Cause of fever and headache: The request could not be satisfied
Sore Throat & Headache: Causes & Treatment
What is a headache with a sore throat?
Most people get headaches many times during their lives. A headache causes pain in your head or face. The pain may be throbbing, sharp or dull.
A sore throat (pharyngitis) is pain or irritation in your throat. It might feel scratchy, painful or dry. It often hurts more when you swallow.
Sometimes, you have both a headache and sore throat. Most often, an infection causes those symptoms to happen together.
What if I also have a fever with a headache and sore throat?
If you have a sore throat, headache and a fever, then you probably have an infection. A fever is your body’s way of fighting infection.
The combination of fever, sore throat and headache could be due to:
How common are symptoms like headache and sore throat?
Sore throat and headaches are common symptoms. Almost everyone will experience these symptoms at least once in their life.
What tests will I need?
Most of the time, your healthcare provider will diagnose you based on your symptoms and a physical exam. You may need a throat swab to diagnose strep throat. Your healthcare provider uses a stick with a cotton swab at the end to take a throat sample. They analyze the sample for bacteria to see if you have an infection.
You may need other tests, such as a blood test or imaging scans, to rule out other infections.
What causes headache and sore throat?
Many conditions can cause you to get both a headache and sore throat. You could have both of these discomforts due to a:
Viral infection, such as:
- Common cold and other upper respiratory infections.
Bacterial infection, including:
Other conditions, such as:
- Allergies, which may also cause watery, itchy eyes and sneezing.
- Tonsillitis, when tonsils become inflamed due to bacteria or a virus.
- Peritonsillar abscess, a complication of tonsillitis.
Rarely, your headache and sore throat may be from:
Is my sore throat and headache due to a viral or a bacterial infection?
If you have both a headache and sore throat, it could be a viral or bacterial infection. They have similar symptoms.
If you have a runny nose, cough and hoarse voice, you most likely have a viral rather than bacterial infection. There are no medications to treat viral infections. The virus will go away on its own. You usually feel better in about a week.
If it’s bacterial, your healthcare provider may prescribe antibiotics, such as penicillin.
What are the symptoms of sore throat and headache?
When you have a sore throat, you may have:
- Pain or scratchiness in your throat.
- Pain that’s worse when you speak or swallow.
- Hoarse voice.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck (you may be able to feel small lumps on the side of your neck).
- Red or swollen tonsils with white spots on them.
Your headache symptoms may include pain that:
- Comes on slowly.
- Feels dull and aching.
- Affects both sides of your head.
It’s also not unusual to have fatigue with sore throat and headache. Fatigue, chills and muscle aches are all symptoms of viral and bacterial infections.
Care and Treatment
What is the treatment for sore throat and headache?
Usually, you can treat sore throat and headache with at-home remedies. If you have strep throat, your provider will prescribe antibiotics to get rid of it. Take all the medicine, even though you’ll start to feel better within a day or two.
At-home treatments for sore throat and headache include:
- Fluids, especially water, tea with honey, soup or broth.
- Throat lozenges or ice cubes.
- Warm saltwater gargle.
- Over-the-counter medications, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- Humidifier or shower.
- Cool compress on your head.
- Plenty of rest.
If your child has a headache and sore throat, remember:
- Choose the right medication: Don’t give aspirin to young children. It may cause a life-threatening condition called Reye’s syndrome. Make sure to choose pain relievers made for infants and children.
- Avoid hard candies: Lozenges or other hard candies can be a choking hazard for young children.
- Don’t give honey to babies: Avoid giving honey to infants under a year old. Babies don’t have defenses against infant botulism.
Can I prevent a sore throat and headache?
The best way to prevent sore throat and headache is to avoid infections and illness. Tips include:
- Wash hands often: Always wash hands after going to the bathroom or changing a diaper and before eating or preparing food.
- Don’t share: Don’t share food, water bottles, glasses or other eating utensils.
- Use good cough hygiene: When coughing or sneezing, use a tissue. If you don’t have a tissue, use the crook of your elbow. Don’t cough or sneeze into your hand.
- Stay home if you’re sick: Isolate yourself as much as you can until you feel better. And be around other people who are not feeling well.
- Avoid allergy triggers: Take precautions to avoid your allergy triggers. Allergies can cause coughing and sneezing.
- Practice safe sex: Use a condom or dental dam to avoid sexually transmitted infections.
- Avoid tobacco and alcohol products: Try to stay away from cigarettes and limit alcohol. These products increase your risk of developing head and neck cancers.
What’s the outlook for people with sore throat and headache?
A sore throat and headache can usually go away within a week. Most of the time, you won’t need medical treatment. There are usually no long-term complications.
If you do have strep throat, make sure to take the full course of antibiotics. These drugs treat the infection and prevent complications, including rheumatic fever.
When to Call the Doctor
When should I see a healthcare provider about headache and sore throat?
You can try at-home sore throat and headache remedies. But see a healthcare provider if your symptoms last for more than a week, or if they go away but come back.
You should also see a provider if you have these symptoms along with your sore throat and headache:
- High fever (above 103 degrees F for adults or 104 degrees F for children).
- Stiff neck.
- Difficulty breathing.
- Excessive drooling (in babies or young children).
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Swelling in the face or neck or a large lump in the neck.
- Trouble swallowing.
- Unexplained rash.
- Acting confused.
You should also be on the lookout for signs of meningitis. This life-threatening condition has flu-like symptoms. If you or your child has signs of meningitis, seek immediate medical help.
Meningitis symptoms include:
- Sudden high fever.
- Severe headache.
- Stiff neck (trouble moving neck up and down).
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Sensitivity to light.
- Fatigue, feeling sleepy.
When can I go back to work or school?
If you have a sore throat or headache, wait until you have been symptom-free for at least 24 hours before returning to work. Your child should stay home from school or day care until they have been symptom-free for 24 hours.
If you have strep throat, you can usually return to work or school once the fever is gone and you have taken antibiotics for at least 24 hours.
What else should I ask my healthcare provider?
If you have a sore throat and headache, ask your healthcare provider:
- Do I need any tests?
- Could these symptoms be a sign of an infection?
- What can I do to feel better?
- What should I do if the symptoms don’t go away in a week?
- What medications can I take to help?
- Do I need a strep test?
- Will antibiotics help?
Sore throat and headache are common symptoms. Often, they’re signs of a viral or bacterial infection. For a viral infection, you most likely won’t need medications. The virus will clear up on its own in about a week. Make sure to drink plenty of fluids. You can take over-the-counter pain relievers to feel better. Your healthcare provider may want to check for signs of strep throat or meningitis, which need treatment. If you have a sudden high fever, neck stiffness or other worrying symptoms, see your healthcare provider.
5 Signs Your Headache Is Not Normal
See your doctor as soon as possible if you experience any of these troubling symptoms.
We all get headaches from time to time. They can be brought on by annoying but manageable reasons such as stress, dehydration or your menstrual cycle, or they could be the result of an ongoing medical issue, such as migraines.
But how can you tell when a headache is a symptom of an even more serious or life-threatening problem? Here are some signs to look for.
1. You have speech or vision changes.
When a headache is more than just a simple headache, you will also have other symptoms. If you also have changes in your vision, trouble speaking or walking, or weakness on one side of body, you could be having a stroke.
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to your brain is cut off or severely reduced, causing cells to die almost immediately. Migraines with “aura” can be confused with a stroke, but they often give you added sensations, such as tingling in the body or flashes in your vision, whereas a stroke takes away sensations and results in a loss of vision or lack of feeling in the hands.
Even if you get migraines, the pain you feel from a headache during a stroke will be different — for example, a headache that comes on very suddenly is likely not a migraine and could be caused by a stroke. But it can be hard to tell the difference, so if you even suspect you may be having a stroke, call 911.
2. Your behavior changes.
If you’ve been getting worse and worse headaches and have other behavioral changes, it could be a sign of a brain tumor. Not all brain tumors are cancerous, but even benign tumors can cause serious problems.
As the abnormal cells of a tumor cause it to grow, it can press on the blood vessels in your head, causing headaches. It also can press into the brain itself, causing neurological changes, depending on where it’s situated. These changes may cause you to act differently — according to the American Brain Tumor Association, more than half of patients with malignant (cancerous) brain tumors experience behavioral changes.
You may also experience problems with memory, concentration, judgment and reasoning, reading and writing, and/or emotional control. If you or others around you have noticed these changes along with your headaches, see your doctor.
3. It comes on suddenly and severely.
A brain aneurysm occurs when weak blood vessels in the brain start expanding or “ballooning” out. Usually they don’t cause symptoms, although if they get very big, they can cause headaches. But a ruptured aneurysm, which occurs when the ballooned vessel pops and leaks blood around the brain, can cause a massive, sudden headache.
“The classic presentation is the worst headache of your life,” says Jonathan J. Russin, MD, assistant professor of clinical neurological surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of USC and a neurosurgeon at Keck Medicine of USC. “They call it a ‘thunder clap’ headache.”
It may also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, weakness or drowsiness. If you experience a major headache like this, call 911 immediately.
4. You also have a stiff neck or high fever.
If you have a headache and a fever, you may think it’s the flu. But add in the telltale symptom of a stiff neck, and you may have meningitis.
The infection, which can be bacterial or viral, affects the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. The swelling of these membranes is what can trigger a headache and stiff neck. You may also have nausea, vomiting or even seizures if you have meningitis. Although meningitis is hard to diagnose because it can mimic other infections, if you have a headache along with these other symptoms, it’s best to get checked by your doctor.
5. Headaches are interfering with your daily life.
If you have headaches that are landing you in bed all day or otherwise making you unable to perform your normal daily activities, it’s time to see a doctor. You may be experiencing migraines, or the headaches could be a symptom of another underlying issue such as the ones listed above. Only a doctor can assess the cause, so get help as soon as possible.
by Tina Donvito
Make an appointment with one of our headache specialists at Keck Medicine of USC. If you’re in the Los Angeles area, schedule an appointment by calling (800) USC-CARE (800-872-2273) or by visiting neuro.keckmedicine.org/request-an-appointment.
Fever – familydoctor.org
Take anti-fever medicines, such as acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen to reduce the fever.
You may have MONONUCLEOSIS (also known as MONO), which is a viral infection that can lead to swollen glands in your neck and a swollen/tender spleen (an organ in your abdomen).
See your doctor.
You may have a bacterial infection, such as STREP THROAT.
Get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids, and take cold and fever-reducing medicines, such as acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen. If you don’t feel better in 48 hours, see your doctor. A quick test can determine whether you have STREP THROAT. Antibiotics are effective in treating the bacteria that causes this infection.
You may have a COLD or the FLU.
Get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids. Over-the-counter- medicines may help relieve your symptoms. See your doctor if your symptoms become severe. Prevent the FLU by getting the flu vaccine in the fall.
You may have GASTROENTERITIS, an intestinal infection commonly called the STOMACH FLU.
Get plenty of rest. Stop eating and drinking for a few hours to let your stomach settle. Ease back into eating gradually and start with bland foods (e.g., bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast). Take small, frequent sips of water or clear liquids to avoid dehydration. See your doctor if you have BLOODY DIARRHEA, if you’ve been vomiting for more than 2 days, or if you’re vomiting blood.
You may have BRONCHITIS, or a more serious infection, such as PNEUMONIA.
Get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and take an over-the-counter cough medicine. Bronchitis usually clears on its own in a few days. If your symptoms persist, if you have a high fever (higher than 101.5°F) or are coughing up blood, see your doctor.
You may have a serious infection, such as TUBERCULOSIS or HIV/AIDS, or CANCER.
See your doctor right away.
You may have a severe medical problem, such as APPENDICITIS, DIVERTICULITIS, PANCREATITIS, HEPATITIS, or COLITIS. Each of these involve infection and/or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract or organs in your abdomen.
See your doctor, go to the closest emergency room right away, or call an ambulance.
You may have an infection of the skin or lymph system, such as CELLULITIS or LYMPHANGITIS.
Both conditions need to be treated with antibiotics. See your doctor right away.
You may have a middle ear infection (OTITIS MEDIA) or an outer ear infection (SWIMMER’S EAR or OTITIS EXTERNA).
While these will likely resolve on their own, some of the infections may require treatment. See your doctor if your ear pain is severe, if your symptoms worsen, or if symptoms fail to improve within 48 hours of starting.
You may have HEAT EXHAUSTION or HEAT STROKE.
Drink cool liquids and rest in a cool location. Lay down and elevate your legs above the level of your heart. You can also get into a cold bath or even ice water bath. Recheck your temperature often until it has returned to normal. If your temperature goes higher, have someone take you to the emergency room.
Your fever may be a side effect of your MEDICINE.
Call your doctor.
You may have PNEUMONIA or PULMONARY EMBOLUS.
See your doctor right away, go to the closest emergency room, or call an ambulance.
You may have PYELONEPHRITIS, a potentially serious kidney infection.
See your doctor right away.
You may have MENINGITIS, an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
See your doctor, go to the closest emergency room right away, or call an ambulance.
You may have HEAT STROKE or HEAT EXHAUSTION.
Get out of the sun and go somewhere shady or with air conditioning. Have someone take you to the closest emergency room right away or call an ambulance.
For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think the problem is serious, call your doctor right away.
Goats and Soda : NPR
Fever, cough and shortness of breath were early on identified as symptoms of COVID-19, but additional symptoms are emerging.
Fever, cough and shortness of breath were early on identified as symptoms of COVID-19, but additional symptoms are emerging.
When the coronavirus pandemic first emerged, public health officials told the world to watch out for its telltale symptoms: fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. But as the virus has spread across the globe, researchers have developed a more nuanced picture of how symptoms of infection can manifest themselves, especially in milder cases.
We’re getting a “better understanding of how these symptoms express in the general population and not necessarily in hospitalized patients,” which is whom most of the earlier studies from China looked at. “So it’s a bit of a bigger picture,” says Charitini Stavropoulou, an associate professor in health services research at City, University of London in the U.K., who led an analysis of known symptoms in milder cases as part of a collaboration with Oxford University.
Some of these symptoms, such as loss of smell or taste, are highly distinctive and a strong indicator of infection. Others, like headaches, chills or sore throat, are common to lots of illnesses. So how do you know when a symptom is cause to seek medical advice or testing? We asked doctors and public health and infectious disease researchers for their insights.
THE STANDARD 3
Fever: Some patients can experience fevers that last for days, while others might see their temperature go up and down, with peaks often occurring in the evening, says Dr. David Aronoff, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. “I think if someone has a fever, regardless of how long it’s lasting, unless they can clearly attribute it to something else, that’s a very reasonable symptom to seek an evaluation for,” he says.
Stavropoulou’s systematic review of the medical literature found that fever was reported in 82% to 87% of mild to moderate cases.
Dry cough: Cough was the second most common symptom after fever, though “coughing was not always there,” Stavropoulou notes. “So while we think it’s a main symptom, it appears only two out of three times for patients with COVID-19.”
That said, cough remains a “very, very common symptom of the pneumonia that the virus can cause,” says Aronoff. Given this fact, “if someone has a new cough or a new shortness of breath that’s cropped up in the last three days or so, they should definitely get tested.”
Shortness of breath: Stavropoulou’s review found that this symptom occurs more frequently in severe cases “and indeed, in some studies, was a marker of severe disease.” The two largest studies she looked at found that shortness of breath occurred in fewer than 8% of milder cases.
THE NEW 6 FROM THE CDC:
Chills/repeated shaking with chills: The chills generally precede a fever, though people don’t always perceive when their temperature has spiked, Aronoff says. Sometimes, those chills can be accompanied by shaking, since shivering is our bodies’ way of generating heat and raising our temperature, he says.
Muscle pain: Nearly 15% of COVID-19 patients experience muscle pain, according to a report published by the World Health Organization in February that analyzed nearly 56,000 confirmed cases in China. But that’s hardly unique to this disease: Lots of viral infections can cause muscle aches and pains, which can result from an inflammatory response to a virus.
“I think all of us who have had the winter cold or flu have had experience with muscle pain, headache, sore throat,” notes Aronoff. Given that we’re no longer in the typical cold and flu season, if you’re experiencing muscle pains and other flu-like symptoms, “we know that those can be associated with COVID-19,” he says. “And it is very reasonable to get people thinking, you know, maybe I should get tested.”
He added: “I would also include new-onset fatigue, out of proportion to what a patient would expect to be experiencing under whatever circumstances they are [in],” as a symptom.
However, fatigue on its own is not very predictive of disease, because it is also frequently reported by people who don’t test positive, says Claire Steves, a geriatrician and senior lecturer at King’s College London. She’s one of the lead researchers on the COVID Symptom Tracker, an app-based project that has so far recruited 3 million people across the U.K. to log any symptoms — even if they are not feeling sick. Researchers can use data from those who are eventually diagnosed with COVID-19 as an early radar on how symptoms develop in the population. (The COVID Symptom Tracker is now recruiting people in the U.S. to sign up as well.)
Steves’ research is finding that certain symptoms tend to cluster together in people who test positive. For instance, fitter people in the 20-70 age range who experience loss of smell often also experience fatigue, and they tend to have a milder course of the disease, she says.
Headache: Headaches are a common experience for many adults. On its own, a headache should probably not be cause for alarm, especially if it behaves like other headaches you’ve experienced, says Aronoff.
“If somebody is only going to use headache as a trigger to go get tested for COVID[-19], that headache should be something that either is a headache that’s new for them or that is sticking around a bit longer than they are used to,” he says. “Or it’s associated with another symptom that may also be subtle, like fatigue or feeling kind of worn out” — especially if there’s no good reason for the tiredness.
In fact, Steves says research out of the COVID Symptom Tracker suggests that headache “is an important symptom” seen early on in the course of the disease and it commonly occurs alongside other symptoms.
Sore throat: “We’re seeing sore throat in COVID-19 patients,” says Aronoff. “But it’s what I would say [is] a minor symptom” — one that’s common to lots of other ailments.
Loss of taste or smell: This symptom has emerged as a strong indicator of infection — one distinctive enough that it alone should be cause to seek testing, says Dr. Carol Yan, an otolaryngologist and head and neck surgeon at UC San Diego Health.
If someone is experiencing this symptom, “I would tell them that they should consider self-quarantining themselves and contacting their health care providers,” says Yan. Most people who experience loss of smell or taste also have other symptoms, commonly fever, fatigue and malaise, she says. “But there’s certainly a subset of people that we know have only smell and taste loss and no other symptoms” who ultimately test positive.
Yan’s research has found that about 7 out of 10 patients reported an acute loss of sense of smell or taste at the time of their diagnosis.
Similar findings have emerged from the COVID Symptom Tracker. Among fit and healthy people ages 20 to 70, “the loss of sense of smell is a really good marker” of infection, Steves says.
In fact, this symptom is seen as such a strong indicator of infection that patients at UC San Diego Health are now routinely asked not just if they have a cough or fever but also if they’re experiencing a loss of smell or taste, says Yan. “It’s really being used as a good screening question and in helping triage patients.”
The good news is that both Yan and Steves have found that people who lose their sense of smell or taste tend to experience a milder course of the disease. Yan says patients generally recover these senses in two to four weeks on average.
OTHER POTENTIAL RED FLAGS
Confusion and gastrointestinal issues: Stavropoulou’s review of the medical literature found that, in most studies, gastrointestinal issues were reported in fewer than 10% of mild cases of COVID-19.
But Steves says emerging data from the COVID Symptom Tracker suggest that problems like diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain tend to be more prominent in the frail elderly — people who are over 70 and need help to get around. Acute confusion also seems to be an important symptom in this group, she says.
“Older and frailer and more co-morbid people” — those with underlying conditions such as heart disease, diabetes or obesity — “tend to be getting this cluster of abdominal symptoms and delirium symptoms and headache as well,” Steves says.
She says it’s important for caregivers to recognize that these symptoms in the frail elderly could be indicative of COVID-19, particularly in situations like nursing homes, “because that’s where spread could occur.”
AND THEN THERE’S THIS …
Chilblains (pictured) are itchy, red, pink or purple inflammations of the skin’s small blood vessels that can develop in body parts such as toes and fingers from exposure to colder temperatures or wet conditions. A similar-looking inflammation of the toes is an emerging symptom of COVID-19 and is being referred to as “COVID toes.”
“COVID toes” and other skin manifestations: Dermatologists are now reporting that certain skin conditions appear to be emerging as symptoms of infection in milder cases. Among the most common — and striking — is “COVID toes,” a condition resembling chilblains, or pernio, on the feet or toes, says Dr. Esther Freeman, director of global health dermatology at Massachusetts General Hospital and director of the international Dermatology COVID-19 Registry. The registry has received more than 400 reports from dermatologists in 21 countries, and a little under half are cases of COVID toes, she says.
Normally with chilblains, “you would see pink, red or purple lesions on the toes or sometimes on the hands,” Freeman says. “That’s often accompanied by swelling and can also be accompanied by a burning, itching or tender sensation,” she says.
Chilblains are caused by inflammation in the small blood vessels of the skin, usually in reaction to colder temperatures or damp weather, Freeman says. “So, for example, spending a lot of time outside in wet socks could do it.”
What’s unusual is that during the coronavirus pandemic, “we’re seeing patients who are living in warm climates or patients who have been sheltering inside and staying warm developing these lesions for the first time,” she says.
“I have seen more toe consults in the past two weeks than I have in my entire prior career combined,” Freeman says.
She says some patients develop COVID toes early on, along with other symptoms such as fever or cough. Others develop the condition well after their other symptoms have passed, almost like a post-viral response. And a third category of patients seems to develop COVID toes as the sole symptom.
Other skin conditions reported include hives and morbilliform, a measles-like rash on the chest, back, arms or legs. Freeman notes that viruses — for example, those that cause measles or chickenpox — often cause rashes, so dermatologists were expecting that with the coronavirus. But the toe manifestations were surprising.
While data are still emerging, Freeman says that in her opinion, dermatologic symptoms, such as COVID toes, should be considered as criteria for testing. But if you’re having these symptoms, she says, “Please don’t panic. Most of our patients who are developing these COVID toes are doing extremely well and are able to recover fully at home.”
“I think it’s also important to know that the purple lesions will go away on their own,” she adds.
When Neck Stiffness May Mean Meningitis
Meningitis is a serious condition that occurs when the meninges—protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord—become infected and inflamed. Early symptoms can be similar to the flu. However, having a stiff neck in addition to flu-like symptoms could be a key clue that meningitis is the problem and should be checked by a doctor.
See Spinal Cord Anatomy in the Neck
When Is a Stiff Neck Serious?
Patients should seek immediate medical attention if a stiff neck is accompanied by a fever, headache and/or nausea. See When Is a Stiff Neck Serious?
There are several types of meningitis, but this article focuses on the two most common ones: viral and bacterial. In cases where someone has contracted bacterial meningitis, finding medical attention immediately (within a few hours of initial symptoms) can be the difference between making a full recovery and permanent disability or death.
Meningitis can start suddenly, and early symptoms may include one or more of the following:
See Stiff Neck Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
As time goes on, other symptoms can develop, such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light or noises, cognitive problems with concentration and memory, and many other latter-stage symptoms.
See Neck Pain Symptoms
In addition, it should be noted that bacterial and viral meningitis are both contagious, so they are more likely to be contracted and spread in areas where people live in close quarters, such as college dorms or military barracks.
In This Article:
Because meningitis is such a serious condition, patients with symptoms of the disease will often start treatment before an official diagnosis is confirmed through diagnostic tests.
Diagnosing meningitis is difficult and requires the insight of a medical professional. If meningitis is suspected based on the patient history and physical exam, diagnostic tests will need to be done. These tests could include one or more of the following:
- Spinal tap. A spinal tap, also called a lumbar puncture, involves inserting a needle into the spinal canal in the lower back (a safe distance beneath the spinal cord) and drawing a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. Numerous lab tests will be run on the cerebrospinal fluid, such as to measure glucose, protein, red and white blood cell counts, and to determine which specific bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms might be present. The spinal tap and its associated tests are critical to achieving an official meningitis diagnosis.
- Blood tests. Before the spinal tap, typically blood tests will be done for a quick analysis to look for inflammatory markers suggestive of an infection or other illness. In some cases, a blood test could indicate meningitis is unlikely, preventing the need for the patient to undergo an invasive spinal tap.
- Imaging study. A CT scan or MRI scan of the brain is usually done before the spinal tap, especially if symptoms include any neurological deficits such as confusion or light sensitivity. An imaging study may show brain swelling and whether it is safe for a spinal tap to be performed. If it is determined that a change in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure from a spinal tap could cause the brain to herniate and move downward, the procedure will need to be delayed until the pressure on the brain is reduced.
See Diagnosing Neck Pain
The spinal tap’s lab results for potential bacterial or viral cultures can take a few days for enough growth to be analyzed, which is why an official meningitis diagnosis cannot typically be made the same day. However, faster tests are being researched and may be available in the future.1
Treatment for Meningitis
Minutes matter when it comes to treating bacterial meningitis. As such, doctors cannot wait several hours or days to see if a lab test comes back positive for bacterial meningitis. If meningitis is suspected and cannot be ruled out by the initial examination, doctors will usually start treating the patient with a broad-spectrum antibiotic to prevent any potential bacterial meningitis from growing out of control.
After the test results come back, the doctor will know if meningitis is the official diagnosis, as well as what type. For viral meningitis, there is typically no specific treatment aside from getting rest and trying to maintain a healthy intake of fluids and nutrition. For bacterial meningitis, the broad-spectrum antibiotic will be replaced by an antibiotic that targets the specific bacteria causing the meningitis.
Depending on the patient and severity of the meningitis, other medications may also be used.
- 1.Mayer L, et al. Chapter 6: Primary Culture and Presumptive Identification of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. In: Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. 2nd ed. https://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/lab-manual/chpt06-culture-id.html. Updated 2011.
Pneumonia Symptoms and Diagnosis | American Lung Association
Bacterial pneumonia, which is the most common form, tends to be more serious than other types of pneumonia, with symptoms that require medical care. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop gradually or suddenly. Fever may rise as high as a dangerous 105 degrees F, with profuse sweating and rapidly increased breathing and pulse rate. Lips and nailbeds may have a bluish color due to lack of oxygen in the blood. A patient’s mental state may be confused or delirious.
The symptoms of viral pneumonia usually develop over a period of several days. Early symptoms are similar to influenza symptoms: fever, a dry cough, headache, muscle pain, and weakness. Within a day or two, the symptoms typically get worse, with increasing cough, shortness of breath and muscle pain. There may be a high fever and there may be blueness of the lips.
Symptoms may vary in certain populations. Newborns and infants may not show any signs of the infection. Or, they may vomit, have a fever and cough, or appear restless, sick, or tired and without energy. Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness. For individuals that already have a chronic lung disease, those symptoms may worsen.
When to call a doctor
If you think you or your child has symptoms of pneumonia, don’t wait for the disease to get even worse before you seek care. Call your doctor. And see your doctor right away if you have difficulty breathing, develop a bluish color in your lips and fingertips, have chest pain, a high fever, or a cough with mucus that is severe or is getting worse.
It’s especially important to get medical attention for pneumonia if you are in a high-risk group, including adults older than age 65, children age two or younger, people with an underlying health condition or weakened immune system. For some of these vulnerable individuals, pneumonia can quickly become a life-threatening condition.
How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed?
Sometimes pneumonia can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are so variable, and are often very similar to those seen in a cold or influenza. To diagnose pneumonia, and to try to identify the germ that is causing the illness, your doctor will ask questions about your medical history, do a physical exam, and run some tests.
Your doctor will ask you questions about your signs and symptoms, and how and when they began. To help figure out if your infection is caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, you may be asked some questions about possible exposures, such as:
- Any recent travel
- Your occupation
- Contact with animals
- Exposure to other sick people at home, work or school
- Whether you have recently had another illness
Your doctor will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. If you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale.
If your doctor suspects you may have pneumonia, they will probably recommend some tests to confirm the diagnosis and learn more about your infection. These may include:
- Blood tests to confirm the infection and to try to identify the germ that is causing your illness.
- Chest X-ray to look for the location and extent of inflammation in your lungs.
- Pulse oximetry to measure the oxygen level in your blood. Pneumonia can prevent your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your bloodstream.
- Sputum test on a sample of mucus (sputum) taken after a deep cough, to look for the source of the infection.
If you are considered a high-risk patient because of your age and overall health, or if you are hospitalized, the doctors may want to do some additional tests, including:
- CT scan of the chest to get a better view of the lungs and look for abscesses or other complications.
- Arterial blood gas test, to measure the amount of oxygen in a blood sample taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. This is more accurate than the simpler pulse oximetry.
- Pleural fluid culture, which removes a small amount of fluid from around tissues that surround the lung, to analyze and identify bacteria causing the pneumonia.
- Bronchoscopy, a procedure used to look into the lungs’ airways. If you are hospitalized and your treatment is not working well, doctors may want to see whether something else is affecting your airways, such as a blockage. They may also take fluid samples or a biopsy of lung tissue.
Fatigue and headache most common Covid symptoms in children – study | Medical research
Fatigue, headache and fever are the most common symptoms of coronavirus in children, with few developing a cough or losing their sense of taste or smell, researchers have found, adding to calls for age-specific symptom checklists.
The NHS lists three symptoms as signs of Covid-19 in adults and children: a high temperature, a new, continuous cough, and a loss or change in the sense of smell or taste.
However, the team behind the Covid symptom study app say new data shows that the disease presents differently in children compared with adults.
“We need to start to telling people what are the key symptoms at different ages rather than this blanket obsession with fever, cough and lack of smell,” said Prof Tim Spector, of King’s College London, who led the work.
The team’s latest findings are based on reports of symptoms among 198 children who tested positive for the disease out of almost 16,000 tested. Crucially, the team note, parents could have tested their children at the same time as they themselves took a test, meaning the children could have been tested even if they had no symptoms.
While a third of the children who tested positive showed no symptoms – adding weight to other work showing many infections are asymptomatic – the team say those who did showed a different set of symptoms than adults.
More than half of the Covid-positive children with symptoms – 55% – had fatigue, while 54% had a headache and almost half had a fever. Sore throats were present in around 38% of the children with symptoms, while almost 35% skipped meals, 15% had an unusual skin rash and 13% had diarrhoea.
By contrast, the team has found that the most common symptoms in adults are fatigue, headache, a persistent cough, sore throat and loss of smell.
Spector noted that of children who tested positive and had symptoms, around a half didn’t have any of the three main signs listed by the NHS.
“If you followed the government’s advice you’d be missing half of the [symptomatic] infections,” he said, adding that teachers and parents needed to be aware that the virus can present differently in children and adults.
“What we want to do here is not push [children] to have tests, but just keep them away from school [if they show symptoms],” he said.
While Spector noted some of the symptoms in children overlapped with those for colds, which could become increasingly problematic as the winter months approach, other symptoms, such as skin rashes, were unusual. The team have previously argued rashes should be added to the official list of symptoms, noting that they also appear in adults with Covid.
“It is certainly as important as the other features, and in children it is much more important,” he said. “One in six children will have [a rash] and many times it will be the only sign, and you don’t get a funny rash with most coughs, colds [or] flus.”
Spector said the difference in symptoms with age were probably down to differences in the way the immune system responded to the virus, and he said the team were now calling for parents to track their children’s symptoms on the app to help the team spot school outbreaks quickly.
Dr Tom Waterfield of Queen’s University Belfast, who was not involved in the research, said the findings chimed with his own work showing that symptoms such as fatigue, headaches and an upset stomach were common among children with Covid-19, while symptoms such as coughs were rarer than in adults.
Dr Sanjay Patel, a paediatric infectious diseases consultant at Southampton children’s hospital cautioned that while the NHS checklist would not mean all children with Covid were detected, it still allowed school outbreaks to be spotted, while many of the symptoms highlighted by the new study could be the result of a host of different illnesses, and keeping children home based on such signs could be problematic.
“The harms of that approach are very tangible,” he said. “Many children would be missing a lot of school, and the majority of children being tested would still be negative.”
Prof Martin Marshall, the chair of the Royal College of GPs, welcomed the study. “Understanding that children may exhibit symptoms that are different to adults is useful in order for GPs and our teams, as well as our specialist paediatric colleagues, to identify the virus in children and respond appropriately,” he said.
90,000 how to cope with malaise – clinic “Dobrobut”
In hot weather, many people suffer from headaches. It can be either an independent phenomenon or a symptom of a disease. It is important to avoid situations that can trigger a headache whenever possible. The recommendations of the physician therapist of the Dobrobut Medical Network, Candidate of Medical Sciences Sergei Aleksandrovich Poyarkov will help you with this.
In the heat of summer, many people experience headaches.It can be dull, aching, pulsating, constant or intermittent, have different localization. According to studies, when the air temperature rises by five degrees, headaches occur 8% more often. An air conditioner can provoke malaise in hot weather. Dry air, constant temperature fluctuations, noise (including that arising from the operation of the air conditioner) can also cause headaches.
Causes of headache in hot weather
One of the main causes of heat headaches is dehydration.Due to the lack of fluid, the blood supply to the brain, which is known to be 90% water, deteriorates. Therefore, in hot weather, it is important to drink enough clean water to maintain the normal functioning of the body.
Headache may appear due to increased stress on the heart. This is manifested by an increased heart rate, shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air, tightness in the chest. Even a healthy person can develop these symptoms, and people with diseases of the cardiovascular system are especially vulnerable.Heat is especially dangerous for people with high blood pressure. People with coronary artery disease are more likely to have angina attacks. Therefore, even at the beginning of summer, such people need to undergo a preventive examination.
A significant increase in air temperature may cause heat stroke. Heatstroke symptoms are dizziness, increased breathing and heart rate, increased sweating.
Prevention of headache in hot weather
In tropical countries, during the midday heat, there is a tradition of siesta, when people are at home and sleep.But they get up very early and finish work late. In extreme heat, it is recommended, following the example of residents of southern countries, not to go outside, avoid physical activity and, if possible, do not bend over. If you are out of the house, try not to be in the sun for more than 20 minutes and stay in the shade the rest of the time.
Clothes in the heat should be light and loose, preferably made from natural fabrics of light shades. Avoid tight collars and tight shirts, as well as tight belts.Do not neglect hats, if possible, wear straw hats.
On especially hot days, be careful about eating meat, animal fats, avoid overeating. Try to replace meat with fish, give up rich broths. In the diet, plant and dairy foods, herbs, vegetables and fruits are preferable. Use a minimum of salt in cooking.
Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages, ice water, carbonated and sugary drinks.Do not use perfumes or strong aromatic products.
If you have a headache:
- If possible, take a cool shower or dip your feet in a basin of cool water. Apply a cool compress to your forehead. If the headache is severe, lie down on a high pillow. You can use two towels by soaking them in cold water one at a time. Provide yourself with peace and quiet. It is better to close the curtains in the room, remove the bright light;
- If you have a headache when you are away from home, buy a cold water bottle in a glass bottle or any non-alcoholic drink in a metal can.Apply to your forehead or hold in your palms;
- If you feel worse in the hot season, headaches, first of all, go to a cool place and drink water. Within half an hour, you should drink from one to three glasses of cool water in small sips. Water with lemon helps a lot.
If you have headaches and feel unwell, be sure to consult your doctor.
90,000 causes, symptoms, treatment – health articles
Table of Contents
Abnormal uterine bleeding (UBH) is an abnormal change in menstrual function.Functional changes can occur at various levels: in the pituitary and hypothalamus, adrenal glands, ovaries, thyroid gland and cerebral cortex.
There are the following types of violations :
- Polymenorrhea . This pathology is characterized by short breaks between cycles, which lead to frequent menstrual bleeding. They are dangerous because they provoke anemia, which develops as soon as possible
- Metrorrhagia .Such bleeding occurs between periods. Metrorrhagia is also dangerous for the development of anemia
- Menorrhagia . This pathology is characterized by pronounced blood loss during menstruation, often exceeding the physiological norm of
- Menometrorrhagia . Such uterine bleeding is prolonged and irregular
The following forms of AMK were also identified:
- Juvenile .They are recorded in patients aged 12 to 17 years
- Reproductive period . They are noted in women from 18 to 45 years old
- Premenopausal . Recorded in patients aged 46 to 55 years
Bleeding during pregnancy and childbirth deserves special attention . The pathology that occurs in the first months of gestation is often a sign of its ectopic location or the threat of spontaneous abortion.In such conditions, women complain of pain in the lower abdomen. If AMK started in a pregnant woman, medical attention should be sought immediately. If you start treatment on time, you can save the fetus and preserve the woman’s reproductive function.
Important! Bleeding that develops in the 3rd trimester is especially dangerous. The pathological condition can occur against the background of rupture of the uterine walls, placenta previa or its detachment. In this case, a woman needs to call an ambulance.
In some cases, AMK also occurs during childbirth. Their reasons include placental abruption and presentation, impaired blood clotting, stuck placenta and low uterine contractile function.
Causes of occurrence
Doctors distinguish today the following causes of uterine bleeding :
- Ovarian pathology . These include luteal phase insufficiency, polycystic and resistant ovary syndromes, cysts, hormone-producing tumors, etc.
- Diseases of the uterus . Abnormal bleeding may occur with fibroids, endometriosis, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps and hyperplasia
- Pathology of the pituitary gland . These include pituitary hypogonadism and acromegaly
- Thyroid diseases . Hypo- and hyperthyroidism can provoke bleeding
- Adrenal pathology . Common ones include Cushing’s syndrome and congenital hyperplasia of the cortex
- Diseases of the blood coagulation system : hemophilia, etc.
- Chronic pathologies of other organs : pyelonephritis, liver cirrhosis, etc.
Also, the causes of such bleeding include taking a number of medications and a deficiency or excess body weight.
Important! Treatment of bleeding in women should begin after the first manifestation. Otherwise, serious complications can develop. It is important to consult a gynecologist in a timely manner. Only an experienced specialist will not only identify the cause of the pathology, but also eliminate its manifestations, treat the underlying disease.If necessary, the doctor will involve his colleagues in the treatment of bleeding from the uterus: a therapist, endocrinologist, urologist, etc.
The pathological condition differs from standard menstruation in that during it the volume of released blood significantly increases. Usually it rises 2 or more times. At the same time, a woman is forced to change her lifestyle and often change the hygiene products used.
The duration of bleeding also increases.Menstruation usually lasts 3-7 days. AMK can last much longer. The pathological condition is also characterized by the irregularity of discharge, as well as their appearance after intercourse, at an age when menstruation has already stopped (including for a long time).
The features of AMC are also distinguished, depending on their type.
For bleeding of the juvenile period , discharge from the genital tract is characteristic, which is accompanied by pain and lasts up to 1.5 months.This pathology becomes the cause of the development of anemia, provoking dry skin, periodic dizziness, pallor and general weakness.
For AMK of the reproductive period , cycle disorders are characteristic. Bleeding occurs against the background of a delay in menstruation for up to 6-8 weeks or during it, can last up to 4-8 weeks and also lead to anemia, which weakens the patient’s body.
For AMK of the premenopausal period , general weakness, headache, irritability and decreased performance are characteristic.Also, women complain of hot flashes, night sweats, facial redness, engorgement of the mammary glands, intolerance to strong odors and loud sounds, anxiety, apathy.
Methods of therapy
Treatment of bleeding largely depends on its cause and type.
Juvenile AMC require drug therapy, which is reduced to the appointment of medicinal hemostatic agents, as well as uterotonics. Certain hormonal medications are recommended as needed.The duration of the course of treatment is determined exclusively by the doctor, depending on the age of the patient, the characteristics of her development and lifestyle. If anemia develops, it also corrects. Vitamin complexes are prescribed as a general tonic. If medications do not give a pronounced effect, the gynecologist may recommend diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity. In some cases, weight normalization can prevent the development of bleeding. Therefore, some patients are additionally prescribed a special diet.It provides opportunities for eliminating excess body weight or gaining it.
AMK, arising in reproductive age, are treated by prescribing hemostatic drugs and drugs that contract the uterus. Hormones may also be prescribed. Such therapy is selected taking into account the presence of ovarian dysfunction, the state of the endometrium and data on the level of estrogen in the blood. Iron supplements are recommended to correct anemia. Diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity can also be performed, which stops bleeding and allows you to obtain the necessary data on the current structure of the endometrium.
AMK in the premenopausal period is treated by separate curettage of the uterine cavity. Other modern techniques can also be applied. Drugs to stop bleeding and hormonal agents are also prescribed. Since pathology is often combined with climacteric syndrome, the patient is recommended sedatives and other compounds to normalize the functioning of the central nervous system.
Important! Any drugs are prescribed exclusively by a doctor and are taken only under his supervision.During the treatment of bleeding in adult women and young girls, regular consultations with a gynecologist are mandatory. Only an experienced technician will determine in advance :
- General condition of the patient
- The presence of comorbidities in her
- Individual Features
A qualified physician will talk about possible side effects and will try to select drugs that create minimal risks of such effects.
Thanks to this, will be provided:
- Normalization of the cycle (if the woman is of reproductive age)
- Prevention of relapse
- Improvement of the general well-being of the patient
- Realization of impaired reproductive function and restoration of fertility in case of infertility (if necessary)
- Elimination of the risks of complications
Benefits of treatment at MEDSI
- Experienced Gynecologists .Our doctors have the necessary skills and knowledge to treat patients regardless of their age and other individual characteristics. Gynecologists use both standard and modern methods of treatment, which allows them to be successfully combined to achieve a pronounced effect in the shortest possible time
- The latest diagnostic methods . Before starting the treatment of uterine bleeding, a comprehensive examination of the patient is carried out, including laboratory and instrumental studies
- Unique therapies .Even in difficult cases, they avoid the need for surgical intervention. At the same time, a pronounced healing effect is achieved. If necessary, not only gynecologists, but also other narrow specialists are involved in the treatment of bleeding. This allows you to achieve a quick result
- Comfortable service in the clinic . We have ensured that there are no queues and the ability to make an appointment at a convenient time. Each consultation is comfortable for the patient and is carried out with special attention to her doctor
If you are planning to undergo bleeding treatment at MEDSI in St. Petersburg, call us at +7 (812) 336-33-33.The specialist will answer your questions and make an appointment with the gynecologist at a convenient time.
90,000 Forecasters did not rule out a prolonged anomalous heat in the Russian Federation – Moscow 24, 24.06.2021
Photo: portal of the mayor and government of Moscow / Yulia Ivanko
A new temperature record was set in Moscow on June 23 – the air in the city warmed up to 34.8 degrees. Forecasters are sure that this is not the limit, the Izvestia newspaper reports.
Experts do not exclude that the heat will continue next week.The cause of the anomaly is a powerful high anticyclone, which is called “blocking”. It stops the west-east transport of air.
According to meteorologists, in such conditions the heat can persist for a very long time. A similar situation was in 2010. Then a similar cyclone kept 30-degree heat for almost two months in a row.
At least a heat similar to the one that was on the eve is predicted on 24 June. However, as the scientific director of the Hydrometeorological Center Roman Vilfand says, one cannot rejoice at such a high temperature.
“This is dangerous weather, extreme temperature values. You should be extremely careful not to be in direct sunlight. in the center of the city it is even 23-25 degrees “, – said Vilfand.
The press service of the EMERCOM of Russia reported that a repeat of the situation in 2010, when peat fires were accompanied by the smell of burning, strong smoke in the capital and other cities, is not expected.It is noted that after those fires, colossal work was done to water the peatlands in the central region of the country.
Now forecasters disagree when the heat in Central Russia will subside. Some argue that next week the temperature will drop to 25-28 degrees, others that the anticyclone will regenerate and continue its action.
Earlier it was reported that Thursday in Moscow may become record hot, the air will warm up to +36 degrees.
The city may renew the daily record set in 1948, when the temperature rose to +33.5 degrees.On June 24, a weak southwest wind will blow, and the atmospheric pressure will begin to decrease and will amount to 750 millimeters of mercury.
Muscovites have been warned that a series of temperature records could be set this week due to the heat. Master trainer, specialist in physiotherapy exercises Mikhail Danilenko told what time it is better to run and what loads you can afford in the heat.
The Ministry of Emergency Situations recommended less smoking, wet cleaning and avoiding drinking too cold drinks.
Also, experts advised to drink at least 2–2.5 liters of liquid per day. This can be tea, still mineral water, salted water and soft drinks.
The Moscow Department of Health was told that headache and dizziness, a feeling of fever, fatigue, weakness, depression, reddening of the skin of the body, shortness of breath, cold sweat may indicate overheating. To combat poor health, you need to find a shade or leave a stuffy room.
Vilfand told about the weather situation by the end of the week
90,000 When the vessels are spinning their heads | Official website of the Scientific Center of Neurology
Doctor of Medical Sciences
State University Scientific Center of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Dizziness is a feeling of disturbance in the position of the body in space. Patients with dizziness represent a very heterogeneous group and seek help from doctors of various specialties – otorhinolaryngologists, therapists, neurologists, neurosurgeons. This is due to the fact that dizziness can be a symptom of a variety of conditions – diseases of the inner ear, auditory nerve, as well as cerebral vestibular structures (circulatory disorders in the vertebrobasilar basin, multiple sclerosis, tumors, neurodegenerative diseases).
The most adequate method for diagnosing the exact level of damage to the vestibular analyzer is a special otoneurological examination. The otoneurological examination is based on a detailed study of the vestibular and auditory function using objective methods, comparison of the results obtained with the data of the study of the function of other analyzers, neurological status, and the peculiarities of the cerebral circulation.
Sometimes patients under “dizziness” mean a wide variety of sensations that are not related to damage to the vestibular apparatus: lightheadedness, “fainting”, a feeling of slight intoxication, blurred vision, etc.etc., which may be associated with diseases of the circulatory system (arterial hypotension, heart rhythm disturbances, intracranial hypertension) and other factors.
Patients with dizziness often have ear diseases (up to 47% of patients), vegetative-vascular dystonia (58-71%), and vertebral-basilar insufficiency. More than 70% of patients with dizziness have a pathology of the cervical spine. An epidemiological study found that vertigo syndrome is significantly more common in women (60%) than in men (30%).
The Otoneurological group of the Scientific Center of Neurology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences has been analyzing the patterns of development, manifestations and treatment options for various variants of dizziness, especially in vascular diseases of the brain (due to atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, deformities of the carotid and vertebral arteries, etc.) for many years. As a result of the research, it turned out that in 77% of patients with this pathology, the duration of dizziness attacks ranged from several minutes to several hours, in 15% of patients they were very short-lived and lasted seconds, and in other cases the dizziness was protracted and could last for days.In the vast majority of cases (97.5%), seizures were associated with a change in the position of the head or trunk. Vascular dizziness is often accompanied by a number of additional symptoms. There may be instability when walking (80% of patients according to our data), headache (90%), noise in the head (50%), memory impairment (90%), fatigue (95% of patients).
Half of the patients had a hereditary burden of diseases of the circulatory system (arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease or vascular diseases of the brain in the parents).65% had, most likely, constitutionally conditioned vestibulopathy: from childhood, there was an increased sensitivity to vestibular loads and intolerance to swings, carousels, dizziness and nausea when using cars, etc.
Dizziness of vascular origin significantly reduces the ability to work and social adaptation of patients. According to our data, 87% of patients noted a decrease in working capacity due to dizziness, and a limitation of the ability to do household chores was noted by all patients.Temporary disability associated with dizziness was noted in 37% of patients, and often repeatedly. Almost all patients with vascular vertigo complain of a decrease in the quality of life. Thus, the problem of adequate treatment of such patients is extremely urgent from a medical and social point of view.
Treatment of patients with vascular dizziness involves the use of a combination of drugs that improve blood circulation in the brain and have a positive effect on the elimination of vestibular disorders.In recent years, an important role in the functioning of the vestibular structures of a special neurotransmitter and biologically active substance, histamine, has been shown. That is why it is now customary to use betahistine dihydrochloride (Betaserc, Solvay Pharma), a drug that has a structural similarity to histamine, as the basic treatment for vertigo syndrome. Previous studies indicate the specific action and high efficiency of Betaserc in the treatment of vertigo.The drug is not addictive or sedative, has a different dosage and therefore is very convenient to use, including in outpatient practice. Betasercom treatment has a positive effect on concomitant symptoms (headaches, manifestations of autonomic dysfunction, imbalance, etc.), and on the parameters of cerebral blood flow.
Our experience of 2-month use of Betaserk for dizziness of vascular origin demonstrated that after the completion of such a course, 97% of patients showed a decrease in the severity and frequency of dizziness attacks, while in 13% of patients they completely stopped, in 60% the achieved improvement was significant. in 23% – relatively small, and only in some patients there was no improvement in their condition.Our data confirmed the available information about the possibility of positive dynamics when using Betaserk and in relation to concomitant complaints and syndromes. So, with hearing loss, improvement occurred in 73.3% of patients, with noise in the head or in the ears – in 91% of patients. Out of 24 patients who noted instability when walking, 22 (91.7%) noted an improvement in gait, and in 9 of them, staggering when walking completely stopped.
After treatment with Betasercom, more than 83% of patients improved their working capacity, it became much easier for them to do household chores, and 96% of patients had an increase in their quality of life, including 19 – significantly.
It is important to emphasize that the indicated subjective dynamics is confirmed by the data of objective research methods. Thus, during the otoneurological and electrophysiological examination after treatment with Betasercom, 76% of patients showed an improvement in the functional state of the vestibular analyzer, increased the symmetry of vestibular reactions, and also established a significant improvement in the conduction of an acoustic signal in the brain stem and auditory nerves (according to the data of acoustic evoked potentials of the brain).
Thus, the results of many years of research show a significant prevalence of dizziness syndrome in patients of working age, and one of the first places among the causes of this disorder are various vascular diseases of the brain. It is necessary to note once again the complex nature of the developing disorders in such patients and the frequent combination of dizziness with additional complaints of hearing loss, tinnitus and head noise, instability when walking. Almost all dizziness sufferers note a decrease in working capacity, rapid fatigue, and a change in mood.The above symptoms should make the patient, his relatives and the attending physician alert and take all necessary measures to prevent the progression of the disease and the development of more serious and severe stages of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Treatment with Betaserc at a dose of 48 mg per day (24 mg twice a day, the average duration of the course is 2 months), carried out as prescribed by a doctor, improves the condition of most patients with dizziness with initial and reversible forms of cerebrovascular diseases.
© Magazine “Nerves”, 2007, №2
what to do if it gets bad> News Home in Samara
We found out how to determine the sun and heat stroke and what kind of assistance to provide to the victim.
Too much heat
This summer the weather in the Volga region beats all temperature records. Under the scorching rays of the sun, the outdoor thermometer sometimes rises to +40 degrees. Someone is happy that Samara finally fully justifies the title of a resort city, but such a “southern” climate is not suitable for everyone.Due to the increased air temperature, people can experience discomfort, and overheating can even lead to sad consequences.
The negative effect of heat is manifested by irritability, aggressiveness, mood swings, increased fears and insomnia. At the same time, all age groups can feel a deterioration in well-being. It is especially hard for the elderly, people with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system and children. They are more likely to seek medical attention.In addition, in the heat, the number of patients with high blood pressure, acute cerebrovascular accident, and myocardial infarction is growing.
With prolonged exposure, high temperatures and the sun cause pathological processes.
This is a serious violation of the body’s vital functions associated with overheating. It is accompanied by drowsiness, headache, general weakness, and dizziness. If you do not take measures to cool the body, then its temperature can rise to 40 ° C.In this case, the victim begins to vomit and diarrhea. Then he plunges into a state of delusion, experiences hallucinations, loses consciousness. His face turns pale, his skin becomes cold, his pulse quickens. In such a state, there is a high probability of dying. Therefore, observing similar symptoms in yourself or in others, it is important to urgently provide medical assistance.
Dizziness, darkening of the eyes;
Violation of the pulse;
Loss of consciousness.
According to statistics, in 20-30% of cases, severe heatstroke in the absence of medical care ends in death.
A special form of heatstroke. It is a brain disorder due to prolonged exposure to sunlight on an uncovered head. As a result, the human body receives a very large amount of heat. Sweating and blood circulation are impaired – blood vessels dilate, blood “stagnates” in the brain. Also among the symptoms are headache, lethargy, vomiting.The consequences of sunstroke can be the most serious, up to and including cardiac arrest. In severe cases, the victim falls into a coma.
Sunstroke symptoms are categorized by severity:
A mild degree is characterized by general weakness, headache, rapid breathing and pulse, dilated pupils;
Medium – severe headaches with nausea and vomiting, impaired coordination of movements, rapid breathing and pulse, nosebleeds, fever up to 39-40 degrees;
The severe form is manifested by pallor of the skin, convulsions, hallucinations, arrhythmias, fever over 40 degrees.
Problems “from the head”
There are several factors that contribute to the development of heat and sunstroke. Knowing about them, you can avoid serious complications. First, it is necessary to ensure that the head does not overheat on the street – in particular, wearing hats. When it comes to clothing, choose loose and loose items that don’t fit your body. When you are indoors, do not forget to ventilate and cool it. Secondly, in order for the body to successfully cope with the stress, doctors advise not to drink alcohol or smoke.It is also worth limiting the intake of medications that can dull sensations and cause drowsiness.
Try to avoid stress and nervous tension. This is especially important for people who are overweight, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases, and neurological problems. Make sure you have easy access to cool drinking water. Drink liquid in sufficient quantity and as often as possible (in the heat – at least two and a half liters of water per day).
Children are a special risk group. Unlike adults, they cannot track the nuances of their physical condition and often find it difficult to describe what is happening to them. If a child becomes lethargic in the heat, complains of a headache and feeling unwell, then these are most likely not just mood swings.
The body of babies is not able to independently regulate the temperature, so it is better for them to be in the shade. To replenish the water balance, it is better to drink not soda or juice, but just water without gas.
Shadow, water and ice
Anyone can provide first aid for heat or sunstroke. Simple recommendations will help with this. The victim should be moved to the shade or to a cool room where there is sufficient oxygen and normal humidity levels. There it is better to leave it in a prone position. The head and legs should be raised by placing something under the neck and ankles. It is also advisable to remove outer clothing.
Be sure to give the patient a drink of cool water.If he complains of pain, wet his face with cold water, apply a wet cloth to his forehead and neck. Such a compress will effectively replace a piece of ice or a cold bottle. In addition, doctors advise fanning the victim with frequent movements. And during vomiting – to monitor the purity of the respiratory tract: so that the person does not suffocate, it is better to turn him on his side.
In case of emergency – in case of fainting, stopping breathing, not feeling the pulse – do not wait for the doctors. Give yourself artificial respiration and heart massage until the person begins to breathe and signs of cardiac activity appear.
chief physician of the Samara region
– In hot weather, non-observance of safety measures is fraught with burns of open areas of the body surface and overheating of the whole body with the development of heat or sunstroke. The consequences of burns are well known. Painful redness of the skin develops, in more severe forms, blisters and poorly healing wounds appear. Heatstroke is manifested by headache, weakness, dizziness, reddening of the skin, a rise in temperature up to 40 degrees.Vomiting and diarrhea begin, aggravating dehydration. If the consequences of overheating are not eliminated, then the person may lose consciousness. There will be signs of shock: the face will turn white, the skin will become cold, the pulse will become speeded up, and the blood pressure will begin to drop sharply. From this, the patient may die.
foreman of the rescue post
– Heatstroke on the beach is common. To provide assistance, you need to assess its degree.If the victim simply became ill and is conscious, then you can give the ammonia a sniff, give it cool water, pour over the body. When a person is unconscious, it is important to check their breathing and pulse. He needs to raise his head to prevent the possibility of suffocation due to the tongue sinking down his throat and try to speak to provoke a response. If you can’t catch it, let the ammonia smell. When this method does not work, the substance can even be applied to the area under the nose to enhance the effect.Before the arrival of the ambulance, the patient should be moved to the shade.
Legionellosis ranges in severity from mild febrile illness to severe and sometimes fatal pneumonia and is caused by exposure to a species of Legionella bacteria that occurs in water and potting soil.
Cases of legionellosis are often classified according to the type of exposure (acquired at the community level, during travel, or in a hospital setting).
The most common cause of illness, including outbreaks, is the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila and its associated species are commonly found in lakes, rivers, streams, hot springs, and other bodies of water. Other varieties, including L. longbeachae, can be found in potting mixes.
L. pneumophila was first identified in 1977. It caused an outbreak of severe pneumonia at the convention center in the United States in 1976. Since then, it has been associated with outbreaks associated with poor maintenance of artificial water systems, especially in cooling towers and evaporative condensers used in air conditioning and industrial refrigeration systems, hot and cold water systems in public and private buildings and in spa baths. …
The dose of infection is unknown, but in susceptible individuals it can be expected to be low, as symptoms of the disease appear after a short exposure and at a distance of 3 km or more from the source of outbreaks. The likelihood of illness depends on the concentration of Legionella in the water source, the generation and distribution of aerosols, characteristics of the infected person such as age and previous health status, and the virulence of the particular Legionella strain.In most cases of infection, the disease does not manifest itself.
The causative factors are Legionella bacteria found in water or potting mixes. The most common cause of the disease is the freshwater species L. pneumophila, which is found in natural aquatic conditions throughout the world. However, the most likely source of the disease is artificial aquatic systems, which create conditions conducive to the reproduction and spread of Legionella.
These bacteria live and multiply in water systems at a temperature of 20-50 degrees Celsius (the optimum temperature is 35 degrees Celsius). Legionella can survive and reproduce as a parasite in unicellular protozoa and biofilms that form in aquatic systems. They can cause infection by infecting human cells, the mechanism of which is similar to that in the case of infection of protozoa.
The most common form of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols.Sources of aerosols that have been associated with transmission of Legionella include air conditioning cooling risers, hot and cold water systems, humidifiers, and hot tubs. Infection – especially among vulnerable hospital patients – can also occur from aspiration of contaminated water and ice, and from exposure of newborns to bacteria during water delivery. The infection is not transmitted directly from person to person.
Legionnaires’ disease is believed to be common throughout the world.
The prevalence of known cases of Legionnaire infection varies widely depending on the level of surveillance and reporting. Since many countries do not have adequate diagnostic methods for this infection or have sufficiently developed surveillance systems, incidence rates are unknown. In Europe, Australia and the United States, there are about 10-15 cases per year per million inhabitants.
Reportedly, 75-80% of patients are over the age of 50 and 60-70% of them are men.Other non-travel related risk factors for community-acquired legionellosis include: smoking, heavy drinking, lung disease, impaired immunity, and chronic respiratory or kidney disease.
Risk factors for hospital pneumonia include: recent surgery, intubation, which is the process of inserting a tube into the trachea, mechanical ventilation, aspiration, nasogastric tubes, and use of respiratory therapy equipment.The most susceptible subjects are patients with compromised immune systems, including organ transplant patients, cancer patients, and patients taking corticosteroids.
Predictive factors for death due to Legionnaires’ disease include late diagnosis and late initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment, advanced age and the presence of comorbidities.
Legionellosis is a general term that describes the pulmonary and non-pulmonary forms of Legionella infection.
The nonpulmonary form (Pontiac’s disease) is an acute, self-limiting flu-like illness that usually lasts 2 to 5 days. The incubation period ranges from several hours to 48 hours. The main symptoms are fever, chills, headache, malaise, and muscle pain (myalgia). This type of infection is not fatal.
The duration of the incubation period of the pulmonary form of Legionnaires’ disease is from 2 to 10 days (however, in a number of outbreaks that have occurred, it was up to 16 days).Symptoms initially include fever, loss of appetite, headache, malaise, and lethargy. Some patients may have muscle pain, diarrhea, and confusion. A mild cough is usually also observed, but up to 50% of patients may sputum. Sputum with traces of blood or hemoptysis may occur in about one third of patients. The severity of the disease ranges from mild coughing to rapid-onset, fatal pneumonia. Death occurs as a result of progressive pneumonia with respiratory distress and / or respiratory arrest and multiple organ failure.
If left untreated, Legionnaires’ disease usually worsens during the first week. Like other risk factors for severe pneumonia, the most common complications in the case of legionellosis are pulmonary failure, shock, and acute kidney and other organ failure. Restoration of function in all cases requires treatment with antibiotics and usually takes several weeks or months. In rare cases, severe progressive pneumonia or ineffective treatment of pneumonia can cause complications in the brain.
Mortality rates from Legionnaires’ disease depend on the severity of the disease, the appropriateness of the initial antimicrobial treatment, the site of Legionella infection, and the patient’s characteristics (meaning that the disease is usually more severe in immunocompromised patients). The mortality rate can reach 40-80% among patients who are not receiving treatment due to weakened immunity, and can be reduced to 5-30% through proper patient management and depending on the severity of clinical indications and symptoms.In general, the mortality rate is usually 5-10%.
There is currently no vaccine against Legionnaires’ disease.
The non-pneumonic form of infection is self-healing and does not require any medical intervention, including antibiotic treatment. Patients diagnosed with Legionnaires’ disease always require antibiotic treatment.
The public health threat of legionnaires can be mitigated by implementing water safety plans at the level of authorities responsible for the safety of construction sites or water systems.These plans should be specific to buildings or water systems and include the implementation and regular monitoring of measures to address identified risks, including the presence of Legionella. Although it is not always possible to eradicate the source of infection, it is nevertheless possible to significantly reduce the level of risk.
The prevention of Legionnaires’ disease depends on the adoption of control measures to minimize the growth of Legionella and the spread of aerosols.These measures include proper maintenance of the relevant devices, including regular cleaning and disinfection and the use of other physical (temperature) or chemical (biocide) measures to minimize their proliferation. Examples include:
- Regular maintenance, cleaning and disinfection of cooling towers, and frequent or continuous addition of biocides;
- Installation of droplet eliminators to prevent the spread of aerosols from cooling risers;
- Maintaining adequate levels of biocides such as chlorine in pools along with complete drainage and cleaning of the entire system at least once a week;
- Keeping hot and cold water supply systems clean and either maintaining the hot water temperature at more than 50 ° C (for this it is necessary that the temperature of the water flowing out of the heating device is at least 60 ° C) and cold water below 25 ° C, and ideally below 20 ° C, and alternative treatment of these systems with a suitable biocide to limit the growth of bacteria, especially in hospitals and other health care facilities and in nursing homes;
- Reduce stagnation by draining unused taps in buildings weekly.
These controls significantly reduce the risk of legionella contamination and prevent sporadic cases and outbreaks. For highly susceptible inpatient patients, including those at risk of aspiration (eg icemakers can be sources of Legionella and should not be used by such patients).
Control and prevention measures must be taken with appropriate vigilance by general practitioners and local health services to identify cases.
WHO provides technical resources to assist with patient management and legionellosis control, as well as advice to Member States on specific issues.
Safe behavior in hot weather
In recent years, periods of abnormal heat have become more frequent in Belarus. The ability to cope with it is individual for each person and depends on the adaptive capabilities of the organism.
Because of the heat, most often problems can occur in people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, the elderly, pregnant women and lactating mothers, young children.
It is therefore recommended that you limit your outdoor activities, especially between 11:00 and 16:00. If this is not possible, you need to choose the shaded sides of the street and be sure to cover your head with a hat or use a sun umbrella, and also use special water-based sunscreen cosmetics that reflect ultraviolet radiation and do not interfere with skin breathing.
Also, people with health problems need to have medicines prescribed by a doctor.You should choose the right clothes and shoes, wear wide-brimmed hats or panamas that completely cover your head from the sun’s rays. It is recommended to choose clothes from light natural fabrics (cotton, linen, silk) of light colors and a non-fitting silhouette to provide the body with sufficient air and heat exchange. You should refuse to wear tight belts and belts that impair blood circulation. In the heat, it is also worth giving up shoes with heels, which will help to avoid swelling of the feet.
In the heat, you need to drink more than eat
Hot weather dehydrates the body, which leads to thickening of the blood.Therefore, in the summer it is better to give preference to foods with a high content of liquids, and as often as possible between meals to drink a glass or two of any refreshing and nutritious drink.
Summer temperature also reduces body fat. The fact is that during the winter months, the body naturally accumulates calories in the form of fatty deposits, which protect the internal organs from low temperatures.
But with the onset of summer, the fat accumulated during the winter, which is completely unnecessary in the hot summer months, is gradually absorbed by the body.When excess fat is burned, a lot of heat is released.
Thus, the combination of summer heat and internal heat dries up the system doubly, which leads to a strong thickening of the blood. The blood becomes thick and sticky and its passage through the vessels slows down. As a result, less glucose and other nutrients enter the brain.
Therefore, at the beginning of summer, it is imperative to add one or more liters of liquid in combination with natural sweeteners to your daily diet.
Melon, all kinds of berries, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, grapes, oranges and other fresh and easily digestible fruits fit perfectly into the summer menu. Fruit is the source of most of the vital vitamins.
All leafy green vegetables are very useful in summer. They provide the body not only with vitamins, but also with mineral salts, which are lost during sweating.
Especially good are mustard greens, watercress, spinach, celery, lettuce, beet tops and other vegetables, both raw and cooked
Rutabaga, turnips, radishes, pumpkin and all types of courgettes (especially zucchini), as well as cucumbers in combination with herbs and fruits can serve as the main dishes of the summer menu.
In summer, it is very useful to eat cucumbers – they can be used both raw, with a few drops of lemon juice and a pinch of salt, and in dishes cooked over the fire. The yogurt must also be given its due.
Since the heat naturally present in legumes disappears as they germinate, these sprouts are also suitable as summer food.
Mint perfectly cools the body and mind: it can be used as a side dish (sprinkle with fresh or dry chopped leaves on top of the dish), brew tea from it, or, rubbing it with water and adding salt and a few pomegranate seeds, prepare a mint seasoning, chutney.
Cumin is the best spice for summer and should be used whenever possible. Turmeric and coriander, which are so beneficial in winter, should not be carried away during the summer months. In hot weather, it is also necessary to reduce the amount of spices such as cloves, cardamom and cinnamon.
You can, as before, use ginger, but only in small quantities and for medicinal purposes (for example, as a remedy for gas in the intestines).
- Drink more.We usually drink about one and a half liters of liquid a day. But in the heat, the volume of daily consumed liquid should be increased by about three times. At the same time, I’m not talking about nectars or sweet soda – it is necessary to replenish the water deficit in the body with the help of ordinary drinking water.
- Try in the hottest time – from 12:00 to 16:00 – still not to go outside and even more so not to walk in the open sun. Also, do not use surface public transport and go down the metro.It is better to plan your day so that at this time you are either at work or at home.
- Shower as often as possible. Indeed, in the conditions of smog, which has now covered some of our cities, the skin becomes an important additional respiratory organ. Regular cleansing allows the skin to breathe much more efficiently. The water should be at room temperature, pleasant to the body. And an attempt to cool down with ice water is the shortest path to pneumonia, which develops due to a sharp change in temperature.
- Of course, swimming in open reservoirs is a good way to cool off, just don’t do it on unequipped beaches and in stagnant water, which becomes completely dirty in such heat. If there is no safe bathing opportunity, the best is
- Move more in the morning and evening. This advice may seem strange in hot summer. But a sedentary lifestyle in such heat leads to exacerbation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and an increased risk of thrombosis.
- Try to change your diet. In such hot weather, the emphasis should be on cold dishes. And it is better to give up fatty dairy products and meat, but lean on fish and vegetables. I would like to say separately about dairy products – you do not need to purchase them in stalls with an expiring expiration date or let them heat up in the sun. These foods spoil quickly and cause very severe food poisoning.
- Be sure to salt food. At a high air temperature, a person sweats a lot and loses a fairly large amount of sodium.
- Try to avoid synthetic clothing. Despite the fact that this is quite difficult to do, it is better to choose clothes made of natural cotton and linen without additives for hot weather.
- Walking in a T-shirt with narrow straps or with a bare torso in such weather is an absolute mistake. In this heat, you don’t need to undress. It is better to give preference to loose clothing that covers the arms and legs as much as possible, not to mention the chest, abdomen and back.
- Feel free to wear caps, panama hats or hats.After all, heatstroke occurs mainly when the head heats up.
- In such heat, an air conditioner, of course, is indispensable. And, if you have to spend a lot of time in an air-conditioned room, try to position yourself so that the flow of air from it does not blow directly on you. Usually, a lot of bacteria live in air conditioners, and their effect, together with cold air, leads to exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and the development of pneumonia.
Alcohol and hot sun are not compatible.The fact is that alcohol requires a huge amount of water for its splitting even under normal temperature conditions. Once in the human body, it is rather slowly broken down in the liver at a rate of 0.1 g / kg of body weight per hour. And only 10% of it is excreted from the body unchanged. The remaining alcohol circulates with the blood throughout the body until it is completely broken down. Given the high permeability of tissues, their saturation with water, alcohol quickly spreads through all systems of the body.That is why in the morning after a good feast people suffer from dry mouth and headache. Severe dehydration is one of the main consequences of alcohol intoxication.
How to protect your heart from the heat
When it is very hot, even in quite healthy people, the pulse rate, shortness of breath, a feeling of shortness of breath, and chest tightness may appear. All this is the result of increased stress on the heart. People with diseases of the cardiovascular system are especially vulnerable. In the heat, hypertensive patients feel worse, patients with coronary artery disease (IHD) are more likely to have angina attacks.
Is heat and sun a wonderful day?
High temperature causes tachycardia – the heart is running in marathon mode. This condition is the impetus for the development of an attack in people with coronary artery disease. Therefore, everyone who has a pathology of the cardiovascular system should not go outside from 12:00 to 16:00. Can’t you avoid it? Then you are only in the shadows. Dress lightly and freely. Let it be natural fabrics of light shades. It is worth giving up collars squeezing the throat, narrow shirts, tight belts.
Do not forget that you cannot weed the beds, bending over strongly and dropping your head. This posture disrupts the outflow of blood from the head – a sharp rise in blood pressure may occur, up to loss of consciousness and a stroke.
Remember about the work schedule: you have worked for 30-40 minutes, 15-20 minutes – have a rest. If shortness of breath, interruptions in the work of the heart, weakness, dizziness, or even worse – chest pains appear, immediately stop any physical activity.
A personal first-aid kit should always contain heart products. These are drugs for lowering pressure, prescribed by the attending physician, valocordin, validol and nitroglycerin. Moreover, the last two medicines should be kept in your pocket – just in case it suddenly becomes bad and you won’t be able to get to the first-aid kit.
On especially hot days, it is worth revising your diet. Eat less meat and animal fats, more plant and dairy foods.The basic principle is a little light meal. It is necessary to eat more greens: parsley, dill, vegetables, fruits, it is better to replace meat with fish, to give up rich first courses. At the same time, there is a minimum of salt.
Always with you
People with pathologies of the cardiovascular system should definitely have a tonometer with them. It happens that the appearance of a headache is perceived by someone as the beginning of a hypertensive crisis. Knowing about the serious consequences of this condition, but without measuring the pressure, one, second, third pill starts to be missed in a panic.But if it turns out that the headache was not a sign of high blood pressure, but arose from overwork, stress, etc., uncontrolled medication will cause severe hypotension (pressure reduction) and can lead to fainting.
If a person feels sick in the heat, help him move into the shade. Release the chest by unbuttoning the shirt, releasing the pressure of the belt, collar, belt … Spray your face and chest with water. If he complains of chest pain, tightness, a stone on the chest, give a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue.If the pain persists (!), You need to take aspirin – the whole pill – not half and not a quarter. This agent is an antiagrigant – it thins the blood. Therefore, in this situation, chewing aspirin is the prevention of myocardial infarction. Call an ambulance as soon as possible.
REMEMBER! In summer, do not try to reduce the dosage
drugs or stop taking them altogether.
This should never be done without a doctor’s recommendation!
Feel dizzy, quickened breathing and heart rate, increased sweating? These are the first signs of heatstroke.