About all

Carbohydrates different types: Types of Carbohydrates | ADA


Types of Carbohydrates | ADA

Did you know there are three main types of carbohydrate in food? There are

You’ll also hear terms like naturally occurring sugar, added sugar, low-calorie sweeteners, sugar alcohols, reduced-calorie sweeteners, processed grains, enriched grains, complex carbohydrate, sweets, refined grains and whole grains.

No wonder knowing what kind and how much carbohydrate to eat can be confusing!

On the nutrition label, the term “total carbohydrate” includes all three types of carbohydrates. This is the number you should pay attention to if you are carbohydrate counting.


Foods high in starch include:

  • Starchy vegetables like peas, corn, lima beans and potatoes

  • Dried beans, lentils and peas such as pinto beans, kidney beans, black eyed peas and split peas

  • Grains like oats, barley and rice. (The majority of grain products in the US are made from wheat flour. These include pasta, bread and crackers but the variety is expanding to include other grains as well.)

The grain group can be broken down even further into whole grain or refined grain.

A grain contains three parts:

The bran is the outer hard shell of the grain. It is the part of the grain that provides the most fiber and most of the B vitamins and minerals.

The germ is the next layer and is packed with nutrients including essential fatty acids and vitamin E.

The endosperm is the soft part in the center of the grain. It contains the starch. Whole grain means that the entire grain kernel is in the food.

If you eat a whole grain food, it contains the bran, germ, and endosperm so you get all of the nutrients that whole grains have to offer. If you eat a refined grain food, it contains only the endosperm or the starchy part so you miss out on a lot of vitamins and minerals. Because whole grains contain the entire grain, they are much more nutritious than refined grains.


Sugar is another type of carbohydrate. You may also hear sugar referred to as simple or fast-acting carbohydrate.

There are two main types of sugar:

  • naturally occurring sugars such as those in milk or fruit

  • added sugars such as those added during processing such as fruit canned in heavy syrup or sugar added to make a cookie

On the nutrition facts label, the number of sugar grams includes both added and natural sugars.

There are many different names for sugar. Examples of common names are table sugar, brown sugar, molasses, honey, beet sugar, cane sugar, confectioner’s sugar, powdered sugar, raw sugar, turbinado, maple syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, agave nectar and sugar cane syrup.

You may also see table sugar listed by its chemical name, sucrose. Fruit sugar is also known as fructose and the sugar in milk is called lactose. You can recognize other sugars on labels because their chemical names also end in “-ose. ” For example glucose (also called dextrose), fructose (also called levulose), lactose and maltose.

If you are looking for information about artificial sweeteners, read the “sugar substitutes” section on this page.


Fiber comes from plant foods so there is no fiber in animal products such as milk, eggs, meat, poultry, and fish.

Fiber is the indigestible part of plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes. When you consume dietary fiber, most of it passes through the intestines and is not digested.

For good health, adults need to try to eat 25 to 30 grams of fiber each day. Most Americans do not consume nearly enough fiber in their diet, so while it is wise to aim for this goal, any increase in fiber in your diet can be beneficial. Most of us only get about half of what is recommended.

Fiber contributes to digestive health, helps to keep you regular, and helps to make you feel full and satisfied after eating.

Additional health benefits, of a diet high in fiber—such as a reduction in cholesterol levels—have been suggested by some so may be an additional benefit.

Good sources of dietary fiber include:

  • Beans and legumes. Think black beans, kidney beans, pintos, chickpeas (garbanzos), white beans, and lentils.

  • Fruits and vegetables, especially those with edible skin (for example, apples, corn and beans) and those with edible seeds (for example, berries).

  • Whole grains such as:

  • Whole wheat pasta

  • Whole grain cereals (Look for those with three grams of dietary fiber or more per serving, including those made from whole wheat, wheat bran, and oats.)

  • Whole grain breads (To be a good source of fiber, one slice of bread should have at least three grams of fiber. Another good indication: look for breads where the first ingredient is a whole grain. For example, whole wheat or oats. ) Many grain products now have “double fiber” with extra fiber added.

  • Nuts — try different kinds. Peanuts, walnuts and almonds are a good source of fiber and healthy fat, but watch portion sizes, because they also contain a lot of calories in a small amount.

In general, an excellent source of fiber contains five grams or more per serving, while a good source of fiber contains 2.5–4.9 grams per serving.

It is best to get your fiber from food rather than taking a supplement. In addition to the fiber, these foods have a wealth of nutrition, containing many important vitamins and minerals. In fact, they may contain nutrients that haven’t even been discovered yet!

It is also important that you increase your fiber intake gradually, to prevent stomach irritation, and that you increase your intake of water and other liquids, to prevent constipation.

Carbohydrates | The Nutrition Source

Carbohydrates: quality matters

What’s most important is the type of carbohydrate you choose to eat because some sources are healthier than others. The amount of carbohydrate in the diet – high or low – is less important than the type of carbohydrate in the diet. For example, healthy, whole grains such as whole wheat bread, rye, barley and quinoa are better choices than highly refined white bread or French fries. (1)

Many people are confused about carbohydrates, but keep in mind that it’s more important to eat carbohydrates from healthy foods than to follow a strict diet limiting or counting the number of grams of carbohydrates consumed.

What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods—bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant forms are sugars, fibers, and starches.

Foods high in carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. Carbohydrates provide the body with glucose, which is converted to energy used to support bodily functions and physical activity. But carbohydrate quality is important; some types of carbohydrate-rich foods are better than others:

  • The healthiest sources of carbohydrates—unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans—promote good health by delivering vitamins, minerals, fiber, and a host of important phytonutrients.
  • Unhealthier sources of carbohydrates include white bread, pastries, sodas, and other highly processed or refined foods.  These items contain easily digested carbohydrates that may contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.

The Healthy Eating Plate recommends filling most of your plate with healthy carbohydrates – with vegetables (except potatoes) and fruits taking up about half of your plate, and whole grains filling up about one fourth of your plate.

Try these tips for adding healthy carbohydrates to your diet:

1. Start the day with whole grains.
Try a hot cereal, like steel cut or old fashioned oats (not instant oatmeal), or a cold cereal that lists a whole grain first on the ingredient list and is low in sugar. A good rule of thumb: Choose a cereal that has at least 4 grams of fiber and less than 8 grams of sugar per serving.

2. Use whole grain breads for lunch or snacks.
Confused about how to find a whole-grain bread? Look for bread that lists as the first ingredient whole wheat, whole rye, or some other whole grain —and even better, one that is made with only whole grains, such as 100 percent whole wheat bread.

3. Also look beyond the bread aisle.
Whole wheat bread is often made with finely ground flour, and bread products are often high in sodium. Instead of bread, try a whole grain in salad form such as brown rice or quinoa.

4. Choose whole fruit instead of juice.
An orange has two times as much fiber and half as much sugar as a 12-ounce glass of orange juice.

5. Pass on potatoes, and instead bring on the beans.
Rather than fill up on potatoes – which have been found to promote weight gain  – choose beans for an excellent source of slowly digested carbohydrates. Beans and other legumes such as chickpeas also provide a healthy dose of protein.


1. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2392-404.


Terms of Use

The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.

Carbohydrates | American Heart Association

Carbohydrates, protein, fat, and alcohol are all sources of calories in the diet. These macronutrients can all be part of a healthy diet. Balancing the calories that we take in with those that we burn every day can help us maintain, gain, or lose weight. Learn some tips for fitting carbs in your diet.

Not All Carbs Are Created Equal

Food contains three types of carbohydrates: sugar, starches and fiber. Carbohydrates are either called simple or complex, depending on the food’s chemical structure and how quickly the sugar is digested and absorbed. The type of carbohydrates that you eat makes a difference – Foods that contain high amounts of simple sugars, especially fructose raise triglyceride levels. Triglycerides (or blood fats) are an important barometer of metabolic health; high levels may be associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and fatty liver.

  • Simple carbohydrates are digested quickly and send immediate bursts of glucose (energy) into the blood stream. That’s why you may feel a rush of energy when you eat a dessert, only to be followed by a crash of fatigue when that sudden burst of energy is depleted. Simple sugars are found in refined sugars, like the white sugar you’d find in a sugar bowl. Added sugars (including refined sugars) provide calories, but lack vitamins, minerals and fiber and can lead to weight gain.

    But not all simple sugars are alike. There are also simple sugars in more nutritious foods, like fruit and milk. These are “naturally occurring” sugars and, unlike refined sugars, these sugars often come with vitamins, minerals, and fiber that our bodies need.

  • Complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly and supply a lower more steady release of glucose into the blood stream. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others.
    Refined grains, such as white flour and white rice, have been processed, which removes many nutrients and fiber. Many foods containing refined grains like white flour, sugar and white rice lack B vitamins and other important nutrients unless they’re marked “enriched.” By contrast, unrefined whole grains retain many of these vital nutrients and are rich in fiber, which helps your digestive system work well. Fiber helps you feel full, so you are less likely to overeat these foods. That explains why you will feel full longer after eating a bowl of oatmeal compared to the same amount of calories of sugary candy.

Why do I need carbohydrates?

When you eat carbs, your body breaks them down into simple sugars, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. As the sugar level rises in your body, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin is needed to move sugar from the blood into the cells, where the sugar can be used as a source of energy.

When this process goes fast — as with simple sugars like sugar-sweetened beverages and high-calorie desserts — you’re more likely to feel hungry again soon.

When it occurs more slowly, as with a whole-grain food, you’ll feel satisfied longer because it takes longer for your body to break down the complex carbohydrates in whole-grains into simple sugars. These types of complex carbohydrates give you energy over a longer period of time.

The carbs in some foods (mostly those that contain a lot of simple sugars) cause the blood sugar level to rise more quickly than others. How fast or slow carbohydrates are turned into blood glucose are measured on the glycemic index. If you’re healthy, carbohydrates turn into glucose (blood sugar), which your body uses for energy. But if your blood glucose levels become too high or too low, it could be a sign that your body can have trouble producing the insulin that it needs to stay healthy which can eventually result in diabetes.

Simple carbohydrates found in processed, refined or added sugars that do not contain any nutritional value include:

  • Candy
  • Regular (non-diet) carbonated beverages, such as soda
  • Syrups
  • Table sugar
  • Added sugar

Complex carbohydrates, often referred to as “starchy” foods, include:

  • Legumes
  • Starchy vegetables
  • Whole-grain and fiber

Try and get carbohydrates, vitamins and other nutrients in as natural a form as possible.  For example, enjoy fruit instead of a soft drink and aim for whole grains instead of processed flours

So when it comes to carbohydrates follow these recommendations:

  1. Limit foods that are high in processed, refined simple sugars provide calories but they have very little nutrition.
  2. Get more complex carbohydrates and healthy nutrients by eating more fruits and vegetables.
  3. Focus on whole-grain rice, breads and cereals, and don’t forget the legumes — beans, lentils and dried peas.

What Are the 3 Types of Carbohydrates?

What Are the 3 Types of Carbohydrates?

Image Credit: Eugene Mymrin/Moment/GettyImages

Carbohydrates often get clumped together in two extreme categories: good and bad. Carbohydrates are the body’s primary source of energy. Everyone needs them, but it’s important to known which ones are good for you and which ones aren’t.

Often referred to as simple or complex carbohydrates, the three types of carbohydrates — sugar, starch and fiber — all have a place in your diet. Simple carbs, which include sugar, are monosaccharides and disaccharides. Complex carbs, which include starches and fiber, are polysaccharides.

Basic Carbohydrate Facts

The classification of carbohydrates depends on their chemical structure. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbs. These include glucose, fructose and galactose. Glucose is commonly referred to as blood sugar and naturally occurs in fruits and sweeteners. Fructose is fruit sugar and is also the sugar in honey and vegetables. Galactose helps form lactose.

Disaccharides are sugars that contain two monosaccharides linked together. They will eventually be broken down into two separate carbohydrates. Sucrose, lactose and maltose are disaccharides. Sucrose, or plain table sugar, is made of glucose and fructose. Lactose, the sugar found in milk, contains glucose and galactose. Maltose is made of two glucose units and is found in germinating grains.

Polysaccharides are the most complex of carbohydrates. They are the starches and fiber in the diet. They are made of many monosaccharides joined together.

Simple Carbohydrates for Energy

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. Specifically, the brain prefers glucose over anything else. Simple sugars are easily used for energy and are rapidly absorbed by the body, because they can be broken down quickly in to glucose.

Fructose and sucrose are natural sugars found in fruits and vegetables. Lactose is the natural sugar in milk. When you obtain natural sugar from whole foods such as these, you get a boost of energy while consuming vital nutrients.

Added sugars, or sugar that is added during food processing, contribute calories for energy but don’t have other redeeming qualities. They lack nutrients, cause unhealthy spikes in blood sugar and promote weight gain, notes the American Heart Association.

Starches for Energy

Starches can be broken down into glucose to provide energy for the body. Different types of starches are digested at varying rates. These include slowly digestible starch, rapidly digestible starch and resistant starch.

Slowly digestible starch gives you long-term energy and helps you feel full. Rapidly digestible starch, such as highly processed grains, digests quickly and can spike blood sugar. The third type, called resistant starch, isn’t digested; it’s fermented in the large intestine and is great for gut health.

Starchy foods deliver essential vitamins, minerals and fiber. Examples of these foods include whole grains, peas, beans, corn, pasta, rice and potatoes. Many of these starchy foods, such as peas and beans, are also sources of protein. Avoid refined grains and go with whole grains to get the full nutritional benefit.

Fiber and Its Health Benefits

When you consume fiber, most of it goes through your digestive tract without being digested. Fiber-rich foods, such as beans, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, contain different proportions of the two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber keeps your blood sugar steady by slowing down the absorption of carbs into your system. It also helps bind to fat and cholesterol and removes it from the body, which can help lower your blood cholesterol level. Soluble fiber can be found in citrus fruits, apples, legumes and oats.

Insoluble fiber prevents constipation by keeping digestive wastes moving through your intestines. This can reduce the risk of hemorrhoids and diverticular disease. Brown rice, oats, popcorn, nuts and seeds are sources of insoluble fiber.

Fiber passes through the body, so it is not a source of energy or calories. Women should consume 25 grams of fiber daily, while men need to get 38 grams each day, according to the Institute of Medicine.

Carbohydrates Food – Truth About Carbohydrates, Health Benefits

Carbohydrates (Carbohydrates Foods) are a nutrient found in many foods that are converted into sugars during the digestive process. You might have heard that carbohydrates, or carbs, are bad for you, but this is not necessarily true. In fact, your body needs carbohydrates to function well and to provide energy. Carbohydrates are a type of macronutrient found in many foods and beverages. Most carbohydrates are naturally occurring in plant-based foods, such as grains. Food manufacturers also add carbohydrates to processed foods in the form of starch or added sugar. The most basic carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, which joins together one or two units of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Carbs are divided into main three groups: simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. The three different types of carbohydrates vary in nutritional value and are broken down in different ways during digestion. Learning about the three kinds of carbohydrates can help you make smart food choices in order to stay healthy every day. Common sources of naturally occurring carbohydrates food include fruits, vegetables, milk, grains, legumes, and other starchy vegetables.

1. Simple Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are sometimes called simple sugars, mainly because they contain either natural or added sugar. Simple carbohydrates as foods that satisfy your sweet tooth, because they taste sweet and usually contain such sweeteners as honey, sugar, molasses, or corn syrup. Dairy products and some fruits and vegetables are also classified as simple carbohydrates because they contain natural sugars. Sugars include fruit sugar (fructose), table sugar (sucrose), and milk sugar (lactose).

2. Complex Carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates, called starches, are carbs that are made from several linked strings or chains of sugars. Complex carbs are often healthier than simple carbs because in addition to being starchy, they also provide you with some of your dietary fiber. Examples of complex carbs are corn, bread, cereal, pasta, and rice. Like simple carbohydrates, complex carbs can cause a spike in your blood glucose levels that, in some people, can lead to insulin resistance. Starch occurs naturally in vegetables, grains, and cooked dry beans and peas.

3. Fiber
Fiber is the third type of carbohydrate. Although it is categorized as a complex carbohydrate, fiber does not act like the other two forms of carbs. Your body can’t completely digest fiber, so it can’t be broken down into sugars. Fiber can help regulate blood glucose levels, as well as lower cholesterol levels, and promote regular digestion and excretion of waste. Whole grains and many fruits and vegetables, including dark leafy greens and orange-colored fruits and vegetables, are rich in fiber. Whole grains are not processed as fully as the flours used to make foods that fall into the simple carbohydrates; the refinement process of white flours removes fiber. Lentils, peas, and dried beans are also fiber-rich foods that can contribute to a healthy digestive system.

Carbohydrates Food and Your Health

Providing energy
Your body uses carbohydrates as its main fuel source. They are absorbed into your bloodstream, where they’re known as blood sugar (glucose). From there, the glucose enters your body’s cells with the help of insulin. Some of this glucose is used by your body for energy, fueling all of your activities, whether it’s going for a walk or daily living. Extra glucose is stored in your liver, muscles and other cells for later use or is converted to fat.

Protecting against disease
Some research shows that whole grains and dietary fiber from whole foods help reduce your risk of cardiovascular diseases. Fiber may also protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is also essential for digestive health.

Controlling weight
Evidence shows that eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains can help you control your weight. Their bulk and fiber content aids weight control by helping you feel full on fewer calories.

Tips: Choose the right carbs

  • Eat fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for whole fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables without added sugar. They’re better options than are fruit juices and dried fruits, which are concentrated sources of natural sugar and therefore have more calories.
  • Choose whole grains. All types of grains are good sources of carbohydrates. They’re also rich in vitamins and minerals and naturally low in fat. But whole grains are healthier choices than are refined grains. Whole grains are better sources of fiber and other important nutrients, such as selenium, potassium, and magnesium. Refined grains go through a process that strips out certain parts of the grain — along with some of the nutrients and fiber.
  • Stick to low-fat dairy products. Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products are good sources of calcium and protein, plus many other vitamins and minerals. Choose the low-fat versions, though, to help limit calories and saturated fat.
  • Limit added sugars. There is no health advantage to consuming any amount of added sugar. In fact, too much added sugar, and in some cases naturally occurring sugar, can lead to such health problems as tooth decay, poor nutrition, and weight gain.

Types of Carbohydrates –

Carbohydrates are one of your body’s main sources of energy. While we can most certainly survive and even thrive without sugar, it would be quite difficult and often dangerous to completely eliminate carbohydrates from your diet. Why? Because these carbohydrates supply energy whenever and wherever we need it.

To be very precise, carbs are one of 3 macronutrients found in food – the others being fat and protein. All three are important for our health, including maintaining a healthy weight, blood glucose level management, and muscle mass.

In this article we will focus on carbohydrates exclusively, including their health benefits, healthier sources of carbohydrates, and how they can help you maintain a healthy weight.

Types of Carbohydrates

All carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars in our bodies. As the sugar level rises in the bloodstream, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, which is needed to move sugar from the blood into the cells, where the sugar can be used as energy. This is exactly how the carbs provide us with energy. So how many different types of carbs are there? We can identify 3 different types of carbohydrates: sugars, starch and fiber.

Sugars are simple carbohydrates such as fructose, glucose, and lactose.

There are two types of sugar: naturally occurring and added sugars. A high-sugar diet is often linked with obesity and tooth decay. So let’s review naturally occurring sugar and added sugar.

  • Sugars in honey, syrups (such as maple, agave and golden), nectars (such as blossom), and unsweetened fruit juices, vegetable juices and smoothies occur naturally.
  • There are also added sugars. These are any sugars added to food or drinks. These include sugars in cakes, cookies, sweetened drinks, processed foods, chocolate, flavored yoghurts, breakfast cereals and sodas. These sugars are added by food manufacturer, restaurants or at home. Foods that are high in added sugar also tend to be high in calories and low in nutrition.

Opting for natural sugars, such as those found in dairy and fruits is always a better choice than grabbing a snack filled with added sugars.

Starches are complex carbs that consist of many sugar molecules joined together

Traditionally, complex carbs have been viewed as healthier options because they gradually release sugar into the blood, rather than causing blood sugar levels to spike rapidly.

Starches include bread, rice, pasta, cereal grains and root vegetables and starchy vegetables like beans, peas, corn, and potatoes. They are good sources of minerals, B vitamins, and fiber. Starchy foods can also provide fiber which is needed for good digestive health and is associated with a lower risk of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and bowel cancer.

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that the body can’t digest

And that’s a good thing. Even though most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and instead it passes through the body undigested. Fiber helps regulate the body’s use of sugars, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar in check.

A diet rich in fiber can help digestion and prevent constipation. There is also some evidence to suggest that choosing foods with more fiber can also makes us feel fuller.

Complex vs. Simple Carbs

Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and are a more stable source of energy than simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates take longer to break down, they provide more lasting energy in the body than simple carbohydrates. Both types of carbohydrate are often present in many foods.

What are some examples of complex carbs?

Examples of complex carb foods include brown rice, quinoa, barley, bulgur, oatmeal, other whole grains. Potatoes and sweet potatoes, corn, and legumes, are also complex carbohydrates.

Unlike simple carbs, complex carbohydrates are digested slowly, causing a gradual rise in blood sugar. They’re usually high in nutrients and fiber, which can help prevent serious disease, aid with weight-loss, and improve your energy levels. In general, “good” carbohydrates have a lower glycemic load and can even help guard against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular problems in the future.

Complex carbs include:

  • Unrefined whole grains – whole wheat or multigrain bread, brown rice, barley, quinoa, bran cereal, oatmeal
  • Non-starchy vegetables – spinach, green beans, Brussels sprouts, celery, tomatoes
  • Legumes – kidney beans, baked beans, peas, lentils
  • Nuts – peanuts, cashews, walnuts

How about simple carbs?

Simple carbohydrates are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. They are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks. Some examples include:

  • White sugar
  • brown sugar
  • Corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup.
  • Glucose, fructose, and sucrose.
  • Fruit juice concentrate

Refined vs. unrefined carbs

All of the carbohydrates also fall into one of two groups: they’re either refined or unrefined. Unrefined carbohydrates refer to those carbohydrates that are in their natural state. For example, when a starch is found in nature it’s considered to be unrefined.  When it’s been changed and altered so that it no longer resembles its original design, it’s considered to be refinedRefined carbohydrates undergo processing, which removes many essential vitamins and minerals.

Unrefined Carbs

Natural foods such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and uncooked vegetables are all top sources of unrefined carbohydrates. Consuming the recommended amount of these unrefined foods can be beneficial to your health.

These are usually starches that are comprised mostly of glucose, the primary sugar in our blood.  Glucose is the sugar that our body calls upon to supply energy wherever and whenever needed.  Building cells, healing wounds, thinking thoughts or moving limbs – all those processes require glucose.

Some examples of unrefined carbohydrates include:

  • Whole grains (brown rice, whole wheat flour, quinoa, buckwheat)
  • Legumes (chickpeas, peanuts, beans and peas)
  • Vegetables (root vegetables such as carrots, or broccoli and spinach)

Refined Carbs

The main dietary sources of refined carbs are white flour, white bread, white rice, cookies, cakes, pastries, sodas, snacks, pasta, sweets, breakfast cereals and added sugars. They are also added to all sorts of processed foods. Basically refined carbs are simple carbs. They are sugars and refined grains that have been stripped of all bran, fiber, and nutrients.

Some examples of refined carbohydrates include:

  • White stuff: white bread,  white flour, cakes and pastries, white rice, white sugar
  • Cereals
  • Pizza dough


A beginners guide to healthier food with good carbs


Carbs, or carbohydrates to give them their full name, are your body’s primary source of energy. If your goal is to become healthier then you need to know your carbs. So, here is a beginner guide.

They are made up of fibre, starch, and sugar. In short, fibre and starch are complex carbohydrates, while sugar is a simple carb. How much of each of these you eat determines its nutrient quality. The more fibrous the carbohydrate the better it generally tends to be.

The body turns all carbs in glycogen – a form of glucose – and stores it in your muscles, liver and bloodstream. Your body can then use this stored energy when needed. What makes them different is how quickly the body converts them.

The 3 types of carbs

Roughly carbs provide 4 calories for every gram. You often hear people talk of good and bad carbs. This is because there are 3 different types of carbohydrate and each act a different way on the body. The 3 types are:

  1. Fibrous carbohydrates. These contain high levels of fibre. This acts to slow the conversion of carbs into glycogen, which sustains your energy supply over the day. It also helps maintain a constant level of blood sugar, ensuring you remain alert throughout the day.
  2. Simple carbohydrates. These are sugars and are rapidly converted by your body and used quickly as energy. This means your blood sugar level rises and falls quickly. If you find yourself slumped over your desk mid-afternoon then you are eating too many simple carbs. Your body is craving more sugar to keep you ticking over, making you more likely to reach for sugary snacks as a boost.
  3. Complex carbohydrates. These are starchy foods such as white pasta, rice, potatoes and bread. They also raise your blood sugar level. Any rise in blood sugar levels causes a sharp rise in insulin. This promotes glycogen storage. However, high levels of insulin production also promote the fat storage. So while you enjoy a surge of energy, you are also adding to that spare tyre unless you are a dedicated body-builder.

Foods with fibrous carbs

So, for a general healthier lifestyle that boosts your wellbeing you need to eat more fibrous carbohydrates and fewer simple and complex carbs. However, if you are very physically active with pursuits such as body-building you will find complex carbohydrates useful.

As a rule of thumb, when buying foods you should be looking on the packet for 1 gram of fibre to 10 grams of carbohydrates. Daily foods that contain fibrous carbs are:

  • Cauliflower
  • Broccoli
  • Green Beans
  • Cabbage
  • Brussels Sprouts
  • Peas
  • Carrots
  • Courgettes

So, what are the foods with simple and complex carbohydrates in them? They are:

High in simple carbohydrates

  • Sugar (white/brown)
  • Jam, honey, marmalade
  • Most boxed cereals
  • Tinned fruits
  • Yoghurt
  • Fromage frais
  • Ice cream
  • Jelly
  • Sweets/chocolates
  • Biscuits
  • Cakes

High in complex carbohydrates

  • Bread (brown/whole wheat)
  • Pasta (brown if possible)
  • Rice (brown if possible)
  • Noodles
  • Oats/porridge
  • Breakfast cereals (whole wheat only)

You can find out more about carbohydrates on the NHS Change4Life website here.

90,000 Complex Carbohydrates: Food List | NUR.KZ

Legumes: Pixabay

Complex carbohydrates are those substances, of which the body draws energy. There are a set of diets based on on regulation consumption of carbohydrates. I’ll tell you about products that contain .

Products containing complex carbohydrates: list

Carbohydrates are organic substances made up of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They are needed for the human body to receive energy for a full-fledged existence, the article says, carbohydrates also increase the level of immunity and are needed for the brain to function.

Simple carbohydrates and those that are called complex are distinguished. The former quickly saturate the body, increasing the blood sugar content. They are valuable for the health of the body, but based on personal experience, it is better to consume these carbohydrates at the beginning of the day.Then it is easier for the body to regulate the amount of sugar, and it will not create fat deposits.

Read also

Broccoli for the winter: recipes for harvesting

Complex carbohydrates are processed by the human body for a long time and supply it with important nutrients and energy for a long time, says WebMD.

Types of complex carbohydrates


A substance produced by all plants. Once in the human body, it becomes glucose, which supplies the body with energy.

Sources of starch are potatoes, brown rice, as well as oatmeal and buckwheat, rye bread, and legumes such as peas, lentils and soybeans.


This is a dietary fiber that does not dissolve during the digestive process, notes WebMD. At the same time, they have the ability to regulate blood cholesterol levels, improve intestinal microflora and remove toxins from the body.

Fiber is found in the form of pulp or husk and skin. It is rich in legumes, cabbage, mushrooms and seeds.

Read also

How to salt cabbage for the winter with slices: simple recipes

Fiber is an indispensable component of many diets. However, based on practical experience, I cannot but note that it is contraindicated for some people. In order not to harm your health, I recommend that you coordinate the use of fiber with your doctor.

White cabbage: Pixabay

Glycogen, or the so-called animal starch

Its body receives from the remains of glucose and uses it as a reserve energy.

Glycogen is found in watermelons, raisins, dried apricots, figs, and irga.


Soluble dietary fiber capable of lowering blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

They are rich in seaweed, berries (currants, cherries, raspberries), fruits like peaches, apples, pears, plums and apricots, as well as vegetables like beets and eggplant.

Foods containing complex carbohydrates

Read also

How to store apples for the winter at home

Many vegetables and some fruits

In cabbage, green beans, bell peppers, tomatoes, pomelo, zucchini, pomegranate, raspberries, cherries and lemon is enough to nourish the body.


Many cereals, with the exception of semolina, are sources containing these carbohydrates. Porridge made from buckwheat, wheat, bulgur and oats will provide the body with complex carbohydrates.


Invaluable stores of complex carbohydrates are spinach, lettuce, various types of salad.


Chickpeas, lentils and peas with beans also contain the necessary substances.

Fruit juices

Juices from tomatoes, pineapple, oranges, carrots and apples prepared correctly, without preservatives, colors and sweeteners, will provide the necessary supply of complex carbohydrates.

Fruit juices: Pixabay

Complex carbohydrates: foods that are not harmful to the figure

Read also

How to store pumpkin correctly in winter

Carbohydrates in foods are of different types and types. Therefore, it is important to have information in which type of food contains healthy carbohydrates.

The list of products in which, firstly, there are complex carbohydrates, and secondly, useful for the figure, looks like this:


Oat flakes fibers provide vigor and vitality for a long time.Therefore, the product is recommended to be consumed in the morning by those who take care of their figure.

In addition, the cereal goes well with fruits and berries, which also contain similar carbohydrates.


Seasonal vegetables contain complex carbohydrates and a whole vitamin and mineral complex necessary for the body.

Zucchini and celery are the top vegetable recommended by my fellow nutritionists. The first contains a lot of vitamins and dietary fiber. They are able to reduce cholesterol levels.Celery, on the other hand, is rich in both fiber and minerals, thereby improving the digestion process.

Read also

How to salt milk mushrooms for the winter in a cold and hot way

Fruits and berries, which are low in sugar

Fruits improve the metabolic processes of the body thanks to fiber, pectins and other useful substances.

Apples, grapefruit, watermelon, strawberries and cranberries are an indispensable diet for a person who follows a figure.

Nuts and Seeds

Products recommended for use between meals.Due to the fiber content, they are able to remove toxins and toxins from the body. At the same time, do not forget that seeds and nuts are high in calories. In order not to harm the figure, I recommend that you contact a specialist for advice on the permissible daily intake of these products.

Carbohydrates in food, if used correctly, will provide energy for a long time, strengthen the immune system and keep the figure slim.

Attention! The material is for informational purposes only.You should not resort to the treatment described in it without first consulting your doctor.


  1. Laura J. Martin. What are carbohydrates (carbs)? // WebMD. – 2016. – June 26.
  2. Michael Dansinger. What is the difference between simple and complex carbs? // WebMD. – 2018 .– 12 May.
  3. Suzanne R. Steinbaum. What is the definition of complex carbohydrates? // WebMD. – 2017 .– October 29.

Author: Candidate of Medical Sciences Anna Ivanovna Tikhomirova

Reviewer: Candidate of Medical Sciences, Professor Ivan Georgievich Maksakov

Original article: https: // www.nur.kz/food/healthy-eating/1744281-sloznye-uglevody-spisok-produktov/

90,000 7 kinds of nutrients. Which is more important?

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water are the 7 main components of food. Each of the components performs specific functions and takes part in the regulation of physiological processes, therefore they are all necessary for the normal functioning of the body.

Carbohydrates, being the main source of energy, provide the body with heat and fuel for work.Proteins provide the building blocks for the growth and repair of all cells and tissues. Fats are a reserve accumulator of energy for a “rainy day”, a source of important components for the regulation of metabolism, including hormonal metabolism. Fiber acts as a vacuum cleaner, helping the body to cleanse itself of toxins, and also maintains normal intestinal microflora. Vitamins and minerals, interacting with each other, provide most of the biochemical reactions. As a universal solvent, water is the most important regulator of metabolism and ensures the functioning of all body functions.

Different nutrients predominate in different food categories. For example, meat is an excellent source of protein, while grains are rich in carbohydrates and vegetables and fruits are high in vitamins and fiber.

There is no single most important nutrient. They are all of equal value, and their ratio in the diet must be balanced. A deficiency of at least one of the nutrients is fraught with health problems. For example, if you experience weakness, decreased concentration, mood swings, fatigue for a long time, your diet may not contain enough carbohydrates.Protein deficiency can lead to decreased immunity, anemia, muscle weakness, and wasting. Lack of healthy fats can lead to hormonal imbalance, dryness and flaking of the skin. Fiber deficiency leads to intestinal disruption and dysbiosis. And water imbalance threatens intoxication and metabolic disorders.

Despite the fact that the listed substances are necessary for every person, their optimal ratio is always individual. Factors that influence nutrient requirements are genetics, age, weight, activity level, lifestyle, gender, and health status.For example, for a healthy 35-year-old man with a weight of 85 kg, working in the office and attending the gym 2 times a week, the need for nutrients is as follows:

Calorie range: 2400-2650 kcal

Protein norm: 200-210 g

Fat norm : 67-70 g

Carbohydrate norm: 270-320 g

It is very important to know exactly what your individual needs are. It is the foundation of good nutrition and the first step towards a healthy lifestyle. To find out what amount of nutrients you need and what their ratio will be correct, it is best to consult a nutritionist or nutritionist.Or use the ONETRAK Sport smart bracelet app, which will not only calculate your daily allowance, but also help you comply with it.

Balance, moderation and variety are the main characteristics of a healthy diet. Your well-being, health, external changes, sports achievements and even mood depend on it.

Assimilation of proteins, fats, carbohydrates. Glycemic Load .: fat_is_dead – LiveJournal

Some people believe that carbohydrates, fats and proteins are always fully absorbed by the body.Many people think that absolutely all the calories present on their plate (and, of course, calculated) calories will enter the bloodstream and leave their mark on our body. In fact, everything is different. Let’s take a look at the absorption of each of the macronutrients separately.

Digestion (assimilation) is a combination of mechanical and biochemical processes, due to which food absorbed by a person is converted into substances necessary for the functioning of the body.

The digestion process usually begins in the mouth, after which the chewed food enters the stomach, where it undergoes various biochemical treatments (mainly protein is processed at this stage).The process continues in the small intestine, where, under the influence of various food enzymes, carbohydrates are converted into glucose, lipids are broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides, and proteins into amino acids. All these substances, absorbed through the intestinal wall, enter the bloodstream and are carried throughout the body.

Absorption of macronutrients does not last for hours and does not stretch over the entire 6.5 meters of the small intestine. The assimilation of carbohydrates and lipids by 80%, and proteins by 50% is carried out during the first 70 centimeters of the small intestine.

Absorption of carbohydrates

The absorption of different types of carbohydrates occurs in different ways, since they have different chemical structures, and therefore, different absorption rates. Under the action of various enzymes, complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple and less complex sugars, which are of several types.

How and why is the rate of absorption of various carbohydrates different?

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a system for classifying the glycemic potential of carbohydrates in various foods. Basically, this system looks at how a particular product affects blood glucose levels.

Clearly: if we eat 50 g of sugar (50% glucose / 50% fructose) (see the picture below) and 50 g of glucose and check the blood glucose level after 2 hours, then the GI of sugar will be lower than that of pure glucose, since its amount in sugar is lower.

What if we eat an equal amount of glucose, for example, 50 g of glucose and 50 g of starch? Starch is a long chain, consisting of a large number of glucose units, but in order for these “units” to be found in the blood, the chain must be processed: each compound must be split and released into the blood one at a time.Therefore, starch has a lower GI, since the blood glucose level after eaten starch will be lower than after glucose. Imagine if you throw a spoonful of sugar or a cube of refined sugar into tea, which will dissolve faster?

Glycemic reaction to foods:

  • left – slow absorption of starchy foods with low GI;
  • right – rapid absorption of glucose with a sharp drop in blood glucose as a result of a rapid release of insulin into the blood.
What do the GI numbers mean for different products?

GI is a relative value and is measured in relation to the effect of glucose on glycemia.The above is an example of a glycemic response to eaten pure glucose and starch. In the same experimental way, the GI was measured for over a thousand food products.

When we see the number “10” next to cabbage, it means that the strength of its effect on glycemia will be equal to 10% of the effect of glucose, for a pear 50%, etc.

From this It clearly follows that by choosing foods with a low GI, we will consciously avoid sudden changes in blood glucose levels, thereby maintaining a constant energy balance in the body.

We can influence glucose levels by choosing foods that are not only low GI but also low in carbohydrates called glycemic load (GL).

GN takes into account both the GI of the product and the amount of glucose that will enter the bloodstream when it is consumed. For example, it is not uncommon for foods with a high GI to have low GBV. The table shows that it makes no sense to look at only one parameter – it is necessary to consider the picture comprehensively.

It is important to understand that you can get rid of unwanted fat without reducing the amount of food consumed, but only by learning to choose the right foods.


Glycemic index

Carbohydrates (g / 100g)

Energy (cal / 100g)

Glycemic load

Mango 80 15 67 5
Buckwheat 40 68 330 27
Condensed milk 80 56 320 45

(1) Although the content of carbohydrates in buckwheat and in condensed milk is almost the same, these products have different GIs, because the type of carbohydrates in them is different.Therefore, if buckwheat leads to a gradual release of carbohydrates into the blood, then condensed milk will cause a sharp jump. (2) Despite the identical GI in mango and condensed milk, their effect on blood glucose will be different, this time not because the types of carbohydrates are different, but because the amount of these carbohydrates is significantly different.

Food Glycemic Index and Weight Loss

Let’s start simple: There is a huge amount of scientific and medical research that indicates that low GI foods have a positive effect on weight loss.There are many biochemical mechanisms involved in this, but let’s name the most relevant for us:

  1. Foods with a low GI cause a greater feeling of satiety than foods with a high GI.
  2. After consuming foods with a high GI, insulin levels rise, which stimulates the absorption of glucose and lipids into muscles, fat cells and liver, while simultaneously stopping the breakdown of fat. As a consequence, blood glucose and fatty acid levels fall and this stimulates hunger and new food intake.
  3. Foods with different GIs have different effects on fat breakdown during rest and during sports training. Glucose from low GI foods is not as actively deposited into glycogen, but glycogen is not burned as actively during exercise, which indicates an increased use of fats for this purpose.

So why we recommend one product and NOT recommend another.

Why do we eat wheat but not wheat flour?

  • The finer the product is (mainly cereals), the higher the GI of the product.
  • The more fiber a food contains, the lower its GI.

Differences between wheat flour (GI 85) and wheat grain (GI 15) fall under both of these criteria. This means that the process of breaking down starch from grain is longer and the resulting glucose enters the bloodstream more slowly than from flour, thereby providing the body with the necessary energy for a longer time.

Why do we recommend beets and other high GI vegetables?

  • The more fiber a product contains, the lower its GI.
  • The amount of carbohydrates in the food is just as important as the GI.

Beets are a vegetable with a higher fiber content than flour. Despite the fact that she has a high glycemic index, she has a low carbohydrate content, i.e. a lower glycemic load. In this case, despite the fact that her GI is the same as that of a grain product, the amount of glucose entering the blood will be much less.

Why is it better to eat fresh vegetables than boiled ones?

  • The GI of raw vegetables and fruits is lower than boiled ones.

This rule applies not only to carrots, but also to all vegetables with a high starch content, such as sweet potatoes, potatoes, beets, etc. During the cooking process, a significant part of the starch is converted into maltose (disaccharide), which is very quickly absorbed …

Therefore, the GI of cooked foods is significantly higher than that of raw foods.

Therefore, it is better not to boil even boiled vegetables, but to make sure that they remain whole and firm.However, if you have a medical condition such as gastritis or stomach ulcers, it is still best to eat cooked vegetables.

P Why do we recommend adding vegetables to proteins?

  • Combining protein with carbohydrates reduces the GI of a serving.

Proteins, on the one hand, slow down the absorption of simple sugars into the bloodstream, on the other hand, the very presence of carbohydrates contributes to the best assimilation of proteins.In addition, vegetables also contain fiber that is good for the body.

Why is it better to eat an apple than drink apple juice?

Natural products, unlike juices, contain fiber and thus lower the GI. Moreover, it is advisable to eat fruits and vegetables with the peel, not only because the peel is fiber, but also because most of the vitamins are directly attached to the peel.

Protein digestion

The process of digesting proteins requires increased acidity in the stomach.Gastric juice with high acidity is necessary for the activation of enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins into peptides, as well as for the primary dissociation of food proteins in the stomach. From the stomach, peptides and amino acids enter the small intestine, where some of them are absorbed through the intestinal walls into the blood, and some are further broken down into individual amino acids.

To optimize this process, it is necessary to neutralize the acidity of the gastric solution, and the pancreas is responsible for this, as well as bile produced by the liver and necessary for the absorption of fatty acids.
Proteins from food are divided into two categories: complete and deficient.

Complete proteins are proteins that contain all the amino acids necessary (irreplaceable) for our body. The source of these proteins is mainly animal proteins, i.e. meat, dairy products, fish and eggs. There are also plant-based sources of complete protein such as soy and quinoa.

Defective proteins contain only a fraction of the essential amino acids. It is believed that legumes and grains themselves contain deficient proteins, but their combination allows us to obtain all the essential amino acids.

Therefore, in order for the body to receive all the necessary elements, that is, the entire spectrum of essential amino acids, it is necessary to eat a variety of foods.

In many national cuisines, the right combinations that lead to a full intake of proteins have arisen naturally. So, in the Middle East, pita with hummus or falafel (wheat with chickpeas) or rice with lentils is common; in Mexico and South America, rice is often combined with beans or corn.

One of the parameters that determine the quality of the protein is the presence of essential amino acids . In accordance with this parameter, there is a product indexing system.

For example, the amino acid lysine is found in small quantities in cereals, and therefore they receive a low rating (flakes – 59; whole wheat – 42), and legumes contain a small amount of essential methionine and cysteine ​​(chickpeas – 78; beans – 74 ; legumes – 70). Animal proteins and soybeans are highly rated on this scale, as they contain the necessary proportions of all essential amino acids (casein (milk) – 100; egg white – 100; soy protein – 100; beef – 92).

Nutritional density is determined by the amount of energy (caloric content) of the product per gram of weight. Fried potatoes have a higher nutritional density than tomatoes.

Nutritional value of the product – an index that determines the amount of useful nutrients in relation to energy density. Condensed milk has a lower nutritional value than oatmeal, although they have the same calorie content.

In addition, it is necessary to take into account the protein composition of , their digestibility from this product, as well as the nutritional value of the entire product (the presence of vitamins, fats, minerals and calories).For example, a hamburger will contain a lot of protein, but also a lot of saturated fatty acids, therefore, its nutritional value will be lower than that of chicken breast.

Proteins from different sources and even different proteins from one source (casein and whey protein) are utilized by the body at different rates [5].

Nutrients from food are not 100% digestible. The degree of their absorption can vary significantly depending on the physicochemical composition of the product itself and the products absorbed simultaneously with it, the characteristics of the organism and the composition of the intestinal microflora.

Why do we detox?

The main goal for detox is to get out of your comfort zone and try new nutrition systems.

Avoiding certain foods gives us the opportunity to truly appreciate the effects of those foods on our body.

Moreover, very often, like a cookie for tea, eating meat and dairy products is a habit. We have never had the opportunity to investigate their importance to us in the diet and understand how much we need them.

In addition to the above, most dietary organizations recommend that a healthy diet be based on plenty of plant foods. This exit from your comfort zone will send you in search of new tastes and recipes and diversify your daily diet after.

Over the years of research, a considerable amount of scientific literature has accumulated, indicating the negative consequences of excessive consumption of animal protein.

In particular, research results indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes.

At the same time, low-carbohydrate, but high-protein diets based on plant-based protein sources lead to a decrease in the concentration of fatty acids in the blood [6] and to a decrease in the risk of heart disease [7].

But even with a strong desire to unload our body, we should not forget about the peculiarities of each of us. Such a relatively abrupt change in diet can cause discomfort or side effects such as bloating (a consequence of a large amount of plant protein and features of the intestinal microflora), weakness, and dizziness.These symptoms may indicate that such a strict diet is not entirely suitable for you.

What do long-term protein diets lead to?

High-protein diets limit the variety in the diet you need to get all the nutrients your body needs and increase the risk of many chronic diseases.

When a person consumes a large amount of protein, especially in combination with a low amount of carbohydrates, fat breakdown occurs, during which substances called ketones are formed.Ketones can have negative effects on the kidneys, which produce acid to neutralize it.

There are claims that skeletal bones release calcium to restore acid-base balance, and therefore increased calcium leaching is associated with a high intake of animal protein. Also, a protein diet leads to dehydration and weakness, headaches, dizziness, bad breath.

Assimilation of fats

Fat, entering the body, passes through the stomach almost intact and enters the small intestine, where there are a large number of enzymes that convert fats into fatty acids.These enzymes are called lipases. They function in the presence of water, but this is problematic for the processing of fats, since fats do not dissolve in water.

In order to be able to utilize fat, our body produces bile. Bile breaks down the clumps of fat and allows enzymes on the surface of the small intestine to break down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.

The transporters for fatty acids in the body are called lipoproteins . These are special proteins capable of packing and transporting fatty acids and cholesterol through the circulatory system.Further, fatty acids are packed in fat cells in a rather compact form, since water is not required to complete them (in contrast to polysaccharides and proteins) [9].

The absorption rate of the fatty acid depends on the position it occupies with respect to glycerol. It is important to know that only those fatty acids that occupy the P2 position are well absorbed. This is due to the fact that lipases have a different degree of effect on fatty acids, depending on the location of the latter.

Not all fatty acids ingested with food are completely absorbed in the body, as many nutritionists mistakenly believe. They may not be absorbed partially or completely in the small intestine and be excreted from the body.

For example, in butter, 80% of fatty acids (saturated) are in the P2 position, that is, they are completely absorbed. The same applies to fats that are part of milk and all non-fermented dairy products.

Fatty acids present in mature cheeses (especially long-aged cheeses), although saturated, are still in the P1 and P3 positions, which makes them less absorbable.

In addition, most cheeses (especially hard) are rich in calcium. Calcium combines with fatty acids to form “soaps” that are not absorbed and excreted from the body. The ripening of cheese promotes the transition of the fatty acids included in it to the positions P1 and P3, which indicates their poor absorption [10].

Saturated fat should be eaten in moderation (no more than 10% of your total calorie intake per day) because high consumption of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol levels, which can block arteries and lead to heart disease …

High intake of saturated fat has also been correlated with some types of cancer, including colon cancer, and stroke.

The assimilation of fatty acids is influenced by their origin and chemical composition:

Saturated fatty acids (meat, lard, lobster, shrimp, egg yolk, cream, milk and dairy products, cheese, chocolate, ghee, vegetable shortening, palm, coconut and butter), as well as trans fats (hydrogenated margarine, mayonnaise) tend to be stored in fat stores, and not immediately burned in the process of energy metabolism.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (poultry, olives, avocados, cashews, peanuts, peanut and olive oils) are primarily used immediately after absorption. They also help lower blood glucose, which decreases insulin production and thus limits the formation of fat stores.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids , in particular Omega-3 (fish, sunflower, linseed, rapeseed, corn, cottonseed, safflower and soybean oils), are always consumed immediately after absorption, in particular, due to an increase in food thermogenesis – energy consumption of the body to digest food.In addition, they stimulate lipolysis (the breakdown and burning of fatty deposits), thereby contributing to weight loss.

With an equal caloric composition, different types of fatty acids have different, sometimes even opposite, effects on metabolism. Therefore, it is important to correctly compose your diet, combining fats with carbohydrate and protein products for the proper absorption of all macronutrients.

Why do we recommend eating whole cheeses, not fat-free cheeses?

In recent years, there have been a number of epidemiological studies and clinical trials that have challenged the assumption that low-fat dairy products are healthier than whole foods.They don’t just rehabilitate dairy fats, they are increasingly finding a link between complete dairy products and better health.

A recent study showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in women depends entirely on the type of dairy products consumed. Cheese consumption was inversely associated with the risk of heart attack, while butter spread on bread increased the risk. Another study found that neither low-fat nor full-fat dairy products were associated with cardiovascular disease.

However, whole fermented milk products protect against cardiovascular disease. Milk fat contains over 400 “types” of fatty acids, making it the most complex natural fat. Not all of these species have been studied, but there is evidence that at least a few of them are beneficial.

Authors: Degtyar Elena, PhD; Kardakova Maria, MSc


1. Mann (2007) FAO / WHO Scientific Update on carbohydrates in human nutrition: conclusions.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (Suppl 1), S132 – S137
2. FAO / WHO. (1998). Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO / WHO Expert Consultation (Rome, 14-18 April 1997). FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66
3. Holt, S. H., & Brand Miller, J. (1994). Particle size, satiety and the glycaemic response. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48 (7), 496-502.
4. Jenkins DJ (1987) Starchy foods and fiber: reduced rate of digestion and improved carbohydrate metabolism Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl.129: 132-41.
5. Boirie Y. (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94 (26): 14930-5.
6. Jenkins DJ (2009) The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“Eco-Atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects. Arch Intern Med. 169 (11): 1046-54.
7. Halton, T.L., et al., Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med, 2006.355 (19): p.1991-2002.
8. Levine ME (2014) Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metabolism 19, 407-417.
9. Popkin, BM (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutrition reviews 70 (1): pp. 3 -21.
10. Your Meta Body’s bolism

Glycemic index of different rice varieties – Agro-Alliance

All carbohydrates entering the body are broken down to glucose, which is the main source of energy.The population of countries with a high level of civilization is increasingly faced with problems such as overeating and physical inactivity. At the same time, an excess of glucose is formed in the body, which increases the risks of metabolic disorders, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Anyone who experiences chronic fatigue, unexplained irritability, anxiety, who develops heart pathologies, decreases visual acuity, rapidly increases body weight, accompanied by a constant need for food, should pay attention to the level of glucose in the blood.Timely correction of the diet will save you from many serious consequences.

Glycemic index

To facilitate control over the calorie content of food and its ability to increase blood sugar levels, the concept of the glycemic index (GI) has been developed – an indicator that evaluates the rate of increase in blood glucose concentration after eating different foods.

Assimilation of 50 g of pure sugar was taken as index 100. The remaining glycemic indices were calculated by comparing the degree of increase in blood glucose levels two hours after consuming 50 g of carbohydrates contained in certain foods.In a special table, all food is divided into 3 categories:

  • low GI – up to 55 units – these are the so-called slow (complex) carbohydrates;

  • average GI – 56-69;

  • high GI – more than 70 (fast or simple carbohydrates).

The Glycemic Index Foundation has found that foods with a GI of 45 provide the greatest health benefits.The daily set of foods in the human diet should maintain this balance.

Foods with a high GI cause a sharp spike in blood sugar levels, followed by an equally sharp drop (hypoglycemia), which is accompanied by the appearance and intensification of hunger. This occurs as a result of the inclusion of the body’s defensive reactions. So, for an increased concentration of glucose, the pancreas secretes excess insulin, which neutralizes sugar. There is a need for a new portion of glucose.

This is how the habit of overeating is formed. Therefore, it is important to avoid frequent high GI foods in your daily diet.

Glycemic index of different varieties of rice

Rice is one of the main food products of the world’s population. Its consumption in Russia is about 4.3 kg of cereals per person per year (for comparison, the diet of the inhabitants of West Java is 90% rice).

There are two reasons for this popularity:

  1. Its production is distinguished by high yields, so there is always a large supply of different types of this agricultural crop on the food market (in Russia, 1 million tons are grown per year, in China – 140 million).

  2. The neutral taste of cereals, which goes well with meat, fish, seafood, vegetables and fruits, allows it to be widely used in culinary and confectionery recipes.

When choosing rice groats for a particular dish, one must take into account not only the taste and technological characteristics of the varieties, but also their glycemic index, depending on the type of grain.

White rice

Our traditional white rice is obtained after peeling and grinding the grain from the tough shell and underlying layers, which contain vitamins and minerals.Thus, its value is low, and the GI of such rice is quite high – it is about 70 units due to the increased starch content. Regular consumption of white rice promotes rapid weight gain with all the ensuing consequences. This type of cereal is categorically not recommended for people with diabetes.

Rice Basmati

The healthiest among the varieties of light rice is Basmati. Its long grains are snow-white in color, reaching a length of 8 mm and have a slightly spicy aroma.By preserving the soft shell of the grain, Basmati rice helps to speed up metabolism, strengthen immunity and remove toxins and toxins from the intestines.

Basmati rice, which has a GI of only 50-55 units, is used in diets aimed at losing weight.

Rice Jasmine

The variety got its name due to the delicate floral aroma of the cereal, which persists even after cooking. It is grown in Thailand. The grains appear white and transparent in appearance.

GI of rice Jasmine – 79 units. It is recommended to use it with great physical exertion, incl. before sports. Contraindicated in diabetes and metabolic disorders.

Brown rice

Unpolished rice, on which the soft shell is preserved, is brownish in color and is called brown. Nutrients remain in the shell, so brown rice is a more valuable nutritious product than polished white. It contains chemical compounds that prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels.

The glycemic index of brown rice is almost ideal – 45-50 units, it is suitable for the nutrition of diabetics and people concerned about weight loss.

Black rice

Black rice is a grain with a familiar white grain hidden under its dark shell. It is the leader among all varieties in terms of the content of protein, microelements, vitamins and plant fibers in the shell.

This is rice with a low glycemic index, which is only 50 units, so it is suitable for dietary nutrition.After soaking, black rice is cooked for about 50 minutes, lightly coloring the water.

It must be distinguished from the commercially available black elongated seeds of the aquatic plant tsitsania – wild rice belonging to a completely different family and having different nutritional and beneficial properties.

Red rice

Rice grains with a bright red shell are not grinded, so all valuable substances remain in the cereal, which has a slight nutty flavor. This variety does not irritate the intestines, is easy to digest and cooks quickly enough.

The carbohydrate load of red rice corresponds to the average glycemic index – 55-57 units, that is, it is in a very acceptable range.

It is necessary to distinguish between true red varieties and fermented red rice, which is the result of processing ordinary white rice with yeast microorganisms.

This product is traditionally used in China. Scientists in this country claim that it is involved in the prevention of cardiovascular pathology and prevents the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels.

Parboiled Rice

Another way of processing white rice grains, aimed at improving the taste and health characteristics, is steaming. Ordinary rice is treated with steam under pressure before mechanical removal of the shells. At the same time, minerals and vitamins are transferred from the upper layers into the grain. The benefits of eating such a product are significantly higher compared to regular white rice. The GI of steamed cereals (38 units) also compares favorably by almost double the glycemic index of white rice.

The low fiber content makes it possible to recommend steamed rice to those people who have dyspeptic disorders. The tendency to chronic constipation, on the contrary, is a contraindication to the frequent use of parboiled rice.

Cooking methods

Depending on the type of rice, the ratio of water to cereals, cooking times, recommendations for use in the preparation of various dishes – pilaf, porridge, risotto, paella, change.Typically, the product packaging indicates the main parameters of its use.

But there are general rules, which include the following.

  1. Pre-soaking in cold water will shorten the cooking time.

  2. It should be cooked in a thick-walled container over low heat.

  3. The groats should be poured into boiling salted water.

  4. Frequent stirring is not necessary – the dish will lose friability.

  5. After removing from heat, you need to leave the rice under the lid for 10-15 minutes.

Spices and herbs help to give the neutral taste an unusual flavor.

Eating rice in diabetes mellitus

Difficulties with the assimilation of glucose in diabetes make the choice of rice varieties especially scrupulous.Avoid high glycemic white polished varieties to avoid rapid weight gain and significant increases in blood glucose levels.

In addition, it should be borne in mind that any culinary treatment increases the glycemic index. To reduce the GI of white boiled rice, you need:

  1. Reduce cooking time by pre-soaking the cereal, choosing the correct amount of water and keeping it covered at the final stage.

  2. Combine with vegetables and fish.

  3. Avoid frequent cooking in combination with meat, especially fatty varieties.

  4. Do not add other foods with a high glycemic index to the food.

  5. Remember that fiber (vegetables, bran, herbs) reduces the total glycemic index in the finished dish.

Choose your rice variety, combine and experiment!

Knowledge of the GI values ​​of various foods facilitates the formulation of a healthy diet aimed at ensuring performance and maintaining the age norm of body weight.

Recommended diet for IBS / Blog / Clinic EXPERT

Kharitonov Andrey Gennadievich

Doctor, gastroenterologist, Ph.D.

159.3 thous.views

Share with friends

Low FODMAP: Recommended diet for IBS

I. General characteristics of the diet low FODMAP

Scientists studying diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have found that certain components of food can provoke the appearance of symptoms or aggravate them in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional bloating and some other diseases.These components include certain carbohydrates, which are well broken down in the intestine, but poorly absorbed or not absorbed at all.

What are these carbohydrates? These include lactose, fructose, fructans, galactans , and sugar alcohols . These substances were combined into the FODMAP group. The acronym FODMAP stands for a group of fermentable (F) carbohydrates – oligo- (O), di- (D) and monosaccharides (M), as well as polyols (P). Unabsorbed carbohydrates are actively processed by bacteria in the colon and small intestine to form gases.Some of them have high osmotic activity, which leads to the movement of fluid into the intestinal lumen – loosening of the stool develops up to diarrhea (see figure below).

Figure – the likely mechanism of the onset / intensification of symptoms in patients with IBS when eating food rich in FODMAPs.

In healthy individuals, symptoms of bloating and loose stools may develop when consuming large amounts of FODMAP carbohydrates. A striking example is diarrhea after eating large quantities of plums or cherries.In individuals with IBS, a small excess of FODMAPs in the diet is sometimes sufficient for the onset or intensification of symptoms. This, for example, is observed when a patient has lactase deficiency or fructose intolerance.

Lactase deficiency in adulthood is a decrease in the activity of the enzyme lactase , which breaks down milk sugar lactose in the lumen of the small intestine. The likelihood of developing lactase deficiency increases with age, since a decrease in enzyme activity is a natural evolutionary process during the transition from breastfeeding to an adult type of diet.Secondary lactase deficiency can be observed in some intestinal diseases of an infectious and inflammatory origin. Low lactase enzyme activity results in poor breakdown of milk sugar, and eating foods with a lot of lactose can lead to the symptoms described above.

Fructose intolerance as a result of poor absorption of this carbohydrate is a frequent problem in the practice of a gastroenterologist. Fructose, like other carbohydrates, is absorbed in the small intestine, but the ability to assimilate fructose in the human intestine is limited.Studies on healthy volunteers have shown that 15 g of fructose is absorbed in 100% of individuals, 25 g of fructose – in 90% of the subjects, but only 20-30% of individuals can absorb a large dose of carbohydrate (50 g).

15 g of fructose (a dose that is well tolerated by almost all healthy individuals) – is this a lot or a little? This amount of fructose is contained in 250 g of apples or 300 g of pears or 100 g of dried apricots. It should be remembered that in addition to berries and fruits, fructose is found in large quantities in honey, corn syrup, and is also included in many industrial foods as an alternative to sucrose.

In addition to lactose and fructose, there are other FODMAP carbohydrates. Fructans are carbohydrates found in foods such as wheat, onions, garlic, etc. They are not absorbed in the intestines, but they can serve as food for bacteria in the colon, which leads to the formation of excess intestinal gas.

Galactans also belong to carbohydrates that are practically not absorbed in the intestines due to the lack of the necessary enzyme. They are found in particular in beans, red beans, and lentils.

Polyols or sugar alcohols are found in some vegetables, fruits and mushrooms. They can be included in some industrial food products (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol in “diabetic” products), and are also often added to chewing gums, cough drops, syrups (including medicinal ones).

Since a typical diet may contain various FODMAPs, it is often impossible to immediately understand which particular carbohydrate the intestines have “reacted” to badly. Moreover, modern medicine can establish malabsorption of only some (not all!) FODMAP carbohydrates.For example, to diagnose lactase deficiency, a hydrogen breath test with lactose or the determination of the activity of the enzyme lactase in a biopsy specimen of the duodenum (taken during gastroscopy) is used. The same hydrogen breath test (in this case with fructose solution) is used to diagnose fructose intolerance.

Alas, intolerance to other FODMAP carbohydrates in routine clinical practice can only be detected experimentally. For this, Australian scientists from Monash University developed the so-called low FODMAP diet (from the English.words low – low) [1]. This diet is based on the elimination or very drastic restriction in the diet of foods containing large amounts of FODMAP carbohydrates, and replacing them with “safer” foods.

The authors’ hypothesis was very simple: it is known that one of the FODMAP carbohydrates (one or more) can cause the appearance or intensification of intestinal symptoms. To prove this, one should eliminate potential irritants from the diet for a while and evaluate the symptoms. If bloating, loosening of the stool disappeared or decreased significantly, then one of the carbohydrates is “guilty” of provoking symptoms.It remains only to find out which one.

This diet is somewhat similar to the elimination diet in children with suspected food allergies, in which the most likely allergenic foods are eliminated from the diet and then gradually introduced into the diet with an assessment of symptoms. A similar approach is used in the low FODMAP diet: during the diet, the effect of excluding carbohydrates from the FODMAP diet is evaluated, and then provocative foods are identified.

II. The efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for gastrointestinal disease

The low FODMAP diet has been evaluated in patients with several gastrointestinal conditions.Thus, in patients with IBS, adherence to this diet showed a decrease in the severity of bloating and the intensity of abdominal pain compared with the usual diet and the diet, where the content of FODMAP substances was high [2, 3]. In this regard, a number of guidelines for the treatment of IBS (for example, the WHO recommendations from 2015, the recommendations of the Canadian Gastroenterological Association from 2019) note the effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet in a proportion of patients with IBS for bloating and abdominal pain.

Large studies of the low FODMAP diet in patients with functional abdominal distension have not been conducted, but up to 75% of IBS patients noted a decrease in the severity of abdominal distention with this diet.Given these data, it can be assumed that the low FODMAP diet will be equally effective in those individuals who report bloating as the only symptom.

III. Diet stages low FODMAP

Stage 1. Elimination of prohibited foods . Strictly adhere to the dietary guidelines for excluding foods rich in FODMAPs (see here for a list of “forbidden” and “allowed” foods with an indication of the amount).The banned food exclusion period is usually 3-6 weeks. However, with correct selection of a therapeutic diet and its strict adherence, an improvement in well-being can be observed already in the first week.

It is very important that the diet remains varied during the banned food exclusion period. The formation of the menu within the framework of Stage 1 of the diet should be based on the principles of good nutrition. So, for example, the number of servings of vegetables in the daily diet should be at least 5, milk and fermented milk products (allowed by the diet) 2-3 servings per day, fruits – 2 servings, cereals and products from them – 6-7 servings.

Serving sizes vary both within the same food group and between food groups. For example, for most vegetables, one serving is usually 75 g. In the dairy and milk replacer group, 1 serving is 1 cup (250 ml) milk, 3/4 cup (200 ml) fermented milk products, 2 slices of hard cheese, 1/2 cup (120 g) soft cheese or cottage cheese. One serving of fruit corresponds to an average of 100-150 g of fresh fruit (1 banana, 1 pear, 1 orange or 2 tangerines, 2 kiwi) or 30-40 g of dried fruit or 1/2 cup of juice.In the cereal group, one serving is 1 piece of bread (40 g), half a cup of cooked cereals and pasta (75-120 g), 4 tablespoons of cereal and muesli.

Breakfast may include the following dishes:

  • Porridge made from permitted cereals (buckwheat groats, corn, rice and millet groats, oat groats in the form of flakes, quinoa) – on water or with lactose-free, rice, soy, almond milk. You can add to cereals: permitted berries and fruits, butter or vegetable oil, sugar (1 tsp.l.).
  • Natural, protein omelets. You can add to the omelet: permitted herbs, permitted vegetables (for example, carrots, broccoli inflorescences, etc.).
  • Fried eggs with the possible addition of some vegetables (tomatoes), bacon. You cannot add onions, mushrooms.
  • Cheese (permitted by the diet and in the permitted quantity), lactose-free milk or dairy products – 1 portion.
  • Bread made from rice, corn, flaxseed flour in the form of toasts, including baked tomatoes or hard cheese.Bread marked “Low FODMAP” can be used. Quantity – 1 piece.
  • Vegetable fritters (e.g. zucchini, potatoes, carrots).
  • Fritters or pancakes made from buckwheat, corn, linseed, rice flour.
  • Meat, poultry and fish dishes – any, including those you are accustomed to. It should be remembered that according to a balanced diet, you should limit the use of processed products of red meat (sausages, sausages, ham).
  • 1 ​​standard portion of fruits permitted in Stage 1
  • Salads with permitted vegetables
  • Smoothies using lactose-free, rice, soy, almond milk and permitted fruits and berries

Lunch and dinner:

  • First courses with meat, fish , poultry with the addition of permitted vegetables (potatoes, carrots, broccoli, green beans, etc.)and croup.
  • Any meat, fish, poultry, seafood dish – they do not contain FODMAP carbohydrates. You can use approved spices, seasonings, seeds (for example, sesame), fruits (citrus fruits, pineapple, etc.) to improve the taste of meat dishes.
  • Any side dishes made from permitted vegetables, cereals (salads, vegetable stews, pasta / pasta, cereals, etc.).
  • 1 ​​standard portion of Phase 1 permitted fruit per meal
  • Rice, corn, flaxseed toast bread, including baked tomatoes or hard cheese.Bread marked “Low FODMAP” can be used. Quantity – 1 piece per meal.
  • Permitted drinks

Step 2. Diet expansion . If an effect is achieved against the background of diet therapy (disappearance or a significant decrease in the symptoms of the disease), it is recommended to gradually introduce foods with a high content of FODMAP substances into the diet. At this stage, the FODMAP foods that are causing the symptoms are identified, and the allowable amount of these foods in the diet is determined.If the low-FODMAP diet has no effect (if it is strictly followed for 6 weeks), the patient can return to his usual diet after consulting a doctor. If the effect of the diet came before the time planned by the doctor has expired (for example, after 3 weeks instead of 4-6), the expansion of the diet can be started earlier.

This is the most important step in diet therapy. The decision on the transition to the second stage is made after consultation with the attending physician who prescribed the diet. Correctly performed dietary expansion will allow you to choose well-tolerated foods.What does right mean? Let’s try to figure it out.

As mentioned above, there are 5 different carbohydrates in FODMAPs. Some foods contain only one type of carbohydrate (for example, milk contains only lactose), while others contain several (a striking example is watermelon containing fructose, fructans and mannitol). In order to establish a response to a specific FODMAP carbohydrate, it is advisable to first expand the diet with foods containing only one of these carbohydrates.For example, start with dairy products to rule out lactose intolerance. Then – with honey (a source of fructose). Mannitol is found in mushrooms, while sorbitol is found in fresh avocado and peach. Fructans besides some fruits (melon, etc.) are the only FODMAP carbohydrates in fresh onions and red onions and garlic. Galactans are found in significant amounts in almonds.

Usually, if you have poor tolerance to a certain carbohydrate (lactose, fructose, etc.), similar symptoms will be observed when eating other foods containing this carbohydrate.

Do not start expanding your diet with foods containing several carbohydrates. For example, an apple contains fructose and sorbitol, so when symptoms appear, it will be impossible to clarify which carbohydrate the intestines are reacting to.

3 days are given for the introduction of one product .

Day 1 – Use a small portion of the product . Since the response to FODMAP carbohydrates can vary from patient to patient and usually depends on the amount, it is recommended that you start with half the recommended serving.This can be, for example, 100 ml of yogurt. Since yoghurt contains lactose, lactose tolerance is evaluated in this case. If symptoms (bloating, loose stools, increased abdominal pain) appear after consuming 100 ml of yogurt, this may indicate intolerance to even a small amount of lactose. Try another product with the same carbohydrate after 3 days. If there are no symptoms when consuming a small portion, the assessment of the tolerance of the usual portion of the product should be continued on the 2nd day.

Day 2 – Consumption of a standard portion of product . Standard serving sizes for vegetables, fruits, grains and dairy products have been described above, see food tables for more information. On the second day, a standard serving (eg 200 ml of yogurt) should be eaten with a symptom assessment. If bloating, increased abdominal pain, loose stools, or other discomfort occurs, the test on day 3 is not performed. After 3 days, you can try another product with the same carbohydrate.

Day 3 – Consuming a large portion of product . If the usual portion is well tolerated, it is possible to assess the tolerance of b o more product on the third day. For example, drink 400 yoghurt in one meal (double serving). The presence of symptoms will indicate that such a large amount should not be eaten. In the absence of symptoms after three days, the tolerance of other products in the same group should be assessed. For example, to assess lactose tolerance, it can be cottage cheese, sour cream, cream, milk (cow, goat).

Each new product is scored according to the above scheme (day 1-2-3). If the patient wants to establish the exact amount of a product that he can tolerate (for example, what will happen when eating 50 ml of yogurt?), Then such an assessment can be carried out additionally. 3 days should elapse between samples with two different products in order to completely eliminate the influence of the previous test on the next one.

After analyzing the tolerance of various products within one group (for example, the group of milk and fermented milk products), you can proceed to the assessment of other carbohydrates.Try a fructose tolerance test with honey and mango. The next food group to evaluate is, for example, lentils, hazelnuts and almonds (contain only galactans). Pomegranate, grapefruit, melon and some other fruits, garlic and onions will help you assess fructan tolerance. Sorbitol is found in peach, apricot, avocado, blackberry. Mannitol is found in large quantities in mushrooms (champignons, porcini mushrooms), as well as in cauliflower.

Next, it will be possible to assess the tolerance of foods with a complex carbohydrate composition (may contain 2-3 FODMAP carbohydrates).The principle of testing is the same: day 1-2-3.

Record your symptoms after testing new foods and different servings of those foods!

Example :


Day 1

Product name

Test day

Symptoms after eating the product

No symptoms

200 ml yoghurt for breakfast

Day 2

Gas formation 30 minutes after breakfast lasting 3 hours

Day 3


Use the table to figure out which carbohydrate is high in a particular food.

What to do with those products, the tolerance of which you have already assessed as good? If you are absolutely sure that there are no symptoms, you can introduce this product into the diet in an amount that is well tolerated (or less). This product should be included in a meal that will not be further tested.

Stage 3. Individualization of the diet . The end result of the diet is a personalized diet that excludes only those FODMAP foods that cause symptoms.This allows you to preserve the patient’s dietary variety, interferes with “avoidant” behavior in everyday life (for example, refusal to visit cafes and restaurants for fear of eating something “wrong”).

IV. Low FODMAP Diet Errors

  1. Failure to follow a strict diet during the elimination phase. Many people try to eliminate one or two food groups (for example, bread and dairy products), forgetting that other food components can cause symptoms.
  2. Eating large quantities of foods from the “permitted” group. It should be remembered that even foods with a low FODMAP content (the “green” group) can lead to bloating and upset stools if eaten too much. Carefully study the table showing the acceptable safe amount of the product.
  3. Eating “hidden” FODMAP substances. Many industrially produced products (for example, confectionery) contain additives related to FODMAP carbohydrates (fructose, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, inulin).These carbohydrates can be found in chewing gum, hard candy, mints, etc. Read the labels carefully!
  4. Eating several foods at the same time containing low amounts of FODMAPs. As a result, the total “dose” of unwanted carbohydrates in a single meal is no longer “safe” and can cause symptoms.
  5. Influence of other lifestyle factors that can cause symptoms: stress, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, drinking a lot of coffee, mineral waters.
  6. Eliminating high FODMAP foods during diet expansion. Some patients are afraid to introduce such foods into the diet, despite the fact that they have not assessed their tolerance. It should be remembered that even foods high in FODMAP carbohydrates (“red” group) can be tolerated well when consumed in small quantities.
Book – Effective diet for bloating and abdominal pain – Andrey Kharitonov and Irina Volkova


The low FODMAP diet should not be perceived as another “restriction” for the patient. This diet is not for life. It is a kind of diagnostic method that allows you to establish with high accuracy not only the type, but also the amount of well-tolerated products. This approach allows diversifying the diet of patients with IBS and bloating and improving their quality of life [4].


  1. Gibson, P.R., Varney, J., Malakar, S., Muir, J.G. Food components and irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2015; 148: 1158-1174 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680668?dopt=Abstract
  2. Zahedi MJ, Behrouz V, Azimi M. Low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet versus general dietary advice in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 33 (6): 1192-1199. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29159993
  3. McIntosh K, Reed DE, Schneider T et al.FODMAPs alter symptoms and the metabolome of patients with IBS: a randomized controlled trial. Gut. 2017; 66 (7): 1241-1251 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26976734
  4. Kortlever T.L., Ten Bokkel Huinink S., Offereins M. et al. Low-FODMAP Diet Is Associated With Improved Quality of Life in IBS Patients-A Prospective Observational Study. Nutr Clin Pract. 2019 Aug; 34 (4): 623-630. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30644587


Doctor gastroenterologist, MDn.

methods, norms and features of calculating the daily rate

Health, activity, mood and appearance of a person directly depend on his diet. There is an eternal law in it
nature – the need for a balance of components. Our food consists of so
called nutrients, their ratio
affects the amount of nutrients in the body,
weight gain or loss, general
well-being. The key to proper nutrition is proteins, fats and carbohydrates (or, as they are called
in the complex, BZHU), selected in
the required amount and percentage.When composing a healthy menu, they are counted taking into account the total calorie content.

Our health, activity and appearance directly depend on the diet. The balance of the ingredients is the main condition for positive results.

All products consist of the so-called “nutrients”, their ratio affects the amount of nutrients in the body, weight gain or loss, overall well-being. The key to proper nutrition is “nutrients”, i.e.That is, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, selected in the correct ratio. When composing a healthy menu, they are calculated taking into account the total calorie content of the diet.

What is it?

Nutrients are the most important “building material” of our body, the ratio of which determines the amount of energy received from food, and the peculiarities of its processing by the body. Science divides them into three key groups – proteins that are responsible for muscle growth, fats that control hormonal balance and brain function, and carbohydrates for energy.Nutrients differ in energy value, effect on the body, and for a correct diet, you need to know how much of them should be in food – in terms of calories and in percentage.

What is the daily intake of nutrients?

To maintain daily physical and brain activity, improve the muscle building process and a more well-groomed appearance, it is necessary to adhere to some average values ​​of the norm of nutrients. Below we will show how this is considered correctly calculated per 1 kilogram of a person’s weight:

  • for protein – 1.5 grams for medium activity, 2 grams for sports;
  • for fats – 0.8 grams with a standard lifestyle, 1.5 grams with constant physical activity;
  • for carbohydrates – 2 grams, athletes and people engaged in hard physical labor, increase the value by two or more times.

Exceeding or decreasing the norm leads to imbalance in the body, diseases, eating disorders caused by a lack of nutrients. Therefore, knowing “your numbers” and calculating BZHU is important for everyone who cares not only about their nutrition, but also health in general.

Why calculate BZHU? Three good reasons!

  • The first reason is a healthy body.
    Calculating the ratio and amount of nutrients is necessary, first of all, to provide the body with everything it needs for development and functioning.A healthy body looks attractive, a person resists disease better, he has enough energy to do everything. Getting used to eating competently, we consciously discipline ourselves and develop a healthy habit – for life.
  • The second reason is ease of losing weight.
    You do not need to deny yourself certain dishes, provoking nervous breakdowns or hormonal disruption. A balanced menu helps not to break down due to carbohydrate deficiency or become weak due to protein starvation.The menu includes all products, and their ratio and calorie restriction contribute to weight loss.
  • The third reason to calculate KBZHU is the ability to “adjust” the diet to suit your needs. You can change the ratios of beneficial nutrients and quickly achieve your goal, whether it be losing weight, gaining weight or maintaining your current body shape.

Details about the components


Protein is the material for cell growth in the body and proper metabolism.Proteins can enter our body with food: meat, fish and seafood, legumes and dairy products. The amount of protein must be strictly controlled. An excess leads to liver pathologies, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, and a shortage leads to a loss of muscle mass. Energy value per gram – 4 kcal. For 1 kg of body per day, you need 1.2-2 grams of the protein component.
Accordingly, the optimal level of protein per day for 1 person weighing 60 kg is 72-120 grams.


For a long time, fats have been purposefully eliminated from diets.They were considered almost the most harmful in the diet. This is not true!
That is why fatty acids are good for our body, they help:

  • assimilation of vitamins from food;
  • maintaining full brain function;
  • the formation of joints, membranes and cells;
  • regulation of the lymphatic, hormonal and other systems of the body.


Carbohydrates provide the body with most of the energy for activity and effective training, and they are also “responsible” for gaining excess weight, uncontrolled bouts of hunger and bad eating habits.A well-organized diet should be dominated by sources of healthy, “slow” carbohydrates – unprocessed cereals, fruits and vegetables with a low glycemic index and high fiber content. If they are not enough, the person becomes weak, and training becomes ineffective. One gram contains 4 kcal, the amount per 1 kg of body is calculated taking into account the protein and fat components.

Role in weight loss

Nutrient balance helps you build your nutrition plan.If you need to lose weight, it is important to systematically “transfer” your body to optimal functioning – with a sufficient number of calories and the ratio of BJU. It is equally important that the food suits your daily lifestyle.

Nutrient Ratio and Calorie Content

Nutrient ratios are directly related to nutritional goals and total calories. The standard daily amount of nutrients for a 2000 kcal diet is 91 grams of protein, 65 grams of fat and 271 grams of carbohydrates, or, as briefly indicated, 3-3-4.

For representatives of different genders and people with specific goals (lose weight, build muscle, and so on), the rate is adjusted.

Female ratio

The norm of BJU for women varies depending on the purpose of nutrition:

  • for weight loss, the ratio is 4-2-4;
  • for “drying”, that is, the formation of a beautiful muscle relief – 4.7-2.3-3;
  • for weight loss and “drying” – 5-2-3;
  • for a set of normal weight – 3-2-5.

Male ratio

  • Men under the age of 40-50 who are engaged in intellectual work are recommended to adhere to the ratio of 3.3-2.5-4.2.
  • With heavy loads, physical work, the balance is shifted to 2.7-2.3-5.
  • To lose weight and gain muscle mass at the same time, the ratio is changed to 3-1.5-5.5.

Calorie calculation of the daily ration

To achieve a healthy, optimal weight, it is not enough to know the ratio of BJU.To eat competently, you need to calculate the ratio of CCAL, i.e. the energy value of products – this is usually called the balance of KBZhU.

How to correctly calculate the rate of BZHU?

To calculate the required amount of kcal per day, there are special tables of food calories and online calculators.

The standard formula for those who do up to three times a week is body weight in kilograms multiplied by a factor of 35.For a diet, the coefficient is reduced to 24. You can simplify the calculations using special forms, which are abundantly presented on Internet resources dedicated to healthy lifestyles and fitness.

The total amount of kcal per day is broken down by the required percentage of nutrients. So, if a woman’s diet should have 1600 kcal in order to lose weight, she needs to use the 4-2-4 model and consume 640 “protein” kcal, the same amount of carbohydrates and 320 fat. Then they can be converted into grams – taking into account the kcal content in 1 gram of the nutrient.

Below are more complex formulas for calculating the required ratio of BZHU and calorie content.

Mifflin-Sant Geor Formula

To calculate KBZHU for a healthy diet, women use the formula 6.25 * P + 10 * M – 4.92 * B – 161, where:

  • P stands for height;
  • M is the required mass;
  • B – age.

The result of the calculation is the number of calories per day.For men, it is calculated differently: 6.25 * P + 10 * M – 4.92 * B +5. The result can be adjusted by multiplying by 1.2 in the absence of physical activity, by 1.375 with activity three times a week, and by 1.6375 with daily activities.

Harris-Benedict formula

The optimal ratio of KBZHU is calculated as (65 + 9.6 * M + 1.8 * R) – 4.7 * B for women and (66 + 13.7 * M + 6 * R) – 6.8 * B for men … M here means not the desired, but the actual body weight.

And a little more about calories and weight loss

The calorie content of food is a key factor in weight change.Without taking it into account, it is impossible to lose weight or gain weight, just as do not change the balance of nutrients. Getting energy in the right ratio, we stimulate metabolism, helping the body to fulfill its task – to grow muscles, reduce body fat, lose weight faster without harm to health and delayed consequences.

Fats do not burn in the fire of carbohydrates

For weight loss, it is important to know this – in case of carbohydrate deficiency, the fat “reserve” is not consumed. Therefore, the key factor for effective and healthy weight loss is a balanced menu.To get the most out of your products, you don’t have to spend your time selecting them.

Healthy food delivery service “BeFit” has prepared rations with an optimal ratio of KBZhU for different purposes. More than 10 (ten) food programs and more than 750 dishes from different cuisines of the world.

The menu from professional chefs is updated every week – and each one helps to achieve the goal and make your body healthy and beautiful.

Try it and see the results!

Healthy Food Delivery | Weekly Food Delivery Reviews | Healthy food in the office | Detox order | Fish program Moscow | Weight Loss Complex | Ready meals for athletes with delivery | Food delivery for vegetarians

Diabetes school – Glycemic index of cereals: table for diabetics

Glycemic index of cereals

Cereals are important sources of energy, healthy dietary fiber, B vitamins (B1, B2, B3 (PP), B4, B5, B6 and B9), E, ​​K and trace elements (calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt, etc.) 1 . Diet recommendations for people with diabetes suggest that cereals, along with proteins, fats and “free” carbohydrates, are the mainstay of the diet 2 .

When choosing side dishes, it is worth considering the glycemic index of each individual type of cereal.

Glycemic index – what is it?

The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 based on how much they raise your blood sugar (glucose) after a meal.The standard in this classification is glucose, which has a GI of 100.

High GI foods are rapidly absorbed, digested, assimilated and metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract. They lead to noticeable fluctuations in blood sugar (glucose) levels. Low-GI foods cause less intense and slower increases in glucose and insulin levels.

Grinding, fine grinding, prolonged cooking, processing with auxiliary substances during the preparation of cereals can significantly increase its GI.

Why is it important to pay attention to the glycemic index of foods?

Low GI diets improve serum lipid profiles (lower bad cholesterol), lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and promote weight control. In addition, there is evidence showing a positive association between a high carbohydrate, low GI diet and a reduced risk of cancer, including colon, breast and prostate cancer 3.4 .

Glycemic indices of the main types of cereals

Corn grits

GI = 70-75.

Corn grits have a relatively low calorie content: 330 kcal. Despite this, its glycemic index is quite high. It contains about 70% carbohydrates and about 8% proteins, but they are not complete and not well absorbed.

Wheat groats

GI = 40-60.

A large spread in the glycemic index depends on the method of preparation of the cereal: the thicker the porridge, the lower its index. A thin gruel made from wheat grits may have a higher GI.


GI = 80-85.

This is one of the highest carbohydrate grains. It is not recommended to use it regularly for people prone to developing insulin tolerance.If it is difficult to refuse the taste of semolina porridge, you can use coarse semolina, its GI is close to 65.


GI = 35-45

When choosing bulgur as a side dish, you should focus on coarse grits. Cons: bulgur contains gluten.


GI = 50-55

Buckwheat has an average glycemic index, it contains vitamins A and B group, omega-3, minerals (iron, iodine, potassium, magnesium, calcium, etc.)).


GI = 35-70.

The highest GI (70) has white polished rice. Steamed groats – already 60. Brown and red rice – 50-55. The lowest indicator is for wild black rice – 35. Such a large spread is due, among other things, to the fact that we are talking about different cereals, united by a common name.


GI = 40-50

The rise in popularity of the South American cereal has coincided with an increase in attention to their diet and healthy lifestyle.Groats with a low GI and unusual taste quickly found their admirers.

Pearl barley

GI = 20-30

This is one of the lowest values ​​among cereals. Boiled barley also has a low calorie content: only 109 Kcal per 100 grams.


GI = 40-60

Loose millet porridge has a low glycemic index and is used in diets designed to reduce weight and control sugar levels.


GI = 40-60

The calorie content of oatmeal depends on the method of preparation and grinding. Muesli made with oatmeal can have a GI of 80 or more. Porridge with milk with sugar – 70. Oatmeal from rolled oats in water – from 35 to 45.

Cereals with a low glycemic index

Name of the cereal Glycemic index
Pearl barley 20-30
Black wild rice 35
Barley grits 35
Bulgur 35-45
Quinoa 40-50
Oat groats 40-60
Millet groats 40-60

High glycemic cereals

Name of the cereal Glycemic index
Buckwheat 50-55
Brown or red rice 50-55
Steamed rice 60
Corn grits 70-75
Milled white rice 70
Semolina 80-85