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Chemical burns on hands pictures: Chemical Burn Treatment, Remedies, Pictures & Symptoms


Burns and scalds – NHS

Burns and scalds are damage to the skin usually caused by heat. Both are treated in the same way.

A burn is caused by dry heat – by an iron or fire, for example. A scald is caused by something wet, such as hot water or steam.


Burns can be very painful and may cause:

  • red or peeling skin
  • blisters
  • swelling
  • white or charred skin

The amount of pain you feel is not always related to how serious the burn is. Even a very serious burn may be relatively painless.

Treating burns and scalds

To treat a burn, follow the first aid advice below:

  • immediately get the person away from the heat source to stop the burning
  • cool the burn with cool or lukewarm running water for 20 minutes – do not use ice, iced water, or any creams or greasy substances like butter
  • remove any clothing or jewellery that’s near the burnt area of skin, including babies’ nappies, but do not move anything that’s stuck to the skin
  • make sure the person keeps warm by using a blanket, for example, but take care not to rub it against the burnt area
  • cover the burn by placing a layer of cling film over it – a clean plastic bag could also be used for burns on your hand
  • use painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen to treat any pain
  • if the face or eyes are burnt, sit up as much as possible, rather than lying down – this helps to reduce swelling
  • if it’s an acid or chemical burn, dial 999, carefully try to remove the chemical and any contaminated clothing, and rinse the affected area using as much clean water as possible

Read more about treating burns and scalds.

When to get medical attention

Depending on how serious a burn is, it may be possible to treat it at home.

For minor burns, keep the burn clean and do not burst any blisters that form.

More serious burns require professional medical attention.

You should go to a hospital A&E department for:

  • all chemical and electrical burns
  • large or deep burns – any burn bigger than the injured person’s hand
  • burns that cause white or charred skin – any size
  • burns on the face, hands, arms, feet, legs or genitals that cause blisters

If someone has breathed in smoke or fumes, they should also seek medical attention.

Some symptoms may be delayed and can include:

  • coughing
  • a sore throat
  • difficulty breathing
  • facial burns

People at greater risk from the effects of burns, such as children under 5 years old and pregnant women, should also get medical attention after a burn or scald.

The size and depth of the burn will be assessed and the affected area cleaned before a dressing is applied. In severe cases, skin graft surgery may be recommended.

Read more about:

Types of burn

Burns are assessed by how seriously your skin is damaged and which layers of skin are affected.

Your skin has 3 layers:

  • the epidermis – the outer layer of skin
  • the dermis – the layer of tissue just beneath, which contains blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands and hair follicles
  • the subcutaneous fat, or subcutis – the deeper layer of fat and tissue

There are 4 main types of burn, which tend to have a different appearance and different symptoms:

  • superficial epidermal burn – where the epidermis is damaged; your skin will be red, slightly swollen and painful, but not blistered
  • superficial dermal burn – where the epidermis and part of the dermis are damaged; your skin will be pale pink and painful, and there may be small blisters
  • deep dermal or partial thickness burn – where the epidermis and the dermis are damaged; this type of burn makes your skin turn red and blotchy; your skin may be dry or moist and become swollen and blistered, and it may be very painful or painless
  • full thickness burn – where all 3 layers of skin (the epidermis, dermis and subcutis) are damaged; the skin is often burnt away and the tissue underneath may appear pale or blackened, while the remaining skin will be dry and white, brown or black with no blisters, and the texture of the skin may also be leathery or waxy

Preventing burns and scalds

Many severe burns and scalds affect babies and young children.

Examples of things you can do to help reduce the likelihood of your child having a serious accident at home include:

  • keeping your child out of the kitchen whenever possible
  • testing the temperature of bath water using your elbow before you put your baby or toddler in the bath
  • keeping matches, lighters and lit candles out of young children’s sight and reach
  • keeping hot drinks well away from young children

Read more about preventing burns and scalds.

Further advice

If you need advice about a burn or scald, you can:

Find minor injury units and walk-in centres near you

Page last reviewed: 24 September 2018
Next review due: 24 September 2021

Burns | Sepsis Alliance

A burn is damage to your skin most often caused by fire/flame or steam and hot liquids. Burns can also be caused by chemicals, heated objects, or even electricity. They range from minor to severe, and while serious injuries can be life-threatening, any burn that causes a break in the skin can result in an infection, which can lead to sepsis.

Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and treatment for survival.

Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.

Types of burns

Burns are categorized according to their severity:

First degree: These are the types of burns that most people experience at some time. They are minor injuries that affect just the outer later of skin, called the epidermis. They can be painful, causing redness to the skin and some swelling. Mild sunburns are a common type of first degree burn.

Second degree: These injuries are deeper than first degree burns, affecting the epidermis and the second layer of the skin, called the dermis. If the burn is small, less than two to three inches wide, it is considered minor, but larger second degree burns are treated as major burns. Second degree burns are also considered to be major if they are on the face, hands, feet, a major joint, groin/genitals, or buttocks.

Second degree burns are usually painful and cause redness and swelling. They may cause blistering and breaks in the skin, so the increase your risk of developing an infection. Sunburns that blister and are very painful are considered to be second degree burns.

Third-degree: These are serious injuries, even if they are small. They can be life-threatening. These burns go through the layers of the skin to the fat below. There may be no pain in the area, because the nerves may be destroyed, although there will likely be pain around the area, where the burns are not as deep.

People with third degree burns are at particular risk for dehydration, infection, and sepsis.

Burns on your face

Burns on your face, regardless of the severity, may also cause internal burns in your airway, which can be life threatening. Facial burns can happen as part of a larger burn, but your face can get burned if you are too close to the flame when you light a barbecue or pilot light, or even if you suddenly release steam from a pot, for example. If you have burns in your airway, you may experience:

  • Burns on your lips and mouth
  • Coughing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Changes in your voice
  • Wheezing

Treating burns

Major burns must be treated as medical emergencies. Seek emergency help or call 9-1-1 if you have a third-degree or a second-degree burn that covers more than two to three inches in width, or is on your face, hands, feet, a major joint, your groin or genitals, or buttocks.

Do not:

  • Soak the burned area in water
  • Put ice on the burned area
  • Apply any ointments or creams to the burned area
  • Remove any clothing or fabric that is stuck to the burned area

If the burn is caused by a chemical, rinse the area with clean running or poured water to try to flush the chemical away. By running or pouring water over the burn, the chemical may be pushed off and away from the skin. If possible, loosely cover the burn with a clean or sterile cloth or bandage.

Treatment for severe burns may include:

  • Intravenous (IV) fluids to keep you hydrated
  • Medications, particularly for pain
  • Burn creams and ointments, and special burn dressings
  • Antibiotics to treat infections

Care for less serious burns

First degree and smaller second degree burns are usually managed well at home. First aid may include soaking the burned area in clean cool (not cold) water for a few minutes to stop the burning process, and then drying gently. Pat to dry, do not rub. Creams, such as aloe vera or burn ointments may help relieve some of the pain or discomfort. Keep the burns clean and loosely covered, and monitor for breaks in the skin and signs of infection. Do not break any blisters that may form.

If you show any of the following signs of infection, contact your doctor or go to an urgent care clinic, so your burn can be evaluated and treated:

  • Pus or discharge from the burn site
  • Increase in pain
  • Change of color around the burned area
  • Fever

If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.” 

Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.

Reviewed January 12, 2021.

Concrete Irritation, Burns, and Dermatitis

October 26, 2020

Concrete. It’s just about everywhere – buildings, bridges, sidewalks, parking garages, roads… you name it. With more than 250,000 people working in concrete manufacturing, the safety risks are high and frequent when working with this material. From slips, trips, and falls to lockout/tagout issues and more, over 10% of those workers, roughly 28,000, experienced an injury or illness on the job, and 42 died in just one year, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

Present in all industries and applications where concrete is being used, some of the most common injuries to workers are related to your largest organ – your skin. Concrete can be highly caustic, resulting in ailments ranging from moderate irritation to the thickening and cracking of the skin or worse, and are associated with long healing times.

The three main skin reactions to concrete are:

1. Irritation

2. Concrete burns

3. Dermatitis

The good news? These injuries are preventable. It’s best to avoid or minimize exposure to concrete and cement to prevent injury, and part of that is knowing what you’re up against, as well as properly gearing up for the job.

Skin irritation – Causes & treatment

Irritation is caused by the skin’s exposure to concrete and, more specifically, its aggregate material makeup. This is because concrete includes a binder ingredient called Portland cement, which is also found in mortar, plaster, grout, and more.

When wet, uncured Portland cement reaches caustic pH levels of 12 or higher, compared to the skin’s pH scales, which range between 4-7. Contact with this high pH can lead to a chemical reaction, with the potential to cause severe chemical burns to the skin or worse. Quick note: pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline a solution is on a scale of 0-14 (most acidic to most alkaline).

Washing with soap and water as soon as contact occurs can prevent worsening skin issues and damage.

Concrete burns – Causes & treatment

Once concrete starts hardening, burns can form slowly over hours or days. That’s because, in order for concrete to harden, it has to absorb moisture, drawing water away from anything that holds moisture—even wet clothing and skin—which only aids in the drying process.

If hardened concrete is left untreated on the skin, skin begins to blister, swell, and bleed, leading to first-, second-, and even third-degree burns following soon after. Severe cases of concrete skin irritation can lead to permanent scarring and even require skin grafts or amputations.

Not only is this painful and distressing to the worker, but it is harmful to their employer as well— OSHA reports that concrete workers in the U.S. lose four times as many workdays for skin problems compared to other construction trade workers.

If cement makes contact with your skin:

  • Immediately wash the exposed area with cool, clean water.
  • If your protective gear gets wet, change it out.
  • Wash any exposed areas of skin even if you are not aware of contact—concrete burns can take hours to form.

If you experience a cement burn:

  • Wash your skin with water immediately.
  • Apply vinegar to reduce the burn; vinegar is a weak acid, so it will counteract the alkaline and help to balance your pH.
  • Seek professional medical attention right away if a large area of skin is burned.

Dermatitis – Causes & treatment

Prolonged exposure to wet cement can make you susceptible to Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD). ICD will cause the skin to itch, scab, and become red or swollen. Multiple ICD experiences can lead to Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD), a long-term sensitivity to the chemicals in cement.

ACD is difficult to cure, but short-term treatments include antibiotics for infections, steroids, antihistamines, and repeated washing with a pH-neutral cleanser. Because ACD and ICD take days to develop, bring persistent skin problems to your doctor’s attention as soon as possible.

The bottom line – Prevention is key

In addition to ensuring workers are trained on why exposure to concrete can be dangerous, skin irritation and burns are preventable with the help of proper personal protective equipment (PPE) – and it’s even mandated by OSHA, requiring employers to take steps to protect employees from hazards associated with exposure to Portland cement. To go a step further, researching and investing in proper, high-quality PPE, like gloves, is paramount.

This is important for a few reasons. For example, gloves not intended for concrete handling can end up becoming wet and allow chemical properties of the cement to go right through them, negating any protective qualities – and increasing risk of injury. Adding to that, seeped in or trapped cement can occur due to poor construction or intention of equipment.

Bottom line – make sure to do your research on the best PPE for your application and invest in high-quality PPE – you won’t regret it. It’s the easiest way to reduce burn-related incidents from wet cement and send your workers home safe.

OSHA recommends that workers who deal with cement wear proper PPE, such as:

  • Liquid or chemical-resistant safety gloves – This will help ensure that the protective qualities of the glove will remain intact, keeping hands safe and dry.
  • Long-sleeved shirts – Will help deter any dry or wet cement from contacting the skin.
  • Full-length coveralls or pants – Will help deter any dry or wet cement from contacting the skin.
  • Safety eyewear or face shield – Dry concrete is a fine, dust-like powder that can blow into the face and eyes; protective face gear helps mitigate contact to those vulnerable areas.
  • Rubber or waterproof boots – This will help ensure that the protective qualities of the footwear are not compromised by the wet concrete, keeping skin in those areas safe and dry.

Supplying employees with proper PPE decreases time-loss injuries, thereby increasing employee productivity. Additionally, taking care of your PPE can make it last longer, helping you to decrease your overall PPE cost.

HexArmor® can help

HexArmor® offers a variety of safety information and expertise, as well as varying levels of hand, eye, and head PPE, so you can be properly protected for your environment. Let us know if you need help – our Solutions Specialists are ready to work with you at 1.877.MY.ARMOR or visit www.hexarmor.com.

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Burns (for Parents) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Are Common Causes of Burns?

The first step in helping to protect kids from burns is to understand how common burns happen:

  • Thermal burns: These burns raise the temperature of the skin and tissue underneath. Thermal burns happen from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, hot foods, cooking fluids, etc.
  • Radiation burns: These happen from exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays (a sunburn because skin isn’t well-protected in the sun) or from radiation such as during an X-ray.
  • Chemical burns: These happen from swallowing strong acids (like drain cleaner or button batteries) or spilling chemicals (like bleach) onto the skin or eyes.
  • Electrical burns: These are from contact with electrical current and can happen from things like biting on electrical cords or sticking fingers or objects in electrical outlets, etc.

What Are the Types of Burns?

Knowing the type of burn a child has can help with first-aid measures. All burns should be treated quickly to lower the temperature of the burned area and reduce damage to the skin and tissue underneath (if the burn is severe).

First-Degree (Superficial) Burns

Superficial (shallow) burns are the mildest type of burns. They’re limited to the top layer of skin:

  • Signs and symptoms: These burns cause redness, pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters.
  • Healing time: Healing time is about 3–6 days; the superficial skin layer over the burn may peel off in 1 or 2 days.
Second-Degree (Partial Thickness) Burns

These burns are more serious and involve the top layer of skin and part of the layer below it. 

  • Signs and symptoms: The burned area is red and blistered, and can swell and be painful. The blisters sometimes break open and the area is wet looking with a bright pink to cherry red color.
  • Healing time: Healing time varies depending on the severity of the burn. It can take up to 3 weeks or longer.
Full Thickness Burns

These burns (also called third-degree burns or fourth-degree burns) are the most serious type of burn. They involve all layers of the skin and the nerve endings there, and may go into underlying tissue.

  • Signs and symptoms: The surface appears dry and can look waxy white, leathery, brown, or charred. There may be little or no pain or the area may feel numb at first because of nerve damage.
  • Healing time: Healing time depends on the severity of the burn. Most need to be treated with skin grafts, in which healthy skin is taken from another part of the body and surgically placed over the burn wound to help the area heal.

What Should We Do for Burns?

Get medical help right away when:
  • You think your child has any burn other than a superficial one.
  • The burned area is large (2–3 inches wide), even if it seems like a minor burn. For any burn that appears to cover a large part of the body, call for medical help. Do not use wet compresses or ice because they can cause the child’s body temperature to drop. Instead, cover the area with a clean, soft cloth or towel.
  • The burn comes from a fire, an electrical wire, a socket, or chemicals.
  • The burn is on the face, scalp, hands, genitals, or on skin over a joint.
  • The burn looks infected (with swelling, pus, increasing redness, or red streaking of the skin near the wound).
For superficial burns:
  • Remove the child from the heat source and take clothing off the burned area right away.
  • Run cool (not cold) water over the burned area (if water isn’t available, any cold, drinkable fluid can be used) or hold a clean, cold compress on the burn for 3–5 minutes (do not use ice, which can cause more damage to the injured skin).
  • Do not apply butter, grease, powder, or any other “folk” remedies to the burn, as these can make the burn deeper and increase the risk of infection.
  • Apply aloe gel or cream to the affected area. This may be done a few times during the day.
  • Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain. Follow the label directions for how much to give and how often.
  • Keep the affected area clean. You can protect it with a sterile gauze pad or bandage for the next 24 hours. Do not put adhesive bandages on very young kids, though, as these can be a choking hazard if they get loose.
For partial thickness burns and full thickness burns:

Call for emergency medical care. Then, follow these steps until help arrives:

  • Keep the child lying down with the burned area raised.
  • Follow the instructions for first-degree burns.
  • Remove all jewelry and clothing from around the burn (in case there’s any swelling after the injury), except for clothing that’s stuck to the skin. If you have trouble removing clothing, you may need to cut it off or wait until medical help arrives.
  • Do not break any blisters.
  • Apply cool water over the area for at least 3–5 minutes, then cover the area with a clean dry cloth or sheet until help arrives.
For electrical and chemical burns:
  • Make sure the child is not in contact with the electrical source before touching him or her, or you also may get shocked.
  • For chemical burns, flush the area with lots of running water for 5 minutes or more. If the burned area is large, use a tub, shower, buckets of water, or a garden hose.
  • Do not remove any of the child’s clothing before you’ve begun flushing the burn with water. As you continue flushing the burn, you can then remove clothing from the burned area.
  • If the burned area from a chemical is small, flush for another 10–20 minutes, apply a sterile gauze pad or bandage, and call your doctor.
  • Chemical burns to the mouth or eyes need to be checked by a doctor right away after being thoroughly flushed with water.

Chemical burns and electrical burns might not always be visible, but can be serious because of possible damage to internal organs. Symptoms may vary, depending on the type and severity of the burn and what caused it.

If you think your child may have swallowed a chemical substance or an object that could be harmful (for instance, a button battery), first call poison control at (800) 222-1222. Then, call 911 for emergency medical help.

It helps to know what chemical product the child has swallowed or has been exposed to. You may need to take it with you to the hospital.

Keep the number for poison control, (800) 222-1222, in an easily accessible place, such as on the refrigerator.

Burns: Types, Symptoms & Treatment


What is a burn?

A burn occurs when heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity or radiation damages skin tissue. Most burns happen accidentally. There are different degrees of burns. Your healthcare provider determines the seriousness (degree) of a burn based on the depth of the burn and the amount of affected skin. Burns can be painful. Left untreated, a burn can lead to infection.

How common are burns?

Close to half a million people go to the emergency department every year with burn injuries. Children are at high risk for accidental burns. Every day, more than 300 children receive emergency treatment for burn injuries.

Who might get a burn?

Accidental burns can happen to anyone, although children, teenagers and older people are most at risk. These age groups are more prone to burn injuries from cooking, such as spilling a boiling pan of water onto skin. Children and teens are also more likely to mess around with lighters, matches and fireworks or get sunburns.

What are the types of burns?

Healthcare providers classify burns by degrees of severity. Your provider will evaluate the extent of skin damage. Burn degrees include:

  • First-degree burns are mild (like most sunburns). The top layer of skin (epidermis) turns red and is painful but doesn’t typically blister.
  • Second-degree burns affect skin’s top and lower layers (dermis). You may experience pain, redness, swelling and blistering.
  • Third-degree burns affect all three skin layers: epidermis, dermis and fat. The burn also destroys hair follicles and sweat glands. Because third-degree burns damage nerve endings, you probably won’t feel pain in the area of the burn itself, rather adjacent to it. Burned skin may be black, white or red with a leathery appearance.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes burns?

Many things can cause a burn. Thermal sources, including fire, hot liquids, steam and contact with hot surfaces, are the most common causes of burns. Other causes include exposure to:

  • Chemicals, such as cement, acids or drain cleaners.
  • Radiation.
  • Electricity.
  • Sun (ultraviolet or UV light).

What are the signs of burns?

Burn symptoms vary depending on the severity or degree of the burn. Symptoms are often worse during the first few hours or days after the burn. Burn symptoms include:

Diagnosis and Tests

How are burns diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will examine the burn to determine the degree or severity. This process involves estimating the percentage of the body affected by the burn and its depth. Your provider may classify the burn as:

  • Minor: First- and second-degree burns that cover less than 10% of the body are considered minor and rarely require hospitalization.
  • Moderate: Second-degree burns that cover about 10% of the body are classified as moderate. Burns on the hands, feet, face or genitals can range from moderate to severe.
  • Severe: Third-degree burns that cover more than 1% of the body are considered severe.

Management and Treatment

How are burns managed or treated?

Burn treatment varies depending on the cause and severity. You need to keep all burns clean and apply proper bandages/dressing depending on the severity of the wounds. Treating the person’s pain is key: inadequate control can interfere with wound care.

Continue to check wounds for signs of infection and other long term issues, such as scarring and tightening of the skin over joints and muscles, which makes them difficult to move.

Treatments by burn type include:

  • First-degree burns: Run cool water over the burn. Don’t apply ice. For sunburns, apply aloe vera gel. For thermal burns, apply antibiotic cream and cover lightly with gauze. You can also take over-the-counter pain medication.
  • Second-degree burns: Treatment for second- and first-degree burns is similar. Your healthcare provider may prescribe a stronger antibiotic cream that contains silver, such as silver sulfadiazine, to kill bacteria. Elevating the burned area can reduce pain and swelling.
  • Third-degree burns: Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and often require skin grafts. Skin grafts replace damaged tissue with healthy skin from another of the uninjured part of the person’s body. The area where the skin graft is taken from generally heals on its own. If the person does not have enough skin available for a graft at the time of injury, a temporary source of graft can come from a deceased donor or a human-made (artificial) source but these will eventually need to be replace by the person’s own skin. Treatment also includes extra fluids (usually given intravenously, with an IV) to keep blood pressure steady and prevent shock and dehydration.

What are the complications of burns?

Third-degree burns that are deep and affect a large portion of skin are very serious and can be life-threatening. Even first- and second-degree burns can become infected and cause discoloration and scarring. First-degree burns don’t cause scarring.

Potential complications of third-degree burns include:


How can I prevent a burn?

Burns have many accidental causes. You can take these steps to reduce the risk of burns:

  • Wear sunscreen.
  • Set your home’s hot water heater below 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Always test the water in a shower or bath before getting in or bathing a child.
  • Lock up chemicals, lighters and matches.
  • Use the stove’s back burners as much as possible when cooking, turn handles of pots and pans where they won’t be bumped and don’t leave the stove unattended.
  • Don’t hold a child when you’re near hot objects, such as the stove.
  • Set safeguards around a fireplace and never leave a child unattended.
  • Install and regularly test smoke detectors in your home.
  • Stock your home with fire extinguishers and know how to use them.
  • Cover electrical outlets.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with burns?

With proper treatment, most first- and second-degree burns heal over two to three weeks. Depending on the burn severity, you may have some scarring, which may fade over time. People recovering from third-degree burns need physical and occupational therapy to maintain joint mobility and improve function. Some people develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression after a burn event. Thanks to medical advancements, many people who have burns covering even up to 90% of their bodies survive .

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Burns on the hands, feet, face or genitalia.
  • Burns that don’t improve after two weeks.
  • Blistering.
  • Severe pain.
  • Fever, yellow or green discharge, or other signs of infection.
  • Signs of PTSD or depression.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What degree is the burn?
  • What is the best treatment for this burn?
  • What steps can I take to lower the risk of infection?
  • What steps can I take to lower the risk of scarring?
  • What steps can I take to lower the future risk of accidental burns?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Burns happen accidentally. Children and older adults are at highest risk. All deep burns require treatment to prevent infection and scarring. Third-degree burns are the most serious type and can be life-threatening. However, first- and second-degree burns are more painful. If you or a loved one has a blistering burn, prompt medical attention can aid healing. Talk to your healthcare provider about ways to lower your family’s risk of accidental burns.

Pathophysiology and types of burns

Understanding the pathophysiology of a burn injury is important for effective management. In addition, different causes lead to different injury patterns, which require different management. It is therefore important to understand how a burn was caused and what kind of physiological response it will induce.

The body’s response to a burn

Burn injuries result in both local and systemic responses.

Figure 1

Clinical image of burn zones. There is central necrosis, surrounded by the zones of stasis and of hyperaemia

Local response

The three zones of a burn were described by Jackson in 1947.

Zone of coagulation—This occurs at the point of maximum damage. In this zone there is irreversible tissue loss due to coagulation of the constituent proteins.

Zone of stasis—The surrounding zone of stasis is characterised by decreased tissue perfusion. The tissue in this zone is potentially salvageable. The main aim of burns resuscitation is to increase tissue perfusion here and prevent any damage becoming irreversible. Additional insults—such as prolonged hypotension, infection, or oedema—can convert this zone into an area of complete tissue loss.

Zone of hyperaemia—In this outermost zone tissue perfusion is increased. The tissue here will invariably recover unless there is severe sepsis or prolonged hypoperfusion.

These three zones of a burn are three dimensional, and loss of tissue in the zone of stasis will lead to the wound deepening as well as widening.

Figure 2

Jackson’s burns zones and the effects of adequate and inadequate resuscitation

Systemic response

The release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators at the site of injury has a systemic effect once the burn reaches 30% of total body surface area.

Cardiovascular changes—Capillary permeability is increased, leading to loss of intravascular proteins and fluids into the interstitial compartment. Peripheral and splanchnic vasoconstriction occurs. Myocardial contractility is decreased, possibly due to release of tumour necrosis factor α. These changes, coupled with fluid loss from the burn wound, result in systemic hypotension and end organ hypoperfusion.

Respiratory changes—Inflammatory mediators cause bronchoconstriction, and in severe burns adult respiratory distress syndrome can occur.

Metabolic changes—The basal metabolic rate increases up to three times its original rate. This, coupled with splanchnic hypoperfusion, necessitates early and aggressive enteral feeding to decrease catabolism and maintain gut integrity.

Immunological changes—Non-specific down regulation of the immune response occurs, affecting both cell mediated and humoral pathways.

Figure 3

Systemic changes that occur after a burn injury

Mechanisms of injury

Thermal injuries

Scalds—About 70% of burns in children are caused by scalds. They also often occur in elderly people. The common mechanisms are spilling hot drinks or liquids or being exposed to hot bathing water. Scalds tend to cause superficial to superficial dermal burns (see later for burn depth).

Flame—Flame burns comprise 50% of adult burns. They are often associated with inhalational injury and other concomitant trauma. Flame burns tend to be deep dermal or full thickness.

Figure 4

Examples of a scald burn (left) and a contact burn from a hot iron (right) in young children

Contact—In order to get a burn from direct contact, the object touched must either have been extremely hot or the contact was abnormally long. The latter is a more common reason, and these types of burns are commonly seen in people with epilepsy or those who misuse alcohol or drugs. They are also seen in elderly people after a loss of consciousness; such a presentation requires a full investigation as to the cause of the blackout. Burns from brief contact with very hot substances are usually due to industrial accidents. Contact burns tend to be deep dermal or full thickness.

Electrical injuries

Some 3-4% of burn unit admissions are caused by electrocution injuries. An electric current will travel through the body from one point to another, creating “entry” and “exit” points. The tissue between these two points can be damaged by the current. The amount of heat generated, and hence the level of tissue damage, is equal to 0.24×(voltage)2×resistance. The voltage is therefore the main determinant of the degree of tissue damage, and it is logical to divide electrocution injuries into those caused by low voltage, domestic current and those due to high voltage currents. High voltage injuries can be further divided into “true” high tension injuries, caused by high voltage current passing through the body, and “flash” injuries, caused by tangential exposure to a high voltage current arc where no current actually flows through the body.

Figure 6

Differences between true high tension burn and flash burn

Domestic electricity—Low voltages tend to cause small, deep contact burns at the exit and entry sites. The alternating nature of domestic current can interfere with the cardiac cycle, giving rise to arrhythmias.

“True” high tension injuries occur when the voltage is 1000 V or greater. There is extensive tissue damage and often limb loss. There is usually a large amount of soft and bony tissue necrosis. Muscle damage gives rise to rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure may occur with these injuries. This injury pattern needs more aggressive resuscitation and debridement than other burns. Contact with voltage greater than 70 000 V is invariably fatal.

“Flash” injury can occur when there has been an arc of current from a high tension voltage source. The heat from this arc can cause superficial flash burns to exposed body parts, typically the face and hands. However, clothing can also be set alight, giving rise to deeper burns. No current actually passes through the victim’s body.

Figure 7

Electrocardiogram after electrocution showing atrial fibrillation

A particular concern after an electrical injury is the need for cardiac monitoring. There is good evidence that if the patient’s electrocardiogram on admission is normal and there is no history of loss of consciousness, then cardiac monitoring is not required. If there are electrocardiographic abnormalities or a loss of consciousness, 24 hours of monitoring is advised.

Chemical injuries

Chemical injuries are usually as a result of industrial accidents but may occur with household chemical products. These burns tend to be deep, as the corrosive agent continues to cause coagulative necrosis until completely removed. Alkalis tend to penetrate deeper and cause worse burns than acids. Cement is a common cause of alkali burns.

Figure 8

Chemical burn due to spillage of sulphuric acid

Certain industrial agents may require specific treatments in addition to standard first aid. Hydrofluoric acid, widely used for glass etching and in the manufacture of circuit boards, is one of the more common culprits. It causes a continuing, penetrating injury and must be neutralised with calcium gluconate, either applied topically in a gel or injected into the affected tissues.

The initial management of all chemical burns is the same irrespective of the agent. All contaminated clothing must be removed, and the area thoroughly irrigated. This is often best achieved by showering the patient. This has been shown to limit the depth of the burn. Litmus paper can be used to confirm removal of alkali or acid. Eye injuries should be irrigated copiously and referred to an ophthalmologist.

Table 1

Specific chemical burns and treatments

Chromic acid—Rinse with dilute sodium hyposulphite
Dichromate salts—Rinse with dilute sodium hyposulphite
Hydrofluoric acid—10% calcium gluconate applied topically as a gel or injected

Non-accidental injury

An estimated 3-10% of paediatric burns are due to non-accidental injury. Detecting these injuries is important as up to 30% of children who are repeatedly abused die. Usually young children (< 3 years old) are affected. As with other non-accidental injuries, the history and the pattern of injury may arouse suspicion. A social history is also important. Abuse is more common in poor households with single or young parents. Such abuse is not limited to children: elderly and other dependent adults are also at risk. A similar assessment can be made in these scenarios.

Table 2

Injury pattern of non-accidental burns

• Obvious pattern from cigarettes, lighters, irons
• Burns to soles, palms, genitalia, buttocks, perineum
• Symmetrical burns of uniform depth
• No splash marks in a scald injury. A child falling into a bath will splash; one that is placed into it may not
• Restraint injuries on upper limbs
• Is there sparing of flexion creases—that is, was child in fetal position (position of protection) when burnt? Does this correlate to a “tide line” of scald—that is, if child is put into a fetal position, do the burns line up?
• “Doughnut sign,” an area of spared skin surrounded by scald. If a child is forcibly held down in a bath of hot water, the part in contact with the bottom of the bath will not burn, but the tissue around will
• Other signs of physical abuse—bruises of varied age, poorly kempt, lack of compliance with health care (such as no immunisations)

It is natural for non-accidental injury to trigger anger among healthcare workers. However, it is important that all members of the team remain non-confrontational and try to establish a relationship with the perpetrators. The time around the burn injury is an excellent opportunity to try to break the cycle of abuse. In addition, it is likely that the patient will eventually be discharged back into the care of the individuals who caused the injury. As well as treating the physical injury, the burn team must try to prevent further abuse by changing the relationship dynamics between victim and abuser(s).

Table 3

History of non-accidental burns

• Evasive or changing history
• Delayed presentation
• No explanation or an implausible mechanism given for the burn
• Inconsistency between age of the burn and age given by the history
• Inadequate supervision, such as child left in the care of inappropriate person (older sibling)
• Lack of guilt about the incident
• Lack of concern about treatment or prognosis

Any suspicion of non-accidental injury should lead to immediate admission of the child to hospital, irrespective of how trivial the burn is, and the notification of social services.

The team should carry out the following:

  • Examine for other signs of abuse

  • Photograph all injuries

  • Obtain a team opinion about parent-child interaction

  • Obtain other medical information (from general practitioner, health visitor, referring hospital)

  • Interview family members separately about the incident (check for inconsistencies) and together (observe interaction).

It should be remembered that the injury does not have to be caused deliberately for social services to intervene; inadequate supervision of children mandates their involvement.

“Doughnut sign” in a child with immersion scalds. An area of spared skin is surrounded by burnt tissue. The tissue has been spared as it was in direct contact with the bath and protected from the water. This burn pattern suggests nonaccidental injury

Table 4

• A burn results in three distinct zones—coagulation, stasis, and hyperaemia
• The aim of burns resuscitation is to maintain perfusion of the zone of stasis
• Systemic response occurs once a burn is greater than 30% of total body surface area
• Different burn mechanisms lead to different injury patterns
• Identification of non-accidental burn injury is important


Shehan Hettiaratchy is specialist registrar in plastic and reconstructive surgery, Pan-Thames Training Scheme,
London; Peter Dziewulski is consultant burns and plastic surgeon, St Andrews Centre for Plastic Surgery
and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford.

This is the second in a series of 12 articles

The ABC of burns is edited by Shehan Hettiaratchy; Remo Papini, consultant and clinical lead in burns, West Midlands Regional Burn Unit, Selly Oak University Hospital, Birmingham; and Peter Dziewulski. The series will be published as a book in the autumn.

Competing interests: See first article for series editors’ details.

Burns and scalds – first aid, treatments, causes and prevention

On this page

What is a burn or scald?

Burns are damage to the tissue of your body caused by heat, too much sun, chemicals or electricity. Scalds are caused by hot water or steam.

Burns and scalds can range from being a minor injury to a life-threatening emergency. It depends how deep and how large they are.

When should I call an ambulance?

Call an ambulance or go straight to your nearest emergency department if:

  • the burn is deep, even if the patient does not feel any pain
  • the burn is larger than a 20 cent piece
  • the burn involves the airway, face, hands or genitals
  • the skin looks leathery
  • there are patches of brown, black or white
  • the burn was caused by chemicals or electricity
  • the patient is having trouble breathing

FIND A HEALTH SERVICE — The Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

What should I do while waiting for an ambulance?

First, remove the source of the burn:

  • If the patient is on fire, drop them to the ground and roll them or cover them in a blanket to put out the flames.
  • If there is an electrical current, turn off the electricity.
  • If it’s a chemical burn, take off any contaminated clothing and wash the affected area of skin with plenty of water. For dry chemicals, brush off the chemicals before putting the burnt area under water.

As soon as possible, put the burnt area under cool running water for at least 20 minutes:

  • Don’t use ice (only apply water to the burnt area).
  • Remove any clothing or jewellery near the burn, unless they are stuck to the burn.
  • Don’t remove anything that is stuck to the burn.

Cover the burn:

  • Use a light, loose, non-stick dressing. Use non-fluffy material. Plastic cling film is a good choice.
  • If the burn is to an arm or leg, raise it whenever possible to reduce swelling.

Some things to avoid:

  • Don’t touch the burn or apply ice.
  • Don’t put a child with burns into a bath full of cold water.
  • If blisters develop don’t pop them, and visit your doctor in case they need to be removed.
  • Don’t use any ointments, creams, lotions or fat on a burn. They seal heat in and cause more damage.

What are the symptoms of a burn or scald?

A superficial burn affects the outer layer of skin. It may be blistered, red and painful

A deep burn may be mottled red and white.  It may be dark red or pale yellow. It will be painful and is often blistered.

A full thickness burn reaches as far as the fat underneath the skin. It may look brown, black or white, and feel dry and leathery. A full thickness burn can destroy nerves so may not be painful.

What causes burns and scalds?

The most common causes of burns are:

  • scalds from hot drinks such as cups of tea or coffee, hot water or steam from kettles or pots, or hot water taps in the kitchen or bathroom
  • contact with flames
  • contact with hot objects such as stoves, irons, hair straighteners and hot coals
  • chemical burns from swallowing things, like drain cleaner or watch batteries, or from spilling chemicals such as bleach, oven cleaner and concrete onto the skin
  • electrical burns

How to treat burns and scalds?

Most small burns will heal themselves in 10-12 days. If the burn does not have any blisters or broken skin, such as sunburn, a simple moisturiser such as sorbolene is the best treatment. For all other burns seek medical treatment for appropriate dressings.

The treatment for serious burns includes:

  • painkillers
  • dressings
  • possible admission to hospital
  • perhaps surgery

If things get worse, or if you are not up to date with tetanus injections, see your doctor.

ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

Can burns and scalds be prevented?

You can prevent burns and scalds by being vigilant when cooking. Make sure all hot liquids are out of the reach of children, turn pot handles inwards on the stove, and be careful not to give children hot food.

Take care with all electrical items. Unplug them when they’re not in use.

Always have smoke detectors in the house and keep a fire extinguisher handy.

If you are using chemicals, always use protective clothing.

Make sure your water is below 50 degrees to prevent scalds.

Complications of burns and scalds

Large or deep burns and scalds can become infected. This can lead to infection of the blood stream (sepsis).

Serious burns cause a loss of fluid from the body. They can also lead to dangerously low body temperature.

After a serious burn or scald heals, there may be scarring. This can also cause problems with bones and joints.

90,000 Burns | Symptoms, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Burns can be minor medical problems or life-threatening emergencies. Treatment for burns depends on the location and severity of the injury. Minor burns can usually be treated at home. Deep or widespread burns require immediate medical attention.

People with severe burns often need treatment at specialized burn centers. They may need skin grafts to cover large wounds or to minimize scarring with deep wounds. And they may need emotional support and months of follow-up care, such as physical therapy.

The allocation of a minor burn from a more serious burn is related to the determination of the extent of tissue damage. Below are three classifications of burns :

  • First degree burn. This minor burn only affects the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). May cause redness, swelling, and pain. Usually, treatment takes place with first aid over a period of several days to a week.A sunburn is a classic example of a first degree burn.
  • Second degree burn. This type of burn affects both the epidermis and the second layer of the skin (dermis). May cause red, white, or patchy skin, pain, and swelling. The wound often looks moist. Blisters can develop and the pain can be severe. Deep second-degree burns can cause scarring.
  • Third degree burn. This burn ends up in the fatty layer under the skin. Burnt areas can be charred to black or white.The skin may look waxy. Third-degree burns can damage nerves, causing numbness. A person with this type of burn may also have difficulty breathing or get carbon monoxide poisoning.

Causes of burns can be:

  • Fire
  • Hot liquid or steam
  • Hot metal, glass or other items
  • Electric currents
  • Radiation from X-rays or radiation therapy for cancer treatment
  • Sunlight or ultraviolet light from sunlight or solarium
  • Chemicals such as strong acids, alkali, paint thinner or gasoline
  • Other reasons

Deep or widespread burns can lead to numerous complications, including:

  • Infectious disease. Burns can leave the skin vulnerable to bacterial infection and increase the risk of sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening infection that travels through the bloodstream and affects your body. It progresses rapidly and can cause shock and organ failure.
  • Low blood volume. Burns can damage blood vessels and cause fluid loss. This can lead to a decrease in blood volume (hypovolemia). All of this prevents the heart from pumping enough blood into the body.
  • Dangerously low body temperature. Skin helps control body temperature, so when most of the skin is damaged, you lose body heat. This increases the risk of dangerously low body temperature (hypothermia). Hypothermia is a condition in which the body loses heat faster than it can produce it.
  • Breathing problems. Breathing in hot air or smoke can burn the airways and cause breathing difficulties. Smoke inhalation damages the lungs and can cause respiratory failure.
  • Scars. Burns can cause scars and ribbed areas caused by overgrowth of scar tissue (keloids).
  • Problems with bones and joints. Deep burns can restrict movement of bones and joints. Scar tissue can form and cause the skin, muscles, or tendons to contract and tighten (contractures).

To reduce the risk of general burns:

  • Never leave items cooked on the stove unattended.
  • Turn the pan handles towards the back of the oven.
  • Keep hot liquids out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Keep electrical appliances away from water.
  • Never cook in loose clothing that will catch fire over the stove.
  • If you have a small child, block access to heat sources such as stove, open grill, fireplace and heater.
  • Check for hot straps or buckles before placing your child in the car seat.
  • Unplug irons and similar devices when not in use. Keep them out of the reach of children.
  • Cover unused electrical outlets with protective caps.
  • If you smoke, avoid smoking in the home and especially do not smoke in bed.
  • Check smoke detectors and replace batteries regularly.
  • Keep a fire extinguisher on every floor of your home.
  • Keep chemicals, lighters and matches out of the reach of children.
  • Set the water heater thermostat below 120 F (48.9 C) to prevent scalding. Check the bath water before immersing your baby in it.

Treatment for burns depends on the type and extent of the injury. Most minor burns can be treated at home and will usually heal within a few weeks. For severe burns, following appropriate first aid and wound assessment, treatment may include medications, wound dressings, therapy, and surgery. The goals of treatment are to control pain, remove dead tissue, prevent infection, reduce scarring, restore function, and address emotional needs.

You may need months of additional procedures and therapy. This can be done during a hospital stay, on an outpatient basis, or at home. Factors influencing this choice include your wishes, other conditions, and abilities, such as whether you can change dressings yourself.

Self-treatment of a burn: what can and cannot be used?

Almost everyone has experienced a burn at some point in their life, in particular thermal, chemical, or solar.Often minor burns can be treated with home remedies. In other cases, immediate medical attention is required.

To describe the severity of burns, 4 degrees are used: I – the least severe burn that affects only the outer layer of the skin, II – also the least severe burn that affects the deeper layers of the skin, III – a severe burn that affects all layers of the skin, IV – the most severe burns that damage bones and joints.

Grade I or II burns, as a rule, can be successfully treated at home, and they heal within 7-10 days and 2-3 weeks, respectively.Burns of III and IV severity require medical attention. Typical signs and symptoms of 1st degree burns are redness, tenderness or pain, slight swelling, “peeling” of the top layer of the skin; II degree – severe redness, significant soreness of the skin, blisters that can burst.

There are many potential home remedies for treating burns. The most effective and safe ones are as follows.

Cool water . For a grade I or II burn, applying cool water to the affected area will soothe irritated skin and prevent further burn injury.The affected area should be kept under cold water for 20 minutes. It will also reduce the severity or eliminate the pain from the burn.

Burn cleaning . After the burn site has cooled, it must be thoroughly cleaned. A mild antibacterial soap is suitable for this. Cleaning the burn can help prevent infection, which can complicate burn healing and require medical attention.

Bandage . Minor 1st degree burns are unlikely to require a bandage. Even for second degree burns with closed blisters, a bandage may not be required.However, if the burn is localized in a place where the skin is chafing or in contact with various surfaces, this means that dirt can get there. In this case, a bandage may be required. It is important to apply a loose bandage to the burn and not to apply adhesive bandages directly to the wound.

Antibiotics . When blisters open during a second degree burn, it may be necessary to use an antibacterial ointment or cream. This will help prevent the wound from getting infected and help it heal faster.

Pain medications . Even 1st or 2nd degree burns are painful until they heal. Therefore, the person may need to take pain relievers. The best choice in this situation is ibuprofen.

Sun protection . Exposure to UV radiation can worsen the burn condition. Therefore, you should not wear open clothes in the sun that do not cover the burn site.

Aloe Vera . This herb has shown some potential promise in the treatment of burns.Its components have anti-inflammatory properties, promote wound healing and inhibit bacterial growth.

Honey . Research has shown that the components of honey have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Dressing with honey can help sterilize the burn site and prevent infection. It also soothes irritated skin, thereby reducing pain.

What cannot be used to treat a burn

Some traditional methods of treating burns can be harmful, so you should not use for these purposes:
oils .They retain heat, thereby exacerbating the burn;
raw eggs . There is no evidence that a raw egg helps with burns. On the contrary, it can provoke an infection of the burn surface;
ice . Many people find it better to use ice over cool water to help with burns. However, ice can do more harm than good and irritate burned skin even more. In some extreme cases, a person may experience a cold burn from exposure to ice;
s paste .Some people find that using toothpaste where the burn is located can help deal with the problem. In fact, non-sterile toothpaste can cause bacteria to spread at the site of the lesion.

Most people with 1st or 2nd degree burns recover completely within a short time. Nevertheless, care must be taken to ensure that no infection enters the wound surface. If there is a suspicion of infection, the wound covers a large area or does not heal within the prescribed period of time, you should seek medical help for further treatment.

Based on materials from www.medicalnewstoday.com

90,000 A revolutionary product in burn relief.

Contents of article

In everyday life, we are in danger of getting thermal, chemical and radiation burns.

With thermal burns, tissue damage occurs due to exposure to high temperatures. Chemical burns can be caused by cleaning agents. And the well-known sunburn belongs to radiation.

In terms of the depth of the lesion, burns are divided into 4 degrees: in everyday life we ​​are faced with the first two. At the first degree, the skin turns red, hurts, then a slight swelling appears. But everything goes away in a few days. With a second-degree burn, in addition to pain and swelling, transparent bubbles appear. Everything goes away completely in a few weeks.

First-degree burns can be treated at home, but if you have extensive second-degree or higher lesions, see your doctor.

Depending on the depth of the lesion, the agent is also selected.

Skin burn treatment – it is important to find the right product

To relieve pain and prevent marks on the skin, it is necessary to treat the damaged skin with a suitable burn remedy.

There are many varieties on sale that relieve pain and promote quick healing.

Medicines for burns, which are sold in the pharmacy

Today, in the pharmacy, you can buy anti-burn products of various types and forms of release.They differ somewhat in their characteristics.

What should you be aware of when choosing a remedy for skin burns?


Aerosols are effective in providing first aid immediately after a burn. We are talking about lesions of 1 and 2 degrees, if there are no open wounds on the surface of the skin. In this case, the use of an aerosol will help relieve pain symptoms, the remedy will perfectly cope with swelling and redness. A convenient form will allow you to apply it without touching the affected skin area: spray or foam is sprayed remotely.

The principle of operation is very simple: the aerosol is shaken and sprayed from a 15-centimeter distance onto the burn, while the bottle must be held vertically.

There are light aerosols and aerosols with foaming components for damage of the 2nd degree of severity.

Burn gel

Gels have a light texture and non-greasy composition, they are quickly absorbed, relieve the primary symptoms after skin lesions, additionally soothe and moisturize.

Unfortunately, gels are not suitable for the treatment of deep skin injuries – only light and non-extensive lesions of 1, less often 2 degrees.

Ointment for burns

Thicker and more viscous than gel. It is advisable to use ointments for burns of 1 and 2 degrees and at all stages of healing of more serious burns. Also, doctors recommend compresses with anti-burn ointments on the damaged area of ​​the skin – they often include components that accelerate regeneration.

Anti-scald cream

As well as ointments, creams have a thick composition, saturated with special components. Many creams that are prescribed after a burn have an additional moisturizing and nourishing effect. This has a positive effect on the condition of damaged skin.

Burn wipes and dressings

Refers to first aid equipment. Their surface is impregnated with a special compound that allows you to relieve the first painful symptoms.

The main advantage of these products is that the napkins are convenient to use in the “field” conditions. You can always take them with you on a hike, and if someone accidentally burns themselves at the stake, you can help the victim.

Burn bandages are applied to the affected area while waiting for an ambulance to arrive.

Burn treatment at home – video

The company “VERTEX” is not responsible for the accuracy of the information presented in this video clip.Source – Medical reference book

Modern anti-burn drugs: a review of effective remedies


The main active ingredient is dexpanthenol, a component that is included in all anti-burn drugs. The tool comes in different forms of release for the treatment of skin lesions of varying severity.

Spray Panthenol is applied immediately after a burn, an ointment or cream is prescribed at the stage of treatment for the speedy healing and regeneration of skin cells.


Very effective remedy for thermal damage of 1 and 2 degrees. The part of chloramphenicol has an antiseptic, antibacterial effect and relieves pain. Olazol is available in the form of an aerosol – it is perfectly absorbed into the surface of the skin and relieves inflammation.


The composition of the product, which is indicated for cuts, scratches and abrasions, includes perchlorovinyl resin. Due to its content, when applied, the agent forms a protective film on the skin surface.Doctors have noted the effectiveness of Furapalast in the treatment of burn wounds.

Using products that prevent burns is the key to healthy skin.

Another active ingredient, furacilin, has an antiseptic effect.

Please note: it is not recommended to use Furaplast if inflammation and suppuration have begun at the site of the burn – the film will not allow the skin to breathe.


Solcoseryl ointment and gel is an effective remedy for burns 1, 2 and even non-extensive damage of 3 degrees.The main active ingredient is bovine blood extract, while the drug is purified from protein. Such a composition helps to enhance the metabolism in skin cells, due to which rapid healing occurs.

Gel and ointment are applied directly to the surface after preliminary cleansing of the skin using a disinfectant solution.


The composition of the ointment includes dexpanthenol and vitamin B5, which is responsible for the rapid metabolism in cells and accelerates blood circulation.Healing happens very quickly. In addition, Bepanten is suitable as a first aid for 1st and 2nd degree burns: the ointment has an analgesic effect.

La Cree

La-Cree cream is specially designed to relieve skin irritations. Including those arising after minor burns.

This remedy includes extracts of licorice, violet, string and bisabolol to reduce inflammation. Walnut extract has antimicrobial effect, while panthenol and avocado oil soften the skin and stimulate its regeneration.

Due to the absence of dyes and fragrances, La-Cree ointment can be used even by newborns. It will become a reliable helper after burns in children and adults – see for yourself!

Other burn aids

  • Lifeguard is suitable as an additional tool. This domestically produced ointment is known for its natural composition and universal healing properties. Most likely, there is a Lifeguard in your first aid kit – use it when treating burns for their quick healing.
  • Actovegin – ointment effectively copes with sunburn.
  • Chlorhexidine solution – suitable for disinfecting the surface of the burn. You can apply a bandage soaked in Chlorexidine to the affected area or irrigate the burn several times a day with a 0.5% solution.

Home remedy for burns

The speed of first aid plays an important role in how serious the consequences will be. The best remedy for skin burns is to break contact with the hot surface as soon as possible and cool the damaged area of ​​the skin.

Protects the skin from burns.

If there are no open wounds, keep the affected area under cold water for at least 10 minutes. The cold will not only help reduce painful symptoms, but will also prevent the burn from spreading further. In case of chemical burns, it is also necessary to rinse off or neutralize the substance as soon as possible.

If there are no suitable medicines in your home medicine cabinet, refer to the proven “grandmother’s” methods.

Folk remedies for burns

  1. For minor burns, you can apply menthol toothpaste.It will help relieve pain, protect against germs, relieve swelling. And if you leave it on the skin in a thin layer, the paste will not allow moisture to evaporate from the skin tissue, which means that the skin surface will not dry out. A minor burn can even be healed after a few applications of toothpaste.
  2. If an aloe flower is growing at home, you can use its leaves to heal the burn. To do this, you will need to thoroughly wash and cut one sheet along and bandage it to the damaged skin. Or you can make gruel from a leaf and even squeeze the juice for a compress – for which you have enough strength.
  3. Tea can be used for a compress. You need to firmly brew black or green tea, soak bandages with it and wrap the burnt area. Thanks to tannins, strong tea improves blood circulation, which has a positive effect on healing abilities.
  4. Grated potatoes relieve swelling well and soothe pain. You can also apply a cabbage leaf or a compress with cabbage juice to the burn site.

When choosing a suitable remedy, it should be remembered that folk recipes are suitable for light burns, as well as at the stage of healing of more serious injuries.

Be sure to see your doctor in the following cases:

  • A burn of more than 2 degree of severity, affecting a large area of ​​the body.
  • A child, elderly person or person with a serious medical condition was injured.
  • It was not possible to relieve the symptoms of the burn on our own.
  • The victim does not feel well after the burn: dizziness, nausea, weakness, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat.
  • Burnt area – face, neck, groin area.

We also recommend that you consult a specialist before purchasing antibiotic burns, taking antihistamines and serious pain relievers. In everyday life, we most often encounter thermal, chemical and radiation burns. With thermal tissue damage occurs due to exposure to high temperatures. Chemical burns can be caused by cleaning agents. And the well-known sunburn belongs to radiation, not thermal.

By the depth of the lesion, burns are divided into 4 degrees. Most often in everyday life we ​​are faced with the first two. At the first degree, the skin turns red, hurts, then a slight swelling appears. But everything goes away in a few days. With a second-degree burn, in addition to pain and swelling, transparent bubbles appear. The burn goes away completely in a few weeks.

Depending on the depth of the lesion, a remedy for burns is also selected. Treatment for a first-degree thermal burn can be done at home, but if you have a major second-degree burn or more severe lesions, see your doctor.In case of burns in children, it is worth contacting a doctor already in case of extensive first-degree burns.

Cooling – first aid for thermal burns

The speed of first aid plays an important role in how serious the consequences of burns will be. First aid for thermal burns – break contact with the hot surface as soon as possible and cool the burn area. If there are no open wounds, keep the burned area under cold water for at least 10 minutes. In case of chemical burns, it is also necessary to rinse off or neutralize the substance as soon as possible.Sunburn remedy – go into the shade sooner. It is worth considering that ultraviolet rays affect all metabolic processes in the body. And even after using a remedy for burns, with a sunburn, a deterioration in the general condition is possible. Sunburn is usually free of swelling and blistering, but the skin can remain reddish for several days and then begin to flake off.

Help with burns.

Children’s burns are a case where speed of care is especially important.The delicate skin of babies reacts very sharply even to light injuries.

In any case, before smearing the burn, it is necessary to examine the affected area. If the skin is affected, it is necessary to apply a bandage before the arrival of the doctors, which will prevent infection from entering the wound. With a serious burn, you don’t need to endure pain. Pain relievers can be taken before qualified first aid for thermal burns.

Thermal Burn Treatment – Careful Care

To relieve pain and prevent the appearance of marks on the skin, it is necessary to take care of the damaged skin using a remedy for burns.It is also worth monitoring the hygiene of the affected area – so that infection does not get into the bare skin layers. There is a widespread belief that the burn immediately needs to be smeared with something greasy. But this only clogs the pores, preventing the skin from breathing. In addition, there are now modern remedies for burns that relieve pain and promote healing.

How to spread burns on children?

La-Cree cream is specially designed to relieve skin irritations. Including those arising after light burns.This burn remedy includes extracts of licorice, violet, string and bisabolol to reduce inflammation, walnut extract has an antimicrobial effect, and panthenol and avocado oil soften the skin and stimulate its regeneration. Such a complex is what can be used to anoint a small burn.

Due to the absence of dyes and fragrances, non-hormonal remedies for burns “La-Cree” are suitable even for newborns and become reliable helpers for burns in children.

Home treatment of burns

Treatment of skin burns at home should be accompanied by the provision of timely and competent first aid, as well as the correct choice of dressings. There are a wide variety of treatments currently available for treating skin lesions, but not all are suitable for treating burns. What kind of skin burn can be treated at home, how to provide first aid and what dressings to choose for further treatment?

Timely and correct first aid is essential in the treatment of burns. .

Treatment of leg burns, arm and torso burns begins by immersing the affected area in cool running water for 20 minutes. When treating burns to the head, burns on the face, including burns of the lips, it is possible to apply a cooling compress. This treatment relieves skin irritation and prevents deeper injuries. It is unacceptable to use ice, as it can cause frostbite of tissues. After the skin has cooled, treatment of burns should be accompanied by the application of an antiseptic to the affected area.Chlorhexidine is ideal for these purposes. Do not use a solution of iodine, potassium permanganate, oils, fatty ointments and creams. After applying the antiseptic, home treatment of skin burns should be accompanied by the application of a sterile dressing. This procedure is the same for all types of burns, regardless of whether it was a burn to the hand, burn to the legs, burn to the head, or burn to the face.

The choice of a method for treating burns depends on its degree, location (burns to the legs, arms, trunk, head, face or lips), size and causes.At home, only I and II degree burns can be treated. At the same time, a 2nd degree skin burn should be no more than 10% of the body.

Treatment of 1st degree burns

In degree I skin burns, symptoms such as redness, pain, swelling, and damage to the top layer of the skin are observed. With II degree burns, blisters appear that can burst. There are III and IV degrees of burns, which lead to necrosis and even charring of the skin and deeper tissues.Treatment of such burns at home is unacceptable, and the person should be immediately hospitalized in a hospital.

If the skin burn is not very severe (I degree), then you can limit yourself to the imposition of a sterile film dressing OPSITE FLEXIGRID or ELECT IV or IV 3000.

The dressings are suitable for treating hand burns, burns on the face, burns on the legs, burns on the torso. The dressing OPSITE FLEXIGRID or ELECT IV or IV 3000 is a film dressing that prevents infection of the affected skin areas and does not prevent oxygen from entering the wound, which has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin burn and leads to its early healing.In addition, this dressing is transparent and allows you to monitor the state of the wound, is waterproof and allows you to take short-term hygienic water procedures without changing the dressing, which leads to savings in dressings. In addition to the above, I would like to note the ease of applying this dressing and its aesthetic appearance.

The film bandage IV3000 is widely used at home for minor skin burns. It can be applied to a burn with boiling water, steam and any other. Suitable for treating hand burns, facial burns, leg burns, torso burns.This bandage stretches well and conforms to the shape of the body, which ensures wearing comfort. It can be on the affected skin area without changing for up to 7 days, which is convenient to use and allows you to save on dressings. At the same time, IV3000 prevents wound infection and accelerates the healing of the burn.

Widely used in the treatment of skin burns at home, the OPSITE POST-OP film dressing with an absorbent pad. The dressing has a fairly wide range of sizes and allows you to choose the best option for a specific case of skin damage.The transparency of the dressing allows you to observe the condition of the wound without removing it, which is very convenient. And since the dressing is film, short-term water procedures can be used with it, which saves on dressing and makes it more convenient to use.

Treatment of 2nd degree burns

For the treatment of second-degree skin burns, which are accompanied by blisters, medical dressings in the form of a mesh with various substances applied to it are ideal. These dressings do not stick to burn surfaces, prevent bandages or other fixing dressings from sticking to them, which means they provide painless dressing and comfort in wound healing.These dressings may contain antiseptic substances that prevent infection of the burn surface and stimulate the healing of hand burns, burns on the face, burns of the legs, burns of the torso.

So, in the first-aid kit it will not be superfluous to have a sterile gauze mesh bandage BACTIGRAS with chlorhexidine for the treatment of burns of the skin of the legs, burns of the hand, burns of the torso and burns of the head. It can be applied to a skin burn at home immediately after cooling the affected area with cool water or later, regardless of how much time has passed since the burn.Fix the dressing with a cohesive bandage or a more convenient OPSITE FLEXIFIX roll dressing. Home treatment of skin burns with bandage BACTIGRAS

BACTIGRAS with chlorhexidine combines two procedures at once: treating the burn with an antiseptic and applying a sterile bandage to the affected area. Dressing BACTIGRAS will reduce the frequency of subsequent dressings to twice a week and prevent further infection of skin burns, since the antiseptic chlorhexidine is released from the dressing slowly, having a long-term effect against all types of bacteria.It does not stick to the wound, so the dressing change procedure is painless. In addition, the BACTIGRAS chlorhexidine dressing is available in a wide range of sizes to help you find the perfect fit. Treatment of skin burns with a dressing BACTIGRAS with chlorhexidine at home will speed up and facilitate the healing process of the affected areas.

Good to know

The bactericidal mesh dressing with silver ions NEOFIX FIBROTUL AG is suitable for the prevention of infection of leg burns, arm burns, torso burns and scalp burns.For grade I and II oil burns and vinegar burns, you can also apply this dressing after rinsing with cold running water. This dressing must be applied to the lesion and fixed with a cohesive bandage or a special roll dressing NEOFIX ROLL, which has a beneficial effect on air exchange in the wound and does not fall off, since it has an adhesive base and firmly fixes the dressing. It is very convenient in the treatment of burns of the legs, burns of the hand, burns of the head. The dressing should be changed depending on the condition of the wound, but at least once every 7 days.

If your first aid kit contains your favorite ointment for treating skin burns , then for painless dressings and speedy healing, it is recommended to put a sterile gauze mesh dressing with JELONET soft paraffin over the ointment. Then fix the JELONET dressing with a cohesive bandage or a special fixing dressing OPSITE FLEXIFIX. The OPSITE FLEXIFIX dressing, unlike the bandage, is impervious to bacteria, which prevents infection of skin burns and is waterproof, which allows you to take short-term water treatments without changing the dressing.This reduces the frequency of dressings to twice a week, which is beneficial for treating skin burns at home and saves money on dressing costs.

Treatment of leg burns, head burns, hand burns is facilitated in terms of the choice of dressings. They can be easily fixed with special roll bandages. The dressings will not slide off the affected area, which makes it easy to use. And how to treat burns on the face at home when it is very difficult to fix the bandage and it does not look aesthetically pleasing? This question also arises when treating any other burns on open skin areas.

Burn 1 degree
Burn of the 2nd degree
Burn of the 3rd degree

Means for the treatment of burns

Self-adhesive wound dressings will help in this situation. They do not require an additional absorbent dressing, do not require additional fixation with bandages or other fixing dressings, they will give a neat look and will not be displaced from the affected area of ​​the skin.

One of the self-adhesive dressings that is suitable for the treatment of burns on the face and other areas of the body is the sterile wound dressing CUTINOVA HYDRO.The size of the bandage should be selected so that it should cover a healthy area of ​​the skin, without redness and changes. CUTINOVA HYDRO promotes early healing of skin burns at home, as it absorbs water from wound exudate and leaves proteins and growth factors in the wound, which are essential elements in the regeneration of damaged areas. The dressing allows oxygen to pass through and allows the wound to “breathe”. The flexibility of the bandage allows it to be used to treat burns on the face on any area, and the wide range of sizes allows you to choose the right size.

Another self-adhesive bandage that is in demand for the treatment of burns on the face, burns of the legs, trunk, burns of the hand is the ALLEVYN ADHESIVE polyurethane foam bandage. This dressing can be applied to any skin burn, including steam and boiling water burns. The bandage is equipped with an adhesive edging along the edges, thanks to which it is reliably fixed on the healthy skin around the burn, does not slip and looks aesthetically pleasing. The size of the dressing should be selected slightly larger than the surface of the skin burns in order to be able to fix it on a healthy area.The dressing does not require additional fixation with a bandage or other fixing dressing, it is convenient to use and comfortable to wear. In addition, the surface of the dressing does not allow bacteria to pass through and prevents skin burns from becoming infected.

If during the treatment of burns on the face, burns of the legs, torso, burns of the hand, the wound surface was not promptly treated with an antiseptic and was not covered with a sterile bandage, then infection of the wound and its suppuration are possible. This leads to a lengthening of the healing period.To combat the resulting infection at home, the ACTICOAT antimicrobial dressing with silver is widely used. This dressing must be moistened with sterile water, which can be purchased at the nearest pharmacy in ampoules, applied to the infected wound and fixed with a cohesive bandage or more convenient OPSITE FLEXIFIX roll dressing or NEOFIX ROLL roll dressing. The bandage will have an antimicrobial effect for three days. Therefore, the next dressing after the first can be done only on the fourth day.By using the ACTICOAT antimicrobial dressing, the wound will be cleared of infection and healing will be accelerated.

Scars – treatment after burns

If after the treatment of burns on the face, burns of the legs, torso, burns of the hand, an ugly scar remains, then this problem can be solved with the help of the reusable self-adhesive bandage CICA-CARE. One dressing can be used for up to 28 days. The course of treatment is two to four months, depending on how long ago the scar was obtained.The bandage is recommended to be worn around the clock and removed only when absolutely necessary. For example, it is allowed to remove the bandage while taking water procedures. CICA-CARE should be rinsed daily with soapy water to keep it clean and safe to use. It is necessary to change this bandage to a new one when it ceases to be fixed on the skin. The CICA-CARE reusable self-adhesive dressing is made of silicone, which deeply moisturizes the scar and at the same time exerts compression on it. All this leads to the fact that the scar becomes much less pronounced and its color tends to the natural skin color.Due to the fact that one dressing lasts up to 28 days, we can talk about the economy of the price of the course of treatment as a whole. Scar bandages here.

Treatment of chemical burns

Oil and chemical burns such as acetic acid occupy a special place among skin burns. After careless handling of acetic acid, which is widely used in everyday life, burns of the skin are possible, and when it is ingested inside and lips, larynx, esophagus, stomach. It should be borne in mind that the treatment of such burns on the skin at home is permissible if they are of I or II degree and do not exceed 10% of the total skin area.If the burns are deeper or are accompanied by a large area of ​​the affected area, then you should immediately contact a specialist to provide competent and timely medical care.

At home, vinegar burns of the skin must be treated with competent first aid. It begins with washing the affected area with cool running water for 20 minutes, followed by treatment with a soap or soda solution to neutralize the damaging chemical.Oil burns should be washed with cool running water without further treatment with an alkaline solution.

After neutralization of a damaging chemical in case of vinegar burns on the face, burns of the head, lips, burns of the legs, burns of the hands and after washing the affected skin with water in the treatment of burns with oils of I and II degrees, first aid should be accompanied by the application of an antiseptic to the wound. These types of skin lesions can be treated with chlorhexidine, which is widely used in everyday life.Do not use a solution of iodine, potassium permanganate, alcohol solutions, oils, fatty ointments and creams.

After applying the antiseptic, oil burns of I and II degrees, as well as vinegar burns, must be protected with a sterile dressing

If oil burns or vinegar burns of the skin are minor and do not lead to the appearance of blisters that can burst, then you can use the film dressings OPSITE FLEXIGRID or ELECT IV and IV 3000. These dressings prevent wound infection and stimulate healing, allow you to take short-term water treatments without dressing changes and allow you to save on dressings, ideally follow the contours of the body, and ensure wearing comfort.In addition, these film dressings provide an aesthetic appearance on exposed areas of the body. All these properties of these dressings have led to the fact that they are widely known, loved and have taken a firm place among other dressings in the home medicine cabinet.

If oil burns or vinegar burns have resulted in blisters that can burst, CUTINOVA HYDRO or ALLEVYN ADHESIVE self-adhesive dressings are perfect. The bandages do not require additional fixation and are easy to apply and wear.It should be borne in mind that the bandage should be slightly larger than the affected skin area for reliable fixation on healthy skin around the burn. And a wide range of sizes of these headbands will make it easy to choose the right size for a specific case.

If oil burns or vinegar burns are quite large in area and it is not possible to choose a self-adhesive dressing in size, then dressings in the form of nets with various substances applied to them are perfect for such cases.For example, a sterile gauze mesh dressing with JELONET soft paraffin wax can be applied to the wound. It has a fairly wide range of sizes, and in the absence of the required size, it allows you to apply several pieces to the skin at once and cover the entire area of ​​burns. This dressing can be used on its own or with any burn remedy that is in your home medicine cabinet. However, it must be borne in mind that this dressing must be fixed from above with a sterile bandage or more convenient for this purpose NEOFIX ROLL or OPSITE FLEXIFIX roll dressings and take care of this in time.

Thus, the treatment of burns at home should begin with the provision of timely and correct first aid, which consists in cooling the affected area, treating it with an antiseptic and applying the right bandage. If these conditions are met, the wound will heal faster, regardless of the cause of the burn and on which part of the body.

Antiseptics for burns | Cochrane

Review Question

We reviewed the evidence as to whether antiseptics are safe and effective for the treatment of burn wounds.


Burn wounds are the cause of many injuries and deaths around the world. People with burn wounds are especially vulnerable to infections. Antiseptics prevent the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria. They can be applied to burn wounds for dressing or washing, which can help prevent infection and promote wound healing. We wanted to find out if antiseptics are more effective than other treatments and whether a certain type of antiseptic is more effective than another in reducing infection and speeding up healing.

Research characteristics

In September 2016, we searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the treatment of burn wounds with antiseptics. We included 56 studies with 5807 participants. Most of the participants were adults with recent degree II burns that covered less than 40% of their body surface area. Antiseptics used: based on silver, honey, iodine, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides). Most studies have compared antiseptics to topical antibiotics (applied to the skin).Fewer studies have compared antiseptics with non-antibacterial treatments or with another antiseptic.

Main results

Most studies have compared antiseptic treatment with silver sulfadiazine, a topical antibiotic commonly used to treat burns. There is low certainty evidence that some antiseptics can accelerate the mean healing time compared to silver sulfadiazine. There is also moderate evidence that burns treated with honey are more likely to heal faster than burns treated with topical antibiotics.Most of the other comparisons did not show a clear difference between antiseptics and antibiotics.

There is evidence that honey-treated burns healed significantly faster (high-quality evidence) and more likely to heal (moderate-certainty evidence) compared to a range of non-antibacterial treatments, some of which were unconventional. Burns treated with antiseptics such as nanocrystalline silver or merbromine can heal faster on average compared to burns treated with petroleum jelly or other non-antibacterial treatments (moderate to low quality evidence).Comparisons between the two different antiseptics have been limited, but the mean healing time may be slightly faster for wounds treated with povidone iodine compared with chlorhexidine (low quality evidence). Several study participants experienced serious side effects, but this was not always reported. The results do not allow us to be certain about differences in infection rates. The mortality rate was reported to be low.

Quality of evidence

Most of the studies were not well represented and therefore it is difficult to be sure that there is no risk of bias.In many cases, a single (often small) study provided evidence of comparative effects of different treatments; and some similar studies have provided conflicting results. Clinicians will need to consider whether the moderate to high certainty evidence obtained from the comparison can be applied to their patients.

This plain language summary is current as of September 2016.


Contents of the article:

By definition, a keratoma is a benign process localized on the skin and having a hyperkeratic origin.It can be single or multiple. Certain types of keratomas are considered by dermatologists to be borderline formations, and their formation, especially in some groups of patients, may indicate an increased risk of oncology. On average, in different age groups, from 8 to 35% of formations undergo malignancy.

If keratomas are dangerous or there are many of them, a person needs to be regularly observed by a dermatologist-oncologist, who assesses what the keratoma looks like and whether it has signs of transition to a cancerous tumor.

In addition, when wearing tight clothing or rubbing with dense elements, it is possible to injure the surface of the formation, which threatens the attachment of a secondary infection, including fungal or viral.

On average, keratomas are observed on the skin of patients over 40 years of age, the maximum number of elements is recorded in people over 60 years of age. According to statistics, only 10% of keratomas are recorded in people 20-25 years old, about 25% in people over 30 years old, more than 45% – after the fortieth birthday.Sex differences have not been identified, although some scientists believe that men are slightly more likely to suffer from the problem.

Why do keratomas appear

Today, the process of keratoma formation is considered polyetiological (multifactorial). This means that a single factor has not yet been identified. Among the key reasons for the appearance of keratomas is the process of age-related changes (so-called dystrophy) of epithelial cells. Formation occurs due to disruptions in two opposite skin processes – dying off and regeneration (aging and restoration of the epidermis).It is the balance of these two processes that allows the skin to have a normal appearance and renew itself. With age, skin cells reduce their protective potential against external factors, their genetic material becomes more vulnerable, the risk of tumor growth increases, which leads to the appearance of various neoplasms.

The main provocateur in the development of keratomas is ultraviolet irradiation. Its excess neutralizes the skin pigment – melanin. The pigment accumulates in the area of ​​skin keratinocytes, is retained in its upper layers due to the accumulation effect Source:
Influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the development of benign skin and mucous membranes caused by the human papillomavirus.Nazarova M.N., Kiselev V.I., Masyukova S.A., Poloznikov A.A., Babkina I.O., Akhtyamov S.N., Tarasenko E.N. Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases, 2017, p. 106.

With age, melanin accumulates worse due to inhibition of metabolic processes, but the secretion of melanin itself inside skin cells increases, while hyperkeratosis predominates. As a result, a keratoma is formed. This is largely due to the immune system, which, with age, loses some of its controlling and protective functions, which allows the cells of the epidermis to grow more actively and, as a result, to form areas of keratinization.

Possible causes of keratoma lie in a genetic malfunction, and treatment may require correction of certain substances – retinol, sex hormones. Somatic pathologies, exposure to the skin of various chemicals, plant and animal poisons, and the intake of certain medications can have a certain effect. Due to cell irritation, immune mechanisms are triggered with the activation of humoral and cellular immunity, inflammation is activated with a predominance of cell proliferation Source:
The role of oxidative stress in the development of epithelial skin neoplasms in dermatogeliosis.Snarskaya E.S., Tkachenko S.B., Kuznetsova E.V. Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases, 2014. p. 4-7.

Types and symptoms of keratoma

Seborrheic keratoma – initially looks like a yellowish spot with a diameter of 2-3 cm. Gradually, its surface begins to thicken and become covered with scabs. The keratoma increases in size, cracks appear on the crust, it changes color to black or brown. They are usually located on the chest, back, shoulders, scalp.

Senile keratoma (senile keratosis) – first a yellowish spot with a diameter of 2-3 cm appears, then its surface becomes denser, covered with greasy scabs, which are easy to separate from the skin. Over time, it increases, becomes multi-layer, can reach 1.5 cm in thickness, deep cracks form on the surface. The color turns to brown or black. Such a keratoma appears on the shoulders, chest, scalp, back, rarely on the neck and face. It grows slowly, most often a group of tumors is formed, but sometimes there are solitary seborrheic keratomas.It occurs in people over 30 years of age, often becomes inflamed, but rarely progresses to cancer.

Horny keratoma (cutaneous horn) – appears as a gray or brown spot, which soon begins to become covered with keratinous elements. A bulging scaly tubercle is formed. Linear or conical formation of dark color. It rises several millimeters above the skin. It appears on different parts of the body, it can be of different sizes and shapes. It can be either multiple or single.It is capable of degenerating into cancer, and therefore requires immediate treatment.

Follicular keratoma – the skin area takes on a pinkish color and is covered with small tubercles. Localized on the cheeks, lips, nose.

Angiokeratoma – nodules of black, blue or red color with a diameter of 1-10 mm. Localized on the skin of the limbs, back, abdomen, genitals.

Solar keratoma – the affected skin begins to peel off.Plaques are forming. It is localized on the back, face, feet and hands. These are multiple dense hyperkeratosis foci covered with dry grayish scales. A precancerous condition affecting men over 40, especially fair-skinned men. It proceeds slowly, gradually becomes squamous cell carcinoma.

If you find yourself with a keratoma, it is recommended that you immediately contact a specialist.


In addition to the typical description of the symptoms of keratoma in the diagnosis, it is important to clarify many nuances.First of all, the doctor examines the patient, assuming what type of keratoma is detected, determining its size, specifying its localization and determining the approximate number of other formations Source:
New technologies for differential non-invasive diagnosis of skin neoplasms. Kozlov S.V., Zakharov V.P., Kaganov O.I., Moryatov A.A., Orlov A.E., Bratchenko I.A., Artemiev D.N., Kopylov A.V., Andreeva A .BUT. Malignant tumors, 2017, p. 156-157. Then the doctor can recommend additional examination methods to clarify the diagnosis and variant of keratoma, to carry out differential diagnostics, which will exclude more dangerous formations, especially in old age.

The doctor conducts dermatoscopy – visually evaluating the keratoma using a device (dermatoscope) giving multiple magnification Source:
Dermatoscopy in the diagnosis of nevi and benign skin tumors. Tleugabilova G.A. Life Science and Health, 2014, p. 172-177. If there is a possibility of transformation into a tumor or with active growth of the formation, histology is performed. The doctor removes a small part of the tumor and sends it to the laboratory for examination.

Keratoma: how to treat

The clinic uses both conservative and surgical methods of treating keratoma.If these are formations that are suspicious of a possible transition to oncology, cytostatic drugs and antitumor antibiotics are used. If conservative methods are ineffective, if the location is inconvenient, there is a pronounced cosmetic defect, surgical removal of the keratoma is recommended. Bakulev A.L., Sherstobitova K.Yu., Schneider D.A. Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research, 2020, p. 835-837.

Drug therapy

Various preparations can be recommended for the removal of small formations – solar keratomas. The affected area is treated with various drugs in the form of a cream, solution or emulsion with active acids and cytostatics in the composition. Cauterization of keramtoma is carried out, which can only be carried out by a doctor so as not to violate the dosage and not to get complications in the form of a chemical burn of the surrounding healthy tissues.

For home use, the doctor may recommend ointments with a low percentage of active substances in the composition of the drug. They are applied to the surface of the keratoma for 3-4 weeks twice a day. In the area of ​​the keratoma, an ulcerative defect forms, which is then treated with drugs to stimulate tissue regeneration.

Attempts to remove the keratoma on their own are prohibited. In case of injury to tumor tissues, extremely serious consequences are possible, up to the transformation of cells into cancerous ones.

Methods for removing keratoma

If surgery is indicated, the doctor decides how to remove the keratomas. The following troubleshooting techniques can be used:

  • electro excision;
  • radiosurgical removal method.

Among the key indications for removal:

  • formation of a keratoma in a conspicuous place, where it represents a cosmetic defect;
  • rubbing with clothing, permanent trauma to education;
  • suspicion of tumor transformation (excised with healthy tissues, sent for biopsy).

Among the contraindications to the removal of keratomas, a number of health problems can be distinguished:

  • period of gestation and breastfeeding;
  • severe diabetes mellitus;
  • presence of oncological diseases;
  • pronounced tan;
  • skin problems in the area to be removed (dermatitis, pyoderma, trauma, skin irritation).

Before surgery, it is necessary to undergo an examination in order to exclude possible problems and minimize the risk of complications.Shown to the patient:

  • examination by a dermatologist with digital dermatoscopy;
  • Ultrasound examination of the skin and subcutaneous tissue;
  • consultations with an oncologist and a surgeon.

Peculiarities of keratoma removal by various methods

Electrocoagulation with keratomas – performing the procedure by exposing the keratoma to high-frequency current. When removed, a small wound is formed on which a crust appears. After it falls away, no scars remain.

Radio wave surgery with a non-contact method using a radio knife – when removing a keratoma, there is no damage to the surrounding tissues, no scars are formed.

Traditional surgery is performed with a scalpel to remove the mass using local anesthesia. After the intervention, the doctor will apply cosmetic stitches. They are removed for about 5-7 days, control examinations are carried out.

Potential risks associated with keratomas

Keratomas are safe in themselves because they are benign.However, they are able to degenerate into cancer. Therefore, it is important to monitor her condition and, if there are signs of external changes, urgently consult a doctor. Signs of malignant transformation are:

  • rapid growth of keratoma;
  • bleeding without injury;
  • itching.

Keratoma prevention

The main way to avoid the appearance of a keratoma is to limit exposure to direct sunlight.It is also recommended to use sun protection products.

Skin care advice if you have keratomas:

  • make sure that nothing presses on the tumor, that it does not rub with clothes;
  • Avoid contact with the skin of chemicals, including household chemicals, pollen and sap of poisonous plants;
  • Cover the keratoma from the sun, apply sunscreen;
  • eat foods high in vitamin P – citrus fruits, parsley, dill, buckwheat, green tea, purple berries, legumes;
  • Give up fried and carcinogenic foods.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is keratoma dangerous?

There is no unambiguous answer to this question, because keratoma is not one disease, but a whole group of dermatological pathologies. Keratomas are different, some of them are dangerous and can turn into cancer, while others are safe, do not hurt and do not create any problems other than aesthetic ones. Non-dangerous keratomas are more common. If you want to know exactly whether your skin formation is dangerous, you can remove it and send it for histological examination.The laboratory will give an unambiguous answer.

Can keratoma be treated at home?

It is possible to treat, but cannot be cured. Home removal attempts usually involve the use of plants, alkalis, or acids that cause chemical burns to the skin. This is dangerous and in most cases not very effective. Keratomas are removed in the clinic. To do this, use the classical technique, radio wave treatment, etc. The doctor does this carefully and painlessly.

Who gets a keratoma?

Most often in the elderly (after 60 years).Men suffer from these skin lesions more often than women. But with varying probability, keratomas can form in everyone, including children, since some types are caused by congenital metabolic disorders. However, keratomas are rare before the age of 30.

How to prevent the appearance of a keratoma?

It is impossible to prevent the appearance of keratomas by 100%. You can reduce the risk of their formation by less frequent exposure to the sun. This recommendation also applies to those who have already gone through the keratoma removal procedure, because a relapse is possible.

In the medical center “CM-Clinic” the apparatus “Surgitron” is used to remove keratomas and other skin neoplasms. This is a modern radiosurgical device that provides minimal trauma and accelerates the regeneration process. The advantage of the radio wave method over others is that healthy tissue is not damaged. This minimizes the risk of postoperative scarring. The method has almost no contraindications; a specialist consultation is carried out before the operation.


  1. Dermatoscopy in the diagnosis of nevi and benign skin tumors. Tleugabilova G.A. Life Science and Health, 2014, p. 172-177
  2. Influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the development of benign skin and mucous membranes caused by the human papillomavirus. Nazarova M.N., Kiselev V.I., Masyukova S.A., Poloznikov A.A., Babkina I.O., Akhtyamov S.N., Tarasenko E.N. Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases, 2017.with. 106
  3. New technologies for differential non-invasive diagnostics of skin neoplasms. Kozlov S.V., Zakharov V.P., Kaganov O.I., Moryatov A.A., Orlov A.E., Bratchenko I.A., Artemiev D.N., Kopylov A.V., Andreeva A .BUT. Malignant tumors, 2017, p. 156-157
  4. The role of oxidative stress in the development of epithelial skin neoplasms in dermatogeliosis. Snarskaya E.S., Tkachenko S.B., Kuznetsova E.V. Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases, 2014. p. 4-7
  5. Model of rendering medical care to patients with skin neoplasms on the basis of dermatovenerological institutions.Bakulev A.L., Sherstobitova K.Yu., Schneider D.A. Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research, 2020, p. 835-837

The information in this article is provided for reference purposes and does not replace the advice of a qualified professional. Do not self-medicate! At the first signs of the disease, you should consult a doctor.

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I was pleased with the reception.The doctor performed a visual examination and consultation. The result was my understanding of the state of health and further actions. I singled out for myself such qualities of a doctor as competence and information content, I think that’s all for now.


July 27, 2021

The doctor is an experienced, delicate, young and calm doctor.The operation was quite painful, but she tried to do everything well. Everything went neatly and the operating room was well equipped. I received follow-up appointments and care recommendations. She also left her phone number to clarify how I feel. This is a fairly high level of reception quality! But the clinic has a very small hall. But I have no complaints!


June 26, 2021

The doctor asked what I had and prescribed treatment for me, which helped.I like it! Everything was very fast and to the point. The clinic had good service too!


June 24, 2021

I liked the welcome very much.