgical tools for transplanting lungs in people with small chests.

We also offer “bloodless” surgery for patients who meet strict health requirements. Bloodless medicine means we do not use banked blood products during the operation.

How Long Will I Be in the Hospital After Lung Transplant Surgery?

After lung transplant surgery, we will take you to the transplant intensive care unit (ICU) where you will stay for several days. Here, you will remain on a ventilator until you can breathe on your own. This may take a few hours to a few days.

We will give you pain medicine and anti-rejection drugs right away.

When your body detects your new lung or lungs, your immune system begins working to fight what it views as a threat. Anti-rejection drugs suppress your immune system’s natural response to allow your body to accept the new lungs.

When you’re stronger, you will move to a patient room within the transplant unit. You can expect to stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 weeks.

The lung transplant team will monitor your progress to make sure your body isn’t rejecting the lungs and that you aren’t developing an infection or other problems.

You’ll begin rehabilitation, including physical therapy and breathing and speech exercises.

As you recover, your care team will have you up and moving to help prevent blood clots, and keep your smaller airways in your new lungs from collapsing.

You may be kept at NPO status (nothing by mouth) for days to months post transplant to ensure that your swallowing function is working correctly and also to prevent aspiration of food or drink into your new lungs.

Life After Lung Transplant

Before leaving the hospital, your lung transplant care team will review:

  • Your medication schedule.
  • Diet and exercise guidelines.
  • Follow-up visit schedule.

Be sure you both fully understand your at-home care plan before you leave the hospital.

Types of surgery for lung cancer

Surgery for lung cancer is done in a specialist centre, and is carried out by specialist lung surgeons.

What type of surgery do I need?

The type of surgery you need for lung cancer depends on:

  • the size of the cancer
  • the position of the cancer in the lung
  • the type of lung cancer (small cell or non small cell lung cancer)
  • whether it has spread

Non small cell lung cancer 

Surgery is mostly used to treat non small cell lung cancer. But surgery might not be suitable for you if your cancer is very near any of the following structures:

  • the heart
  • the windpipe
  • the food pipe (oesophagus)
  • major blood vessels

In this situation, your doctor might recommend other cancer treatments instead of surgery, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy.

Small cell lung cancer 

Surgery is not normally used to treat small cell lung cancer, unless it is at a very early stage. Small cell lung cancer has usually spread beyond the lung when it is diagnosed and so it is not possible to remove it all with surgery. It is more common to have chemotherapy and radiotherapy rather than surgery for small cell lung cancer. You may be offered immunotherapy. 

Types of lung surgery

There are different types of lung surgery. You might have one of the following:

Removing one lobe (lobectomy)

The lungs are divided into sections called lobes. There are 2 lobes in the left lung and 3 in the right lung.

Lobectomy means removing one lobe of the lung. Your surgeon will recommend this type of operation if the cancer is just in one part of one lung. It is the most common type of operation for lung cancer.

Removing two lobes (bilobectomy)

This means removing two lobes of the lung.

Removing the whole lung

The operation to remove the whole lung is called a pneumonectomy (new-mon-ek-tom-ee). Your specialist will recommend this operation if the cancer is in the central area of the lung and involves either the 2 lobes in the left lung or the 3 lobes in the right lung.

Many people worry that they won’t be able to breathe properly with only one lung. If you have good lung function test results before surgery then you should be able to breathe normally with only one lung. If you had breathing problems before the operation, you will probably still be breathless afterwards.

Your doctor will arrange for you to have breathing tests before the surgery to help decide if this operation is right for you.

Removing a section of lung

Some operations remove particular areas of the lung. You might have these types of operation if the cancer:

  • has been diagnosed early
  • is only in one very small area

If your specialist thinks the cancer cells could be anywhere else in the lung they won’t recommend this type of operation.

Wedge resection

A wedge resection removes an area of the lung that includes part of one or more lobes.

Segmentectomy

A segmentectomy removes areas of the lung along with their veins, arteries and airways.

Sleeve resection

You might have an operation called a sleeve resection if your cancer is in the central area of the lung and growing into one of your main airways (bronchi). Your surgeon removes the affected section of the airway and any surrounding cancer in the lobe. This operation is not as common as other types of lung cancer surgery.

Removing lymph nodes

During your operation the surgeon examines the lung and surrounding area. They take out some of the nearby lymph nodes in case they contain cancer cells that have spread from the main cancer. This is called lymphadenectomy. The number of lymph nodes your surgeon removes varies.

If the lymph nodes contain cancer cells your doctor usually recommends that you have chemotherapy after your surgery.

How you have your operation

To remove your lung cancer you might have open surgery or keyhole surgery. Most people have open surgery.

Open surgery

Your surgeon makes a cut that runs around the side of the chest. This is called a thoracotomy. Sometimes the cut may only be a few centimetres long. But it can also be longer and run from under the nipple around to your back under the shoulder blade.

Keyhole surgery

Keyhole surgery can remove very small, early, non small cell lung cancers. The medical name for this operation is video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The surgeon makes 1, 2 or 3 small cuts on the side of your chest. They use a long, bendy tube called a thoracoscope.

Having keyhole surgery

The thoracoscope connects to a fibre optic camera. This shows pictures of the inside of the chest on a video screen. The surgeon puts the surgical instruments into the other cuts to remove the cancer.

Respiratory Failure | Lung Disease | Lung Problems

What is respiratory failure?

Respiratory failure is a condition in which your blood doesn’t have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems.

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. Your organs, such as your heart and brain, need this oxygen-rich blood to work well.

Another part of breathing is removing the carbon dioxide from the blood and breathing it out. Having too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your organs.

What causes respiratory failure?

Conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. These conditions may affect the muscles, nerves, bones, or tissues that support breathing. Or they may affect the lungs directly. These conditions include

  • Diseases that affect the lungs, such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and COVID-19
  • Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, and stroke
  • Problems with the spine, such as scoliosis (a curve in the spine). They can affect the bones and muscles used for breathing.
  • Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage.
  • Drug or alcohol overdose
  • Inhalation injuries, such as from inhaling smoke (from fires) or harmful fumes

What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?

The symptoms of respiratory failure depend on the cause and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood.

A low oxygen level in the blood can cause shortness of breath and air hunger (the feeling that you can’t breathe in enough air). Your skin, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish color. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion.

Some people who have respiratory failure may become very sleepy or lose consciousness. They also may have arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). You may have these symptoms if your brain and heart are not getting enough oxygen.

How is respiratory failure diagnosed?

Your health care provider will diagnose respiratory failure based on

  • Your medical history
  • A physical exam, which often includes
    • Listening to your lungs to check for abnormal sounds
    • Listening to your heart to check for arrhythmia
    • Looking for a bluish color on your skin, lips, and fingernails
  • Diagnostic tests, such as
    • Pulse oximetry, a small sensor that uses a light to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. The sensor goes on the end of your finger or on your ear.
    • Arterial blood gas test, a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood. The blood sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist.

Once you are diagnosed with respiratory failure, your provider will look for what is causing it. Tests for this often include a chest x-ray. If your provider thinks you may have arrhythmia because of the respiratory failure, you may have an EKG (electrocardiogram). This is simple, painless test that detects and records your heart’s electrical activity.

What are the treatments for respiratory failure?

Treatment for respiratory failure depends on

  • Whether it is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing)
  • How severe it is
  • What is causing it

Acute respiratory failure can be a medical emergency. You may need treatment in intensive care unit at a hospital. Chronic respiratory failure can often be treated at home. But if your chronic respiratory failure is severe, you might need treatment in a long-term care center.

One of the main goals of treatment is to get oxygen to your lungs and other organs and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Another goal is to treat the cause of the condition. Treatments may include

  • Oxygen therapy, through a nasal cannula (two small plastic tubes that go in your nostrils) or through a mask that fits over your nose and mouth
  • Tracheostomy, a surgically-made hole that goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. A breathing tube, also called a tracheostomy, or trach tube, is placed in the hole to help you breathe.
  • Ventilator, a breathing machine that blows air into your lungs. It also carries carbon dioxide out of your lungs.
  • Other breathing treatments, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), which uses mild air pressure to keep your airways open while you sleep. Another treatment is a special bed that rocks back and forth, to help you breathe in and out.
  • Fluids, often through an intravenous (IV), to improve blood flow throughout your body. They also provide nutrition.
  • Medicines for discomfort
  • Treatments for the cause of the respiratory failure. These treatments may include medicines and procedures.

If you have respiratory failure, see your health care provider for ongoing medical care. Your provider may suggest pulmonary rehabilitation.

If your respiratory failure is chronic, make sure that you know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You need emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. You should call your provider if you notice that your symptoms are worsening or if you have new signs and symptoms.

Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk therapy, medicines, and support groups can help you feel better.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

90,000 Doctors dispel the 5 most common myths about COVID-19

Although various departments and WHO update information about the coronavirus daily, false information about the disease continues to appear on the network. Social media users urge to check for COVID-19 by holding their breath, and also argue that a deadly infection can be defeated by dousing with alcohol. At the same time, reports are circulating that smokers are allegedly not afraid of a pandemic. Gazeta.Ru dispels the most common myths about COVID-19.

Coronavirus is no worse than ordinary flu

There is an opinion on the Internet that the coronavirus is not actually more dangerous than seasonal flu. Despite the fact that the symptoms of diseases are really similar, they should not be compared.

According to scientists, it is already possible to conclude that COVID-19 is “more lethal” than the influenza virus.

“Mortality from COVID-19 likely varies with the quality of local health care. However, this is on average about 2%, which is about 20 times higher than the rates of seasonal influenza currently in circulation ”,

– said François Ballou, professor of systems biology at University College London.

At the same time, the infectiousness of COVID-19 is 2-3 times higher than that of the influenza virus – each person infected with the new coronavirus can infect twice as many people as one who has the flu.

The risk groups for these diseases also differ. “Children, pregnant women, the elderly, people with chronic diseases and immunodeficiency are most at risk of severe influenza infection. As for COVID-19, we now know that old age and concomitant diseases increase the risk of severe infection, ”the Rospotrebnadzor website says.

Breath-holding will inform about coronavirus infection

Advice is actively spread on social networks: “If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds or more without coughing, discomfort, stiffness or tightness, your lungs do not suffer from fibrosis, therefore, you are not infected with 2019-nCoV “. Typically, he is credited with “Taiwanese experts”, “Stanford University” or “Stanford Hospital Council”. Gullible citizens are forwarding the statement to each other on Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, but in fact it is not true.

First of all, the belief that fibrosis is a symptom of COVID-19 is erroneous. It is not listed on the symptom list in either the World Health Organization report or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Confirmed COVID-19 Patients.

According to experts, in severe cases of coronavirus, patients develop pneumonia, which can indeed cause pulmonary fibrosis. However, this symptom does not appear in all cases.Moreover, it is simply impossible to diagnose him with breath holding.

“The most accurate way to confirm infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 is through a laboratory test. It is impossible to confirm the infection with the help of the above breathing exercise, which can lead to dangerous consequences, ”the WHO website says.

Alcohol will save you from COVID-19

Since most antiseptics contain alcohol, people concluded that treating the whole body with ethanol would help avoid coronavirus infection. Nevertheless, the WHO denied this dubious idea and urged citizens not to harm themselves by spraying such substances.

“Spraying the whole body with alcohol or bleach will not kill viruses that have already entered the body. Spraying such substances can harm clothing and mucous membranes (ie eyes, mouth), ”the organization said in a statement.

The chief freelance narcologist of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Evgeny Brun, also previously advised Russians not to overdo it with alcohol as a disinfectant, since the skin can dry out and become covered with minor injuries.“There must be a balance, you cannot pour ethanol all the time,” the doctor said.

At the same time, alcohol-containing solutions can really be useful for disinfecting surfaces, according to the WHO. If necessary, you can also use regular vodka, but remember that such an antiseptic is less effective.

Steam room strengthens the immune system

Self-proclaimed experts also advise killing the coronavirus in the bath, but doctors are in a hurry to note that the benefits of such procedures in the fight against the virus are controversial. As the immunologist-allergist Vladimir Volodin explained to Vechernyaya Moskva, in conditions of high humidity, the virus remains in the air for a long time, which means that steam can lead to illness.

According to the specialist, the virus is not afraid of the high temperature in the bath, because due to humidity it still settles on the surface. “And inhalation of this vapor can easily lead to infection,” he explained.

The doctor also reminded that the bathhouse cannot be considered a panacea for all diseases, since “the steam room does not strengthen the immune system.”“The sharp temperature drop only improves the vascular tone, but in this case, you need to be careful,” Volodin added.

Instead of a bath, he advised people to drink hot black tea with honey and stay at home, away from crowded places and the outside world. According to Volodin, this is the only way to protect yourself from the coronavirus.

Smokers are not afraid of COVID-19

According to the European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, which published the results of a study of 140 patients infected with coronavirus, most of them were nonsmokers. As scientists calculated, among the sick, only nine people smoked – only 1.4% of the total number of those tested.

Head of the Department of Prevention of the Blokhin Cancer Research Center, Vladimir Levshin, in turn, urged smokers to think about breaking the habit.

“Now fakes are popping up that supposedly smoking protects against coronavirus. This is, of course, nonsense. Smoking does not save you from coronavirus, but, on the contrary, aggravates the course of the infection through those diseases that smokers have.Anyone who smokes for five to six years has at least chronic bronchitis. And in the presence of chronic bronchitis, the risk of getting pneumonia increases several times, ”Levshin told Sputnik radio station.

Vulnerability of smokers to COVID-19 has previously been emphasized by American experts, Scientific American writes. According to them, smokers have an increased risk of developing chronic lung diseases, which can lead to critical consequences in coronavirus.

90,000 Why is it hard to breathe? 16 possible reasons

What is the danger of difficulty in breathing?

Short-term dyspnea is an adaptation of our body that is not harmful.It’s another matter if breathing is difficult for no apparent reason or is accompanied by other symptoms: chest pain, heart rhythm disturbances, coughing for several minutes or more. This could be a sign of a serious problem and requires immediate medical attention.

Why does it become difficult to breathe?

Temporary causes of difficulty breathing

  1. Shortness of breath after physical activity is completely normal. This is how the body reacts to increased stress.Breathing is usually restored in one to two minutes.
  2. Emotional stress is a common cause of breathing problems. It becomes frequent and superficial, heart rate increases. The discomfort will go away on its own after a while.
  3. Being in a stuffy room or in the highlands. Due to stuffiness or low pressure, a person begins to breathe more often in order to get the right amount of oxygen.

Diseases of the heart and circulatory system that cause breathing problems

All heart diseases cause shortness of breath for one reason – hypoxia, or lack of oxygen.But they have different effects on the body.

  • Ischemic heart disease – a disease based on a conflict: the myocardium (heart muscle) receives less oxygen than it needs due to damage to the coronary arteries (vessels that feed the myocardium).
  • Arrhythmia – heart rhythm disturbance. Blood moves through the body or too slowly, and does not have time to bring oxygen to the tissues. Or too quickly, without having time to increase the oxygen content in the vessels of the lungs.
  • Defects and heart failure also lead to stagnation of blood, its insufficient circulation.

Heart disease is easy to recognize. In addition to shortness of breath, the patient feels chest pain, his limbs swell and turn blue. These symptoms are clear to the doctor and make the diagnosis easier.

Read on the topic: Can the heart hurt?

Diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract

Any disease in which the airway is narrowed leads to difficulty breathing.

  1. Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity, pharynx, bronchi interfere with the flow of air. Breathing becomes quicker, louder and less deep, and panic appears. In this situation, emergency assistance is needed.
  2. Pneumo- and hydrothorax is an accumulation of gas or liquid in the pleura of the lungs. In addition to rapid breathing, other symptoms are present – dry cough, rapid heartbeat, tears and a feeling of panic.
  3. Tumors and cysts can both narrow the lumen of the airways (if located in the nasopharynx) and disrupt the very work of oxygen metabolism (if located in the lungs).
  4. Bronchial asthma – during its attacks, there is a sharp narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi in response to an allergen, stress, lack of air.
  5. Respiratory diseases also impair the ability to breathe freely.

Read on: How to check the lungs?

Diseases of the nervous system, impairing breathing

Diseases of the nervous system, during which breathing becomes difficult, can be associated with pathologies of the brain, spine and peripheral nerves.

  1. Brain lesions: trauma, neoplasm, stroke, encephalitis . They can lead to difficulty breathing due to disruption of the respiratory center. Breathing is controlled by the brain, and problems in its work can lead to too frequent or rare breathing, and in severe cases, to stop it altogether.
  2. Intercostal neuralgia causes severe pain when the chest moves. To avoid discomfort, the patient breathes infrequently and shallowly.
  3. A curved spine can press on nerves and blood vessels. And this will already cause spasms of the bronchi, narrowing of the lumen of the arteries or pain when trying to take a deep breath.

Doctors often include breathing disorders associated with neuroses or hysterics here. However, they are easily removed by sedatives and do not indicate a separate disease, but need the advice of a neurologist and / or psychotherapist.

90,000 “You can’t sleep, and when you fall asleep, you have nightmares.”Two seasons of covid work

“I saw a dead person become alive”

“In the spring I had a panic attack for the first time. I wear a respirator with a valve at work, and with every exhalation there is a click. And here I am driving without a mask, because no one is around. And suddenly I find myself not feeling With my head I understand that this is how it should be, but my panic is growing, I begin to breathe often, often, my fingers get cold, tremble, my heart accelerates. Thank God, I didn’t get into an accident. “

Ilya Marey seems very calm. He is a resuscitator, he is accustomed to seeing people in critical conditions. Seeing dead people is also part of the job. Almost every physician knows what it means to regularly stay up at night and be on shift for 12 hours. But the months of work in the red zone turned out to be very difficult – both for Ilya and for his familiar colleagues.

Ilya wanted to become a doctor since childhood. In medicine, at first he was inclined towards surgery: “I think everyone who studied to be a doctor had such a period.”Then – to neurology: “There is something from the work of a detective. Sometimes we think that a person is just weird, but in fact, this is how the disease manifests itself.” And then he ended up in the intensive care team. By that time, Ilya managed to work as an orderly and, among other things, took out the bodies of deceased patients to the morgue. “I knew very well what a dead person looks like,” he says. “But then I saw for the first time how a living person became dead. And then we carried out resuscitation measures – and he became alive again. And I realized that I wanted to do this all a life”.

© Maxim Grigoriev / TASS

Since 2018, Marey has been working at the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia (FNKTs FMBA). In March, the clinic was redesigned for covid. Ilya’s asthma is a risk group. But he had no question whether to stay in the red zone.

How many resuscitators we have depends on how much work each will have. And how many patients will we have time to help. Fewer resuscitators – higher mortality rate.And behind every percentage is someone’s life. To abandon my colleagues and patients at such a moment seems wild to me

The wife, of course, asked not to go to the red zone, but “at the beginning of this conversation, we already knew how it would end.” Ilya’s wife is also a doctor, now she is on maternity leave: their son will soon be three years old. Ilya laughs that he himself is “in a slightly more advantageous position”: “It is always easier to make self-sacrifice than to see how a loved one does it. And if it were not for the decree, the wife would not sit at home either.”

“I shaved my head for the first time in my life”

“The first day in the red zone, we just lay. Everyone – from chiefs to nurses – found some horizontal surfaces and lay down, – recalls Ilya. – We got used to shortness of breath and constant pressure on the face.” On that day, few patients were admitted, only two or three people were admitted to the intensive care unit, and this gave the doctors time to get used to personal protective equipment (PPE).

On this topic

There is a lot of physical work in intensive care, what Ilya calls “working with his hands.”To understand how the resuscitator feels after a shift in PPE, you can “put on a very tight tracksuit with diving goggles and run for six hours in a row.” The cotton uniform, which is worn under “protection”, has to be squeezed out after some shifts.

Ilya wore glasses since childhood and just a few months before the start of the pandemic switched to lenses. He says he was lucky: under his mask-respirator the glasses would not physically fit. And after a couple of weeks of such work, he shaved baldly: firstly, because of the hair, the cap slid off, and secondly, the skin on the crown ached from pressure, and the hair prevented it from being processed.“I used obscene language several times, straightening my hat, and then I thought: for the time that we have to work, I will still grow,” Ilya laughs. “I shaved my head for the first time in my life. It was fun. As always, when you do some kind of stupidity. ”

Ilya Marey (left)

© Personal archive of Ilya Marey

Now doctors put on PPE already automatically – like jeans and a shirt. At first, this had to be learned. Taking off PPE correctly is even more important than putting it on correctly. According to Ilya, the easiest way to get infected is not in the department, but in the airlock – when you realize that “three doors separate you from breathing normal air.”You need to undress slowly and in stages, treating your hands and mouth with chlorhexidine.

During these months, the doctors somehow adapted – they found masks that are more suitable for the shape of the face, and plasters that help to preserve the skin at least a little. But bedsores remain all the same. In the summer, Ilya treated the skin on his nose for about a month. Now he has a different respirator – the lower jaw suffers, “but the nose is intact.” During shifts, hydrocollagen patches help, after – ointments and massages. But it still hurts.

No matter how many times you are in the red zone, you wait for the minute when you can go out and take off everything.You go out and realize how good it is outside. And then you remember that soon

will be back to you

“Hard, hopeless and difficult”

In June, the clinic returned to its usual, “ugly” work. Ilya even managed to go on vacation for a week – mainly to “show that I am alive.” “We, like everyone else, hoped that there would not be a new strong wave, that in the fall there would be enough of those clinics that had been working all this time,” says Marey. But at the beginning of October, we had to “return to what we were trying to forget about these months.”

“What was it like to be back? Disgusting! – Ilya laughs. – But the skill to carry out manipulations in three pairs of gloves has not gone anywhere.” According to him, the difference between spring and autumn was only in the rate of admission of patients. In March, the intensive care unit for 40-50 people was filled in three days: after the first quiet change of patients, they began to bring in “a huge tsunami wave.” Now the intensive care unit is also full, but it took a week and a half.

And the disease continues the same – in this sense, Ilya does not see any differences.True, it is stipulated that he still works only with the most difficult – others do not enter intensive care. A typical set of their symptoms is a high fever that cannot be brought down by anything, persistent shortness of breath and low oxygen saturation (the amount of oxygen in the blood).

Intensive care unit at the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the FMBA of Russia

© Mikhail Tereshchenko / TASS

Ilya says that everything in intensive care is “hard, hopeless and difficult.” This is a hall for six to seven beds, without division into male and female.Patients lie naked: “Seconds are counting, and it is an unaffordable luxury to waste time taking off their clothes.” Instead of a toilet – ducks. Round-the-clock surveillance – and light too. Constant noise of equipment: “The ventilator rustles, the heart monitors are beeping.” According to Ilya, if a healthy person is placed in intensive care, he will very quickly become sick. And this is not an exaggeration: in an environment where it is always light and noisy, the rhythm of the body’s work is disturbed and an “internal raskardash” occurs – up to mental disorders.

On this topic

Doctors are trying to somehow smooth it out: patients are fed at a certain time and given drugs that induce natural sleep. With improvements, you need to start moving. Rehabilitation doctors help with this: someone is brought up exercise equipment for working with arms and legs, someone is helped to walk along the corridor. As soon as a person can be taken out of a critical state, he is sent back to the general department. In a “peaceful life” it takes several days. But patients with coronavirus sometimes lie for weeks.

It happens that a patient continues to suffocate even on a ventilator – and nothing can be done about it. To improve gas exchange, patients are turned over on their stomach – and their faces swell. “For me, the most terrible thing is the face of a person who has been lying on his stomach for 24 hours,” says Ilya. “I cannot describe it.”

“We fight for everyone. And it depletes over time”

Once Ilya saw a fever start right during the shift at one nurse “from the floor” (as he calls the general, non-intensive care unit).They opened the PPE, measured the temperature – 38.9. The girl immediately made a computed tomography – and a serious degree of lung damage was revealed. She returned to the ward as a patient.

During this time, many doctors have been ill at the clinic. Some have died. Ilya himself was ill with close friends – “thank God, no disaster.” Several familiar colleagues from other hospitals died – one of those with whom Ilya crossed paths, whose lectures he listened to, with whom he once worked.

Marey himself was not sick with covid.But back in the spring, he began to have panic attacks, problems with blood pressure and sleep. And this continues to this day.

During those six to seven hours that you sleep, you wake up eight or nine times. Or you can’t sleep, and when you fall asleep, you have nightmares. In general, you become unstable, literally in a few seconds you can slide from joy into absolutely black despondency and apathy. Such that it is impossible to get out of bed

Ilya says that all this – especially insomnia – is now happening to all his familiar resuscitators.And in the spring, he gained five extra pounds – the shift could end at two in the morning, after it he was hungry, and “the nighttime zhor just didn’t go away.”

At first, Ilya tried to support himself with sports, but his strength quickly ran out. Now only communication with loved ones helps. The doctor lives alone – his wife and child have moved out to their parents so as not to risk it. Every week he takes the test, and if the weekend falls on the first couple of days after the result, he allows himself to meet with his family. But most of life now consists of work and sleep.He laughs that even the salary has nowhere to spend: only on food and gasoline.

© Maxim Grigoriev / TASS

But the hardest thing in working with covid is not respirators, which cause a “lousy taste in the mouth” and shortness of breath, not PPE, which is impossible to get used to – “I have not heard from anyone that he has become comfortable working in this suit “. Not long shifts are common. And not even the risk of getting infected and dying.

“The main thing is that it is not clear what to do to make a person better,” says Ilya.- It is incomprehensible everywhere, in the whole world. There is still no cure. We do not cure disease. We only fight with its consequences and help a person not to die while his body is fighting on its own. ”According to Marey, this is the main reason for depression in doctors – now too often little depends on them.

“Often the entire team spends a large amount of physical and mental strength to save someone, but the person dies anyway,” says Ilya. “For various reasons: bleeding, septic shock, some kind of complication with which nothing can be done.The patient just takes it and dies at once, and that’s it. And we hope for a miracle – what if there is a chance with this particular person? We are fighting for everyone. And it depletes over time. “

Once Ilya’s team fought so hard for an 18-year-old patient. He died.

Bella Volkova

90,000 How I quit smoking. Doctor’s experience.

All smokers know about the dangers of smoking. Many decisively part with this ruin, many intend to do it immediately. I will tell you about my own experience of parting with a cigarette.

When I was 18, I started smoking. And this happened while serving in the army. I lit a cigarette because all the conditions for smoking were created. First, cigarettes were given out free of charge in the amount of 25 packs per month. Secondly, there was not a single non-smoker among the servicemen of the unit. Thirdly, as they said, a non-smoking sergeant is nonsense.

From then on I smoked until 2008, which is a full 38 years. I smoked conscientiously, no less than a pack a day, especially in the morning, after meals, tea and coffee, with vodka, for the company, before going to bed, from nerves, from having nothing to do, on the way, at a bus stop, etc.etc., etc., as well as in the intervals between all of the above.

As every smoker from a certain moment wants to quit smoking, so I wanted to quit but could not. It is fear that prevents us from quitting smoking. Fear that without a cigarette we will be deprived of pleasure or support. Fear that pleasant situations will never be the same again. Fear that we will not be able to cope with stress. Because of this, I did not try to quit smoking, although, by virtue of my profession, I know about the dangers of smoking more than any layman.And I am perfectly aware that smoking is not a habit, it is NICOTINE DEPENDENCE! Since smokers do not understand that this is an addiction, it seems to them that it is extremely difficult to “quit” smoking. The main reason for this difficulty lies in their belief that they receive genuine pleasure and / or support from smoking, and believe that they will make a real sacrifice if they quit smoking, but after realizing nicotine addiction and the true reasons for their smoking, you can quit smoking easily “at the expense three”.And in three or four weeks they will be puzzled why they smoked for so long and that TO BE NON-SMOKING IS HAPPINESS!

Only fear prevents us from trying to quit smoking, and every smoker can discover how easy and pleasant it is. The book ALLEN CARR “The Easy Way to Quit Smoking” helped me to make sure of this.

We all start smoking out of stupidity, usually under pressure from the environment or at friendly parties, but when we feel that we are getting used to it, why do we continue to smoke?

No regular smoker knows why he smokes.If he knew the true reason, he would quit smoking.

In the depths of their hearts, all smokers understand that they are fools. Before becoming addicted to smoking, they know they don’t have the slightest need to smoke. Most of them can remember the disgusting taste of their first cigarette and the fact that they had to work hard before they became addicted to smoking. The most annoying thing is that they mentally understand that non-smokers not only lose nothing, but also laugh at smokers

But smokers are intelligent, rational people.They know that they are putting their health at great risk, and they are aware of the fact that they spend a fortune on cigarettes in a lifetime. Therefore, in order to justify their habit, they need to have a rational explanation.

The real reason why smokers continue to smoke is an insidious combination of factors. This is:

1. NICOTINE DEPENDENCE

2. “BRAINWASHING”

Nicotine is a colorless, oily substance found in tobacco that is addictive to the smoker.This drug is the fastest addictive of all substances known to mankind: it may take only one cigarette to become addicted to it.

Each puff of a cigarette delivers a small dose of nicotine through the lungs to the brain, which acts much faster than, for example, the dose of heroin that a drug addict injects into a vein.

If, smoking a cigarette, you take twenty puffs, you get twenty doses of the drug with just one cigarette.

Nicotine is a fast-acting drug, and blood levels drop by about half within 30 minutes and to about one quarter an hour after smoking a cigarette.This explains why, on average, smokers smoke twenty cigarettes a day.

As soon as the cigarette is smoked, the rapid elimination of nicotine from the body begins, and the person begins to experience withdrawal pangs.

He thinks that withdrawal pain is a terrible trauma that occurs when he, on his own or forcibly, tries to quit smoking, but this is not physical torture, it is more mental torture; the smoker feels that he or she is deprived of pleasure or support.

In reality, the pains caused by nicotine withdrawal are so mild that most smokers live their entire lives and die without even realizing that they are addicts. When we use the term “nicotine addict” we think we are just “getting into the habit.” Most smokers are drug-horrified, in fact, drug addicts. Fortunately, nicotine is a drug that is easy to give up, but first you must admit that you have become addicted.

Withdrawal from nicotine is not accompanied by physical pain.Basically it is a disturbing feeling of emptiness, a feeling that something is missing. Many smokers therefore think that it is something to do with their hands. If this feeling persists, the smoker becomes nervous, insecure, agitated, irritable and begins to lack confidence in the world. The thirst for this poison, nicotine, is like acute hunger.

Society often refers to smoking as a bad habit. However, it must be clearly understood that smoking is not a habit, but a DRUG DEPENDENCE.

Once we start smoking, we must learn how to handle cigarettes. Before we realize it – once! – and we no longer only buy them regularly, but have to carry them with us all the time. Now, in the absence of cigarettes, we panic and over time we smoke more and more.

This happens with any other drug: our body seeks to protect itself from the effects of nicotine, and at the same time the need for it grows. After a short period of smoking, the cigarette stops completely alleviating the discomfort of lack of nicotine, which it itself creates.Therefore, when you light a cigarette, you feel better than a moment ago; in fact, you become more nervous and tense even while smoking than if you were a non-smoker at all.

But that’s not all: as soon as the cigarette is extinguished, the rapid elimination of nicotine from the body begins, which explains why, in stressful situations, the smoker tends to smoke cigarettes one by one.

1. The disadvantages of smoking clearly outweigh its advantages.But we nevertheless believe that there is something about the cigarette that gives us pleasure or some support, which is why most of us continue to smoke. We feel that after we quit smoking, some emptiness forms and that certain life situations will no longer be the same. This is another illusion. The truth is that a cigarette does nothing; it only takes, although then it partially returns – only to maintain the illusion.

2. Although nicotine is the most potent drug in the world due to the speed with which addiction is formed, you will never be addicted to it to the extreme. Since this drug is fast acting, it takes only three weeks to remove 99% of nicotine from the body, and the real withdrawal pangs are so negligible that many smokers have lived and died without realizing that they were experiencing them.

Almost all smokers get along fine at night without nicotine.The withdrawal pangs don’t even wake them up. Most of them leave their bedrooms before lighting their first cigarette; many have breakfast first; some wait until they arrive at work. They can abstain from nicotine for ten hours of sleep time and not worry about it, but if they spend ten hours without a cigarette during the day, they will begin to pull out their hair.

Today, some people who smoke buy new cars and do not smoke in them. Many of them visit theaters, shops, churches, etc.and the inability to smoke in these places does not bother them. There were no riots in the subway cars either. Perhaps you will be comforted by the news that rumors circulating from time to time (“it will take eight years for this” infection “to leave your body” or “every cigarette you smoke shortens your life by five minutes”) – not true.

Don’t think that the harmful effects of smoking are exaggerated; rather, they are underestimated. “Infection”, in fact, is never completely eliminated from the body.If people smoke nearby, nicotine is in the air, and even non-smokers get a small percentage. However, our bodies are incredible devices; they have tremendous potential for recovery, unless, of course, you have already set in motion one of the irreversible diseases. If you quit smoking now, your body will recover within a few weeks as if you have never been a smoker.

With regard to brainwashing

From early childhood on our subconscious mind is bombarded daily with a stream of information that cigarettes relax, give confidence and masculinity, and that the most valuable thing on the planet is a cigarette.Do you think I’m exaggerating? When you watch a cartoon, motion picture or theatrical performance in which people are threatened with the death penalty or execution, what is their last request? That’s right, a cigarette!

True, there are other kinds of advertisements – the threat of cancer, amputated legs, campaigns against bad breath – but they don’t really stop smokers. Of course, logically, it should, but in reality this does not happen. All these campaigns are not even able to keep teenagers from smoking.

Nicotine is a drug, so your taste buds and sense of smell become dull. The worst part of smoking is not even that it damages your health and hits your pocket, but that it deforms your psyche. You start to look for any plausible excuses for why you keep smoking.

In other words, the effect of indoctrination is to trick us into believing that our smoking is inevitable: either some particular weakness inherent in us, or that the cigarette contains something necessary for us, so that when we quit smoking, there will be emptiness.

But in reality, CIGARETTES DO NOT FILL THE EMPTY, THEY CREATE IT!

Typically, smokers try to quit smoking, citing health, money and social disapproval of the addiction as the main reasons.

The fear of lung cancer did not make me quit smoking, as I believed that smoking was like walking in a minefield. If you were able to get through – great, but stepped on a mine – then you were out of luck. You were aware of the risk you were putting yourself in, and if you were ready for it, what does that have to do with anyone else?

“We all have to die of something.”

Of course you will die, but is this statement a valid reason for deliberately shortening your life?

“The quality of life is more important than longevity.”

Quite right, but I hope you are not claiming that the quality of life of a drug addict or alcoholic is higher than that of a person who is not addicted to alcohol or heroin? Do you really believe that a smoker’s quality of life is better than that of a non-smoker? Of course, the smoker loses more – and his life is shorter, and he himself is more unhappy.

“Perhaps the exhaust fumes are more damaging to my lungs than smoking.”

Even if it were true, why punish your lungs even more? Can you imagine someone who would be stupid enough to put their mouths on the exhaust pipe and deliberately inhale these gases into their lungs?

AND IN FACT SMOKERS, IN ESSENCE, DO THIS!

In our society, it is considered difficult to quit smoking. Even those books that advise you to quit smoking usually begin by describing how difficult it will be for you to do so.In reality, it’s ridiculously easy.

However, in order to quit smoking, you need to do only one thing: no more smoking.

No one forces you to smoke (other than yourself) and, unlike food or drink, you do not need to smoke to survive. Therefore, it is not clear why, in fact, it must be difficult for you to quit smoking? In fact, the process of quitting smoking is hampered by the use of the willpower method by the smoker. The Willpower Method is any method that makes the smoker feel like he is making some kind of sacrifice.

Smokers who have succeeded in quitting smoking using the willpower method usually say it was a difficult and time-consuming task. This is because the main problem is brainwashing, and long after the physical addiction to nicotine fades away, the smoker is moping without cigarettes.

Many smokers resort to smoking cessation as a temporary means of quitting altogether, or as an attempt to take control of the little monster.Reducing smoking is recommended by many doctors and consultants as support.

Obviously, the less you smoke, the better you feel. But reducing the number of cigarettes smoked is fatal as an intermediate stage before quitting smoking altogether. It is the attempts to cut down on smoking that keep us in this trap all our lives.

Usually, smoking cuts follow failed attempts to quit. After a few hours or days of abstaining from smoking, the smoker says to himself something like: “I cannot bear the thought of existing without a cigarette, so from now on I will only smoke on special occasions or reduce smoking to ten cigarettes a day.If I can switch to the habit of smoking ten cigarettes a day, then I can either stay at the same level, or further reduce this amount. ”

Just one cigarette is a myth that should get out of my head.

Today everyone knows that the only reason people keep smoking is because their attempt to quit smoking has failed, or they are afraid to even try.

Our society treats smoking lightly, as a slightly unpleasant habit that can be harmful to health.This is wrong. Smoking is drug addiction, disease and number one killer. Becoming addicted to nicotine is horrible, but being addicted to it all your life is even more terrifying.

A poor smoker loses a lot:

HEALTH

ENERGY

OF MONEY

SELF-CONFIDENCE

Peace of mind

COURAGE

IMPRESSION

FREEDOM

SELF-RESPECT.

Will I Gain Weight

This is another myth about smoking, spread mainly by those smokers who tried to quit using the method of willpower, replacing nicotine with candy, etc.to ease the pangs of withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal pangs are very similar to hunger pangs, which is why the two feelings are often confused. However, the pangs of hunger can be satisfied with food, and it is impossible to completely remove the pangs of withdrawal from nicotine.

Quitting smoking is ridiculously easy. There are only two things to do:

1. Make a decision that I will never smoke again.

2. Do not get depressed about this. Rejoice!

The key to making quitting smoking easy is making sure you succeed and completely abstain from smoking during the quitting period (maximum three weeks).If you tune in correctly, you will find that quitting smoking is ridiculously easy.

I quit smoking on November 20, 2008 and consider this day my second birthday.

Methodologist NOB V.A.Mishchenko

90,000 The son of US President Biden wrote a memoir with bloopers about Russia

As you know, every descent into hell is preceded by an acquaintance with the tempting serpent. In the case of Hunter Biden, the former President of Poland, member of the Board of Directors of Burizma Alexander Kwasniewski acted as such a “snake”: “I understand that if someone asks me to become a part of a project, it is not only because that I’m so good.This is also happening because I am Kwasniewski and the former President of the Republic of Poland. All this is interconnected. People without names are nobody. Being Biden is not bad. It’s a good name! ” The conclusion that the son of the then curator of American policy in the Ukrainian direction drew from this somewhat cynical, but very sincere “political sermon” is as follows: “To put it quite bluntly, my consent to enter the Board of Directors of Burizma was addressed to Putin loudly and unmistakable signal: “Fuck you to hell!” Having made this inference, Hunter Biden was both wrong and hit the mark.Signal “you go to hell!” really was. Only now it was not addressed to Putin at all, but to Hunter Biden himself.

Former President of Poland Alexander Kwasniewski: “People without names are nobody.”

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Watch your hands, or Peace, according to Biden’s son

You will never guess why, according to the son of the current US president, Putin “started an aggression against Ukraine.”The point, it turns out, is the fabulously rich reserves of Ukrainian natural gas, which the Kremlin has long dreamed of laying its hands on: “Putin wants Ukraine for four clearly defined reasons. He wants to take possession of natural resources, primarily natural gas reserves. He wants a port in Crimea. He wants a “land bridge” between Europe and the Far East. He wants a buffer zone between Russia and NATO to expand his sphere of influence. ”

Each of these “four definite reasons” is capable of sending into a deep intellectual knockdown of any real specialist in international affairs.But, so as not to lose sight of the main thing, let’s focus only on the one that Hunter Biden put at the top of his list: gas. The volume of proven natural gas reserves in Russia is over 50 trillion cubic meters. This is about a quarter of all world reserves. The most optimistic estimates of natural gas reserves in Ukraine are about a trillion cubic meters. Hunter Biden unable to see the giant logical gap at the very center of his argument? He is capable of anything, including graceful manipulation of logic.

It is important for Biden’s son to prove that by agreeing to “work” for Burizma, he made an important contribution to the “fight against Russian aggression”: “The reason why Putin wanted to steal Burizma is elementary: natural gas. John McCain put it best: “Russia is a gas station that only pretends to be a country.” Without oil and gas, Russia’s economy in terms of GDP will be only slightly larger than the state of Illinois. ” However, according to Hunter Biden, Russia’s insignificant economic weight in the world is amply offset by its monstrous cunning: “Like many people from outside the region, I could not fully comprehend how deep and far the tentacles of Russian corruption had penetrated Ukraine.Even today, I am amazed at how deeply Russia is involved in everything. It is difficult to find at least someone in the region who has achieved success and was not connected with the inherently dirty hands of Russia. ”

After the victory of the Maidan, Nikolai Zlochevsky instantly retrained from a comrade-in-arms to a “fighter against Russian imperialism.”

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Difficult – but possible. Hunter Biden, according to his own assessment, succeeded.Who is this “knight in shining armor”? I will not torment you. This is one of the richest people in Ukraine, the president and owner of the country’s largest gas company “Burisma” Nikolai Zlochevsky. And now the funniest thing: a few biographical details of this “knight”. Since 2006 – People’s Deputy of Ukraine from the Party of Regions of Viktor Yanukovych. Since 2010 – Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine in the government of President Yanukovych. Since 2012 – Deputy Secretary of the National Security Council of Ukraine under President Yanukovych.In modern Western historiography, Yanukovych is commonly referred to as the “puppet of Moscow.” And how did the closest ally of this “puppet” suddenly turn into a passionate “fighter against Putin’s imperialism”?

In his book, Hunter Biden does not give the exact dates of the chain of meetings and conversations that led to his appointment as a member of the Board of Directors of Burizma. Why is it important? Because these meetings and conversations took place against the backdrop of the fateful events of modern Ukrainian history: the collapse of the Yanukovych regime and the coming to power of pro-Western forces in Kiev.Nevertheless, despite the deliberate blurring of dates, it follows from the text of “Beautiful Things”: although the official appointment of the son of the US Vice President to Burizma took place after the victory of the Maidan, they began to woo him into this corporation even under Yanukovych.

In the West, Viktor Yanukovych is commonly referred to as the “Kremlin puppet.” But during his tenure as president, he actively courted American politicians.

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Here is my interpretation of this strange situation.Viktor Yanukovych has never been anyone’s puppet. The former president of Ukraine maneuvered between various international centers of power, trying to be “his boyfriend” in the eyes of each of them. As the chief curator of American policy towards Kiev, Joe Biden, from the point of view of Yanukovych, was definitely one of such centers of power. Therefore, courting Hunter Biden, Nikolai Zlochevsky initially fulfilled the will of President Yanukovych. But after Yanukovych disappeared from the Kiev political scene, Zlochevsky had to rebuild on the fly.Hunter Biden has become for him a “safeguard certificate”, a “certificate of loyalty” to the ideals of the Maidan.

Did the son of the then American Vice President understand this? I invite you to draw your conclusions from the following two passages of his book: “It would be easy to look at Zlochevsky and say that he is part of the problem. But you still need to start somewhere. It doesn’t matter how imperfect the organization I was asked to represent was. I knew one thing on which Kwasniewski made a special emphasis: Burisma was in opposition to the interests of the most dangerous person in the world – Vladimir Putin. “”Kwasniewski added: you can either get money from the Russians, or from the people who oppose them.”

“To receive money from the Russians”, however, nobody suggested to Hunter Biden. But all this rhetoric about “the most dangerous man in the world” pursues a very specific goal – to prove that both the author of the book and his father behaved in the story with “Burisma” as exemplary patriots and bearers of the highest ethical standards: “Burisma” released a press -release of my assignment, and within a week the Wall Street Journal wrote an article about it.It was then that my dad called me and said: “I hope you know what you are doing!” Words not of a boy, but of a real genius of PR. Biden Jr. does not explicitly state that Biden Sr. found out about his appointment only after the fact. But this is implied. And since the son cannot be responsible for the father, the father cannot be responsible for the son.

The next potential rebuke, which Hunter Biden famously “decapitates” with a preemptive counterattack, is a reproach for a completely obvious conflict of interest: “The fact is that there is nothing in the world that does not intersect in one way or another with one of the spheres of influence my father.The executive director of the observing NGO Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington told a reporter in those days: “It shouldn’t be that if you are the son of a vice president, you have no right to do anything!”

But the reproach about the extreme ease of his duties in “Burizm” Hunter Biden, in my opinion, could not be repulsed. At first, however, he talks long and boringly about how cool, experienced and respected management specialist he is and how much he has done in terms of introducing Western ethical standards into the work of the Ukrainian corporation: “I did serious work for serious people.No question: my name opened the door. But my achievements speak for themselves. ” But all this is reset to zero by the story of what exactly he “did” at his “Kiev workplace”: “Burisma” worked like a machine … The Board of Directors met twice a year for meetings or energy forums in different parts of Europe. All controversial issues that could arise regarding organizational decisions were worked out and resolved before these meetings. We regularly received information about recruiting, current and potential projects and agreed on these decisions as required from us.At the meetings, we approved resolutions … and helped initiate ideas for expanding the company’s activities. ”

Do you have a keen desire to also “work” on the Board of Directors of Burizma? Do not hurry. In the specific case of the son of the current US president, such “hard work” only miraculously did not destroy him as a person.

Soon after the disaster: Single father Joe Biden struggled to support his sons, but was unable to keep one of them from craving alcohol. Photo: facebook.com / POTUS

On the way to the underworld

One of the first childhood memories of 3-year-old Hunter Biden is: “I am sitting in the back seat of our spacious white Chevrolet Station wagon behind my mom. My four-year-old brother Bo is sitting next to me – behind our sister Naomi, who, as it seemed to us then, appeared in our family out of nowhere thirteen months ago and who, due to her pallor and plumpness, we both call Kaspi – after one of our beloved cartoon characters Casper – Friendly ghost.She sleeps in a bassinet in the front passenger seat. Suddenly I see my mother’s head turning to the right … At this very moment, my brother dives – or throws him – right at me … Everything happens quickly, convulsively and chaotic. As our mother was rebuilding her car at a four-lane intersection, we were hit by a tractor trailer carrying corn on the cob. My mother and little sister died almost instantly. Bo was recovered from the wreckage with a broken leg and many other wounds.I got off with a complex skull fracture. ”

This tragic day, December 18, 1972, became a defining one for Joe Biden, who was elected a member of the US Senate at the age of 30 just a few weeks before the events described, and for his youngest son. Naturally, no one left Hunter Biden to the mercy of fate. Numerous adult relatives surrounded him with touching care. And immediately after the disaster, he found solace in friendship with his older brother: “When I woke up in the hospital, Beau was lying in bed next to me… He constantly, over and over, repeated three words to me: “I love you! I love you! I love you!” Bo became my best friend, my soul mate, my guiding star from these virtually first conscious moments of my life. ”

One of the first childhood memories of Hunter Biden is the death in a car accident of his mother, Neilia (pictured).

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

But, despite the help of relatives, despite the new happy marriage of his father five years after the car accident (“When are we” going to get married? ”- with these questions Bo and I bothered my father, pushing him to propose”), Hunter Biden constantly felt , in his words, “loneliness in the crowd.”He could get rid of this feeling in only one way – with the help of alcohol. Here, for example, what sensations arose in the son of the future president of the United States after he got drunk for the first time as a high school student.

“Suddenly I felt quite comfortable in a crowd of the same guys in whose company I felt extremely uncomfortable all past year. I went up to the prettiest girl in school and invited her to the prom. She ignored me … But the booze, it seemed to me, still gave me the answer to every unanswered question about why I felt the way I felt… Drinking freed me from my inner inhibitions, from my feeling of insecurity … Drinking gave me a sense of completeness, filling a gap that I had never even suspected existed, removed the feeling of loss and the feeling that I was not understood. ”

As he entered adulthood, Hunter Biden gradually became, in his own words, a “functioning alcoholic” – an alcoholic with a good family consisting of a wife and three daughters, a prestigious job and a decent professional reputation.How did all this fit in with Biden Jr.’s desire to dive into the bottle at every opportunity? The answer consisted of two components: the need to work very hard and hard to support the family, and to maintain a decent standard of living for Hunter’s older brother Bo.

“Bo has always supported me and never judged me. He never asked me the question that other people asked me: “Why?” I cannot overemphasize how much this behavior helped me. A person with addiction is not able to answer the question “why?”In trying to answer this question, I could point to trauma, family history, genetics, a combination of bad luck and unfortunate circumstances. But I have no answer to this question. Bo understood this intuitively. He refused to believe that I had chosen addiction, believing instead that this addiction had chosen me. Bo believed he could help fix the situation, and he really did fix it. ”

However, in 2013, Delaware Attorney General Beau Biden was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form of brain tumor.After two years of torture and increasingly desperate attempts to recover, Bo Biden passed away. His younger brother Hunter lost his main support in life. Soon another blow overtook him. Hunter Biden’s wife Kathleen was tired of what he constantly gave, and then invariably broke promises to quit drinking. Kathleen informed her husband that their marriage had fallen apart and could not be saved.

Beau Biden’s funeral: having lost his main support in life in the form of his older brother, Hunter Biden (behind the future US president) hit all the hard.Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Against this bleak background, the monthly salary of a member of the board of directors of the Ukrainian energy giant Hunter Biden became another component of his personal disaster: Burisma became the main tool for realizing my rapid slide into drug addiction. Initially, the massive financial reward gave me additional time and resources to take care of my brother.But after his death, it reinforced the worst aspects of those impulses of mine that pushed me into addiction. Burisma was not my only source of income during that period. Almost to the very end, I was a “functioning addict.” I have managed to retain clients for a much longer period of time than it seemed possible. In addition, I had money from investments that I made in previous years. But towards the horrific and crazy end, the board member’s paycheck became a vicious sort of easy money.He pushed me to mindless, dangerous, destructive, humiliating waste. ”

This “humiliating and destructive waste” was launched after the meeting of the Board of Directors of Burisma in May 2016 in Monte Carlo, Monaco. At the beginning of this trip, in which Hunter Biden took his student daughter Naomi with him, there was no sign of disaster. The very meeting of the board of directors passed, as Biden Jr. put it, purely “for the sake of form.” But then the son of the current US vice president took part in the economic forum and expressed the opinion there that the victory of the supporters of Brexit is very likely in the upcoming referendum on Britain’s secession from the European Union.Other forum participants – ministers of economy and finance from all over Europe – amicably laughed at such an “absurd opinion”.

Hunter Biden could have waited just a few weeks and gotten the last laugh. But instead, he was very upset and decided that he urgently needed to be comforted: “I managed to hold out until the end of the meeting, but after that I sipped a couple of glasses. That evening, when Naomi went to hang out with Zlochevsky’s daughter, I wandered into the hotel’s nightclub and drank some more.Monte Carlo provides temptations for all tastes. When I went to the toilet, someone offered me cocaine. I accepted this offer. ”

Returning to the United States, Hunter Biden finally went crazy – he settled in his bachelor apartment in Washington, a middle-aged black bum-addict with a “heart of gold” and began to use crack (crystalline form of cocaine) on a regular basis. After that, his life for several years turned into a continuous stream of a wide variety of horrors. For example, what happened when the son of a US vice president decided to take control of his life and fly to a drug rehabilitation clinic in Arizona.

“I arrived at Washington Dulles International Airport at 7:00 AM, three hours before my scheduled departure time. But before getting out of the car in the parking lot, I decided to smoke some more crack. Two hours later, I was still sitting in the car and still smoking. I decided that nothing would happen if I left a little later on the next flight. When I was late for this flight, I again decided to wait for the next one. ” Hunter Biden never got out of the car that day – he smoked, smoked and smoked again.Realizing at ten in the evening that there would be no more flights to Arizona today, he decided to go there on his own right now – behind the wheel.

Biden Jr. almost succeeded. Having replenished his supply of drugs along the way with great adventures and constantly actively using it (how can you go to a rehabilitation clinic without this!), The son of the vice president of the country was driving along the highway near the city of Palm Springs. But then something happened that should have happened: “I fell asleep at the wheel. Waking up a moment later, I was in the air.My car fell off a soft curb and flew at a speed of 130 kilometers per hour in a cloudless sky … ”They say that alcoholics are lucky. Apparently, drug addicts too. Having survived a car accident, Hunter Biden honestly underwent drug addiction treatment in a rehabilitation clinic, and then returned to his usual lifestyle – drug addiction funded by Ukrainian money.

During the Trump era, the son of his future replacement adapted to live in various expensive hotels, from which he was inevitably kicked out after some time.Hunter Biden became a dozen in the “art” of turning hotel rooms into pigsties and drug hangouts, in which suspicious individuals with criminal habits hang out. Wasn’t Joe Biden trying to get his son out of the drug quagmire? Of course I tried. Some of the most heartbreaking pages in the book are devoted to the description of the scene in the house of the future US president after Hunter Biden received a call from his beloved stepmother and invited him to an unscheduled family celebration.

Arriving at the scene, Hunter Biden discovers in him three of his daughters who have arrived from different cities, his “awkwardly smiling” parents and two employees of the drug addiction treatment clinic he knows.“No chance,” I said. My father was horrified. “I don’t know what to do,” he pleaded. – I’m so scared! Tell me what to do! ” My categorical answer: “Not this devilry!” It was terrible. I was terrible. ” A long, painful conversation ensued, during which, as the son of the future American leader writes, “I refused to sit down with my father. Everyone was crying, but that only made me even more angry. “Don’t ever ambush me like that again!” – I said to my father and flew out of the house. He ran after me along the path, grabbed me, turned me around and cried for a very long time… When I tried to get into my car, one of my girls grabbed the keys and yelled: “Dad, you can’t leave!” In response, I shouted at her: “Don’t you dare to do this!”

As a result of all the efforts of the family that day, Hunter Biden agreed to go to the clinic. But, having given this consent, the member of the Board of Directors of Burizma immediately deceived everyone again: he entered the doors of the clinic, waited for his brother’s widow Holly, who had brought him here, to leave, lied to the clinic staff that he would return tomorrow, called a taxi to airport, flew to California and returned to his life as a drug addict.

The cover of a “self-revealing” book with a portrait of its future author.

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Instead of a happy ending

In America, it is believed that everything should have its own happy ending. This story also has it – or, at any rate, Hunter Biden’s book. Why am I expressing myself so floridly? Because what is described in “Beautiful Things” looks like a fairy tale or an episode of a wicked feature film.After Biden Jr. is kicked out of another hotel room, a stranger talks to him at the hotel pool. Hunter Biden is reluctant to communicate, but the stranger turns out to be very stubborn and forces the son of the former US Vice President to tell his story. After listening to her, he suddenly says to the girl who had been sitting next to him all this time: “Do you know who Hunter should meet? With your friend Melissa! ”

Hunter Biden pretends to memorize Melissa’s phone number, which was dictated to him, and immediately forgets it.But the girl turns out to be no less persistent than her beau, and writes this number on the palm of Hunter. The exhausted son of the future US president calls, Melissa calls back, they meet and during this very first date they confess their mutual love to each other: “An hour later I told her that I was a cocaine addict. Without even blinking an eye, she reacted without hesitation to the news like this: “You’re not a drug addict anymore! You’re done with this! ” My reaction: “Okay!”

If the two previous paragraphs were a script for a Hollywood movie, then this script would probably be rejected for being too fake and completely unrealistic.But Hunter Biden insists in his book that this is exactly what happened. However, further events take on an even more syrupy and fantastic character. Melissa is a charming but stern 32-year-old beauty “with bottomless blue eyes” from South Africa – dumps all of Hunter’s drug supplies, erases all non-family contacts on his cell, changes his phone number, disperses his drug dealers and acts as his jailer, while he, getting off drugs, goes through the process of withdrawal.

On the fourth day of this detox, Hunter asks Melissa to marry him. She agrees. And the owner of the instant marriage service, “Russian immigrant Maria Kharlash” (wow, “good Russians” – does it really happen in the life of the Biden family ?!) is holding a wedding ceremony. Was it really so? If so, then we can state: Hunter Biden finally became lucky. His dad Joe, however, too. When Trump tries to raise the issue of his rival’s son’s addiction in the presidential debate, Biden Sr. instantly puts him in his place: “My son,” he said, ignoring Trump and looking directly into the camera, “like many people you know in his hometown, had a drug problem.He defeated this problem, he solved it, he worked on it. And I’m proud of him. I’m proud of my son! ” These words not only disarmed Trump, but gave comfort and hope to millions of Americans. I felt nothing but pride. ”

Hunter Biden’s book clearly contains more than just the truth, or at least not the whole truth. For example, after reading his touching declarations of love for his four children in Beautiful Things (last March, Melissa gave birth to his son Bo), I was surprised to learn from other open sources about the existence of another child, Hunter.Hunter Biden, however, denied in court even the very fact of the connection with his mother. But DNA analysis proved that the son of the current president of the United States forgot something during his drug addiction years. What other “minor details” did he forget to mention in his book? Let’s consider this a rhetorical question.

But in asking this rhetorical question, I’m still convinced that Hunter Biden told the world in Beautiful Things a very powerful and poignant story. What moral can be learned from it? I think I will refrain from thinking on this topic.Let me just say this. Hunter Biden would definitely be a much happier person if he never had a chance to visit Ukraine. Ukraine would definitely be a much happier country if it hadn’t been destined to be manipulated by American politicians – including the father of the author of Beautiful Things.

About “Fresh Field” and the needs of young people – in a press conference with Yulia Lysova and Polina Kushnir

A press conference dedicated to the work of the Youth Parliament at the Pskov Regional Assembly of Deputies was held at the media center of the Pskov Information Agency.What projects is being implemented by the Youth Parliament today, how the “Fresh PoMol” discussion platform will change in the near future, as well as the principles of forming the composition of the Youth Parliament in connection with the changes in the Pskov Regional Assembly of Deputies, were told by the Chairperson of the Youth Parliament Yulia Lysova and Member of the Youth Parliament Polina Kushnir.

Discussion Fresh Pomol

– For about a year, the Youth Parliament has had a discussion platform “Fresh PoMol”.Why was this project created, how does it help you in your work, and what are your further plans for its implementation?

Yulia Lysova : In fact, “Fresh PoMol” is the Telegram channel of the Youth Parliament. Initially, when we created it, it was called the Telegram channel “Youth Parliament”. There was nothing creative in its name, and in fact we created it, but did not fully understand what we wanted from it. We understood that we needed to log into Telegram, but there was no fundamental concept.

After some time, the idea came to make of this a discussion platform for active youth in absolutely different directions and topics, where young people could voice questions that bother them, express their point of view on various media events that exist in the regional and on the federal agenda, and to do it both in video format, in video format, and in a text version, that is, we plan to shoot, so that there is a picture, a video sequence, and, of course, write.

– Is this just for the members of the Youth Parliament?

Yulia Lysova : No, this is an open telegram channel that absolutely everyone can subscribe to. And the name “Fresh POL” comes from the fact that, as we assumed, the shooting would take place in a coffee shop. Well, and “fresh”, that is, the youth of the Pskov region – here a good play on words, in our opinion, turned out. Therefore, welcome to Fresh PoMol, absolutely everyone can subscribe to it.I think it will be interesting.

At this stage, a year later, we have tried so far only to write about our points of view, to express our opinion. But soon we will start filming trial videos, the first ten topics, their scripts have already been written: who do we want to see, what questions we will voice. In principle, the matter remains for the technical part, that is, for the filming.

We had the experience of trying to do it ourselves, in the same coffee shop, but, unfortunately, we understand perfectly well: it is actually not so easy to make a quality product ourselves, because sound, light, equipment, and so on – this all imposes a certain imprint, especially on video content, but we still want to do it well.But I think that we will finally be able to make “Fresh POL” in the format in which we conceived it.

But even if you scroll through our feed with the posts that came out during this period, I am not ashamed of the content that is there now. And I can say that even at the last meeting, which was in Moscow in the Youth Parliament under the State Duma, our telegram channel Fresh PoMol was set as an example for youth parliaments from other regions how to run a youth telegram channel.

– For activity, huh?

Yulia Lysova : For being active and for expressing my own opinion. Because often many youth parliaments post on Telegram the same thing as, for example, on Instagram and on the VKontakte social network. No, our content is completely different.

– That is, they duplicate their usual news?

Yulia Lysova : Yes.

– Do you have a real discussion there?

Yulia Lysova : We have something else, yes.Therefore, there is no dubbing. Therefore, I think this is interesting.

Youth need truth

– Does this discussion platform help you in your work? Is there any real benefit from it?

Yulia Lysova : I think that young people need to be heard, and you can see that very well. As a rule, we invite older experts to express a certain position or opinion.But young people now, in accordance with federal legislation, are people under the age of 35, already old enough, who have their own point of view, see what is happening, and they have something to say. And most importantly, if we are talking about young people 18-35 years old: these are people who have completely different experiences and different motivations. Including if you remember the same exits of Navalny, when all and sundry poked a stick at the youth, then it cannot be said that all the youth who came out had absolutely the same motivation.

And naturally, young people need to let off steam somewhere, and even if there are negative comments, these are not empty words. The most important thing is to work out a solution, be heard and not just spend time, sit and talk, arrange a get-together, but come to a constructive decision.

– Do you get a specific cut of the opinion of the Pskov youth there?

Yulia Lysova : Yes, because Fresh PoMol is not about the Youth Parliament meeting and discussing some topic.”Fresh PoMol” is in this case the organizer.

If we take, for example, the topic of volunteering (an urgent topic that is now on absolutely all agendas), then we will certainly invite both the volunteers themselves and the leaders of volunteer organizations, everyone who is engaged in this activity, and those involved (these are various foundations that operate and operate on the territory of the region). But we are not interested in the opinion and the picture that has already taken shape. We are interested in seeing just behind the scenes, talking with real people and hearing a point of view, maybe even unpopular, but true.

It is young people who can afford to voice the truth and speak it openly. Because often people in positions who have status and so on cannot always voice their real position and speak openly about it. And young people who see from the inside what processes are taking place can afford it.

– Polina, how do you assess the work of this project and how often do you participate in discussions?

Polina Kushnir : I appreciate the work of this project very positively, I consider it productive, useful and necessary, and I fully agree with Yulia.I haven’t had to participate in these discussions myself, but I think it will be possible in the future.

To blog-tour of the Pskov region

– What projects does the Youth Parliament plan to implement in the near future?

Yulia Lysova : We planned that in the near future the project “Blog-tour“ Traveling in Russia ”will be carried out. Unfortunately, now the epidemiological situation does not allow us to do this, but we still do not lose hope.The essence of the project is that ten bloggers who have been selected at the federal level come to the region.

– Are these young guys?

Yulia Lysova : These are young guys who have completely different audiences on social networks, also different, that is, they are Tiktokers, Instagrammers, YouTubers. The number of subscribers varies from 100 thousand to 100 million. We already had a list of bloggers who planned to come to us, one of them is a girl who participated in the “Boys” project, even was the head of a travel agency from the Krasnoyarsk Territory, that is, the planned range and the audience coverage of the project is significant.This is a completely new resource for promoting a tourism product.

– These are ten bloggers, completely different in their subject matter, right?

Yulia Lysova : Yes.

– They should come to our region – and what are their next tasks?

Yulia Lysova : We are drawing up a program “Tourist Route”, that is, our task as a host is to show the Pskov region, attractions, hotel spectrum, hospitality, tourist potential, why tourists should come to us.We have worked out such a route together with the Tourism Committee of the Pskov Region. They come for five days and four nights.

The project started in St. Petersburg and is being implemented (unfortunately, already without the Pskov region) in five regions of Russia. This year the project started for the first time. The Youth Parliament under the State Duma, which is the main organizer of this project, conducted a selection of bloggers: they received more than 400 applications and selected only 60 bloggers, that is, six regions were announced together with the Pskov region, and, accordingly, six regions with ten bloggers each …

– That is, this is an all-Russian project, in which the Pskov region is also becoming a participant? Will there be other bloggers in other regions and will they also develop tourism potential?

Yulia Lysova : Yes, absolutely right.The blog tour is a new entry into new media.

– This is a way to promote the Pskov region through the most popular bloggers, an opportunity to convey to completely different segments of the population information about what the Pskov region is and what is beautiful in it?

Yulia Lysova : Yes.

– Quite an interesting project. Is it possible to implement it within a few months? Or how will it be allowed?

Yulia Lysova : We were given a comment that, perhaps, its implementation is shifted to the end of summer, to September-October.It is clear that the Pskov region is beautiful at any time of the year, but weather conditions can leave their mark on the picture if we are talking about photo and video shooting. And, of course, I would like to introduce sunny Pskov and the Pskov region.

– Does anyone from the Youth Parliament plan to accompany these bloggers?

Yulia Lysova : Naturally. The Youth Parliament fully undertakes support: how to accommodate, meet, take, bring, tell and so on, provide photo and video support, because bloggers make content for their social networks, but there are social networks and the site of the blog tour project “Traveling in Russia” plus the social networks of the Youth Parliament, since we are the organizers, so taking photos and videos is also our responsibility.And here we are fully ready to help.

– This is a very interesting project, and we will wait for its implementation, because we would like as many people as possible to know about the Pskov region.

Has something to brag about

– With what results did you finish the period before the holidays of the Youth Parliament? Can you rate your work excellently? What successes have you achieved this year and what tasks do you set in your future work?

Yulia Lysova : In general, the composition of the Youth Parliament is elected for two years.Already a year and a half has passed since our squad has been operating, there is very little left until December. We just hit the period when the pandemic began: we were formed in December 2019.

– Pandemic composition of the Youth Parliament.

Yulia Lysova : Yes. In February, I was elected chairman, and in March a pandemic hit. If we talk about the results, I would like to say that in fact, despite the limitations, we were able to do a lot of projects and events.Significant events in the region did not pass us by: voting on amendments to the Constitution, the 2020 municipal election campaign.

If we talk about where we were the organizers, for the first time, and I am very happy, we held the first meeting of the youth councils of the Pskov region: this is such a big story that, I hope, will be continued in the next composition of the Youth Parliament.

For the first time, we prepared and conducted the regional component of the test on the history of the Great Patriotic War in the online format.From a technical point of view, this was a really serious task. At that time, the transition to online as such had not yet happened, and the technical service, before which we set such a task, racked their brains for a long time how to do it all. But we did it, for the first time the tests went very well: 1,500 people took part.

The All-Russian test on the history of the Great Patriotic War is an annual action held by the Youth Parliament, at the moment 15 thousand people have already passed it.When we had a meeting at Zoom with the Youth Parliament under the State Duma, we were told: “We do not know how you did it.” I say: “The experience we got in the regional part helped us a lot.” This figure surprised and made me happy, because it was a really significant result. This has not happened yet, at least.

If we talk about the videos that were prepared within the framework of the project “This is my Constitution” and scored 93 thousand views, this is also a very significant result if we talk about numbers.

These are real achievements to be proud of. In every composition of the Youth Parliament, when we draw the line, we say: we did this, this and this. There have been and are outstanding projects.

The project “Regional League of Debates“ Truth ”has finally been implemented. Before that there was a pandemic, a year passed, and just recently we implemented it and received a large number of positive reviews, everyone wants to continue. But since it was a grant story, I do not yet understand its prospects.Everyone asks: “Well, when next year? We want!” – but I understand that I don’t understand yet how it will be and when we will start.

– What was this project and what is its essence?

Yulia Lysova : And the essence was as follows. On the basis of the Youth Parliament there is a debate club “Truth”, in which Polina took part, was a debater. And we made a regional league for schoolchildren.

There was a municipal phase, then a regional phase.At the municipal stage, all interested schools could apply, it was absolutely unimportant from which district of the region. I myself was personally present at almost all the debates that took place at the municipal stage, I went to both Velikie Luki region and Velikiye Luki. We wrote scripts, looked for organizers locally, if we could not leave, and took topics that were really interesting to schoolchildren: the Internet, blogging (whether this is a profession or not), that is, we really took topics that are in the youth environment.And it was easier for the guys to talk to them, and it was interesting.

But the nice thing is that there was a mentor in the team – a teacher, or a teacher-organizer, or a class teacher. At first, they were included insofar as, because it is still a certain load for them, but nevertheless they were satisfied, they joined in this work. How they were rooting for their guys already at the regional stage! Some were upset that they failed to make it to the finals, but the guys who ended up in the finals had such good preparation that I sat and thought: it’s great that our children can talk like that.

Many are now sitting in gadgets, create fake pages – and let’s comment without taking absolutely no responsibility for what they wrote there. And the debate is the platform that teaches you to argue your position with reason. You need to prepare for them: this is work with statistics, with experience, for example, on a topic somewhere abroad, this is history, terms, that is, there really should be good, great preparation. And the most important thing is the distribution of roles. We played according to the Popper system: this is an international system that is used in the student and school environment, because there are fairly simple, understandable rules.

In principle, we, as organizers, were satisfied too, because we realized that everything was not in vain. In Pskov, it turns out, there were 14 teams at the municipal stage. Then they came up to me and asked: “Can we have a debate between classes at school?” I say: “Everything is possible, you just need to agree on time.” Therefore, this project, too, I hope, will be continued. I don’t know yet in what format, in what volume and how, but I would very much like that.

– Polina, tell us about your role and participation in this project and how busy was this year in the Youth Parliament for you? What other projects have you participated in?

Polina Kushnir : As for the project “The debate club” Truth “, I was able to participate in the debates themselves.We had a team from the Youth Parliament, and we opposed the team from the Youth Election Commission: there were three people from the Youth Parliament and three people from the Youth Election Commission. We discussed the topic of electronic voting. I liked it very much! I understand why the project caused a stir: it is really very interesting, and in our time, especially during a pandemic and electronic communication, live communication and dialogue are very relevant and useful.

As for the rest of the projects, Yulia voiced a lot.For example, I remember the regional component of the test on the Great Patriotic War, because we prepared questions. And when you start to immerse yourself in this, you realize that in fact you don’t know much about the Great Patriotic War of what happened on your land, in your region. At school, we consider the all-Russian scale.

I liked the project “My Constitution” very much, we prepared videos about the amendments to the Constitution. It was also interesting to understand this, to express my point of view, which, as Yulia said, for young people really matters and is relevant now.

There were pleasant moments, despite the pandemic: the trip to Izborsk. I was very happy, it was nice. We had a visiting session of the Youth Parliament in Krivsk, and there was a rich training on self-development. There were a lot of different projects. Indeed, a lot of work has been done despite the pandemic and the limitations associated with it. And I think that all this was done, because the Youth Parliament is a platform for people who are active, initiative, erudite, for people who strive for self-development, for people with potential who seek to unleash this potential, because the Youth Parliament is just there is a platform for unlocking your potential, for self-improvement and self-development.

Parliament without budget

– This year elections to the Pskov Regional Assembly will take place, the number of deputies will be reduced, and the Youth Parliament operates under the Regional Assembly of Deputies. How will the principles of forming the composition of the Youth Parliament change in this regard?

Yulia Lysova : We discussed this with the Youth Parliament. The guys express completely different positions.At the moment, there are 44 of us, the same number as the deputies of the regional Assembly were before. We are formed as follows: 22 people are the party list, and 22 people are guys who have passed an open competitive selection. If we still say that we are at the regional Assembly of Deputies, it is probably logical that the number of members of the Youth Parliament should also be reduced.

If we are talking about the Regional Assembly, then one of the arguments is the financial component.The Youth Parliament has a zero budget, it simply does not exist. All projects that we implement are either grant stories, or we find other sources of funding. But the Youth Parliament does not have a budget as such. We do not work on any rates. As soon as they do not call the Youth Parliament: some are a sandbox, some are freeloaders, and some are into something. But when I answer that no one gets a salary from us and we find money for our projects ourselves, and sometimes we spend our own, and a lot has already been spent during this period, then they look at us and say: “Why do you need this?” That is, you get money – “ah, spend budget money”, you don’t get it – “but why are you at all then?”

– You just cited as an example, apparently, spiteful critics, because this is an exception.

Yulia Lysova : There are enough of them, there are many of them both at the federal and regional levels. Therefore, if from a financial point of view, then that 44, that 26 people – all the same. If we are talking about the regional parliament, it is clear that this is the legislative body that passes laws, this is the work of committees, staff positions, people who understand the responsibility they bear.If we are talking about the Youth Parliament, this is a purely social activity, and I cannot force anyone. And out of 44 people, the maximum number of active people is 12-15: this is the backbone that always supports, generates ideas, helps in the organization, and so on. If we reduce the number of members of the Youth Parliament to 26, there will remain, respectively, five active, give or take.

– Is this in a bad scenario?

Yulia Lysova : Yes.But 26 people is much easier than 44. However, we must take into account the following moment: now we have a very large representation from the districts of the region, and if we reduce the composition by exactly half, then, of course, there will be questions. The Youth Parliament really has a very large representation in Velikiye Luki, which is great, because the guys are working on our projects in the Velikiye Luki region, in Velikiye Luki very well.

– Can we say that now the Youth Parliament is work in all districts?

Yulia Lysova : Not in all districts, but in many: Ostrov, Pechory, Pskovsky, Palkinsky, Velikie Luki districts, Velikiye Luki, that is, a really good coverage of the districts turned out.Therefore, this is also a question that needs to be thought about when making a decision.

In parliament, the guys were divided almost in half: someone thinks that it is necessary to reduce, someone does not. But I think that the decision is up to the Regional Assembly of Deputies.

In general, we found ourselves in a unique period – both with a pandemic and with elections, while the decision on the competition should be adopted at the first session of the Regional Assembly, and the first session will have a new composition. And how this story will develop further is still a question, because the regional parliament will be formed in September, and we work until December, and during this period we have to organize a new competition.

Will the competitive selection procedure be changed? This question was also asked. There were proposals to completely abandon the party list and make a selection by competition, because, returning to motivation, most often we rotate, replace members of the Youth Parliament who came through party lists.

– That is, those who qualify for the competition are more motivated, interested, come with specific goals?

Yulia Lysova : Yes.This, by the way, is one of the problems: when a person goes to the Youth Parliament, he must clearly understand what he wants from it, know his goal. Unfortunately, very often disappointment is connected precisely with the fact that “I thought it would be like this here, but in fact here it will be like this”. And guys are blown away when expectations and reality do not match. There is nothing wrong with that, it is absolutely normal. But there is a rotation procedure, and most often all the same it turns out people who came along the party line, because they were told – they went.I hope that changes will be adopted in terms of the formation of the composition, because we also always try and grope everything. For example, earlier the Youth Parliament was formed for five years, and we understand that this is too long a period for young people.

– During this time they are trying to somehow change their lives?

Yulia Lysova : Naturally! And they burn out emotionally, understand that their trajectory is changing, and do not see themselves further in this.

“Fills life and helps to develop”

– It turns out that you are improving every year. I think that what has been accomplished by your convocation has already attracted a large number of young people to your work, and I hope that in the next convocation there will be more active, proactive people, and maybe everyone will be like that at once.

Yulia Lysova : We, of course, count on this: there are many developments that we would like to continue.I will definitely help and give you a hint, I will convey what I know and can do.

– Are there any members of the Youth Parliament who will remain for the next convocation?

Yulia Lysova : Yes. There is always such a part, and we have already conducted a survey among the guys who want to stay, who are planning to leave, and I was even surprised by the number of guys who want to continue. This is only pleasing, because they will already have some experience, they will already understand what and how, perhaps, they will even change their status within the Youth Parliament, take some position, someone will become the chairman, and someone – chairman of the committee.The youth parliament lives on.

– So you can also grow within your team?

Yulia Lysova : Of course.

– How does Polina plan her future career?

Polina Kushnir : I would like to stay in the Youth Parliament even just as a member of the Youth Parliament, because it is very interesting to be a participant in all these wonderful events, actions, projects.It fills life and helps to develop and get to know new people.

– Which area is closest to you, in which you would like to continue working?

Polina Kushnir : In fact, I like all spheres. We considered the draft law on youth policy, I, in principle, like it, and volunteer activities, volunteer events are always very interesting, the social sphere, that is, all areas. This is the plus, that, being in the Youth Parliament, no matter which committee you belong to, you can participate in everything, as long as time and desire allow.

– That is, there is no obsession with one area, can you be an active participant in absolutely all projects?

Polina Kushnir : Yes.

Three tasks

– Julia, is there anything to add? Maybe wishes or tasks that you would like to set for the future?

Yulia Lysova : The tasks that we set initially, when we first met in the Youth Parliament, are the development of youth councils under the executive authorities that exist in the regions of the region, and participation in election campaigns.With the second point, everything is clear, and there are results, but as far as youth councils are concerned, this is a very large layer of work, including for the future. This is an area that must be pursued.

We have begun this work, but, unfortunately, two years pass very quickly, and the restrictions have not gone anywhere yet. I’d like to work with the heads of districts and youth councils. The meeting was attended by the heads of the districts, who were very interested, and we immediately received advances in problematic issues that were voiced by the guys from their districts.It was really a good collaboration.

The Youth Parliament is an organization under the Pskov Regional Assembly of Deputies, under the highest legislative body of power in the region. For our part, we do our best and do our best: promotions, projects, events – everyone sees and knows this. But in order for active guys who are eager to change life in the region for the better to come to the Youth Parliament, there must also be a second component for any organization that wants to develop and be significant in the region.No matter how we want, the weight of an organization is determined by the people who support it, their status. We are supported by the regional Assembly of Deputies. We have a wonderful curator, thanks to whom we get a lot, we find support from the chairman of the regional assembly. But in fact, they still know little about the Youth Parliament, even among young people. It is a fact. This is what needs to be corrected.

Even with a competition in the Youth Parliament, a well-thought-out information strategy must be carried out, which must be started now.If we open a group of the Youth Parliament on social networks, there are more than a thousand subscribers, but this is actually not much. And so we created a telegram account. I understand what we need in TikTok because we are young people. But, unfortunately, there is a press service of the Regional Assembly, and I would very much like to see a person in the Youth Parliament who will deal with this. This is a huge job. For me, for example, I just physically can’t pull it all: both posts and photos – it takes a lot of time.

There is informational support from the Regional Assembly, for which we are very grateful, but we would like to expand the information space.We have something to say, something to talk about and something to show. Our young people are very interesting. The Youth Parliament brings together guys who are heads of various public associations. These are the guys who passed an open competition, they are really thinking youth of our region. And it surprises me that if you open a group and see who is subscribed to us, there are representatives of the authorities. That is, who is really interested in youth policy? Here is a picture without any illusions.

The same if we are talking about the social networks of the regional Assembly deputies.Those who run social networks are few. In the Youth Parliament, everyone has social networks, because we are young people, it is much easier for us in this regard. But nevertheless, if you ask who is subscribed to the Youth Parliament, that’s all. This also says a lot.

Therefore, the status of the organization is still significant. No matter how hard we young people try, even if we jump out of our pants, nothing will change until the attitude towards us changes. That’s all. Therefore, I would very much like this situation to change in the future.It is necessary not only to implement projects (it will be, it will not go anywhere), but we would like the attitude towards the Youth Parliament to change.

And what we still lack is the development of a concrete, real legislative initiative. We had a good experience with this line-up. Unfortunately, for a number of reasons, it was not possible to bring the legislative initiative to the end, but for the guys who participated in this, this is an experience that you will not get anywhere else. Legislative initiative, the prestige of the Youth Parliament and work with youth councils – I would probably highlight these three points for the future.

– I wish you good luck in your work and hope that the next composition will be as active as yours: I believe that you are one of the most notorious compositions of the Youth Parliament that have declared themselves, and you have really done a lot. And I hope that not only young people, but also the majority of the population will learn about your work. Thank you!

90,000 Iris: a story by Tatyana Zamirovskaya, in which personal circumstances force the heroine to go into the flower business

– Where did you get them from? – he asked, enthusiastically looking around Ina’s apartment.

“A stupid story,” Ina answered practically without hesitation. – A millionaire was in love with me when I was about twenty. I interviewed him for an anti-capitalist newspaper, and asked such furious questions, I just tore him to pieces like a she-wolf. And he fell so in love that he began to send me a giant basket of tulips every day. And then he died. Because he was very old. But in his will it was written that I should receive my basket of tulips every day.Well, here it is.

“I’ve read something about this,” Brian said. – You didn’t make it up?

– Well, if she made it up, – Ina shrugged her shoulders, – can you offer any more explanations? Come on, try it.

Suddenly she realized that she had absolutely no memory of what Brian looked like. Apparently, she was absolutely indifferent to it. So much so that if some other person had stopped by for flowers, she would not have noticed the difference.

Brian came to pick up the tulips every day. He quickly got the hang of delivering them to the right addresses, once even brought Ina her favorite “golden latte” with turmeric, when she let slip about how delicious it is at “Coffee and Plants”.All these days Ina lay on the sofa, white as a fish and the Sun, and did not want anything. A couple of times she went down to the store for herring and radishes. Brian brought her money every night. Ina did not count them: she trusted him completely. Indifference is the sister of trust.

She no longer thought about tulips, or about shame, or about herself: for a whole week she just lay there, leafed through some books taken at random from the shelves, even read half of Meteorite (some complicated story about queer artists from San Francisco, which puzzled her by the fact that until about the seventeenth chapter she was sure that the author was a man, and then, when the author quoted a letter from his brother to their common mother, who mentioned him, the author as his “beloved sister,” Ina realized that the book was written by a woman and froze with horror: now you need to start reading it again, but already as a woman’s book, what a nightmare!), got involved in some anime series, gnawed apples and listened to herself and her desires.Her desires were excellent: Ina did not want anything at all. “Well, for ***,” Ina realized.

Looks like she just needed a vacation.

After Meteorite, she read a book by some young black writer about racism in schools (she was still worried about that story with protests), then she finished reading the diaries of John Cage, which her boyfriend-artist S.B. had left with her, even sat down to read Dostoevsky again, but scored. Again, I did not finish reading Nabokov’s “Gift”. Well, fuck him.

Ina felt a white empty dullness – she swam on these waters of indifference not even like a fish, but like a horseshoe crab: a terrible armored thing that nevertheless floats on its back upward with a tender belly, inside which heavy blue blood slowly pushes through the veins.

After a week of vacation, all the tulips were over, and there were no more tulips, that’s all.

“I don’t have it anymore,” she said to a surprised Brian.

“The guys are waiting,” he threw up his hands.

“Oh, well, solve this problem yourself somehow,” she said.

“This is the strangest job I’ve ever had,” Brian said, calling her the next day and finding out that there are no more tulips and probably won’t. – Are you depressed? Suicidal thoughts? Let me give you back the money I earned.I’m embarrassed, there is a lot of money.

When he mentioned the amount, Ina was surprised.

“Well, I just knew where to take them,” Brian explained. – Money is very much needed for the album. Now I’ll write it down. Yes, even if I give you half, I’ll have enough for the album. Let me bring you? And we’ll go somewhere with you. To the ocean, for example. There are fireworks in the evenings.

We could be a great team, Ina thought. Instead, she said:

– No, I don’t want to go anywhere.

And hung up.

The next day, in the middle of the apartment there was a whole mountain of ice tulips. I had to call Brian before they melted into the midday heat.

Running away, he said:

– Let’s go somewhere. If you don’t want to go to the beach or don’t want in the evening, suggest what you like. I swear everything will go well.

Ina agreed to the beach. Indeed, everything was fine, and Brian looked at her somehow in a special way: Ina tried to imagine herself through his eyes, but she did not succeed, and this failure of imagination gave birth to a special kind of pleasant indifference in her.

.