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Causes of constant ringing in ears: Tinnitus – Symptoms and causes

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Tinnitus: Ringing in the ears and what to do about it

Constant noise in the head— such as ringing in the ears—rarely indicates a serious health problem, but it sure can be annoying. Here’s how to minimize it.

Tinnitus (pronounced tih-NITE-us or TIN-ih-tus) is sound in the head with no external source. For many, it’s a ringing sound, while for others, it’s whistling, buzzing, chirping, hissing, humming, roaring, or even shrieking. The sound may seem to come from one ear or both, from inside the head, or from a distance. It may be constant or intermittent, steady or pulsating.

Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise. For example, attending a loud concert can trigger short-lived tinnitus. Some medications (especially aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken in high doses) can cause tinnitus that goes away when the drug is discontinued. When it lasts more than six months, it’s known as chronic tinnitus. As many as 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from this condition; it’s especially common in people over age 55 and strongly associated with hearing loss. Many people worry that tinnitus is a sign that they are going deaf or have another serious medical problem, but it rarely is.

Most tinnitus is subjective, meaning that only you can hear the noise. But sometimes it’s objective, meaning that someone else can hear it, too. For example, if you have a heart murmur, you may hear a whooshing sound with every heartbeat; your clinician can also hear that sound through a stethoscope. Some people hear their heartbeat inside the ear — a phenomenon called pulsatile tinnitus. It’s more likely to happen in older people, because blood flow tends to be more turbulent in arteries whose walls have stiffened with age. Pulsatile tinnitus may be more noticeable at night, when you’re lying in bed and there are fewer external sounds to mask the tinnitus. If you notice any new pulsatile tinnitus, you should consult a clinician, because in rare cases it is a sign of a tumor or blood vessel damage.

The course of chronic tinnitus is unpredictable. Sometimes the symptoms remain the same, and sometimes they get worse. In about 10% of cases, the condition interferes with everyday life so much that professional help is needed.

While there’s no cure for chronic tinnitus, it often becomes less noticeable and more manageable over time. You can help ease the symptoms by educating yourself about the condition — for example, understanding that it’s not dangerous. There are also several ways to help tune out the noise and minimize its impact.

Auditory pathways and tinnitus

Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the middle and inner ear, where hair cells in part of the cochlea help transform sound waves into electrical signals that then travel to the brain’s auditory cortex via the auditory nerve. When hair cells are damaged — by loud noise or ototoxic drugs, for example — the circuits in the brain don’t receive the signals they’re expecting. This stimulates abnormal activity in the neurons, which results in the illusion of sound, or tinnitus.

What’s going on?

Most people who seek medical help for tinnitus experience it as subjective, constant sound like constant ringing in the ears or a buzzing sound in the ear, and most have some degree of hearing loss. Things that cause hearing loss (and tinnitus) include loud noise, medications that damage the nerves in the ear (ototoxic drugs), impacted earwax, middle ear problems (such as infections and vascular tumors), and aging. Tinnitus can also be a symptom of Meniere’s disease, a disorder of the balance mechanism in the inner ear.

Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brain’s auditory cortex, where it’s thought to be encoded (in a sense, imprinted). One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see “Auditory pathways and tinnitus”). These cells help transform sound waves into nerve signals. If the auditory pathways or circuits in the brain don’t receive the signals they’re expecting from the cochlea, the brain in effect “turns up the gain” on those pathways in an effort to detect the signal — in much the same way that you turn up the volume on a car radio when you’re trying to find a station’s signal. The resulting electrical noise takes the form of tinnitus — a sound that is high-pitched if hearing loss is in the high-frequency range and low-pitched if it’s in the low-frequency range. This kind of tinnitus resembles phantom limb pain in an amputee — the brain is producing abnormal nerve signals to compensate for missing input.

Most tinnitus is “sensorineural,” meaning that it’s due to hearing loss at the cochlea or cochlear nerve level. But tinnitus may originate in other places. Our bodies normally produce sounds (called somatic sounds) that we usually don’t notice because we are listening to external sounds. Anything that blocks normal hearing can bring somatic sounds to our attention. For example, you may get head noise when earwax blocks the outer ear.

Some drugs that can cause or worsen tinnitus

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen (Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)

Certain antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Vibramycin, others), gentamicin (Garamycin), erythromycin (Ery-Tab, others), tetracycline (Sumycin), tobramycin (Nebcin), and vancomycin (Vancocin)

Antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and quinine

Certain anticonvulsants, including carbamazepine (Tegretol, others) and valproic acid (Depakote, others)

Certain cancer drugs, including cisplatin (Platinol) and vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar)

Loop diuretics (when given intravenously in high doses), including bumetanide (Bumex), furosemide (Lasix), and torsemide (Demadex)

Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil, others), clomipramine (Anafranil), and imipramine (Tofranil)

Evaluate and treat underlying problems

If you develop tinnitus, it’s important to see your clinician. She or he will take a medical history, give you a physical examination, and do a series of tests to try to find the source of the problem. She or he will also ask you to describe the noise you’re hearing (including its pitch and sound quality, and whether it’s constant or periodic, steady or pulsatile) and the times and places in which you hear it. Your clinician will review your medical history, your current and past exposure to noise, and any medications or supplements you’re taking. Tinnitus can be a side effect of many medications, especially when taken at higher doses (see “Some drugs that can cause or worsen tinnitus”).

Musculoskeletal factors — jaw clenching, tooth grinding, prior injury, or muscle tension in the neck — sometimes make tinnitus more noticeable, so your clinician may ask you to tighten muscles or move the jaw or neck in certain ways to see if the sound changes. If tight muscles are part of the problem, massage therapy may help relieve it.

Tinnitus that’s continuous, steady, and high-pitched (the most common type) generally indicates a problem in the auditory system and requires hearing tests conducted by an audiologist. Pulsatile tinnitus calls for a medical evaluation, especially if the noise is frequent or constant. MRI or CT imaging may be needed to check for a tumor or blood vessel abnormality.

Your general health can affect the severity and impact of tinnitus, so this is also a good time to take stock of your diet, physical activity, sleep, and stress level — and take steps to improve them. You may also be able to reduce the impact of tinnitus by treating depression, anxiety, insomnia, and pain with medications or psychotherapy.

If you’re often exposed to loud noises at work or at home, it’s important to reduce the risk of hearing loss (or further hearing loss) by using protectors such as earplugs or earmuff-like or custom-fitted devices.

Managing tinnitus

In addition to treating associated problems (such as depression or insomnia), there are several strategies that can help make tinnitus less bothersome. No single approach works for everyone, and you may need to try various combinations of techniques before you find what works for you. If you have age-related hearing loss, a hearing aid can often make tinnitus less noticeable by amplifying outside sounds.

There is no FDA-approved drug treatment for tinnitus, and controlled trials have not found any drug, supplement, or herb to be any more effective than a placebo. That includes ginkgo biloba, which is sometimes promoted for this purpose. Some patients believe that acupuncture helps, but it too has been found to be no better than a placebo.

The most effective approaches are behavioral strategies and sound-generating devices, often used in combination. They include the following:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT uses techniques such as cognitive restructuring and relaxation to change the way patients think about and respond to tinnitus. Patients usually keep a diary and perform “homework” to help build their coping skills. Therapy is generally short-term — for example, weekly sessions for two to six months. CBT may not make the sound less loud, but it can make it significantly less bothersome and improve quality of life.

Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). This technique is based on the assumption that tinnitus results from abnormal neuronal activity (see “What’s going on?”). The aim is to habituate the auditory system to the tinnitus signals, making them less noticeable or less bothersome. The main components of TRT are individual counseling (to explain the auditory system, how tinnitus develops, and how TRT can help) and sound therapy. A device is inserted in the ear to generate low-level noise and environmental sounds that match the pitch, volume, and quality of the patient’s tinnitus. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, treatment may last one to two years.

When TRT was developed in the 1980s by neuroscientist Dr. Pawel Jastreboff, it was designed to be administered according to a strict protocol. Today, the term TRT is being used to describe modified versions of this therapy, and the variations make accurate assessment of its effectiveness difficult. Individual studies have reported improvements in as many as 80% of patients with high-pitched tinnitus.

Masking. Masking devices, worn like hearing aids, generate low-level white noise (a high-pitched hiss, for example) that can reduce the perception of tinnitus and sometimes also produce residual inhibition — less noticeable tinnitus for a short time after the masker is turned off. A specialized device isn’t always necessary for masking; often, playing music or having a radio, fan, or white-noise machine on in the background is enough. Although there’s not enough evidence from randomized trials to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of masking, hearing experts often recommend a trial of simple masking strategies (such as setting a radio at low volume between stations) before they turn to more expensive options.

Biofeedback and stress management. Tinnitus is stressful, and stress can worsen tinnitus. Biofeedback is a relaxation technique that helps control stress by changing bodily responses. Electrodes attached to the skin feed information about physiological processes such as pulse, skin temperature, and muscle tension into a computer, which displays the output on a monitor. Patients learn how to alter these processes and reduce the body’s stress response by changing their thoughts and feelings. Mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques may also help.

Not all insurance companies cover tinnitus treatments in the same way, so be sure to check your coverage. If you’re willing to enroll in a research study, you may be able to receive a cutting-edge treatment free. (For more information, go to www.clinicaltrials.gov, and enter the search term “tinnitus.”)

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Possible Reasons You Have Tinnitus (Ringing in Ears)

Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, can be caused by many things. But it isn’t a disease. It’s a symptom of another health problem.

What causes the ringing? Usually it’s from damage to tiny hairs in your inner ear. That changes the signals they send to your brain that control how you hear sound. You might get tinnitus as a normal part of aging, but there are other causes. It could be temporary, or it might last for the rest of your life.

Tinnitus Triggers

Age-related hearing loss: For many people, hearing gets worse as you age. This usually begins around 60. It usually affects both ears. You’ll probably notice a problem with high-frequency sounds.

Loud noises: Loud noises are a leading cause. It could be something you hear every day for years, or something that only happens once. That includes everything from concerts and sporting events to loud machinery and backfiring engines. They can affect one or both ears, and they may cause hearing loss and pain. The damage can be permanent or temporary.

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Too much earwax: Your body makes this gunky stuff to trap dirt and protect your ears. But if it doesn’t wash away on its own and too much piles up, it could lead to ringing or hearing loss. Your doctor can remove the buildup gently. Don’t grab a cotton swab and try to do it yourself.

Certain medicines: Prescription and over-the-counter drugs can trigger ringing or make it louder. This includes aspirin, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), quinine-based medication, and certain antibiotics, antidepressants, and cancer drugs. Usually the stronger the dose, the greater your chance of problems. Often if you stop the drug, your symptoms will go away. See your doctor if you think a drug may be to blame. But don’t stop taking any medication without talking to your doctor first.

Ear and sinus infections: You might notice tinnitus when you’ve had a cold. That could be due to an ear or sinus infection that affects your hearing and increases pressure in your sinuses. If that’s the cause, it shouldn’t last long. If it doesn’t get better after a week or so, see your doctor.

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TMJ: Problems with your jaw or temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can cause tinnitus. You might notice popping or pain in the joint when you chew or talk. The joint shares some nerves and ligaments with your middle ear. A dentist can treat TMJ disorders and help keep ear ringing from getting worse.

Blood pressure issues: This can include high blood pressure and things that raise it in the short term, like stress, alcohol, and caffeine. Hardening of the arteries can also play a role. Blood vessels close to your middle and inner ear become less stretchy, so your blood flow is stronger and seems louder. This iwhat is known as a pulsatile tinnitus.

Other medical problems: These include changes in your inner ear bones, an inner ear disorder called Meniere’s disease, or head and neck injuries. Conditions like fibromyalgia and Lyme disease also can trigger ear ringing. Your doctor will help you figure out the cause and ease the sounds.

Tinnitus (Ringing in the Ears) Causes and Definition

What Is Tinnitus?

Tinnitus (pronounced ti-ni-tis), or ringing in the ears, is the sensation of hearing ringing, buzzing, hissing, chirping, whistling, or other sounds. The noise can be intermittent or continuous, and can vary in loudness. It is often worse when background noise is low, so you may be most aware of it at night when you’re trying to fall asleep in a quiet room. In rare cases, the sound beats in sync with your heart (pulsatile tinnitus).

Tinnitus is very common, affecting an estimated 50 million adults in the U.S. For most people, the condition is merely an annoyance. In severe cases, however, tinnitus can cause people to have difficulty concentrating and sleeping. It may eventually interfere with work and personal relationships, resulting in psychological distress.

Although tinnitus is often associated with hearing loss, it does not cause the loss, nor does a hearing loss cause tinnitus. In fact, some people with tinnitus experience no difficulty hearing, and in a few cases they even become so acutely sensitive to sound (hyperacusis) that they must take steps to muffle or mask external noises.

Some instances of tinnitus are caused by infections or blockages in the ear, and the tinnitus can disappear once the underlying cause is treated. Frequently, however, tinnitus continues after the underlying condition is treated. In such a case, other therapies — both conventional and alternative — may bring significant relief by either decreasing or covering up the unwanted sound.

What Causes Tinnitus?

Prolonged exposure to loud sounds is the most common cause of tinnitus. Up to 90% of people with tinnitus have some level of noise-induced hearing loss. The noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ in the inner ear. Carpenters, pilots, rock musicians, street-repair workers, and landscapers are among those whose jobs put them at risk, as are people who work with chain saws, guns, or other loud devices or who repeatedly listen to loud music. A single exposure to a sudden extremely loud noise can also cause tinnitus.

A variety of other conditions and illnesses can lead to tinnitus, including:

  • Blockages of the ear due to a buildup of wax, an ear infection, or rarely, a benign tumor of the nerve that allows us to hear (auditory nerve)
  • Certain drugs — most notably aspirin, several types of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, loop diuretics, and antidepressants, as well as quinine medications; tinnitus is cited as a potential side effect for about 200 prescription and nonprescription drugs.
  • The natural aging process, which can cause deterioration of the cochlea or other parts of the ear
  • Meniere’s disease, which affects the inner part of the ear
  • Otosclerosis, a disease that results in stiffening of the small bones in the middle ear
  • Other medical conditions such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, circulatory problems, anemia, allergies, an underactive thyroid gland, autoimmune disease, and diabetes
  • Neck or jaw problems, such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome
  • Injuries to the head and neck

Tinnitus can worsen in some people if they drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, drink caffeinated beverages, or eat certain foods. For reasons not yet entirely clear to researchers, stress and fatigue seem to worsen tinnitus.

Why Are My Ears Ringing?

Just as a ringing bell can sound a warning, ringing in your ears can be a signal to pay attention to your body.

Ringing in your ears, or tinnitus, starts in your inner ear.  Most often, it is caused by damage to or the loss of sensory hair cells in the cochlea, or the inner ear.

Tinnitus can present in many different ways, including sounds related to the ocean, ringing, buzzing, clicking, hissing or whooshing. The sound can be in one or both ears, constant or occasional, loud or soft. Often, it is more noticeable at night when you’re not distracted by work or family. It is often associated with hearing loss.

And it’s more common than you might expect. Over the past year, about 10 percent of the U.S. adult population has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Hearing Disorders.

“It’s not life threatening, and it is more of a symptom of other problems rather than a disease itself, but it can be debilitating,” says otolaryngologist Ashok Jagasia, MD, PhD. “In some people, the distracting sound can cause depression, anxiety and/or insomnia.”

Causes of tinnitus

Why does tinnitus occur? The ringing actually comes from the part of your inner ear that looks like a snail shell called the cochlea. Changes in the cochlea’s nerve activity could lead to tinnitus.

These changes can be caused by any of the following:

  • Exposure to loud sounds — such as jackhammers, chainsaws and loud music
  • A head injury or concussion
  • Wax build-up in your ears
  • Caffeine
  • Many medications, including aspirin, ibuprofen, blood pressure medicines and some antibiotics
  • Meniere’s disease, a condition of the inner ear possibly related to fluids in the inner ear. 

Coping with tinnitus

Though sometimes tinnitus will go away on its own, often it’s there for the long haul.

While there is no cure, there are things you can try to help you cope. Here, Jagasia offers 10 strategies:

1. Consider cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

At CBT sessions, you will learn how to change your reaction to tinnitus through reframing the situation. CBT can also help the depression and anxiety caused by tinnitus, and teach you breathing and muscle relaxation techniques.

2. Be evaluated for hearing aids.

Hearing aids can boost the volume of external noises to mask the tinnitus. You may also benefit from hearing aids if an audiogram reveals that you have significant hearing loss.

3. Clear your ears of wax (just don’t do it at home).

“Doctors can use a microscope and a small tool to remove ear wax,” Jagasia says. “Do not try to remove it on your own — for yourself or your child. Trying to use a cotton swab to take it out actually tends to push the wax further in the ear canal and make things worse.”

In patients over the age of 60, we usually find some hearing loss with the ringing.

4. Create “white noise.”

Creating a background hum, especially at night, can cancel out the sound you hear from tinnitus. For instance, in the winter, use a cool mist humidifier, and in the summer use a fan or air conditioner.

5. Play gentle music.

A quiet melody gives your brain something else to focus other than the ringing.

6. Avoid caffeine.

Caffeine can increase your blood pressure, making your tinnitus more noticeable.

7. Reconsider your medications.

“It’s OK to take ibuprofen once in a while, but taking too much, too often can cause tinnitus. Maybe there are other ways to treat your pain,” Jagasia says.

8. Explore acupuncture.

Some people have reported relief with acupuncture and other alternative medical approaches.

9. Take lipoflavonoid.

Some people are helped by taking over-the-counter supplements of lipoflavinoid, or vitamin B6, for six to eight weeks.

10. Wear earplugs.

If you know you will be using or be exposed to noisy equipment — such as a chainsaw or lawnmower — use earplugs to prevent further damage.

When to seek help for tinnitus

If the ringing persists for several weeks, visit your primary care physician. You might be directed to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist, who will order a hearing test called an audiogram.

“It helps us get a sense if there is nerve-related hearing loss associated with the tinnitus,” Jagasia says. “In patients over the age of 60, we usually find some hearing loss with the ringing.”

See a doctor right away if you are feeling dizzy, experience complete hearing loss in one ear or have symptoms of vertigo along with the ringing — a combination of symptoms that could signal Meniere’s disease.

Another potentially serious red flag: if you hear your heartbeat whooshing, which is known as pulsatile tinnitus. This sensation can be caused by more serious problems, including a benign tumor, middle ear infections, high blood pressure, blocked arteries or stroke. If it happens to you, Jagasia recommends calling your doctor as soon as possible.

“As we get older, it’s common to start experiencing ringing in our ears at some point,” he says. “Most often, it’s not serious, but tinnitus can affect your day-to-day living. The good news is that we can teach our bodies to ignore it.”

5 Strange Reasons for Ringing Ears – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic

Ringing in your ears, known as tinnitus, may not seem like a big deal. But for many, it’s a condition that can interfere with your day-to-day activities and quality of life. Thankfully, there are several ways to relieve the problem.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Tinnitus is also a common complaint. Nearly 50 million Americans report some type of tinnitus, according to audiologist Sharon Sandridge, PhD. For about 12 million people, the problem is described as bothersome and impacts their lives.

“Many may have problems sleeping, relaxing or reading a book because the tinnitus is always there,” says Dr. Sandridge. “It can cause stress, anxiety and even depression.”

Causes of tinnitus

While the exact cause of tinnitus is typically unknown, one common cause is exposure to sounds that are too loud for too long. If you work in a noisy environment like a factory, construction site, or even a busy and crowded exercise facility, it can expose your ears to levels of sounds that put them at risk. Using power tools, lawnmowers and leaf blowers for extended time periods can harm your hearing, too. One of the first signs of sound-induced damage is the presence of a soft, or sometimes not so soft, ringing in your ears.

Tinnitus is one of the most common service-related disabilities among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, too, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD).

No matter your age, it’s a good idea to take steps to protect your ears and hearing. To reduce your risk, it’s important to physically remove yourself from loud sounds, turn down the volume or wear hearing protection. The longer you are in a loud environment without protecting your ears and hearing, the risk for hearing loss and tinnitus increases.

Besides sound-induced causes, there are a few lesser-known potential causes of tinnitus. They include:

  1. Ear wax. Something as simple as a buildup of ear wax in your outer ear may cause your ears to ring. Your healthcare provider can remove the wax to eliminate the ringing.
  2. Medications. Some medicines may affect your hearing. High doses of aspirin, certain antibiotics, antidepressants and chemotherapy drugs may cause tinnitus. Check with your healthcare provider to determine if any medications you take could be a culprit.
  3. Dental issues. Ringing ears sometimes may relate to a non-auditory problem with your jaw or teeth. For example, a temporomandibular joint (TMD) disorder can cause noises like popping or clicking in the joint in your jaw. If you recently had dental work or your jaw is bothering you, you may want to revisit your dentist. Sometimes a night guard or a dental orthotic device can help with dental issues and stop the annoying sounds you’re hearing.
  4. Head injuries. If you were in a motor vehicle accident recently or you bumped your head, that ringing you hear may be a symptom of a biomechanical problem of the head, neck or jaw. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have any concerns after your head injury. To help prevent a head injury, wear head protection if you play high-contact sports, such as hockey, or if you work at a high-risk location, such as a construction site.
  5. Diseases. Ringing in your ears is sometimes a symptom of a medical condition, such as Meniere’s disease. This occurs when abnormal fluid pressure builds up in your inner ear. Hypertension and diabetes may cause tinnitus as well and need to be addressed with your doctor.

Work with your audiologist to find relief

“Before you pursue any non-medical options for tinnitus management, you need to see a doctor to rule out any underlying problem requiring medical or surgical intervention,” says Dr. Sandridge. “The next step is to have a hearing test done by an audiologist to determine if hearing loss could be the cause as well as to determine if you can benefit from sound therapy.”

Unfortunately, at this point, there is no FDA-approved medication to treat tinnitus. The majority of management options are non-medical and should be directed by your audiologist who may work with other specialty professionals such as a dentist, a physical therapist or a psychologist to find the best treatment option for you. 

These may include different types of counseling such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or sound therapy such as fans, sounds apps on your smartphones, hearing aids or sound generators.

Hearing aids can do double duty

Hearing aids may be the answer to tinnitus for people who have hearing loss.

“By using hearing aids, you not only help reduce the awareness of the tinnitus, but you also improve your ability to hear as well,” says Dr. Sandridge.

Some hearing aids have a built-in sound generator that produces ocean wave sounds or white or pink noise. These sounds provide relief by decreasing your awareness of the tinnitus by having your brain pay attention to the other neutral, non-threatening sounds. This promotes a process called habituation (helping you get to a point where you no longer pay attention to the tinnitus), which eventually will allow you to be aware of your tinnitus only when you actively listen for it.

“In this case, the tinnitus is not gone, but you no longer pay attention to it unless you focus on it,” she says. “Our goal is to get you to the point where you’re basically tuning the tinnitus out.”

All in all, don’t just wait and hope your tinnitus will go away. Talk to your primary care physician and audiologist if you notice ringing in your ears or other problems with your hearing. They can help you pinpoint your problem and help you find the relief you need.

Symptoms, treatment, home remedies, and causes

A person with tinnitus often hears “ringing in the ears,” but they may also hear hissing, clicking, or whistling sounds. It can be temporary, or it can be chronic and persistent.

Tinnitus is thought to affect 50 million Americans. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years, but children and adolescents can experience it, too.

Common causes are excessive or cumulative noise exposure, head and neck injuries, and ear infections. It can occasionally indicate a serious underlying medical condition.

There is no cure for tinnitus, but there are ways of managing it. Most people with chronic tinnitus adjust to the ringing over time, but 1 in 5 will find it disturbing or debilitating.

For some, it can lead to insomnia, difficulty with concentration, poor work or school performance, irritability, anxiety, and depression.

Fast facts on tinnitus

Here are some key points about tinnitus. More detail is in the main article.

  • Around 50 million Americans experience some form of tinnitus.
  • Most tinnitus is due to damage to the cochlea, or inner ear.
  • Certain medications can cause or worsen tinnitus, for example, aspirin, particularly in large doses.
  • People with tinnitus may be over-sensitive to loud noise.
  • Most people learn to live with tinnitus, but help is available for those who find this difficult.

Tinnitus happens when we consciously hear a sound that does not come from any source outside the body. It is not a disease, but a symptom of an underlying problem.

The noise is usually subjective, meaning that only the person who has tinnitus can hear it.

The most common form is a steady, high-pitched ringing. This can be annoying, but it does not usually indicate a serious condition.

In fewer than 1 percent of cases, it may be objective. This means that other people can hear the noise. This type of noise may be caused by cardiovascular or musculoskeletal movements in the person’s body. This can be a sign of a medical emergency.

Tinnitus is a non-auditory, internal sound that can be intermittent or continuous, in one or both ears, and either low- or high-pitched.

The varying sounds have been described as whistling, chirping, clicking, screeching, hissing, static, roaring, buzzing, pulsing, whooshing, or musical.

The volume of the sound can fluctuate. It is often most noticeable at night or during periods of quiet. There may be some hearing loss.

The first step is to treat any underlying cause of tinnitus.

This may involve:

  • prompt care for an ear infection
  • discontinuing any ototoxic medications
  • treating any temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems, which affect the joint betwen the jaw bone and the cheek bone

There is no cure for most cases of tinnitus. Most people become accustomed to it and learn to tune it out. Ignoring it rather than focusing on it can provide relief.

When this does not work, the individual may benefit from treatment for the effects of tinnitus, insomnia, anxiety, hearing difficulties, social isolation, and depression. Dealing with these issues can significantly improve a person’s quality of life.

Here are some other things a person can do to manage tinnitus and its effects.

Sound therapy uses external noise to mask the individual’s perception of tinnitus. Low-level background music, white noise, or specialized ear maskers can help.

The choice of sound should be pleasant to the individual. Masking devices offer temporary relief, and the awareness of tinnitus returns when the sound therapy is turned off.

Hearing aids are a common type of sound therapy. They amplify environmental sounds and redirect attention to those noises instead of the tinnitus.

Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) involves retraining the auditory system to accept the abnormal sounds of tinnitus as natural rather than disruptive.

It involves help from a trained professional and wearing a device that emits low-level white noise. Ongoing counseling sessions can help people cope with the tinnitus.

This therapy’s success is proportionate to the severity of the tinnitus and the individual’s overall mental health.

Follow-up studies suggest that TRT provides relief for around 80 percent of people with tinnitus.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help relieve depression in people with tinnitus, although it does not appear to reduce the sound.

Healthy lifestyle

One way to prevent tinnitus, and possibly hearing loss, is by avoiding exposure to loud noises.

To prevent hearing damage from developing or worsening:

  • use hearing protection, such as ear mufflers and earplugs, in noisy environments
  • play personal listening devices at a moderate volume

Improving wellness will not stop tinnitus, but overall wellbeing can help limit its intensity and provide physical and emotional benefits.

Exercise, healthy eating, good sleeping habits, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol, recreational and social activities, and stress management and relaxation techniques can all help achieve optimum wellness.

Unfortunately, once the damage is done, there is no way to reverse it.

Anyone who is experiencing tinnitus should visit a doctor for an examination and evaluation to determine the underlying cause.

A medical evaluation can exclude any rare but life-threatening causes of tinnitus. A referral to an otolaryngologist, or ear, nose, and throat specialist, may be necessary.

Questions that a doctor might ask include:

How or when did it start?

  • Are the noises constant, intermittent, or pulsating?
  • Is there any hearing loss or dizziness?
  • Is there any pain or jaw clicking?
  • Have you had a recent illness or injury?
  • Has there been any exposure to loud noise, such as a rock concert or explosives?

Tests may include:

  • a complete examination of the ear, head, neck, and torso
  • hearing tests
  • laboratory blood tests
  • imaging studies

The most common cause of tinnitus is damage and loss of the tiny sensory hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear.

This tends to happen as people age, and it can also result from prolonged exposure to excessively loud noise. Hearing loss may coincide with tinnitus.

Research suggests that the sensory loss of certain sound frequencies leads to changes in how the brain processes sound.

As the brain receives less external stimuli around a specific frequency, it begins to adapt and change. Tinnitus may be the brain’s way of filling in the missing sound frequencies it no longer receives from its own auditory system.

Some medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen, certain antibiotics, and diuretics can be “ototoxic.” They cause damage to the inner ear, resulting in tinnitus.

Other possible causes are:

  • head and neck injuries
  • ear infections
  • a foreign object or earwax touching the eardrum
  • eustachian tube (middle ear) problems
  • temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders
  • stiffening of the middle ear bones
  • traumatic brain injury
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetes

If a foreign body or earwax causes tinnitus, removing the object or wax often makes the tinnitus go away.

Tinnitus that sounds like a heartbeat may be more serious. It could be due to an abnormal growth in the region of the ear, such as a tumor or an abnormal connection between a vein and artery.

It needs a medical evaluation as soon as possible.

Teens, loud music, and possible future hearing problems

One study found that out of 170 teenagers, over half had experienced tinnitus in the previous year. Research has proposed that “potentially risky leisure habits,” such as listening to loud music on personal devices, could trigger tinnitus.

However, the investigators found that those who were prone to tinnitus tended to keep their music volume down, suggsting they may already have a hidden susceptibility to hearing loss in the future.

They propose monitoring for tinnitus and a low tolerance for loud noise from an early age, as these could be early signs of future hearing loss.

Tinnitus is a common problem in the general population, especially among those with certain risk factors.

These include:

  • noise exposure from work, headphones, concerts, explosives, and so on
  • smoking
  • gender, as men are affected more than women
  • hearing loss
  • age, as older individuals are more susceptible

What Is Tinnitus? — Causes and Treatment

What is tinnitus?

Tinnitus is commonly described as a ringing in the ears, but it also can sound like roaring, clicking, hissing, or buzzing. It may be soft or loud, high pitched or low pitched. You might hear it in either one or both ears. Roughly 10 percent of the adult population of the United States has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past year. This amounts to nearly 25 million Americans.

What causes tinnitus?

Tinnitus (pronounced tin-NY-tus or TIN-u-tus) is not a disease. It is a symptom that something is wrong in the auditory system, which includes the ear, the auditory nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain, and the parts of the brain that process sound. Something as simple as a piece of earwax blocking the ear canal can cause tinnitus. But it can also be the result of a number of health conditions, such as:

  • Noise-induced hearing loss
  • Ear and sinus infections
  • Diseases of the heart or blood vessels
  • Ménière’s disease
  • Brain tumors
  • Hormonal changes in women
  • Thyroid abnormalities

Tinnitus is sometimes the first sign of hearing loss in older people. It also can be a side effect of medications. More than 200 drugs are known to cause tinnitus when you start or stop taking them.

People who work in noisy environments—such as factory or construction workers, road crews, or even musicians—can develop tinnitus over time when ongoing exposure to noise damages tiny sensory hair cells in the inner ear that help transmit sound to the brain. This is called noise-induced hearing loss.

Service members exposed to bomb blasts can develop tinnitus if the shock wave of the explosion squeezes the skull and damages brain tissue in areas that help process sound. In fact, tinnitus is one of the most common service-related disabilities among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

Pulsatile tinnitus is a rare type of tinnitus that sounds like a rhythmic pulsing in the ear, usually in time with your heartbeat. A doctor may be able to hear it by pressing a stethoscope against your neck or by placing a tiny microphone inside the ear canal. This kind of tinnitus is most often caused by problems with blood flow in the head or neck. Pulsatile tinnitus also may be caused by brain tumors or abnormalities in brain structure.

Even with all of these associated conditions and causes, some people develop tinnitus for no obvious reason. Most of the time, tinnitus isn’t a sign of a serious health problem, although if it’s loud or doesn’t go away, it can cause fatigue, depression, anxiety, and problems with memory and concentration. For some, tinnitus can be a source of real mental and emotional anguish.

Why do I have this noise in my ears?

Although we hear tinnitus in our ears, its source is really in the networks of brain cells (what scientists call neural circuits) that make sense of the sounds our ears hear. A way to think about tinnitus is that it often begins in the ear, but it continues in the brain.

Scientists still haven’t agreed upon what happens in the brain to create the illusion of sound when there is none. Some think that tinnitus is similar to chronic pain syndrome, in which the pain persists even after a wound or broken bone has healed.

Tinnitus could be the result of the brain’s neural circuits trying to adapt to the loss of sensory hair cells by turning up the sensitivity to sound. This would explain why some people with tinnitus are oversensitive to loud noise.

Tinnitus also could be the result of neural circuits thrown out of balance when damage in the inner ear changes signaling activity in the auditory cortex, the part of the brain that processes sound. Or it could be the result of abnormal interactions between neural circuits. The neural circuits involved in hearing aren’t solely dedicated to processing sound. They also communicate with other parts of the brain, such as the limbic region, which regulates mood and emotion.

What should I do if I have tinnitus?

The first thing is to see your primary care doctor, who will check if anything, such as ear wax, is blocking the ear canal. Your doctor will ask you about your current health, medical conditions, and medications to find out if an underlying condition is causing your tinnitus.

If your doctor cannot find any medical condition responsible for your tinnitus, you may be referred to an otolaryngologist (commonly called an ear, nose, and throat doctor, or an ENT). The ENT will physically examine your head, neck, and ears and test your hearing to determine whether you have any hearing loss along with the tinnitus. You might also be referred to an audiologist who can also measure your hearing and evaluate your tinnitus.

What if the sounds in my ear do not go away?

Some people find their tinnitus doesn’t go away or it gets worse. In some cases it may become so severe that you find it difficult to hear, concentrate, or even sleep. Your doctor will work with you to help find ways to reduce the severity of the noise and its impact on your life.

Are there treatments that can help me?

Tinnitus does not have a cure yet, but treatments that help many people cope better with the condition are available. Most doctors will offer a combination of the treatments below, depending on the severity of your tinnitus and the areas of your life it affects the most.

  • Hearing aids often are helpful for people who have hearing loss along with tinnitus. Using a hearing aid adjusted to carefully control outside sound levels may make it easier for you to hear. The better you hear, the less you may notice your tinnitus. Read the NIDCD fact sheet Hearing Aids for more information.
  • Counseling helps you learn how to live with your tinnitus. Most counseling programs have an educational component to help you understand what goes on in the brain to cause tinnitus. Some counseling programs also will help you change the way you think about and react to your tinnitus. You might learn some things to do on your own to make the noise less noticeable, to help you relax during the day, or to fall asleep at night.
  • Wearable sound generators are small electronic devices that fit in the ear and use a soft, pleasant sound to help mask the tinnitus. Some people want the masking sound to totally cover up their tinnitus, but most prefer a masking level that is just a bit louder than their tinnitus. The masking sound can be a soft “shhhhhhhhhhh,” random tones, or music.
  • Tabletop sound generators are used as an aid for relaxation or sleep. Placed near your bed, you can program a generator to play pleasant sounds such as waves, waterfalls, rain, or the sounds of a summer night. If your tinnitus is mild, this might be all you need to help you fall asleep.
  • Acoustic neural stimulation is a relatively new technique for people whose tinnitus is very loud or won’t go away. It uses a palm-sized device and headphones to deliver a broadband acoustic signal embedded in music. The treatment helps stimulate change in the neural circuits in the brain, which eventually desensitizes you to the tinnitus. The device has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating tinnitus in a significant number of study volunteers.
  • Cochlear implants are sometimes used in people who have tinnitus along with severe hearing loss. A cochlear implant bypasses the damaged portion of the inner ear and sends electrical signals that directly stimulate the auditory nerve. The device brings in outside sounds that help mask tinnitus and stimulate change in the neural circuits. Read the NIDCD fact sheet Cochlear Implants for more information.
  • Antidepressants and antianxiety drugs might be prescribed by your doctor to improve your mood and help you sleep.
  • Other medications may be available at drugstores and on the Internet as an alternative remedy for tinnitus, but none of these preparations has been proved effective in clinical trials.

Can I do anything to prevent tinnitus or keep it from getting worse?

Noise-induced hearing loss, the result of damage to the sensory hair cells of the inner ear, is one of the most common causes of tinnitus. Anything you can do to limit your exposure to loud noise—by moving away from the sound, turning down the volume, or wearing earplugs or earmuffs—will help prevent tinnitus or keep it from getting worse.

What are researchers doing to better understand tinnitus?

Along the path a hearing signal travels to get from the inner ear to the brain, there are many places where things can go wrong to cause tinnitus. If scientists can understand what goes on in the brain to start tinnitus and cause it to persist, they can look for those places in the system where a therapeutic intervention could stop tinnitus in its tracks.

In 2009, the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) sponsored a workshop that brought together tinnitus researchers to talk about the condition and develop fresh ideas for potential cures. During the course of the workshop, participants discussed a number of promising research directions, including:

  • Electrical or magnetic stimulation of brain areas involved in hearing. Implantable devices already exist to reduce the trembling of Parkinson’s disease and the anxieties of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Similar devices could be developed to normalize the neural circuits involved in tinnitus.
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This technique, which uses a small device placed on the scalp to generate short magnetic pulses, is already being used to normalize electrical activity in the brains of people with epilepsy. Preliminary trials of rTMS in humans, funded by the NIDCD, are helping researchers pinpoint the best places in the brain to stimulate in order to suppress tinnitus. Researchers are also looking for ways to identify which people are most likely to respond well to stimulation devices.
  • Hyperactivity and deep brain stimulation. Researchers have observed hyperactivity in neural networks after exposing the ear to intense noise. Understanding specifically where in the brain this hyperactivity begins and how it spreads to other areas could lead to treatments that use deep brain stimulation to calm the neural networks and reduce tinnitus.
  • Resetting the tonotopic map. Researchers are exploring how to take advantage of the tonotopic map, which organizes neurons in the auditory cortex according to the frequency of the sound to which they respond. Previous research has shown a change in the organization of the tonotopic map after exposing the ear to intense noise. By understanding how these changes happen, researchers could develop techniques to bring the map back to normal and relieve tinnitus.

Where can I find additional information about tinnitus?

The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that provide information on the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, taste, smell, voice, speech, and language.

Use the following keywords to help you find organizations that can answer questions and provide information on tinnitus:

NIDCD Information Clearinghouse
1 Communication Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20892-3456
Toll-free voice: (800) 241-1044
Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055
Email: [email protected]

Publication No. 10-4896
February 2014
(Statistics updated September 2014)

90,000 causes and treatment, how to diagnose

Tinnitus (from Latin tinnītus “ringing”) is the sensation of sound in one or both ears in the absence of an external sound source. The sensation is generally described as ringing in the ears, but sounds can also be similar to hiss, hum, clicking, or buzzing. Tinnitus or ringing in the ears can be severe, mild or moderate, persistent or intermittent. The perception of tinnitus is individual.

Although tinnitus is heard in the ears, it occurs in the nerve circuits of the brain, which causes us to hear sounds in the head.It is not yet known exactly what is going on in the brain to create the illusion of a sound that is not actually there. Tinnitus is the most common disorder affecting 10 to 15% of the world’s population.

Causes of tinnitus or ringing in the ears

Tinnitus may be caused by prolonged exposure to loud noises or certain lifestyle habits. Tinnitus can also occur in healthy people and for no apparent reason. However, in many cases, the appearance of noise or ringing in the ears is associated with hearing impairment.

The reasons that can provoke the appearance of tinnitus can be divided into the following groups:

Medical

  • Sulfur plug in the ear
  • Diseases of the outer, middle or inner ear
  • Otosclerosis
  • Meniere’s disease
  • Anemia
  • Diabetes
  • Tumors of the head and neck
  • Low serotonin levels
  • Problems with blood pressure
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
Hearing impairment

According to statistics, 80-85% of patients suffering from tinnitus have hearing impairment of varying degrees. Despite the fact that tinnitus is not the cause of hearing impairment, its effect negatively affects concentration and performance, since constant sounds in the head distract and interfere with focusing on really important sound information. Irritating noise distracts from daily tasks and interferes with meaningful communication with family, friends, and loved ones.

Head injury and brain disease
Head injuries such as concussion can damage the inner ear and cause tinnitus. Also, neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, can lead to tinnitus, and acoustic tumors of the auditory or vestibular nerve, putting pressure on the nerve endings, can create tinnitus. In this case, the treatment of tinnitus should begin with an appeal to a neurologist.

Problems with the heart and blood vessels

If your tinnitus is pulsating in nature, it may be caused by abnormalities in the functioning of the blood vessels.

Medicines that cause tinnitus

The most common medicines that cause tinnitus are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, aspirin, gentamicin), diuretics, some antibiotics, and cancer drugs. If you experience tinnitus after starting or changing the dosage of the drug, consult your doctor right away to determine further treatment.

Risk factors for tinnitus

Tinnitus is often observed in people with hearing impairment of different ages, but elderly people and those whose professional activities are associated with exposure to high noise levels are at increased risk.

Age-related hearing loss

Hearing loss due to aging is called presbycusis and begins at the age of 60. The greater the hearing loss, the higher the likelihood of tinnitus.To prevent the appearance of annoying noise, you must first contact an audiologist for a hearing diagnosis in order to assess its acuity (i.e. at what frequencies there is a decrease) and then choose a method for correcting the identified violations.

Loud exposure to noise

Regular exposure to loud noise in professional activities (employees of airports, factories, construction sites, city transport drivers, military, hunters) is a common cause of hearing impairment and tinnitus.Using earplugs at work will help protect your hearing.

Lifestyle
Prolonged listening to music with headphones at high volumes or frequent concerts can also cause permanent hearing damage. Excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and the abuse of foods and beverages containing caffeine can cause ear noise. Frequent fatigue and stress can also be risk factors.

If you have tinnitus, begin your treatment journey with a hearing care professional who specializes in tinnitus diagnostics to help determine the underlying cause.If common causes of tinnitus have been ruled out, your doctor will refer you to another specialist for further evaluation and treatment.

How to reduce the effect of tinnitus

Since tinnitus is a purely subjective sensation, it is quite difficult to diagnose it, therefore, independent adherence to the recommendations of audiologists will help alleviate the condition:

  • Try to control your blood pressure, measure it regularly;
  • Try to eat less salt becausej. its use is one of the causes of circulatory disorders;
  • Avoid loud noise sources and use earplugs for protection in professional work;
  • Learn to relax, take some relaxation minutes;
  • Refrain from using tobacco, coffee, cola, tea;
  • Exercise regularly, exercise improves blood circulation, which helps to reduce tinnitus;
  • Use a hearing aid. It not only helps with hearing impairment, but also has a masking effect that will help you get rid of annoying ear noise and reduce its impact on everyday life.

Hearing impairment and tinnitus

Noise or ringing in the ears or head is often not treatable, but the good news is that tinnitus can be controlled. The latest technological solutions in the field of audiology and audiology come to the rescue. Clinical studies show that digital hearing aids are not only effective in addressing hearing impairment, but they can also help reduce the effects of ear noise and improve overall health.
Amplification of ambient sounds through the hearing aid activates the auditory nervous system, which reduces the perception of tinnitus.With constant exposure to enhanced ambient sounds, the auditory part of the nervous system is rebuilt, which has a beneficial effect on the function of nervous activity, restoring it and weakening the hypersensitivity to auditory sensations.

Modern hearing aids are equipped with the function of generating sounds such as white noise or ocean noise, the intensity of which can be controlled independently by the user using a smartphone using the mobile application for iPhone and Android.

Find out more about today’s digital hearing aid models that can help you manage your tinnitus.

Khairulina Svetlana Ivanovna

Otorhinolaryngologist-audiologist of the first category. Work experience: since 2007. She has been receiving adults and children from birth.

Receptions for adults and children:

Minsk, Independence Avenue, 83 Center for Good Hearing

Noises, everything rings in my head …

O.V. Veselago
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Otoneurologist
Research Institute of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

The human body constantly has conditions for sensing noise, because during its work, so-called somatic, or vibratory, sounds are created. They arise as a result of breathing and heartbeat, muscle contraction, movement of joints, blood flow in the vessels, etc. In a figurative expression, “a healthy body always sounds.” Usually a person does not hear these noises – they are masked by external sounds.Somatic sounds become available to perception and turn into audible noises under certain circumstances.

They can be:
1) heightened perception of the normal noise;
2) a sharp increase in these normal noises;
3) Abnormal noises occur.

If in the first case the noise is felt only by the patient himself (subjective noise), then under two other circumstances it can be heard by those around him (objective noise). Objective noise is less common than subjective noise.It occurs due to special disorders accompanied by mechanical contraction or vibration. The origin of such noise is usually understandable, and the appointment of specific treatment can lead to its complete disappearance. The most common causes of objective murmur are vascular and muscular pathologies. Muscle and vascular murmurs are quite characteristic. Vascular murmurs are constant, synchronous with the pulse, change their intensity (up to disappearance) when the vessels are compressed.A change in the position of the head (body) can lead to a change in intensity, the appearance or disappearance of noise. An increase in vascular noise is often observed with an increase in blood pressure.

Muscle murmur is not associated with the pulse, it is less constant. Neuromuscular disorders most often make noise like grasshopper crackling, fluttering of butterfly wings. Patients may also describe this noise as “clicking” or “machine gun fire”.

Primary diagnosis of objective noise is carried out on the basis of auscultation (listening) of the skull bones using a phonendoscope.

Subjective noise is an abnormal auditory sensation that occurs in the ear or head without obvious external stimuli, i.e. without the participation of the external environment. Subjective noise can be perceived as ringing, squeaking, rustling, buzzing, hum, ocean noise, siren howl, crackling, etc. Noises of different quality may be present in one patient, simultaneously or independently of each other. They are heard with one ear, with both ears, or are heard throughout the head.

The sensation of subjective noise can occur with damage to the auditory analyzer at any level, but most often it is observed with pathology of the cochlea.

It is hypothesized that subjective noise occurs when the sensitive cells of the auditory analyzer are spontaneously activated due to some damage. This spontaneous excitation, which mimics a sound signal, is transmitted through the auditory nerve to the brain. The brain tries to decipher this signal and give an acceptable meaning to the given auditory impression. But since these signals do not carry any information about the world around them, they are automatically perceived as danger signs and seem frightening, ominous.Many people feel completely helpless in front of these painful sounds. People can literally panic, especially when they first appear.

But how dangerous is ear noise actually? No matter how unpleasant and interfering with normal life the effect of subjective noise on a person, it nevertheless does not pose a threat to life. There are very few really dangerous diseases that a doctor can and should detect or rule out. For example, a tumor in the auditory nerve.The fears about a possible deterioration of the general condition are justified. Depression, often accompanying subjective noise, leads to social isolation, lack of vital stimuli, decreased physical activity and immunity.

A common cause of tinnitus is damage to the auditory analyzer due to external noise – this is about 30% of cases.

Other possible causes are:
• acute and chronic sensorineural hearing loss
• age-related hearing loss
• Meniere’s disease
• acoustic neuroma (tumor of the auditory nerve)
• traumatic brain injury with or without temporal bone fracture
• intoxication with ototoxic (toxic to the auditory nerve) antibiotics, diuretics, salicylates, quinine, anticancer drugs
• chronic inflammatory diseases of the middle ear
• diseases of the heart and blood circulation, kidneys
• metabolic diseases (for example, diabetes)
• degenerative changes in the cervical the spine, etc.

Search for the cause of the noise should be undertaken as early as possible. Moreover, not only the otorhinolaryngologist should deal with the patient, but also doctors of other specialties, since there is only the tip of the iceberg in the inner ear.

Subjective noise can manifest itself in different ways. Many people talk about intermittent or persistent noises that they hear in silence or at night, but which do not interfere at all or disturb very little, while other patients are seriously disturbed by these obscure noises.

Physicians use the term “tinnitus” to refer to subjective noise. It includes not just noise in the ears or head, but the whole set of related problems – mental, emotional, social. Up to 5% of the world’s population suffers from chronic tinnitus. Chronic tinnitus occurs when the usual, very quiet tinnitus increases and becomes dominant. A person pays more and more attention to him and as the noise increases, he becomes fixed on this ailment. Nervous strain caused by constant noise and the inability to enjoy silence lead to insomnia, irritability, impaired concentration and unexplained fears.

It has been established that in most cases, initially strong manifestations of tinnitus gradually, over the next 6-20 months, soften. Over time, the disease is perceived less acutely and less often it becomes a cause of tension and stress, sleep and general well-being improve.

Treating tinnitus requires a collaborative effort between physician and patient. Finding a drug with “noise-suppressing” activity is not easy, since it is impossible to objectively measure the parameters of noise. Nevertheless, among the drugs that have a “noise-suppressing” effect, drugs that improve blood circulation in the inner ear and brain have proven themselves well.These are tanakan, betaserk, trental, vazobral. The active component of Betaserc is betahistine hydrochloride, a substance that specifically affects histamine receptors in the brain and inner ear. In recent years, it has been convincingly shown that Betaserc improves microcirculation and increases blood flow in the basilar artery and vessels of the inner ear, and also reduces the excitability of neurons in the vestibular nuclei. These properties make the drug one of the drug of choice for the treatment of tinnitus and dizziness of various origins.Tanakan is very effective in this category of patients – a well-known natural drug to many. According to the results of more than 200 clinical studies conducted in leading clinics in the world, Tanakan significantly reduces the severity of symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency such as dizziness, tinnitus and head noises, improves memory and attention, restores working capacity, and improves the quality of life.

In addition, an important place is given to the diagnosis and treatment of psychoemotional disorders accompanying tinnitus.Psychotherapy plays a significant role both in eliminating the causes of tinnitus and in relieving the stress it causes.

Masking tinnitus with hearing aids or tinnitus maskers, or a combination of both (special tinnitus machines) is the basis for the treatment of tinnitus in Anglo-Saxon countries. Such devices are very effective for both partial and complete suppression of subjective noise. The efficiency of treatment with devices reaches 50%.

When treating this pathology, it is customary to follow an integrated approach – to combine various methods of treatment (drug therapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, the use of devices).

A person with tinnitus should consciously avoid anything that leads to increased tinnitus or poor health. The patient’s goal should, over time, transform from “What can I do about the noise that is haunting me?” in “What can I do for myself?” It is necessary to develop a new positive way of thinking.

To successfully cope with tinnitus, it is necessary to recognize the following fact: the problem will probably never go away completely, however, using an integrated approach in its treatment, it is possible to weaken the symptoms so much that the disease will no longer dominate the patient’s mind.Tinnitus will simply turn into one of the ambient sounds of everyday life.

© Magazine “Nerves”, 2005, No. 3

FORM of an appointment with a specialist …

Noise in the ears and head

O.V. Veselago
M .: Triada-farm, 2005.132 p.

The book is devoted to modern ideas about the problem of subjective noise in the ears and head. Taking into account the latest data of experimental and clinical audiology and psychoacoustics, the issues of the etiology and pathogenesis of this symptom are highlighted.A detailed description of the clinical types of noise, methods of examination of patients and the study of noise is given. Much attention is paid to conservative methods of treatment and noise control. The modern principles of drug therapy and the use of external devices (hearing aids and noise maskers) are described in detail.

Designed for otorhinolaryngologists, neurologists, audiologists, otoneurologists, therapists, psychoneurologists.


CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1.Noise classification

Chapter 2. Clinical types of noise
2.1. Objective noise
2.2. Subjective noise
2.3. Symptom complexes
2.4. Special auditory phenomena

Chapter 3. Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of subjective noise
3.1. Normal physiology of the snail
3.2. Physiology of the retrocochlear division
3.3. The main hypotheses of the pathophysiology of noise

Chapter 4. Specific etiology of noise
4.1. Acoustic neuroma
4.2. Inflammatory diseases and injuries of the middle ear
4.3. Acute hearing loss
4.4. Otosclerosis
4.5. Maze fistula
4.6. Presbitinnitus
4.7. External noise and acoustic trauma
4.8. Ototoxic effect of medicinal and non-medicinal products
4.9. Diseases of the central nervous system
4.10. Autoimmune damage to the inner ear
4.11. Allergy
4.13. Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint
4.14. Diseases of the blood
4.15. Renal pathology

Chapter 5.Clinical examination of patients with noise
5.1. Audiological examination
5.2. Investigation of noise
5.3. Other research methods

Chapter 6. Treatment methods and strategies to achieve control over noise
6.1 Drug therapy
6.2. Hardware method of noise control
6.3. Other methods of treatment

References

Scientific advisory department | Official website of the Scientific Center of Neurology

MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS
More than 25 thousand patients are treated in the scientific advisory department (polyclinic) per year, which makes this unit the largest outpatient neurological center in the country.The staff of the department made a great contribution to the development of differential diagnostic criteria for various paroxysmal conditions in neurology, myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes, cochleovestibular disorders. The important role of pharmacokinetic studies in the outpatient management of patients with epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system has been shown.

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVITY

The department provides outpatient consulting assistance to the adult population.
Reception is carried out by specialists of different profiles: neurologists, neuro-ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, vascular surgeons, speech therapists, otoneurologists, endocrinologists, psychologists, etc. ;

– development of a therapeutic drug monitoring system for the most frequently used in practice anticonvulsant, antiaggregatory, antiparkinsonian drugs;

– creation of highly effective algorithms for the diagnosis and outpatient treatment of headache and facial pain, dizziness, tinnitus, paroxysmal conditions, etc.;

– selection of patients for inpatient treatment at the clinic of the Scientific Center of Neurology within the framework of the approved state assignments.

LABORATORY OF NEUROUROLOGY

The laboratory was founded in 2005. The purpose of the laboratory is to study the phenomenology and pathogenesis of neurogenic urinary disorders in vascular, demyelinating and degenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord. About consultations of a neuro-urologist …

MYASTENIC GROUP

The “myasthenic group” included students of the founder of the study of the problem of myasthenia gravis in Russia, an outstanding neurologist of the XX century, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences Boris Moiseevich Gecht.
B.M. Hecht has formed a unique team of clinical neurophysiologists who possess the most modern methods of studying the peripheral neuro-motor apparatus. The team created by him became the center of medical, scientific, organizational and educational activities on the problem of myasthenia gravis in the country.

OTONEUROLOGICAL METHOD OF EXAMINATION OF NEUROLOGICAL PATIENTS

Diagnostics of patients with otoneurological pathology is carried out in the scientific advisory department of the NTSN.

DISSERTATIONS OF EMPLOYEES

  • Korzhova Yu. Treatment of spasticity in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using navigational rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2018.
  • Telenkov A.A. Post-stroke trophic changes in the joints (arthropathies): connection with brain damage, factors of occurrence, correction. Diss. … Cand.honey. sciences; Moscow, 2016.
  • A.N. Mulach Neurogenic urination disorders in the recovery and residual periods of ischemic stroke. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2011.
  • Minatullaev Sh.A. Chronic vascular diseases of the brain and functional disorders of urination. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2009.
  • O.V. Trifonova Cognitive changes in patients with multiple sclerosis (clinical, neuropsychological and electrophysiological research).Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2006.
  • Popov S.V. Antimicrobial therapy of chronic bacterial prostatitis in the light of data on etiology and pathogenesis. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2005.
  • Veselago O.V. The state of the vestibular function in ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery basin. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2004
  • A.V. Erofeeva Ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation: features of hemostatic activation and factors of cerebral embolism.Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 2003
  • Alekseeva N.S. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: central and peripheral cochleovestibular syndromes. Diss. … doctor honey. sciences; Moscow, 2003
  • Shvedkov V.V. Cerebral blood flow in patients with severe stroke. Diss. … Cand. honey. sciences; Moscow, 1982
  1. Alekseeva N.S. Dizziness. Otoneurological aspects. 2nd edition. M .: MEDpress-inform, 2017.184 p. silt
  2. Edited by A.S. Kadykov, L.S. Manvelova, V.V. Shvedkov. Practical neurology. .M .: Publishing group “GEOTAR-Media”. 2016, 432 pp.
  3. Edited by M.A. Piradova, S.N. Illarioshkina, M.M. Tanashyan. Sariev A.K., Abaimov D.A., Noskova T.Yu., Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V. Neurology of the XXI century: diagnostic, therapeutic and research technologies. A guide for doctors. Moscow: 2015
  1. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Shiryaeva M.V., Styrova E.Yu., Prokhorov D.I., Seyfulla R.D. Modern technologies in therapeutic drug monitoring. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2013. T. 5. No. 2. S. 31-41.
  2. Sariev A.K., Suslina Z.A., Abaimov D.A., Noskova T.Yu., Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V., Prokhorov D.I., Shiryaeva M.V., Mota L.A. New methods in the optimization of pharmacotherapy for epilepsy: the experience of implementing Bayesian pharmacokinetic modeling. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2012. T. 4. No. 2. S. 40-47.
  3. Tunik N.V., Firsova L.D., Avdyunina I.A., Shvedkov V.V., Seliverstova E.V. Throat coma and dysphagia symptom: clinical and instrumental parallels. Doctor.Ru. 2015. T. 2. No. 2. P. 16.
  4. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tankevich M.V., Styrova E.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Noskova T.Yu. , Seyfulla R.D. Therapeutic drug monitoring of lamotrigine: development of pharmacokinetic approaches to individualize anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2013. T. 5. No. 4. S. 44-48.
  5. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Ionova V.G. Experience in the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with migraine. Russian Journal of Pain. 2014. No. 1 (42). S. 37-38.
  6. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tyurin I.A., Prokhorov D.I., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Seifulla R.D. Application of gas chromatography / mass spectrometry to therapeutic monitoring of valproic acid. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2013. T. 46. No. 11. S. 679-683.
  7. P. G. Schwartz, V. V. Dutov, A. S. Kadykov, V. V. Shvedkov, S. PopovV., Plotnikov A.N. Neuro-urological manifestations of chronic vascular diseases of the brain. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. C.C. Korsakov. 2013. T. 113. No. 7-2. S. 53-61.
  8. Shcherbakova N.I., Kasatkina L.F., Gurkina G.T., Shvedkov V.V., Vasiliev A.V., Zavalishin I.A., Rudnichenko V.A., Retinskaya I.G. Development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with myasthenia gravis: a random combination or pathogenetically interrelated states? Neurological journal. 2013.T. 18.No. 6.P.9-16.
  9. Shcherbakova N.I., Khrushcheva N.A., Pavlova E.M., Kasatkina L.F., Galkina O.I., Rudnichenko V.A., Shvedkov V.V. Late diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome in food botulism and self-healing. Neurological journal. 2016.Vol. 21.No. 4.P. 194-201.
  10. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Kim E.K., Seyfulla R.D. Study of the influence of intraindividual and interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters on the effectiveness of anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy using methods of therapeutic drug monitoring.Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2015. T. 78. No. 5. P. 5.
  11. Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V., Noskova T.Yu., Kim E.K. Drug monitoring and nanotechnology in neurology. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2015. T. 78. No. S. S. 52-53.
  12. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu. New opportunities in assessing the effectiveness of preventive treatment for migraine. Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 2016. T. 61. No. 5S. FROM.59.
  13. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Kostyreva M.V., Korobkova D.Z., Shabalina A.A. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in migraine: issues of diagnosis and therapy. Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 2016. T. 61. No. 5S. P. 60.
  14. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tyurin I.A., Prokhorov D.I., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Seyfulla R.D. spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring of valproic acid.Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2012.T. 46.No. 11.P. 36-40.
  15. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Kostyreva M.V., Shabalina A.A. Diagnostics and experience of hyperhomocysteine ​​treatment as a risk factor of thrombogenic vascular damage in migraine. Thrombosis, hemostasis and rheology. 2016. T. 67. No. S3. S. 25-26.
  16. Domashenko M.A., Shvarts P.G., Popov S.V., Borodulina I.V., Shvedkov V.V., Maksimova M.Yu., Kadykov A.S. A case of urination apraxia: phenomenology of the syndrome and differential diagnosis with other forms of post-stroke cortical dysuria.Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014.T. 8.No. 4.P. 53-59.
  17. Popov S.V., Schwartz P.G., Kadykov A.S., Shvedkov V.V. Neurogenic urinary disorders in tumors of the central nervous system. Bulletin of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery. 2012. No. 9.S. 048-057.
  18. Tunik N.V., Firsova L.D., Avdyunina I.A., Shvedkov V.V., Seliverstova E.V. Throat coma and dysphagia symptom: clinical and instrumental parallels. Doctor.Ru. 2015. No. 2-2 (103). S. 16-16a.
  19. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Ionova V.G. Results of a study of platelet aggregation in migraine. Russian Journal of Pain. 2014. No. 1 (42). S. 38-39.
  20. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Shiryaeva M.V., Styrova E.Yu., Prokhorov D.I., Seyfulla R.D. Modern technologies in therapeutic drug monitoring. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2013. T. 5. No. 2. S. 31-41.
  21. Sariev A.K., Suslina Z.A., Abaimov D.A., Noskova T.Yu., Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V., Prokhorov D.I., Shiryaeva M.V., Mota L.A. New methods in the optimization of pharmacotherapy for epilepsy: the experience of implementing Bayesian pharmacokinetic modeling. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2012. T. 4. No. 2. S. 40-47.
  22. Tunik N.V., Firsova L.D., Avdyunina I.A., Shvedkov V.V., Seliverstova E.V. Throat coma and dysphagia symptom: clinical and instrumental parallels. Doctor.Ru. 2015. T. 2. No. 2. P. 16.
  23. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tankevich M.V., Styrova E.Yu., Shvedkov V.A.V., Noskova T.Yu., Seyfulla R.D. Therapeutic drug monitoring of lamotrigine: development of pharmacokinetic approaches to individualize anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2013. T. 5. No. 4. S. 44-48.
  24. Grishina D.A., Suponeva N.A., Shvedkov V.V., Belopasova A.V. Hereditary progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2a (calpainopathy): a literature review. Neuromuscular diseases. 2015. T. 5. No. 1. P. 25-36.
  25. Shcherbakova N.I., Suponeva N.A., Shvedkov V.V., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Rudnichenko V.A., Galkina O.I. Russian experience of the successful use of rituximab in refractory forms of myasthenia gravis. Neuromuscular diseases. 2015. T. 5. No. 3. S. 50-61.
  26. Karabanov A.V., Illarioshkin S.N., Shvedkov V.V., Poleshchuk V.V., Ivanova-Smolenskaya I.A., Pushilin S.V., Chemodanov V.B. Diagnosis of tremulous hyperkinesis using the original hardware-software complex In the book: Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders A guide for physicians based on the materials of the III National Congress on Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders (with international participation).Edited by S.N. Illarioshkina, O.S. Levin. 2014.S. 330.
  27. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V. the experience of using therapeutic drug monitoring date for the scientific research purposes: post-hoc investigation of antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics. In the book: Therapeutic drug monitoring, personalized pharmacotherapy 2014.S. 55-56.
  28. Sariev A.K., Abaimov D.A., Noskova T.Yu., Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V. Therapeutic drug monitoring in neurology In the book: Neurology of the XXI century: diagnostic, therapeutic and research technologies A guide for doctors.Edited by M.A. Piradova, S.N. Illarioshkina, M.M. Tanashyan. Moscow, 2015.S. 351-376.
  29. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tyurin I.A., Prokhorov D.I., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Seifulla R.D. Application of gas chromatography / mass spectrometry to therapeutic monitoring of valproic acid. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2013. T. 46. No. 11. S. 679-683.
  30. P.G. Schwartz, V.V. Dutov, A.S. Kadykov, V.V. Shvedkov, S.V. Popov, A.N. Plotnikov Neuro-urological manifestations of chronic vascular diseases of the brain.Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. C.C. Korsakov. 2013. T. 113. No. 7-2. S. 53-61.
  31. Shcherbakova N.I., Kasatkina L.F., Gurkina G.T., Shvedkov V.V., Vasiliev A.V., Zavalishin I.A., Rudnichenko V.A., Retinskaya I.G. Development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with myasthenia gravis: a random combination or pathogenetically interrelated states? Neurological journal. 2013. T. 18.No. 6.P. 9-16.
  32. Shcherbakova N.I., Khrushcheva N.A., Pavlova E.M., Kasatkina L.F., Galkina O.I., Rudnichenko V.A.A., Shvedkov V.V. Late diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome in food botulism and self-healing. Neurological journal. 2016.Vol. 21.No. 4.P. 194-201.
  33. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Kim E.K., Seyfulla R.D. Study of the influence of intraindividual and interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters on the effectiveness of anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy using methods of therapeutic drug monitoring. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology.2015. T. 78. No. 5. P. 5.
  34. Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V., Noskova T.Yu., Kim E.K. Drug monitoring and nanotechnology in neurology. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2015. T. 78. No. S. S. 52-53.
  35. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu. New opportunities in assessing the effectiveness of preventive treatment for migraine. Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 2016. T. 61. No. 5S. P. 59.
  36. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Kostyreva M.V., Korobkova D.Z., Shabalina A.A. vascular diseases in migraine: issues of diagnosis and therapy. Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 2016. T. 61. No. 5S. P. 60.
  37. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tyurin I.A., Prokhorov D.I., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Seyfulla R.D.
  38. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry application for therapeutic drug monitoring of valproic acid. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2012.T. 46.No. 11.P. 36-40.
  39. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Kostyreva M.V., Shabalina A.A. Diagnostics and experience of hyperhomocysteine ​​treatment as a risk factor of thrombogenic vascular damage in migraine Thrombosis, hemostasis and rheology. 2016. T. 67. No. S3. S. 25-26.
  40. Borodulina I.V., Shvedkov V.V., Maksimova M.Yu., Kadykov A.S. A case of urination apraxia: phenomenology of the syndrome and differential diagnosis with other forms of post-stroke cortical dysuria Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014.Vol. 8.No. 4.S. 53-59.
  41. Popov S.V., Schwartz P.G., Kadykov A.S., Shvedkov V.V. Neurogenic urinary disorders in tumors of the central nervous system. Bulletin of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery. 2012. No. 9. S. 48-57.
  42. Tunik N.V., Firsova L.D., Avdyunina I.A., Shvedkov V.V., Seliverstova E.V. Throat coma and dysphagia symptom: clinical and instrumental parallels. Doctor.Ru. 2015. No. 2-2 (103). S. 16-16a.
  43. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V., Ionova V.V.D Results of a study of platelet aggregation in migraine. Russian Journal of Pain. 2014. No. 1 (42). S. 38-39.
  44. Shcherbakova N.I., Gurkina G.T., Kasatkina L.F., Rudnichenko V.A., Galkina O.I., Shvedkov V.V., Retinskaya I.G., Pavlov E.V., Shabalina A.A., Kostyreva M.V. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome during pregnancy with the development of transient myasthenic syndrome of the newborn. Neuromuscular diseases. 2013. No. 4. S. 34-42.
  45. Grishina D.A., Suponeva N.A., Shvedkov V.V., Belopasova A.V. Hereditary progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2a (calpainopathy): a clinical case. Neuromuscular diseases. 2015. T. 5. No. 1. S. 42-47.
  46. I. V. Borodulina, V. V. Shvedkov Inflammatory Küttner tumor as a cause of hypoglossal nerve paresis: literature review and case report. Neuromuscular diseases. 2016.Vol. 6.No. 3.P. 36-42.
  47. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Tyurin I.A., Prokhorov D.I., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Seifulla R.D. Application of gas chromatography / mass spectrometry to therapeutic monitoring of valproic acid. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2013. T. 46. No. 11. S. 679-683.
  48. P.G. Schwartz, V.V. Dutov, A.S. Kadykov, V.V. Shvedkov, S.V. Popov, A.N. Plotnikov Neuro-urological manifestations of chronic vascular diseases of the brain. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. C.C. Korsakov. 2013. T. 113. No. 7-2. S. 53-61.
  49. Shcherbakova N.I., Kasatkina L.F., Gurkina G.T., Shvedkov V.V., Vasiliev A.V., Zavalishin I.A., Rudnichenko V.A., Retinskaya I.G. Development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with myasthenia gravis: a random combination or pathogenetically interrelated states? Neurological journal. 2013. T. 18.No. 6.P. 9-16.
  50. Shcherbakova N.I., Khrushcheva N.A., Pavlova E.M., Kasatkina L.F., Galkina O.I., Rudnichenko V.A., Shvedkov V.V. Late diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome in food botulism and self-healing. Neurological journal. 2016.Vol. 21.No. 4.P.194-201.
  51. Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V., Kim E.K., Seyfulla R.D. Study of the influence of intraindividual and interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters on the effectiveness of anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy using methods of therapeutic drug monitoring. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2015. T. 78. No. 5. P. 5.
  52. Seyfulla R.D., Shvedkov V.V., Noskova T.Yu., Kim E.K. Drug monitoring and nanotechnology in neurology.Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2015. T. 78. No. S. S. 52-53.
  53. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu. New possibilities in assessing the effectiveness of preventive treatment for migraine. Anesthesiology and resuscitation. 2016. T. 61. No. 5. P. 59.
  54. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Kostyreva M.V., Korobkova D.Z., Shabalina A.A. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in migraine: issues of diagnosis and therapy.Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 2016. T. 61. No. 5. P. 60.
  55. Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Pantyukhova E.Yu., Noskova T.Yu. Experience of using the method of therapeutic drug monitoring of topiramate in migraine. Russian Journal of Pain, No. 1, 2017. p. 20-21
  56. Noskova T.Yu., Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Fedin P.A., Krasnikov A.V., Shvedkov V.V., Seyfulla R.D. Clinical significance of the pharmacokinetic variability of lamotrigine. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry.S.S. Korsakov, publishing house Media Sfera M .: volume 118, no. 1, 2018 p. 23-29
  1. No. 2631613, 03.06.2016. Method for determination of topiramate in blood plasma. Authors: Abaimov D.A., Sariev A.K., Prokhorov D.I., Skorodumov I.A., Noskova T.Yu., Shvedkov V.V.
  2. No. 2589651, 08/13/2015. A method for diagnosing central ischemic vestibular disorders. Authors: Alekseeva N.S., Krotenkova M.V.

What is tinnitus?

  • Tinnitus is a condition in which sounds such as ringing, whistling, buzzing, or ringing are heard in the ears without the source of the noise.
  • These sounds, which do not have an external source, can be heard in one ear or both, or even in the head.
  • Tinnitus is not a disease, but a symptom that can result from several causes. Most often this is a consequence of exposure to loud noise. Also, the cause of tinnitus can be infection, inflammation or foreign objects in the ear, circulatory disorders, indigestion, cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, age-related changes in nerve endings in the auditory nerve of the inner ear, the use of certain drugs, and many others. the reasons.In many cases, the cause of the tinnitus cannot be identified.
  • Tinnitus affects approximately 10% of people.
  • Tinnitus may be associated with hearing loss.
  • Tinnitus leads to a decrease in the quality of life.

How to reduce tinnitus?

First of all, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment for the underlying disease. In addition, the following tips can help:

  • Avoid exposure to loud sounds and noises, use ear plugs or headphones to protect you from the noise.
  • Monitor your blood pressure.
  • Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
  • Do not use caffeine or tobacco.
  • Try to reduce tension and anxiety.
  • Try not to worry too much about your condition. Noise will bother you a lot if you constantly think about it.
  • You should get plenty of rest.
  • Be physically active.
  • Disguise the sound. Tinnitus tends to be more troubling in silence. In this case, the radio can help.
  • Do not take medications that could make your condition worse.
  • Regular use of Bilobil reduces tinnitus.
  • 90 039 90 000 Tinnitus after a cold: what to do, types and causes

    Tinnitus is the subjective perception by the ears of sounds that are objectively absent, i.e.That is, there are no external auditory stimuli. Noises of a different nature can be in one or both ears, often there is a feeling that it is noisy in the head.

    Tinnitus (tinnīre) is a medical term for ringing or tinnitus. A person describes a similar subjective sensation in the form of ringing, buzzing, hum or other sounds perceived by the ear in the absence of auditory stimuli from the outside. Tinnitus is often accompanied by varying degrees of hearing loss.

    The intensity of the noise at different time intervals can vary from a weak barely noticeable ringing to a strong hum.

    In older people, due to age-related aging of the body, the development of pathologies of the hearing system, the addition of vascular diseases, tinnitus, as a rule, increases from year to year, making it difficult to perceive real ambient sounds.

    Tinnitus is not an isolated disease, it is only a manifestation of ill-being in the body, requiring careful diagnosis and treatment. Tinnitus means not only ringing in the ears, but also a complex of problems associated with it. Chronic tinnitus is diagnosed in 5-10% of the world’s population, most of whom are elderly people.

    Mechanism of development of tinnitus

    The inner ear is made up of hearing cells with hairs that help convert sound into electrical impulses, which are then sent to the brain.

    Normally, the movements of these hairs correspond to sound vibrations. The occurrence of chaotic movement is facilitated by various factors leading to their irritation or damage.

    As a result, a mixture of various electrical signals is formed, which is perceived by the brain as constant noise.

    Causes of tinnitus development

    There are many etiological factors leading to the onset of tinnitus: direct pathologies of the hearing organs, taking certain medications, general diseases, aging of the body, etc.

    Pathology of the outer ear :

    • foreign body in the auricle;
    • otitis externa;
    • sulfur plug.

    Middle ear pathologies:

    • tumor formation, trauma or other damage to the eardrum, for example, listening to loud music through headphones or prolonged exposure to the ears of sounds from a working tractor or chainsaw;
    • exudative otitis media;
    • otosclerosis.

    Inner ear pathology :

    • sensorineural hearing loss;
    • Meniere’s disease;
    • tumor of the auditory nerve;
    • complications of ARVI, influenza;
    • neuritis of the auditory nerve;
    • ototoxic effect of drugs or other substances:
    • antibiotics-aminoglycosides – amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin;
    • macrolides – azithromycin;
    • drugs acting on the central nervous system – haloperidol, caffeine, aminophylline;
    • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – diclofenac, indomethacin;
    • loop diuretics – furosemide, uregit and others;
    • 90,017 cardiovascular drugs – digitalis;

      90,017 organic solvents – benzene, methyl alcohol.

    • labyrinthitis;
    • presbycusia – senile hearing loss due to age-related changes in the auditory cells.

    Systemic diseases accompanied by tinnitus:

    • metabolic diseases – diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis, hypoglycemia;
    • malignant and benign tumor processes – acoustic neuroma, tumor of the tympanic membrane or brainstem, meningioma;
    • vascular atherosclerosis;
    • hypertension;
    • osteochondrosis developing in the cervical spine;
    • stenosis of the jugular veins or carotid arteries.

    Other reasons :

    • poisoning with industrial poisons;
    • hepatitis;
    • fluid in the ear;
    • perilymph fistula;
    • stress;
    • 90,017 head injuries.

    What kind of tinnitus can there be?

    Kinds of noise:

    • Objective. In addition to the patient, such a noise is heard by the doctor. This type is rare in practice.
    • Subjective.Only the patient hears noises of a different nature.
    • Vibrating. Sounds reproduced by the organ of hearing itself or by structures surrounding it. It is these mechanical noises that both the patient and the doctor can hear.
    • Non-vibration. Only the patient hears various sounds. They arise from pathological excitement or irritation of the nerve endings of the auditory tract, inner ear.

    Gradation of non-vibration noise:

    • center – noises are felt in the center of the head;
    • peripheral – a sound heard in one ear.
    • Permanent. It is observed after surgery to cross the vestibular cochlear nerve or with severe vascular atherosclerosis.
    • Periodic. Occurs during inflammatory ear lesions.
    • One-sided. Heard in only one ear.
    • Bilateral. Heard in both ears.

    Variants of the manifestation of noise in the ears

    According to statistics, approximately 15-30% of the world’s population periodically feel ringing or noise in the ears, 20% of them describe it as loud.Tinnitus is diagnosed with the same frequency in both women and men from 40 to 80 years old. However, pronounced noise with hearing loss is more typical for men, who, by virtue of their profession, are more often found among strong industrial and production noises.

    Noise may vary from person to person. Some people are worried about monotonous hissing, someone whistling, tapping, ringing, buzzing or hum. Tinnitus is often accompanied by partial hearing loss, headaches (cephalalgia), and sleep disturbances.

    Noise may be accompanied by low-grade fever, discharge from the auricle, nausea, dizziness, pain, swelling and a feeling of fullness inside the ear. The intensity of sounds is different: from a weak ringing to a strong hum or roar.

    Often the patient, describing the nature of the noise, says that it resembles the noise of a waterfall or a passing vehicle.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=it63vsLpuNw

    Most people are forced to get used to their pathological state, however, a lot of noise leads to insomnia, irritability, inability to concentrate on work or everyday household chores.Some people complain that the loud, constant hum prevents them from hearing other ambient sounds and speech. In fact, this hum is not so loud, and they do not hear well due to the weakening of hearing that accompanies the noise in the ears.

    Diagnosis for tinnitus

    Certain diagnostic difficulties arise due to the multifactorial nature of the pathology, as well as due to the fact that subjective non-vibration ringing is difficult to determine by objective diagnostic methods.

    If noise occurs, its amplification and hearing duration increase or decrease, it is necessary to visit an otolaryngologist.

    To find out the cause and its elimination, consultations of other narrow specialists are not excluded – a vascular surgeon, cardiologist, neuropathologist, psychiatrist, endocrinologist.

    First, the ENT doctor performs a physical examination. Clarifies the nature, intensity, duration of the noise. Finds out whether there are chronic diseases of the endocrine, cardiovascular and nervous systems.

    Visual otolaryngological examination allows you to assess the condition of the auricles, to see the external manifestations of the inflammatory process or injury.

    Then, based on the alleged cause of the noise, a series of examinations is assigned.

    Non-invasive instrumental diagnostic methods:

    • Tonal threshold audiometry is a technique for testing hearing acuity using an audiometer. The device emits tones of different frequencies and intensities, which the patient hears through the headphones, after picking up the sound, he presses the button. Based on the data obtained, an audiogram is drawn up, according to which the doctor assesses the level of hearing.
    • Weber’s test – a study of hearing acuity using a tuning fork, which is installed in the middle of the forehead or in the parietal region. If the subject hears sounds better on the side of the diseased ear, the cause of deafness is in sound conduction (unilateral conductive hearing loss), if on the side of the healthy one, the inner ear is affected (unilateral sensorineural hearing loss).
    • X-ray of the skull. With a head injury.
    • Radiography of the spinal column (cervical). With osteochondrosis.
    • Doppler ultrasonography of cerebral vessels. With atherosclerosis and ischemia.
    • Rheoencephalography of cerebral vessels. With ischemic damage.
    • Radiography (planar) of the temporal bone pyramid. With suspicion of retrocochlear formation.
    • Polytomography: MRI or CT. With a presumed tumor process.
    • CT of the skull with contrast. If you suspect a tumor of the inner ear.

    Laboratory diagnostic methods:

    • Thyroid hormone test.
    • Clinical blood test.
    • “Biochemistry” of blood with the determination of lipid levels.
    • Serological tests for syphilis.

    Tinnitus treatment

    The main thing in treatment is to minimize the effect on the body or, if possible, completely eliminate the cause that led to the tinnitus. The underlying disease is being treated.

    In case of osteochondrosis, non-narcotic analgesics – katadolon are prescribed to control pain syndrome.Mandatory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – meloxicam, nemisulide.

    Muscle relaxants – sirdalut, mydocalm help to eliminate muscle tension. Anticonvulsants are sometimes indicated – carbamazepine, gabapentin.

    If the etiological factor is a sulfur plug, then it is successfully eliminated during flushing of the ear canal with saline or furacilin supplied through Janet’s syringe.

    Complex therapy of cerebral vascular pathology consists of nootropics – cortexin, cerebramine, cerebrolysin; drugs that improve the metabolism and blood circulation of the brain – cavinton, cinarizine, betaserc, xanthinol nicotinate and others.

    The appearance of ringing in the ears and a slight decrease in hearing, arising from the use of drugs that adversely affect hearing, are the basis for the cancellation of these drugs. They are replaced with others that do not cause tinnitus. In most cases, after this, the problems disappear on their own, it is rarely possible to return normal hearing acuity.

    In the treatment of tinnitus, tricyclic antidepressants are prescribed, for example, amitriptyline. Drug therapy is complemented by physiotherapy.Regarding the etiology, endaural electrophonophoresis, hardware treatment, laser and magnetic therapy, pneumomassage of the tympanic membrane are prescribed. Acupuncture, reflexology or electrical stimulation are effective.

    With noise or other types of tympanic membrane injuries or age-related changes in ear structures, hearing loss is irreversible. A person only has to adapt to the problem that has arisen. In such cases, the doctor recommends hearing aids. A hearing aid is removed or, if the hearing loss is more severe, a cochlear implant is inserted.

    Noise in the ears and head, causes and treatment. Folk remedies and drugs for noise in the ear

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    When an adult or a child hears tinnitus without external stimuli, this indicates the presence of certain diseases.

    In medical terminology, this condition is called ringing in the ears and is accompanied not only by noise, but also by sharp, buzzing sounds.

    If ringing in the ears is accompanied by pain, dizziness or hearing loss, you should immediately contact an ENT specialist.If you know the cause of the phenomenon, it is easier to deal with it effectively.

    Causes of noise in the right and left ears

    Hearing plays an important role in our life. By influencing various functions, it helps us remember information and move around the room. Therefore, when we hear extraneous sounds, we immediately try to determine the pathology.

    The reasons can be very different and numerous, since the organ is located near the brain and there are many blood vessels, nerve endings and arteries.

    It is not easy for a specialist to find the cause of ear noise, but we will list the most important ones:

    • a sharp increase in pressure;
    • sulfur cap;
    • concussion;
    • atherosclerosis;
    • circulatory disorders;
    • vascular insufficiency;
    • brain tumor;
    • neurology;
    • osteochondrosis;
    • vascular dystonia;
    • congestion in the nose;
    • weakness during pregnancy;
    • neurosis.

    What causes the pulsating noise?

    Constantly pulsating tinnitus is a sign of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension or arteriovenous deformity.

    The most common pulsating auricle disease is arterial hypertension, in which high blood pressure contributes to narrowing of the small vessels of the brain. This prevents the brain from getting the right amount of oxygen, reacting sharply to these changes.

    In atherosclerosis, cholesterol accumulates in the vessels, as a result of which their diameter decreases, blood flow slows down, which leads to pulsation, headaches, loss of memory and hearing.

    Arteriovenous malformation disrupts the correct plexus of the blood vessels so that the blood bypasses the capillaries and immediately enters the veins, amplifying the pulsating sound. After a concussion, the ears often hear pulsating sounds that drum with increasing volume. This condition is a harbinger of vomiting or dizziness, especially when the trunk is tilted.

    Tinnitus with headache

    If the noise is accompanied by dizziness and headaches, then this condition is most likely provoked by one of three factors:

    1. Disease of the auditory nerve.
    2. Atherosclerotic plaques.
    3. Concussion.

    If the headache is accompanied by nausea and vomiting after a blow to the head or falling, as well as intermittent tinnitus, then this is a concussion that requires urgent treatment.With atherosclerosis, the vestibular system is disturbed and the noise grows steadily, especially in the evening. With these symptoms, it is urgent to examine the vessels of the brain.

    Dizziness

    A murmur accompanied by constant dizziness can be caused by changes in the cervical spine, as peaks or growths occur over time.

    The normal height of the discs is significantly reduced, so that the vertebral bodies are closer to each other.This bone growth does not correspond to the vertebral artery.

    She begins to become irritable and convulsive, not allowing the right amount of blood to flow into her brain. Hence the instability of walking, tinnitus, blurred vision.

    Idiopathic murmur

    A rare condition that occurs in 45% of cases when the doctor cannot prove the presence of an obvious cause of tinnitus is called idiopathic noise.

    Studies show that many patients with tinnitus are between the ages of 40 and 80.

    This is due to both medication and age-related changes and normal physiological sounds associated with the movement of blood in the inner ear.

    Methods for the treatment of tinnitus

    Treatment of tinnitus directly depends on the cause. Tinnitus is not only a noise in the head, but also a variety of social, mental and emotional problems.

    About 5% of the world’s population suffers from chronic tinnitus, which leads to stress, anxiety and difficulty concentrating.

    Tinnitus is not a disease in itself, but rather a symptom of another disease or hearing loss.

    Tinnitus is often caused by diabetes or kidney disease.

    When examining a patient, the ENT doctor should pay attention to the general condition of the patient, find out if he is taking medication, and first of all, determine the presence of sulfur clots that cause noise and tinnitus.

    If tinnitus is caused by age-related changes, treatment is not performed.The patient must get used to the new problem, and the doctor can only advise the use of medications to reduce the severity of aging changes in the inner ear.

    Medical treatment for tinnitus, which sometimes occurs in the ears, is not indicated in all cases. Tinnitus happens often and disappears suddenly, and if it happened only for a short time and once, then, according to doctors, there is no need to worry. You will need to speak with specialists if ..:

    • Tinnitus and tinnitus are common;
    • Discomfort from tinnitus is necessary, interferes with work;
    • You know about the disease that provokes tinnitus.

    Medicines

    Certain tinnitus medications are available, but the effect depends on the cause of the symptoms. Some people receive tricyclic antidepressants, but these drugs sometimes have side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, or heart rhythm problems. Anti-vascular drugs like gabalentin or clonazepam also sometimes reduce noise, and some manage to reduce noise with pain relievers, tranquilizers, and even antihistamines like Betaserk.

    List of the most common antibiotics that cause painful tinnitus:

    • Antimalarial drugs;
    • Certain vincrystalline or mechlorethamine anticancer drugs;
    • diuretics: ‘furosemide, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide;
    • high-dose aspirin;
    • Certain antidepressants;
    • antibiotics: Erythromycin, polymyxin B, neomycin, vancomycin.

    Folk remedies

    Unwanted tinnitus is removed only after investigation of the cause.Therefore, before resorting to folk remedies, especially if your child has hearing problems, you should consult your doctor. There are several popular recipes to get rid of this disease:

    You need 2 small onions on a thin grater, push the juice through cheesecloth and bury the ear with 2-3 drops. The procedure should be repeated twice a day until the call stops. If a child has problems, onion juice should be diluted 1: 1 with water.

    For this medicine, take 3 tablespoons of fresh potassium, add water and light it.After boiling for 5 minutes, drain the water and add 3 tablespoons of honey to the berries stretched with a spoon and mix the mixture thoroughly. Make 2 knots of the dressing, which can be filled with the prepared mixture and inserted into your ears in the evening before going to bed. The procedure is repeated every night until complete recovery.

    Fill three teaspoons of fresh dill with boiling water, and then leave for 1 hour. Drink 100 ml of infusion 3 times a day before meals until complete recovery.

    How to treat tinnitus for colds and SARS?

    Often, ears hurt during ODS or colds, noise or ringing is often heard.The cause of the disease is often swelling of the ear tube, and when you try to inhale through the nose into the middle ear, negative pressure is immediately created.

    To alleviate the patient’s condition, the doctor prescribes vasoconstrictor drugs. Simulating yawning or chewing helps balance the pressure in the ears.

    If left untreated, a more serious ear condition – otitis media – develops after a cold, which increases the overall risk of hearing loss.

    Treatment is carried out by heating the compressors and drops in the ears.Drops necessarily contain pain relieving and antibacterial ingredients. These are drugs such as Otipax, Sofradex or Albucid. If your ear is festering, you should use Etonia, Rivanol, or Olimixin solutions to cleanse and relieve an ear infection.

    After otitis media

    Otitis media is an inflammation of the ear caused by a general decrease in immunity and the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms. Treatment methods directly depend on the site of infection: the outer, middle or inner ear.A middle or external ear infection can be easily removed at home, but if the middle ear infection progresses deeply, the patient is referred for inpatient treatment due to the risk of encephalitis.

    In case of inflammation of the outer part of the auditory canal, doctors usually recommend the following therapy:

    1. Bathing with boric alcohol, and in case of severe pain – anesthesia like ‘Ibuprofen’.
    2. Ear plugs with antibacterial drops (Neomycin, Ofloxacin).
    3. tetracycline or lincomycin ointment.
    4. If there is an abscess in the pinna, it is surgically removed.

    Which doctor should I go to for diagnosis?

    Consult a physician or neurologist to find out the cause of tinnitus. These experts must plan an investigation to determine the exact cause of the problem. Usually, an ultrasound examination of blood vessels, general tests and, in extreme cases, an MRI of the brain are prescribed.A visit to the ENT doctor is also organized, since the ringing in the ear is provoked by a normal sulfuric plug, which the ENT doctor can cope with in 5 minutes.

    Video: How to deal with tinnitus at home

    If a person has a sound sensation in their ears, the first thing they try is to fix the problem on their own. M. Sperling, a neurologist from Novosibirsk, will tell you how you can help yourself get rid of the problem and not hurt yourself. Take a look at the video:

    Tinnitus.HOW YOU ARE PARTICIPATED (advice from a doctor)

    Attention! The information provided in this article is for introductory purposes. The materials of the article do not require independent review. Only a qualified doctor can diagnose and make recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of the patient.

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    Ringing and tinnitus with colds and runny nose

    It is not uncommon for a person with a cold to notice that sometimes foreign sounds appear in his ears.It can be a dull noise, gurgle, pinch, or rustle. Many doctors believe that the common cold has a cause for the noise in the ears. This indicates various complications of the disease.

    It is impossible to leave such a phenomenon without proper attention, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible, who will not only find out the cause, but also choose the treatment . It is quite possible that the cause of the noise is completely minor, and soon everything will cease to be untreated.

    Keep in mind, however, that such sounds may be the first sign of Meniere’s disease, malignant tumor, or middle ear infection.

    Why ears are blocked with a cold

    The structure of the ear is unique. Due to its complex structure, the hearing organs react sensitively to changes that occur not only in the ears themselves, but also in the nasopharynx. When you catch a cold, your ears often ring, and this is easy to explain. The inflammatory process, repeatedly observed in respiratory diseases, leads to swelling of the nasopharynx . This constricts the organs of hearing and disrupts their function. Therefore, different sounds occur in the ears.

    The auditory canals are designed to connect with other organs of the ENT. The eardrum and special bones are designed to absorb sound.

    When a person is healthy, the ear cavity is filled with air, and the pressure in the ears is equal to atmospheric pressure. In this case, there are no obstacles to the entry of sound into the cochlea and other parts of the organ of hearing.

    Sounds modern and absolutely correct.

    The eustachian tube is usually also filled with air, but in case of respiratory illness it can be completely filled with a liquid containing pathogenic microbes .

    The inflammatory process occurs in the Eustachian tube, which leads to noise and ringing in the ears.

    The patient complains of hearing loss, discomfort in the middle of the ear, severe malaise and persistent headaches.

    In case of a cold, the nose swells up greatly, which narrows the connection between the ear and nose, as a result of which different sounds are heard.

    Reasons

    • Residual phenomenon after respiratory illness
    • Individual body sensitivity.

    In most cases, this phenomenon goes away on its own over time without any treatment. But sometimes such pathology needs to be treated for a longer period of time in order to prevent hearing loss in the first place.

    Too large a protruding nose can damage the membrane of the drum and lead to the appearance of foreign sounds in the ears.

    Residual phenomenon

    Many people complain of tinnitus when they get cold and immediately after.Foreign tinnitus significantly impairs the quality of human life and interferes with an objective assessment of the environment.

    In case of respiratory diseases, the inflammatory process in the nasal cavity leads to a persistent violation of the pressure in the ears. In this case, the patient hears a ringing both during a cold and immediately after it. The noise is increased when the patient inhales, slightly pinching the nostrils.

    Noise as a residual phenomenon occurs in the following cases:

    • If the ignition process has not been properly corrected .
    • If the cold is accompanied by severe swelling of the nasopharynx.
    • In case of pressure violation in the middle part of the ear.

    Thunder and ringing in the ears after a cold is quite normal and will go away for several days without any treatment. An alarm should be generated if this condition persists for more than 2 weeks .

    If a cold is treated in accordance with all the doctor’s recommendations, the murmurs disappear without a trace after a few days.

    Complications of a cold

    If the common cold is not properly treated, background noise can also occur with various complications. When pathogens enter the middle ear cavity during illness, they cause inflammation and accumulate exudate . When the auditory canal is completely filled with purulent contents, the patient from time to time begins to hear mild noises, which can be considered the first symptoms of an acute middle ear infection.

    Long ringing in the ears during and immediately after a cold, we can talk about various complications. Under the influence of pathogens, the following pathologies can develop:

    • acute otitis media;
    • tympanitis;
    • sinusitis.

    In addition, the patient may suffer from severe migraine, which interferes with the circulation of the parts of the brain . Humming in the ears is common in this condition.

    If a respiratory illness is not treated as it should, it can cause many serious complications.

    Special reaction of the body

    Long-term treatment significantly reduces human immunity and affects hormonal levels . As a result, the functions of the cardiovascular system are impaired, which leads to disorders such as hearing loss and tinnitus.

    Foreign noises lasting more than one week should not be ignored. We must not forget that ears are very fragile and sensitive organs. Even minor abnormalities can impair hearing function.

    If ringing in the ears is accompanied by throbbing and stitching pain, we can definitely talk about a severe inflammatory process. . In this case, the patient should consult a doctor as soon as possible to avoid serious complications.

    Traditional methods of treatment

    • Large onion, sprinkled with caraway seeds and baked. After cooling, squeeze out the juice and drip 2 drops into the ears, twice a day . After the disappearance of extraneous tinnitus, treatment continues for several days.
    • Pour two tablespoons of boiling water over one teaspoon of fresh potato berries and bring to a boil. Then they knead it by adding 0.5 teaspoons of honey. The resulting mass is divided into two halves, wrapped in two pieces of gauze and inserted into the ears at night.
    • On a thin grater, chop half of the fine turnips, pour a glass of boiling water and put on low heat. After cooking, add a tablespoon of honey and let it boil for another 15 minutes. The resulting drink is moistened with cotton wool and placed in the auditory canals .

    It should be remembered that conventional prescription drugs can help eliminate noise, but they do not always help to eliminate the cause of this phenomenon. Before using folk remedies, you should consult your doctor.

    It is always easier to prevent any pathology than to cure it later. There are no preventive measures for tinnitus, but the factors causing it can be prevented. All respiratory illnesses must be treated under medical supervision. This is the only way to avoid complications.

    Tinnitus after a cold

    A complete cold cure may take more than a week. Due to our busy schedule and other reasons, we don’t always end this event in the hope that everything will “disappear”. Tinnitus after a cold is natural if not completely eliminated.

    Noises in the ears

    after sinusitis

    During and after a cold, many patients notice loud head discomfort. Sometimes it is of a background nature, compared with the strength of other manifestations of the disease, is not noticed, in other cases it is stressful, interferes with sleep, and disrupts normal activity.

    Doctors say that this postmorbid syndrome in most cases is a signal for a complication that must be treated.What diseases are most often associated with it:

    1. Influenza.
    2. ORVI.
    3. Otit.
    4. Gamorite.
    5. Running nose.

    Why is nasopharyngeal disease a hearing impairment? The ears are a complex organ connected to the nasal cavities by a long hollow canal – the Eustachian tube. With a cold, edema is inevitable, which compresses the internal auditory parts – their functioning is impaired, the perceived sounds are distorted.

    In case of influenza or acute respiratory failure, the Eustachia tube can be filled with a liquid taken from the nasopharynx and containing a large number of infectious microorganisms. Inevitable inflammation. Only a doctor can determine the exact cause of complaints:

    • Body reaction.
    • Complication.
    • Residual phenomenon.
    • Otitis.
    • drum roll.
    • Meningitis.

    If the noise phenomenon does not disappear within a week after the healing of ODS or ODS, consult a specialist.Otherwise, the resulting complications can lead to hearing loss. The cause may be a tumor that has not healed from the underlying disease, or a violation of internal pressure. If the noise persists after a few days, there is nothing to worry about.

    Microbes entering the middle ear form exudate – it completely fills the auditory cavities, after which general inflammation begins. The worst consequence of a cold is otitis media. The sooner he is treated, the less likely he is to have hearing problems in the future.

    During a cold, we take many medications – none of them is completely safe for the body. By regulating the work of one organ, they affect the microflora of other systems:

    • Hormonal.
    • Cardiovascular.
    • Digestion.
    • You are nervous.

    This is a normal reaction of the body to medications, which manifests itself differently in each person, sometimes in the form of temporary hearing loss, headaches.

    Main ear symptoms during or after a cold:

    1. Constant background noise.
    2. Periodic call.
    3. Bubble formation.
    4. discomfort from pain
    5. hearing loss.
    6. disease.
    7. Headache.

    Immediately after the acute phase of the disease, these phenomena are normal, it is necessary to consult a doctor if they occur in different combinations within a week after the cessation of the disease.Unpleasant sensations in the ears can indicate various disorders in the body. If there is pain, especially stabbing pain, it is probably middle ear inflammation.

    ENT doctors are responsible for diagnostic measures related to the hearing organs, but first you need to contact an ENT therapist – he will prescribe an examination that will show the problem in more detail. It will consist of ..:

    • General tests – urine, blood.
    • Vascular ultrasound.
    • X-rays of the brain.
    • ENT examination.
    • Audiogram.

    If the cause of a loud ear discomfort is a cold – active or untreated – the first step to treating it is to combat the underlying cause. For the treatment of colds, the viral doctor prescribes the appropriate medications:

    1. Antivirus agent.
    2. Anti-inflammatory drugs.
    3. Increases immunity.
    4. Swelling, painful sensations.
    5. antiseptics.
    6. antibiotics.

    If otitis media occurs, it is treated with ENT. Depending on the degree of the disease, he prescribes anti-inflammatory pills or antibiotics, special drops in the ears, which reduce swelling and neutralize foreign microorganisms. In case of suppuration – a serious manifestation – special solutions are prescribed to cleanse the ear canals of fluid.

    It is imperative to visit a doctor regularly. If the inflammation of the middle ear has begun poorly and an abscess has formed in the auricle, surgery is necessary.The sooner you start treatment, the sooner you can get rid of the problem. Otherwise, there is a risk of complete hearing loss.

    Let’s return to normal life!

    Tinnitus Neuro Clinic offers effective treatment of diseases. Our advantages:

    1. An integrated approach to problem solving.
    2. Individual program for each patient.
    3. Modern technologies.
    4. Cooperation with leading international clinics.

    We will help you return your hearing and the joy of full perception of the world!

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    Noise and ringing in the ear after a cold – what to do and why hearing worsens after a cold

    When patients catch a cold, they often notice extraneous sounds in their ears.Unknown muffled sounds are sometimes replaced by ringing, rustling, bubbles. Doctors believe that the noise in the ear after a cold is not accidental, this phenomenon indicates some complications of the disease.

    It is not recommended to ignore this phenomenon. It is recommended that you see a doctor specializing in ears, nose and throat as soon as possible so that the specialist can clarify the situation. Perhaps the cause of the noise in the ear area is insignificant and will soon subside. In the case of a developing pathology, it is necessary to start treatment on time.

    A little about hearing organs

    The hearing organs perform one of the most important functions in the human body. Your work is colossal. The complex structure allows you to feel the pathological changes that occur not only in the ears themselves, but also in the throat and nasal cavity.

    Cold and tinnitus often accompany each other . It is easy to explain why this is noise. The pathological process caused by a cold compresses the organs of hearing and disrupts their work, which leads to distortion of sounds.

    A stuffy feeling in many ears is caused by a cold and lasts for a while thereafter.

    Why does ears clog with a cold

    The auditory organs in one way or another come into contact with other ENT organs. The cossicles, eardrum, and eardrum are considered to be important elements of auditory function and are the most important hearing analyzer. This is the part that picks up the sound waves.

    If everything is working correctly, the middle ear space is completely filled with air .The air pressure in the ear is the same as atmospheric pressure. Nothing prevents the sound wave from reaching the cochlea and the rest of the ear. There is a gradual processing of time and the correct perception of the solid flow of information.

    The Eustachia tube, which connects the ear to the nasopharynx, is also filled with air, but in the case of a cold, it can be filled with a liquid containing bactericidal or viral, infectious microorganisms.

    In this case, inflammation of the Eustachian tube begins, the main symptoms of which are noise, tinnitus, gurgling.

    The patient complains of hearing loss, discomfort in the ear, headache, general malaise.

    Causes of tinnitus after a cold

    Tinnitus can be heard for several reasons. Maybe:

    • residual phenomenon;
    • complication after illness;
    • individual reaction of the body.

    Sometimes the phenomenon disappears by itself, sometimes it takes a long time to heal in order to eliminate the effect and not to lose hearing.

    Important! Frequent, irregular snorting during a cold can cause perforation of the eardrum, leading to tinnitus.

    Residual phenomenon

    After a runny nose, many patients complain that now there is always some kind of noise in their ears. Foreign noises not only create discomfort, they disrupt life, they really value the environment.

    If inflammation of the nasal mucosa during illness leads to a violation of internal pressure , edema of the ear canal occurs.In this case, it may ring in the ear when the patient has a cold, and then, when the patient inhales, he may slightly pinch the nostrils.

    It turns out that noise in the ear after a cold:

    • residual inflammation;
    • 90,017 edema;

    • Internal pressure imbalance.

    Tinnitus, as a relic of a cured disease, came on in a few days.

    Tinnitus after a cold for several days is quite natural.Fear should be defeated if the sounds do not stop for more than a week

    Complications after illness

    Foreign tinnitus may occur:

    • if the cold is not properly treated;
    • if the disease is not completely treated.

    When bacteria, germs or viruses enter the middle ear during pathology, exudate begins to accumulate. When purulent blood fluid completely fills the auditory canal, there is a feeling of dizziness, slight noises, the inflammatory process begins , inflammation of the middle ear or a middle ear infection develops.

    Simply put, a cold (sore throat, ARV, runny nose) gradually developed into a more complex disease requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment.

    Hearing loss due to a cold may indicate the development of a serious illness:

    • Otitis media;
    • Timanite;
    • Myringitis;
    • Sinusitis.

    Untreated cold can return and cause severe hearing loss.

    Individual reaction of the body

    Long-term treatment for severe colds can weaken the body.As a result, cardiovascular dysfunctions or hormonal deficiencies can occur. Hence the various consequences – hearing loss, noise.

    Main indicators of weakened immunity – frequent colds or other diseases

    Foreign tinnitus that lasts at least one day should not be ignored. The hearing organs are so fragile and sensitive that a minor pathology can easily lead to functional impairments. Hearing will deteriorate and will require long-term medication and physical therapy to recover.

    When tinnitus with a cold, and especially after a cold, is accompanied by severe throbbing, whining or shooting pain, it becomes clear that a severe inflammatory process develops in the hearing organs.

    Until the provoking factor is found and destroyed, the pain and noise in the organs of hearing will not stop. In such cases, you should immediately consult a doctor to stop the progression of the disease and avoid further complications.

    What to do with persistent tinnitus – causes and treatment

    Continuous tinnitus, which gradually increases in strength, is a major obstacle for humans.About 20% of the population suffers from this disease, but not everyone understands at the right time that this symptom can signal the course of pathological processes in the body. What does the constant ringing and buzzing say? What are the causes of tinnitus?

    Classification of tinnitus

    Specialists in the ears, nose and throat name certain tinnitus. This general term covers sounds of various origins and character, which, in turn, are divided into different groups to facilitate further diagnosis of the root cause.

    From the point of view of the expressiveness of the constant ringing in the ears, it is thus divided into 4 stages:

    1. The first stage, which does not show signs of discomfort, is almost invisible to the patient. Only very rarely do they perceive extraneous sounds in their ears, and then in complete silence.
    2. Grade II tinnitus is clearly visible in quiet environments and sometimes interferes with sleep. In order not to be distracted and to give the opportunity to rest, patients begin to emit a kind of background noise – they fall asleep under the TV, radio or music in the player.
    3. Sounds that patients hear in the third degree begin to disturb not only sleep, but also concentration. People suffer from the fact that they cannot sleep well, become irritable and often break down.
    4. Grade 4 ear noises become so loud and disturbing that patients sometimes cannot do their job, hear the person speak normally, and rest well.

    When making a diagnosis, it is very important to determine the stage of the symptom, as this symptom tells the ear, nose and throat specialist or specialist how far the original disease has developed.

    Tinnitus is also classified by the type of hearing. They are divided:

    • A subjective that is heard by both the patient and the diagnostician through the phonendoscope;
    • A subjective that is only heard by the patient.

    Determination of tinnitus tone is also critical for diagnosis. This function classifies sounds in the ear by tone:

    • Low tones (buzzing, knocking, humming) – they rarely disturb the patient, as they are easier to perceive;
    • high tones (ringing in the ears, whistling, hissing) – very unpleasant and disturbing.

    It is in the nature of noise in the ears, nose and throat that specialists are able to determine the root cause of the disease, since different pathological processes cause different types of symptoms. Constant pulsating tinnitus, thus, signals a vascular pathology, and clicks indicate a spasm of muscle fibers in the ENT system.

    Causes of the symptom

    The cause of tinnitus is most often associated with diseases and pathologies of the organ of hearing. Subjective sounds can become noticeable when sound perception is disturbed in one of the areas of the system.

    The pathological process can affect both organs of the auditory system and only one of them: Patients often find that they hear sounds, for example, in the left ear or only in the right.

    Diseases and pathologies of the organ of hearing

    Persistent tinnitus can occur for various reasons:

    1. Blockage of the auditory canal. The ear canal lumen can be blocked by a wax plug, foreign matter, dust or dirt.With congestion, patients experience a sensation of congestion, internal pressure and noise only in the left or right ear, depending on which ear the congestion has occurred in.
    2. Tinnitus can occur as an inflammatory process in the organ of hearing. Otitis media anywhere – external, intermediate, and internal – is associated with severe pain, congestion, hearing loss and tinnitus.
    3. A pronounced sound in the left or only in the right ear can occur against the background of inflammation of mastoiditis.This disease manifests itself through pain behind the auricle, lethargy and fever.
    4. Injury to the tympanic membrane caused by a sudden drop in pressure or mechanical damage to the membrane can lead to a sharp decrease in the quality of hearing and constant noise.
    5. In otosclerosis, which is characterized by the growth of bones in the inner ear, progressive tinnitus is always associated with a gradual decline in hearing quality. When the cochlea is disturbed, there is background noise in the right or left ear.These changes are irreversible. To stop the pathological process, at the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
    6. Another inner ear disorder that can cause noise in the ear is the labyrinth. The inflammatory process in this department begins with the spread of infection from the tympanic cavity, during which the sound receptors die off. Hearing quality is noticeably reduced, nausea, dizziness, coordination problems and constant noise in the left or right ear occur.
    7. High-pitched noises in the ears may occur against the background of a contusion of the labyrinth. Acoustic or barotrauma causes significant damage to the cochlea, resulting in temporary loss of sound quality and tinnitus in the form of whistling or ringing.
    8. With Meniere’s disease, too much endolymph is produced in the inner part of the organ of hearing, which does not have time to empty itself naturally. Excess fluid fills the cochlea and begins to constrict surrounding tissues and nerve fibers, causing dizziness, poor coordination, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
    9. Tinnitus is part of the symptomatology that defines sensorineural hearing loss. This pathology affects nerve receptors, which receive sound vibrations and transmit them to the brain. The death of these hairs causes progressive and irreversible hearing loss and a ‘compensating’ persistent noise in the ear, usually in a high pitch.

    Suffers from sensorineural hearing loss, mainly in old age. In relatively young patients, the disease manifests itself when receptors are under increased stress from working in noisy industries.

    The death of receptors does not always occur simultaneously in both hearing organs: Usually, the pathological process begins first from one side, and patients hear sounds in the left or only in the right ear.

    Over time, the functionality of the internal compartment deteriorates and symptoms recur on the paired organ.

    Systemic pathologies and other conditions

    Tinnitus cannot be caused only by diseases of the hearing organs – some systemic pathologies can also cause permanent tinnitus.

    1. Lack of energy for the brain, nerves and parts of the hearing organ due to poor circulation can lead to tinnitus. The most common symptom is atherosclerosis.
    2. Pulsating or high-frequency tinnitus may be due to high blood pressure in adults and the elderly. During periods of pressure surges, the vessels do not have time to ‘adapt’ to changes in blood flow, which provokes the appearance of vertebrae in them. This turbulence is what patients hear as subjective noise and ringing.
    3. A common cause of persistent ringing in the ears is osteochondrosis, which causes compression of the cervical vessels and malnutrition of the spinal artery of all organs and tissues of the skull, including the inner ear. The lack of blood supply to this part of the hearing organ causes a persistent, painful tinnitus.
    4. Tinnitus is sometimes triggered by a variety of drugs. This can be temporary or occur against a background of progressive hearing loss. For example, salicylates, haloperidol and eufilin, a number of diuretics, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs, and methyl alcohol and benzene can cause tinnitus.
    5. Tinnitus is often associated with anemia. A lack of blood cells leads to brain hypoxia and a lack of oxygen in the cells and tissues of the inner ear, which causes the development of subjective sounds.
    6. Diseases and dysfunction of the thyroid gland have prominent permanent tinnitus in the symptom list.

    Diagnostics

    The first thing you can complain about with persistent tinnitus is to contact an ENT specialist. The specialist will examine with an otoscope and assess the condition of the ear canal and tympanic membrane.If your doctor does not determine the cause of tinnitus in this area, he or she will prescribe a series of diagnostic tests to help you understand why tinnitus produces tinnitus.

    • Audiometry is used to assess the patient’s hearing acuity;
    • Chamber models allow you to determine the sounds of some sounds that the patient hears and does not perceive;
    • According to the results of MRI and computed tomography, specialists can identify the presence of tumors and inflammatory processes.

    If the ear, nose and throat doctor cannot determine the cause of the tinnitus, nose and throat from the ENT system, he will refer you to close specialists. If you suspect a thyroid problem, you should consult an endocrinologist. However, if symptoms indicate a cardiovascular problem, a cardiologist should be consulted.

    Treatment

    Tinnitus is a symptom, therefore, tinnitus treatment consists of complex therapy of the underlying disease or pathology.

    1. If a wax plug or a foreign body in the ear canal causes tinnitus, treatment is carried out directly in the practice of the ENT doctor. The doctor removes the foreign body or flushes the congestion from the ear canal. After these manipulations, the noise will disappear in your ear.
    2. If you have otitis media, your otolaryngologist will prescribe antibacterial drugs that will effectively eliminate the inflammatory process.
    3. If sensorineural hearing loss is the cause of the noise in the ear, a doctor specializing in the ears, nose and throat area will find medications that will stop the hearing loss and reduce the severity of the noise in the ears.
    4. The cardiologist will determine the underlying disease based on diagnostic measures and develop a treatment program. As a rule, the therapy includes drugs that improve blood circulation and metabolic processes, increasing the elasticity of the vessel wall.
    5. To solve neurological problems, a narrow specialist will use drugs that activate the metabolism in nerve cells and improve the transmission of nerve impulses from the ear to the brain.
    6. If tinnitus has been triggered by osteochondrosis, your doctor will prescribe medication to prevent salt deposits and recommend neck massage to activate blood flow.

    How to get rid of tinnitus

    Quite often, patients who suffer from tinnitus come to doctors. This symptom significantly affects the quality of life. Constant noise is disturbing. It distracts from everyday activities and often interferes with sleep at night. Booking Health doctors answer the most frequent questions from patients regarding tinnitus.

    Is it dangerous?

    Not always, but in some cases, the symptom may indicate a serious organic pathology.These can be cancerous formations of the ear or auditory nerve. Brain damage is also possible. Usually, with the central origin of the noise, the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres is affected. Vascular causes may also be the cause. For example, vascular malformations and aneurysms. They can rupture, which is fraught with massive bleeding with an unpredictable outcome.

    Why can you make noise in your ears?

    There are many reasons why a person may be disturbed by tinnitus.These are vascular pathologies, diseases of the ENT organs, oncological diseases, lesions of the central nervous system. Sometimes the symptom is due to the pathology of the temporomandibular joint.

    Is it possible to find out why the noise in my ears?

    It is possible in some cases to find out why the ears are noisy. True, not always. Very often the cause remains unknown. Then only symptomatic treatment is carried out.

    To find out the reason, the doctor first of all checks if this noise can be heard by someone other than the patient.That is, whether it is due to real sounds that are emitted by muscle or vascular structures. For this, the doctor performs auscultation. He listens to the skull with a phonendoscope. If a doctor hears a noise, it is considered objective, and if not listened to, then subjective.

    What does pulsating tinnitus say?

    If the murmur coincides with the beats of the heart, this clearly indicates its vascular origin. This is not always a disease. Sometimes the special arrangement of the jugular veins produces such sounds.But in some cases, the cause may be the presence of a vascular malformation or aneurysm. As we have already said, these pathologies are very dangerous. Especially if the vascular formations reach large sizes.

    In addition, compression of the vessels by external formations can lead to the appearance of a noise that corresponds to the pulse. Most often these are benign ear tumors or polyps. Tumors can be very dangerous. They often spread into the cranial cavity epidurally or intradurally (into the dura mater).

    What should I do if my ear is buzzing?

    You need an examination. It serves several purposes. First, you need to confirm or exclude the most dangerous causes of the symptom. Secondly, you should find out why the noise in the ear, and how this sound is formed. Third, eliminate the main causative factor for the appearance of the symptom. After that, it will become clear whether it is possible to cure the underlying disease.

    Where can I be examined?

    Only in a good modern clinic can the cause of a symptom be identified.For this, specialists of different profiles are involved: otolaryngologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, orthopedists, dentists, etc. Various examinations are carried out: audiography, tympanometry, CT of the temporal bone and MRI of the brain. Many patients who do not have financial difficulties go to Germany for examination. There, in a few days, you can undergo a diagnosis and establish the reason why it buzzes in your ears. While in most clinics in developing countries, patients remain under-examined, and the cause of the symptom is unexplained.

    Is it possible to get rid of a symptom permanently?

    As already mentioned, there are many reasons for this symptom. Therefore, it is impossible to give an unambiguous forecast. Sometimes you can really get rid of the noise forever. For example, if a vascular malformation is detected and surgically removed. In other situations, treatment is lengthy and leads only to a decrease in the symptom, and not to its complete elimination. But in any case, in most patients it is possible to achieve a significant improvement in the condition with the help of one or another therapeutic approach.

    What treatments are used?

    A wide variety of methods can be applied. This can be surgery, gamma knife, hearing aid, prescription of medications.