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Chest Pain in Children | Causes & Instructions for Parents
Common Illnesses that Cause Chest Pain
Chest pain may be a symptom of a serious underlying disease. Fortunately, most chest pain in children is caused by benign or self-limited illnesses. Listed below are some common illnesses that can cause chest pain.
Costochondritis occurs secondary to inflammation of the “joint” between the breastbone and the ribs. It is particularly common in adolescent and pre-adolescent females, but can occur in anyone at any age.
Frequently caused by viral illness or by frequent coughing, upper respiratory symptoms often accompany this illness. It may last for several weeks.
There may be pain when inhaling or exhaling deeply, but true difficulty in breathing is rare and should generate concern for other diagnoses.
The hallmark of costochondritis is tenderness to pressure over the costochondral joint, which corresponds to the depression on the sides of the breastbone.
Treatment typically consists of a one- to two-week course of an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine such as ibuprofen.
Injury to the muscles and bones of the chest wall can have many causes. Some are obvious such as a direct blow during a sporting event or a fall. Other less obvious causes include heavy lifting, frequent coughing or intense aerobic exercise that can all cause strain to the rib muscles.
Treatment is usually supportive with rest and over-the-counter pain relievers. Consult a physician when injury causes chest pain that is severe, persistent, or associated with difficulty breathing.
Stress or Anxiety
Although few people are willing to believe that stress can elicit such a worrisome symptom, stress-related chest pain is really no different than a stress-related headache. The pain is often dull or non-specific and worsens with stress or anxiety.
Common underlying stressors include loss of a relative, school examinations, and “breaking up” with a boyfriend or girlfriend.
Often stress can make chest pain from another cause seem worse. It is important to decipher whether chest pain is the cause of anxiety or the result.
Precordial Catch Syndrome
A benign illness of unknown cause. It occurs most commonly in adolescents and is characterized by sudden onset of intense, sharp pain along the chest or back.
The pain occurs exclusively with inspiration (inhaling). A typical episode lasts several minutes and resolves spontaneously.
The pain can also be “broken” with a forced deep inspiration. Several episodes may occur per day.
Although its cause remains uncertain, precordial catch syndrome has no significant side effects. There is no specific treatment, and the frequency of events usually declines through adolescence.
Can cause stomach or chest pain. It sometimes manifests as a burning sensation below the sternum, though children may not be capable of accurately describing this symptom.
The pain may vary in relation to meals. There are now many prescription and over-the-counter medicines available to treat acid reflux.
Cardiac Chest Pain Causes in Children
Unlike adults, chest pain due to a cardiac cause is extremely uncommon in children. Keep in mind that the following conditions are rare as you review the causes of chest pain.
An inflammation of the heart lining. It is usually caused by a treatable or self-limited infection, but can have other more serious causes. Typical pericarditis pain is sharp and mid-sternal and may radiate to the shoulders.
Assuming a sitting position or leaning forward frequently alleviates pain. Cough, troubled breathing and fever are common.
Coronary Artery Abnormalities
May limit the heart’s oxygen supply and cause symptoms similar to adults with cardiac chest pain. This can be due to congenital abnormalities of the position of the arteries or acquired diseases like Kawasaki disease.
Extreme thickening of the heart muscle and prolonged episodes of fast heart rate can also limit the heart’s blood supply. Children may experience a “typical” crushing mid-sternal chest pain that radiates to the neck and chin or to the left shoulder and arm. More likely, children will have less specific complaints.
Troubled breathing and sweating may also occur. Anyone with these symptoms should promptly consult a physician.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
A minor abnormality of the valve that fills the main pumping chamber of the heart (the left ventricle). It occurs in up to 6 percent of women and is less frequent in men.
Although mitral valve prolapse is reportedly associated with an increased incidence of chest pain, the exact cause remains unclear.
In the absence of other worrisome signs and symptoms, chest pain in patients with mitral valve prolapse tends to run an uncomplicated course.
An arterial aneurysm is a stretching and out-pouching of the vessel that can lead to rupture. In children, chest pain from an aortic aneurysm is extremely rare, and it occurs almost exclusively in the setting of other uncommon diseases, particularly Marfan syndrome.
Other Causes of Chest Pain
Other relatively common causes include inappropriate accumulation of air, fluid, or inflammation in the chest as well as lung infections and asthma. Look for other worrisome symptoms to determine if your child needs prompt evaluation.
Questions About Chest Pain
What should I do if my child has chest pain?
Don’t panic. Remember, chest pain is usually due to a benign or self-limited illness. Heart disease or other serious illness is an unlikely cause.
However, if your child has severe chest pain or chest pain associated with troubled breathing, fever, sweating, or a heart rate greater than 200, you should promptly consult with a physician.
In the absence of these symptoms, most chest pain can wait for a convenient time to be evaluated. Call your doctor if you are unsure.
If I think my child needs to be evaluated, what kind of doctor should I see?
It is usually better to start with your pediatrician or family doctor rather than a specialist. Most children with chest pain do not require the services of a specialized physician.
Additionally, different causes of chest pain fall under the expertise of different types of specialists. If you do need to see a specialist, your doctor can decide which type of doctor is most appropriate.
What should I expect at the physician’s office if my child is seen for chest pain?
The evaluation usually starts with a thorough history of the problem and a physical evaluation. After that, the evaluation may vary markedly depending on the initial findings.
Many children will require no further testing to establish a diagnosis and start treatment. In some cases, chest X-ray, electrocardiograms, breathing studies, or consultation with a specialist may be necessary.
What if my child specifically says that his or her “heart hurts”?
For many young children, the heart is the most identifiable organ in the chest, so they use this phrase to denote chest pain of any kind.
The good news is that children are rarely able to distinguish between cardiac and non-cardiac chest pain, so they are unlikely to be correct in laying blame on the heart.
The bad news is that once parents and other caregivers hear this phrase, it can be extremely difficult to persuade them that the heart is not the culprit.
Children who complain of “heart pain” should be evaluated like other children with chest pain, with attention paid to severity and associated symptoms.
Types of Chest Injuries | Michigan Medicine
A blow to the chest can cause a minor or serious injury. It is not unusual to have the “wind knocked out of you” and be short of breath for a few minutes after a blow to the chest.
Even after a chest injury, it is important to determine whether your pain might be caused by a heart problem. If you do not have any symptoms of a heart attack or angina, your pain is probably caused by your chest injury.
Serious chest injury
Pain or difficulty breathing that starts immediately after an injury may mean that organs inside the chest, such as the lungs, heart, or blood vessels, have been damaged. Other symptoms often develop quickly, such as severe shortness of breath or signs of shock.
A forceful blow to the chest can injure organs in the chest or upper abdomen.
- A blow to the front of the chest (sternum) can injure the heart or large blood vessels or the tube leading from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus).
- A blow to the chest can injure the lungs or the airway (trachea).
- A blow to the back of the chest can injure a kidney.
- A blow to the side of the chest or the lower chest can injure the liver or spleen.
Minor chest injury
You may have chest wall pain after a less serious injury. This pain can occur with movement of a shoulder, an arm, the rib cage, or the trunk of the body.
Even a minor injury can cause chest pain for days after the injury. Deep breathing, coughing, or sneezing can increase the pain, as can pressing down on or lying on the injured area.
Minor injuries often do not require a visit to a doctor. Home treatment can relieve the pain and discomfort.
An injury to the chest may break or crack a rib or injure the cartilage of the rib cage. Symptoms of a bruised rib or broken rib include:
- Sharp, severe pain in the area of the chest injury.
- Pain that gets worse when you breathe or cough.
- Pain that gets worse when you press or lie on the injured area.
Rib fractures are painful but often can be treated at home if no other symptoms develop. See the Home Treatment section of this topic.
Current as of:
February 26, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Current as of: February 26, 2020
Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Costochondritis: What You Need to Know
Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website.
Information from Your Family Doctor
Am Fam Physician. 2009 Sep 15;75(10):1.
See related article on costochondritis.
What is costochondritis?
Costochondritis (koss-toe-con-DRY-tiss) is an inflammation in your rib cage where cartilage connects the ribs to the breastbone (sternum). It is also called chest wall pain or costosternal (koss-toe-STIR-null) syndrome. The main symptom is pain in the chest wall. The pain is often sharp, aching, or pressure-like. The pain gets worse with movement, deep breathing, or exercise. Pressing on the affected area of the rib can also cause pain.
What causes it?
It usually has no known cause, but it can happen after a severe coughing episode or during physical activity that involves the upper body.
When should I see a doctor?
Any patient with chest pain should see a doctor. Evaluation is especially important for persons older than 35 years and those with risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes.
How is it treated?
Costochondritis is not life threatening and will not cause any other conditions. Medicine can help with the pain. These include acetaminophen (one brand: Tylenol), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin or ibuprofen [one brand: Advil]), or other pain relievers, as appropriate. Use of a heating pad may also help. Consider decreasing any activities that make the pain worse.
How long does it take to get better?
The pain can last from weeks to months, but it will heal on its own.
Where can I get more information?
Your family doctor
American Academy of Family Physicians
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This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.
Copyright © 2009 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
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Pectus Carinatum; Symptoms, Causes, Management & Treatment
The facts about Pectus Carinatum
What is pectus carinatum?
Pectus carinatum is a condition in which the sternum (breastbone) protrudes, or sticks out, more than usual. It is the opposite of pectus excavatum, in which the breastbone is depressed inward and gives the chest a sunken appearance.
Who is affected by pectus carinatum?
Pectus carinatum is more common in boys. Although babies are born with the condition, it is often not noticed until the child reaches puberty (teen years).
Symptoms and Causes
What causes pectus carinatum?
Although the exact causes of pectus carinatum are not known, it is believed to be a disorder of the cartilage that joins the ribs to the breastbone.
Pectus carinatum can sometimes be heredity (runs in the family). In some patients, pectus carinatum may be associated with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder that has the following symptoms:
- Long limbs and fingers
- Chest abnormalities
- Curvature of the spine
- Certain facial features
- Specific changes in the heart valves and aorta; and,
- Displacement (movement) of the lenses of the eyes.
What are the symptoms of pectus carinatum?
Symptoms may be more severe for some patients than for others, and may include any of the following:
- Fatigue (feeling tired and weak)
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Tachycardia (fast heart rate)
Diagnosis and Tests
How is pectus carinatum diagnosed?
The doctor will take the patient’s medical history and perform a physical examination. The main test for diagnosing pectus carinatum is a chest X-ray from the front and side. In certain cases, the patient may have a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
In addition, patients who have heart palpitations may have an electrocardiogram (EKG) or an echocardiogram (a picture of the heart). The doctor may also check to see if the patient has scoliosis (curvature of the spine).
Management and Treatment
How is pectus carinatum treated?
If pectus carinatum is causing symptoms, there are two treatment options: bracing and surgery.
- Bracing for pectus carinatum works similar to the way braces work on teeth. The brace is worn around the chest and provides pressure from both the front and back to move the breastbone back to its usual position. The child wears the brace for up to 24 hours a day, for a period of months to years. The brace can be removed for showering, sports and other activities.
- Surgery for pectus carinatum involves a technique called the Ravitch procedure. This procedure is completed with an incision (cut) in the mid-chest area to remove anterior (in the front) cartilage. Stainless-steel struts are placed across the anterior chest to support the breastbone, allowing the breastbone to be elevated. The struts are not visible from the outside and are later removed during a surgical procedure.
What are the risks of correction of pectus carinatum?
Bracing treatment for pectus carinatum is very safe. A small number of patients may have irritation or breakdown of the skin where the brace makes contact. Patients are taught to stop using the brace at the first sign of any irritation. They are then asked to return to the office so that the brace can be adjusted.
The surgical repair of pectus carinatum, like other extensive surgeries, carries certain risks. While the Ravitch procedure is also safe and effective, complications can occur, including:
- Pneumothorax (a buildup of air or gas in the pleural space around the lung)
- Pleural effusion (fluid around the lung)
- Pericarditis (inflammation around the heart)
- Bar displacement (movement)
- Recurrence (return) of the pectus carinatum condition
Outlook / Prognosis
What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients who have pectus carinatum?
The outlook for patients who have pectus carinatum is generally very good. Patients who wear a brace or have the surgery are usually very satisfied with the results and with their appearance.
Cleveland Clinic Information
Chest Pain in Children: Common Causes & When to Be Concerned
By: Markus S. Renno, MD, MPH, FAAP & Tim Thomas, MD, FAAP
Many children say their chest hurts at some point during their growth and development. Chest pain in children is rarely due to the heart. Still, you should feel free to ask your pediatrician about it to figure out the reason for the pains. Many times, the cause can be determined by answering a few questions about the discomfort and by undergoing a careful physical exam.
What is the most common cause of chest pain in children?
Most children complaining of chest pain have musculoskeletal chest pain, which is pain originating from the muscles or bones in the chest, and their connections. There are three common causes of musculoskeletal chest pain:
A spasm or cramp of the chest wall muscles and nerves. These come and go and can be quite painful. These pains are sometimes referred to as “precordial catch syndrome”.
Coughing really hard or often during a cold can also cause chest pains.
“Costochondritis” is pain caused by inflammation of the cartilage connecting with the bones of the chest.
Musculoskeletal chest pain is not due to any problem with the heart and is not dangerous. Pain medicines like ibuprofen can help relieve the pain and reduce any inflammation that is present. Talk to your pediatrician about
how to safely use ibuprofen and any other pain medicines.
What else causes chest pain in children?
Other common causes of chest pain include:
Pneumonia (lung infection) can cause irritation around the lungs that can be quite painful, especially with breathing. This is sometimes called pleurisy.
Children sometimes describe their breathing difficulties from
asthma as chest pain.
Acid reflux from the stomach up into the esophagus can burn and feel painful. This is called
gastroesophageal reflux disease or heart burn.
Some children describe emotional responses to stress and anxiety as chest “pain”. Others may complain of discomfort to gain attention. Your pediatrician may determine this as the cause of your child’s chest pain by a process of elimination.
In rare cases, a heart problem will cause chest pain in children.
What is a heart attack, and can it happen in a child?
The coronary arteries are tiny arteries that wrap around the heart to bring oxygen to the heart muscle. When these get blocked for any reason, the heart does not get enough oxygen. This is what is commonly referred to as a heart attack.
It is very unusual for a child to have a heart attack, unless they have an abnormal coronary artery course or origin, or disease of the heart muscle. Examples of these include:
cardiomyopathy is an abnormality of the heart muscle that makes it very thick. This is present in about 1 out of 200 people. Because of how thick the muscle is, it sometimes needs more oxygen than the coronary arteries are able to provide. Not only does this injure the muscle, but over time, it also puts the heart at risk of an
abnormal heart rhythm, which can be life-threatening. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of
sudden cardiac death in young athletes in the United States.
About 1 out of 100 people are born with a coronary artery that starts in an unusual place. In rare cases, this abnormality can cause life-threatening symptoms. An abnormal coronary artery is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in children in the United States. This is why chest pain that occurs caused by exercise is a red flag.
Children with a history of congenital
Kawasaki disease, and genetic causes of
high cholesterol are at higher risk than others for having a heart attack from blockage of a coronary artery. Ask your pediatrician if any of these apply to your child.
Myocarditis happens when the immune system causes damage to the heart muscle. This often occurs while it is fighting an infection by a virus. Myocarditis can be life-threatening and result in poor heart function and
abnormal heart rhythms. Fortunately, myocarditis is very rare in children, happening in about 1 out of 100,000 children each year.
Talk with your pediatrician about any concerns you have about your child’s health.
About Dr. Renno
Markus Renno, MD, MPH, FAAP, is an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Radiology at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children’s Hospital. He specializes in advanced techniques for iimaging the hearts of children, including transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac MRI, cardiac CT, and fetal echocardiography. He has served in numerous leadership roles within the American Academy of Pediatrics, including the
Section on Pediatric Trainees,
Council of Pediatric Subspecialties, and
Section on Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery.
About Dr. Thomas
Tim Thomas, MD, MMHC, FAAP, is an Associate Professor of Pediatric Cardiology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. His focus is on providing general pediatric cardiology care to patients in five outreach clinics in Middle Tennessee. Dr. Thomas maintains a love for the engineering principles in cardiology that began as an undergraduate at Georgia Tech. He provides around 3,000 outpatients visits per year, including several hundred in Spanish, which frequently surprises his patients.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Managing chest wall injuries – After Trauma
What is a chest wall injury?
Injuries to the chest wall include fractured ribs, fractured sternum (breastbone) and/or bruising to the lungs. They normally occur following an impact trauma to the chest, such as falling from a height, a road traffic accident or during impact sports.
Signs and symptoms
Following an injury to the chest wall, people frequently experience pain when coughing, taking deep breaths and when laughing. It can also be uncomfortable to move in bed and walk. Although chest wall injuries can be painful, you can expect this discomfort to improve over a period of 3-6 weeks. This may take longer for more severe injuries.
Chest wall injuries are managed differently depending on the severity of your injuries and the symptoms you are experiencing.
Some people may require surgery to fix broken ribs and some patients may require chest drains. However most chest wall injuries are managed without surgery and heal spontaneously over a period of weeks.
When you are in hospital some patients require oxygen to help their breathing and many will require some painkillers to manage enable them to move around and take deep breaths without discomfort.
The chest wall moves continuously while we breathe. Following rib fractures, this movement can be painful and can stop us from taking deep breaths, coughing or laughing. This in turn prevents us from clearing our natural lung secretions. These secretions can build up and cause a chest infection. Some people also experience pain and stiffness in the shoulder and spine. This mainly results from not moving as we usually would, due to pain caused by the injury.
What can I do to help my recovery?
To reduce the risk of developing a chest infection there are several things you can do.
- Taking deep breaths regularly throughout the day – aim to take 10 deep breaths every hour
- Do not suppress the need to cough or take cough suppressing medicine- it is important to clear any phlegm that builds in your lungs.
- Take regular pain relief
- Support your ribs when you cough by hugging a pillow or rolled up towel into your chest.
- Do a steady amount of exercise or activity every day and gradually increase this until you have returned to your usual activities
- Avoid spending prolonged periods of time in bed
What happens after I have left hospital?
You should contact your GP if you:
- Feel unwell
- Develop a fever
- Feel short of breath
- Start coughing up yellow, green or blood stained phlegm
- Experience pain on the chest wall that persists after 8 weeks
- Feel heart palpitations
Do I need follow- up physiotherapy?
You should contact your GP for a referral to your local physiotherapy service if:
- You have difficulty in achieving full movement of your arms or spine
- Pain in your chest, back or shoulder does not settle after 6-8 weeks
- You find it difficult to return to full work duties or hobbies
- Breathlessness stops you from returning to previous levels of fitness
Thanks to St Georges’ University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Major Trauma Therapy Team, @STGTraumaPTOT for this information
Chest Pain in Teens: When to Worry
Few things can cause a parent’s heart to stand still like having a teenage child complain of chest pain. Unfortunately, it’s a common complaint. According to national data from 2016, people aged 15 to 24 years comprise 14.2% of all emergency room visits and chest pain is one of the top diagnoses.
Causes of Chest Pain
Many people have experienced chest pain, and a variety of words are used to describe it, ranging from dull to squeezing. There are equally as many causes, the most serious of which usually involve the heart or lungs. Luckily, in teenagers, the most serious are not the most likely.
Frequently, the cause of chest pain in teens is chest wall pain. The chest wall includes the skin, fat, muscles, and bones that form a protective structure around the heart, major blood vessels, lungs, and esophagus. The bones in the chest wall include the ribs, sternum (breastbone), and spine. No wonder there are so many ways to have chest wall pain.
A leading cause of chest wall pain in teens is costochondritis – inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum, causing sharp chest pain which worsens with a deep breath. Costochondritis usually has no apparent cause and can last for several weeks or longer. Chest wall pain can also result from rib trauma or sore muscles due to chronic pain syndromes like fibromyalgia.
Deeper in the chest is the esophagus, no stranger to chest pain. Teens can have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows backwards and irritates the lining of the esophagus. Symptoms often occur after eating or when lying down at night.
And let’s not forget the mind-body connection; stress, anxiety, and panic attacks can all cause chest pain. Panic attacks are dreadful and include rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, and a fear of dying.
Other Causes of Chest Pain
Less often, chest pain in teenagers can be related to the lungs, heart, or blood vessels. For example, a pneumothorax is the sudden collapse of a lung without any apparent cause. Symptoms are sudden onset of chest pain and shortness of breath. Pericarditis is inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart. It causes sharp pain that gets worse with breathing deeply and lying down. Usually a virus is to blame.
When it comes to chest pain, genetics count. Inherited conditions such as the factor V Leiden mutation can lead to a pulmonary embolism – a blood clot that travels from a leg and lodges in a lung. Symptoms include chest pain that worsens with breathing deeply, shortness of breath, and cough.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a usually inherited disease in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick. A small number of people with HCM experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). Due to the arrhythmia, HCM is the most common cause of heart-related sudden death in athletes and in people under age 30. Any teenager with a family member who has HCM should be screened for it by a cardiologist.
Certain inherited syndromes including Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, and Turner can lead to aortic root dissection, another life-threatening condition that causes chest pain. In aortic root dissection, the inner layers of the main artery of the body separate. The aorta then ruptures causing sudden severe chest pain with a tearing or shearing sensation.
Even though chest pain in teenagers is usually not serious, it’s important to take it seriously. If it’s severe and sudden, please call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room. Otherwise, make an appointment for your teen’s primary care provider (PCP) to do a complete history and physical examination. The PCP might order tests such as an EKG or chest x-ray and/or refer your teenager to a cardiologist.
This article was originally posted on Philly.com
90,000 Why does the chest hurt – possible causes
Location of organs at chest level
If the chest hurts in the middle, then this indicates possible problems with such internal organs:
- Heart and nearby vessels – hollow veins, aorta.
- Trachea and bronchi.
- Nerves, ligaments, muscles.
- Lymph nodes.
Nearby are the vital organs of the abdominal cavity, thymus, chest wall.Often the pain is reflected and indicates irradiation. Examples are hernias. With the development of pathology, pain often radiates to the limb. Most often, with the development of painful sensations in the chest area, problems of the cardiovascular system or intercostal neuralgia are observed.
Detailed description of signs of disease
Depending on the nature of the sensations, the following pathologies can be suspected:
- Dull painful sensations often indicate and
shemic heart disease, endocarditis, cancer, gastritis or the development of an attack of bronchial asthma.
- Severe pain syndrome indicates the development of an attack of myocardial infarction, pleurisy or gastric ulcer.
- Pressing sensations are characteristic of ischemic heart disease and endocarditis.
- Stitching sensations characterize intercostal neuralgia, ischemic heart disease, pneumonia, bronchitis, or neuralgia.
- Aching sensations are characteristic of gastritis or ischemic heart disease.
- Severe and sharp pain indicates an attack of osteochondrosis, back problems in the thoracic region, and intercostal neuralgia.
Depending on the pain sensation, it is important to pay attention to the accompanying symptoms as well.
Diseases of the circulatory system and heart
The heart muscle is located in the middle of the chest with a slight shift to the left. With the development of painful sensations, irradiation may appear to the scapula, shoulder, collarbone, stomach and even arm. Most often, the left side of the body is affected when a radiating pain occurs.
How do heart diseases manifest themselves:
- Ischemic heart disease is manifested by sudden and sharp pain, aggravated by physical exertion (running, brisk walking, coughing).The reason is atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, due to pathologically high cholesterol levels for a long period. Diagnosis of the disease is required, which consists in conducting an ECG, ECHO. When a diagnosis is made, life-long drug therapy is prescribed.
- Myocardial infarction. A serious pathology, consisting in the blockage of a vital artery through which blood flows to the heart. As a result, the heart muscle stops working within a few minutes and death occurs.Usually a large vessel is clogged with a thrombus that has come off from an atherosclerotic plaque. The disease manifests itself with acute pain on the left. A concomitant symptom of an attack is numbness in one part of the body. Urgent medical attention is required.
- Infective endocarditis is the result of the introduction of an infectious agent into the heart. It is a complication after suffering tonsillitis or sinusitis. Streptococci and staphylococci are affected by the heart muscle. The result is tachycardia, heart pain. It is necessary to conduct an ECG and ECHO to confirm the diagnosis.Therapy consists of prescribing antibiotics.
- Pressure surges. When an attack of hypertension or hypertensive crisis occurs, in addition to discomfort in the chest, there is a severe headache, a feeling of heaviness in the body and weakness.
- With pericarditis, severe and pressing pains may occur in the middle, but closer to the left. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardium due to inflammation. There is soreness and heaviness in the chest during inhalation, closer to the upper part.The main reasons are previous infections, injuries, tumors, heart attacks. Depending on the course of the pathology, discomfort may vary. Complex drug therapy is required.
- Angina pectoris is the most common type of ischemic heart disease. Distinguish between stable and unstable angina. The main cause of an attack is insufficient blood supply to the heart, which causes acute pain on the left at rest, but when moving, the discomfort increases.The disease often occurs against the background of atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity and alcoholism. An important role in the appearance of seizures is played by heredity.
- Iron deficiency anemia is a disease of the hematopoietic organs, does not directly relate to the cardiovascular system, but negatively affects the work of the heart. The disease can be suspected by low levels of hemoglobin, ferritin and serum iron in the blood. Hemoglobin is involved in the transport of oxygen in the blood to the heart.Anemia is caused by a lack of iron and hypovitaminosis. It develops more often in women due to blood loss. The disease is dangerous because it manifests itself as signs of oxygen starvation – shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness and pain in the heart. With a prolonged lack of oxygen in the blood, not only the heart suffers, but also the brain, blood vessels, a persistent deterioration in performance is observed. The therapy consists in correcting nutrition and using vitamin and mineral complexes.
- Pulmonary embolism. Why it occurs – due to blockage of the vessel by a blood clot or cholesterol plaque.The disease is associated with atherosclerosis and increased blood density. A high risk of blockage is also associated with an inherited factor. Various sources indicate that PE has a number of nonspecific symptoms – shortness of breath, acute pain in the middle of the chest, fainting, dizziness, weakness, tachycardia, and decreased blood pressure. When these symptoms occur, you need to urgently call a doctor. If nothing is done, the patient is more likely to die. If the patient is pulled out of a difficult situation, then a lifelong intake of anticoagulants, statins with lifestyle correction is prescribed.In the future, such drugs will help to avoid a second attack.
Signs of chronic or acute heart pain differ from person to person.
Why does the chest hurt in diseases of the respiratory system
In case of infectious diseases, smoking or inhalation of harmful substances in the workplace, over time, damage to the respiratory system occurs. In acute course, chest pain is observed. Discomfort is not observed in all cases of respiratory diseases.The characteristic signs of lung damage are heaviness in the chest, and pain occurs during coughing.
- Bronchial asthma is an allergic pathology, which, in addition to discomfort in the chest area, is manifested by attacks of suffocation. It is diagnosed by performing fluorography and breathing tests. Treat the disease with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and bronchodilators.
- Bronchitis – characterized by heaviness in the chest in the lower part.Unpleasant sensations usually occur when phlegm appears in the lungs. Symptomatic therapy is required.
- Inflammation of the lungs is manifested not only by pain in the chest area, but also by a severe cough. There may be sputum streaked with blood. The lungs themselves do not hurt because they lack pain receptors. Painful sensations occur with complications such as pleurisy or pulmonary emphysema. Also, pneumonia is accompanied by symptoms of acute respiratory infections – cough, hyperthermia, chills, poor health.
- Pleurisy occurs when fluid accumulates in the pleura, which is characterized by its inflammation. This disease is determined after the performed fluorography.
- Oncology of the lungs. In the early stages, the disease is asymptomatic. Over time, in addition to pain behind the breastbone, there is a general deterioration in well-being, a dry cough appears. As the disease progresses, hemoptysis also occurs. The tumor is usually found after fluorography.
Digestive system pathologies
With disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, unpleasant symptoms associated with pain, burning or discomfort in the lower part of the thoracic region are often observed.
Depending on the true localization of the disease, the following symptoms of irradiation into the chest may occur:
- Spasm of the esophagus, stomach or gallbladder. In this case, aching pain sensations are observed, radiating to the back. The pain increases with palpation of the epigastric region. Treatment is symptomatic. Antispasmodics are commonly used.
- Acute attack of pancreatitis. There are burning and sharp pains behind the sternum closer to the left side, after eating.Therapy is symptomatic, usually antispasmodics are used.
- Esophagitis. The disease manifests itself as a set of symptoms. Heartburn, violent belching, a lump in the throat, and a burning sensation in the chest usually occur. The attack is stopped by using antacids.
- Stomach and duodenal ulcer. During an exacerbation of the disease, pains that resemble heart problems are often observed. Unpleasant sensations are felt in the chest area. Distinguishing an attack of an ulcer from a heart problem is simple – it is enough to eat something and the patient will feel better.Also, an attack of stomach ulcers is observed a few hours after eating.
- A diaphragmatic abscess is characterized by severe pain in the chest area, accompanied by cough and fever. In such a situation, it is required to call an ambulance, since the patient’s life is threatened by severe inflammation, which can cause blood poisoning.
- Gastroesophageal reflux. It manifests itself as a strong feeling of discomfort in the chest area with bouts of nausea. Soreness is felt in the middle, as the acidic contents of the stomach are thrown to the esophagus.Neck pain from the front may occur due to severe heartburn. Therapy consists of taking medications to reduce the acidity of the stomach and following a strict diet.
To determine the exact cause of the discomfort, it is recommended to consult a physician or gastroenterologist.
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and nervous system
Most often, discomfort in the thoracic back is caused by problems with the ridge. Discomfort is observed with osteochondrosis, protrusion, trauma, muscle strain or intervertebral hernia.
How do back diseases manifest themselves:
- Osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine is the most common cause of discomfort. With osteochondrosis, aching or sharp pains in the ridge region are sometimes observed. Usually, the condition does not cause discomfort until the nerve root is pinched. There is a sharp pain in the chest on the left or on the right side (depending on which side the nerve is pinched). In the acute period, conservative therapy is used with the use of NSAIDs, antispasmodics and muscle relaxants.It is useful to inject B vitamins. During the recovery period, exercise therapy and physiotherapy are prescribed.
- A protrusion or hernia is characterized by protrusion of the annulus fibrosus into the intervertebral region. Depending on the type of protrusion, pain is observed on the right or left side in the chest. When nerves are pinched, there is a shooting pain in the scapula, collarbone or arm. Therapy is aimed at restoring the patient’s condition. The methods of therapy are the same as for osteochondrosis.
- Injuries to soft or hard tissues – often occur during sports or during backstrokes.If there is a tear or muscle strain, then the pain is localized, with palpation or visual examination, there is swelling, redness and soreness. Irradiation is not typical of this type of damage. At first, the pain torments the patient constantly, eventually subsides at rest. For therapy, it is necessary to use NSAIDs and analgesics that remove inflammation and pain. bed rest is also indicated in severe cases.
- Intercostal neuralgia is a disease of the peripheral nervous system.In this case, there is a pressing, sudden or shooting pain in the area of the heart, shoulder blade or back. There is no clear localization of pain. A characteristic feature that distinguishes neuralgia from pain in the heart is unpleasant sensations on inhalation, if the patient does not have respiratory diseases. This condition does not require special therapy, unless it is provoked by organic pathologies. Muscle relaxants and neurotropic vitamin preparations are usually prescribed.
- Oncology. Various medical sources indicate that in rare cases, a malignant tumor may occur precisely in the region of the ridge at the level of the thoracic region.This site is not typical for neoplasms, but some cancers metastasize to this area. An example is a tumor of the stomach, lungs, or uterus. Painful symptoms in the initial stages do not bother the patient much, but as the tumor grows, they intensify. At a later stage, the discomfort becomes palpable and worries the patient around the clock. Therefore, if the pain persists for more than a few days, you need to see a doctor.
Diagnosis of the cause of discomfort
The study consists in a detailed collection of anamnesis, tests and diagnostic procedures.At the first appointment with the therapist, the patient describes in detail the nature of the pain, when the discomfort occurs, and in what place. If discomfort is felt in the region of the heart, weakness, increased pressure and increased discomfort during physical exertion are observed, the patient is referred for examination to a cardiologist.
A cardiologist can prescribe a number of procedures:
- Electrocardiography. With the help of this device, latent tachycardia, arrhythmia, heart murmurs are determined. If pathological abnormalities in the work of the heart according to the ECG are observed, then the patient is prescribed an ECHO.
- Echocardiography – a research method using an ultrasound machine. The cardiologist examines the work of the heart on the apparatus, looking for structural changes in the organ. With the help of ECHO, you can measure the size, consider inflammation, thickening of the walls of blood vessels.
- Angiography of blood vessels. A simple procedure that allows you to view the walls of large arteries and veins using X-ray. Using the procedure, the presence or absence of atherosclerotic changes is reliably determined.If the cardiologist suspects such changes based on the results of ECHO, then the patient will immediately undergo angiography.
In case of complaints of chest pain accompanied by cough, hemoptysis, secretion, shortness of breath or fever, the therapist will refer the patient to a pulmonologist. This specialist can prescribe a number of the following procedures:
- Fluorography. This is an X-ray method of examining the chest and lungs, which makes it possible to assess gross structural changes in the pulmonary cavity and heart.On the X-ray image, foci of inflammation, points of tumor lesion, thickening of the pleural film are visible. You can also suspect an infectious lesion.
- If pneumonia is suspected, an additional study is the delivery of a general blood test. If there is an increase in leukocytes against a background of elevated temperature, then the patient is diagnosed with bronchitis or pneumonia.
- If the diagnosis cannot be clarified, then an MRI is prescribed. Magnetic resonance imaging allows you to examine the smallest structural changes in the affected organ with high accuracy.MRI with contrast is usually needed to examine the lung tissue.
If the patient complains of a burning sensation, stomach pain or upset gastrointestinal tract activity against the background of chest pain, then he is referred to a gastroenterologist. This specialist can prescribe both a number of narrowly focused laboratory tests and specific examinations of the gastrointestinal tract, including examination of the intestines, determination of the acidity of gastric juice, study of enzyme activity, study of the contents of feces.
General non-invasive research methods include:
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.
- MRI of internal organs.
- Computed tomography.
When determining pain associated with problems of the musculoskeletal system, the patient is referred to a neurologist, traumatologist or orthopedist. Depending on the diagnosis, it is confirmed by x-ray, MRI, CT or ultrasound. These diagnostic methods allow you to identify back injuries, bruises, sprains, hernia, osteochondrosis, protrusion, congenital anomalies of the spine, neoplasms.
Intercostal neuralgia is confirmed by a number of specific symptoms clearly distinguishable from cardiac disorders and back pain of a traumatic or degenerative nature. With back pain, symptomatic treatment is needed, aimed at relieving inflammation, normalizing metabolic processes and returning full-fledged motor activity. In the acute period, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, complete rest and vitamin injections are prescribed. During the rehabilitation period, exercise therapy and physiotherapy are required.
Chest pain occurs for many reasons. Reflected discomfort can trigger heart, stomach, or musculoskeletal disease. Often, unpleasant sensations appear against the background of neurological disorders. If any suspicious signs appear, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
90,000 Why there can be chest pains – blog of the ON Clinic medical center
Sore chest.The first thing that comes to mind is a heart attack. Of course, chest pain cannot be ignored. But it should be remembered that this symptom does not always threaten health.
Pain in the chest. The first thing that comes to mind is a heart attack. Of course, chest pain cannot be ignored. But it should be understood that this symptom has many causes and does not always threaten health.
Chest pain is caused by diseases of the lungs, esophagus, muscle spasm, broken ribs, or nerve damage.Some of these diseases can be life threatening, some are not harmful to health and go away on their own. If you feel chest pain and you don’t know what caused it (you didn’t fall, you didn’t be hit in the chest), the only way to find out the cause is to ask your doctor.
You can feel chest pain anywhere from the lower neck to the apex of the abdomen. Chest pains (thoracalgia) are:
Below are some of the most common causes of thoracalgia.
Causes of chest pain: heart problems
Although the symptom is not always associated with the heart, it is the heart that most often causes chest pain.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is accompanied by blockage of the arteries that feed the heart. Less blood is supplied to the heart muscle – hypoxia and myocardial ischemia occur. This causes burning and pressing pain, which is medically called angina pectoris.Angina pectoris is a reversible circulatory disorder of the heart, not accompanied by the death of the myocardium. But this is the first signal that a heart attack is possible in the future.
Cardialgia (heart pain) with an attack of angina pectoris extends to the left scapula, shoulder, hand, jaw and back. Sudden cardialgia occurs during or after physical exertion, sex, excitement, excitement, experiences of fear. The symptom goes away with rest.
Myocardial infarction. These are irreversible disorders of the heart muscle due to the arrest of blood circulation in the coronary arteries.Myocardial cells die off, and a scar forms in their place after 1-2 weeks. With a heart attack, pain in the region of the heart is more pronounced and acute than with angina pectoris. Thoracalgia is localized to the left or center of the chest and does not go away with calmness. A heart attack is accompanied by fear of death, sweating, nausea, weakness, and disorientation.
This is a medical emergency that requires medical attention. The first sign of a heart attack is burning, pressing, or constricting chest pain that spreads to the left shoulder blade, shoulder, arm, and back.Unlike angina pectoris, thoracalgia in myocardial infarction lasts longer than 15 minutes and is not eliminated by nitroglycerin. If you find these symptoms, call an ambulance.
Myocarditis. This is inflammation of the heart muscle. In addition to chest pain, myocarditis is accompanied by fever, exhaustion, heart palpitations, and shortness of breath. With myocardial inflammation, the coronary arteries are not clogged and the heart is well supplied with blood, but chest pain with myocarditis can resemble a heart attack.
Pericarditis. This is an inflammation of the heart sac, which protects the organ from mechanical damage and displacement. The disease provokes thoracalgia, which resembles an attack of angina pectoris. However, pericarditis has features:
- pain occurs along the neck and shoulder muscles;
- pains may be sharp or aching;
- chest discomfort increases at the height of inspiration, while eating or lying on your back.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is a hereditary disease that causes excessive thickening of the heart muscle.Sometimes cardiomyopathy interferes with cardiac blood flow, but more often it provokes thoracalgia and shortness of breath with exertion. When the heart muscle expands to its limit, heart failure occurs. The heart needs more oxygen and energy to push blood into the aorta and pump it through the greater circulation. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in addition to thoracalgia, is accompanied by dizziness, fainting, and fatigue.
Mitral valve prolapse. Pathology is accompanied by the fact that the heart valve cannot close properly: when the muscles of the heart contract, it protrudes into the left atrium and part of the blood rushes back into the atrium.
Mitral valve prolapse is manifested by chest pain, palpitations, and dizziness. Prolapse does not appear at the initial stage of development.
Coronary artery dissection. This is a deadly disease in which a dissection occurs in the coronary artery – a tear in the vessel wall followed by hemorrhage and myocardial infarction. The dissection causes severe and severe thoracalgia that spreads to the back, abdomen, and neck.
Causes of chest pain: lung problems
Lung diseases can cause chest pain.Here are the reasons related to the pulmonary system.
Pleurisy. This is an inflammation of the pleura that covers the lungs and separates them from the chest. With pleurisy, thoracalgia occurs during a deep breath, sneezing, or coughing. The disease usually develops due to a bacterial or viral infection, pulmonary embolism, or pneumothorax. Less common causes are lung cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Pneumonia or lung abscess. Diseases cause pleurisy, thoracalgia and deep chest pain.Pneumonia develops quickly and suddenly: body temperature rises, chills and cough with purulent discharge occur.
Pulmonary embolism. A migratory blood clot can enter the lungs. This causes severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, and heart palpitations. The condition is accompanied by fever and disorientation. The likelihood of pulmonary embolism increases in patients who:
- previously suffered from deep vein thrombosis;
- transferred the operation;
- have or have had cancer.
Pneumothorax. This is a pathology in which air accumulates in the pleural cavity. It most often occurs with severe injury to the ribs, sternum or spine with internal damage to the lungs, from which air enters the chest cavity. Pneumothorax is accompanied by chest pain at inspiratory height, low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and bouts of dry cough.
Pulmonary hypertension. The pathology is characterized by high pressure in the pulmonary arteries. This increases resistance – the right heart has to work hard to push the blood out.Pulmonary hypertension causes thoracalgia, which is similar in nature to an attack of angina pectoris.
Bronchial asthma. An acute attack of bronchospasm (narrowing of the bronchi) is accompanied by difficulty breathing, wheezing with a whistling, wet cough, and chest pain.
Causes of chest pain: gastrointestinal diseases
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The disease appears due to a defect in the esophageal sphincter, as a result of which food and hydrochloric acid from the stomach enters the esophagus.Acid reflux causes heartburn in the chest, sour belching and a sour taste in the mouth. The disease is triggered by obesity, smoking, spicy foods and a sedentary lifestyle. Chest pain occurs because the esophagus is closely adjacent to the heart – irritation is transmitted to the organs of the chest through the nervous system
Hypersensitive reflux syndrome (hypersensitive esophagus). Pathology is accompanied by increased sensitivity to chemicals and mechanical movement of food. The processing of nerve signals is impaired: sensitivity increases with the slightest pressure or contact with food, up to the occurrence of chest pains.
Dyskinesia of the esophagus. The disease is characterized by impaired esophageal motility. At the same time, food moves to the stomach more slowly, and pressure rises in the esophagus itself. This leads to chest pain.
Perforation of the esophagus. It is characterized by sudden sharp pain behind the sternum, which usually appears after vomiting or ingestion of a large amount of food. May rupture the esophagus.
Peptic ulcers. These are defects in the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.They are provoked by alcohol, spicy and fatty foods, psychoemotional stresses and large doses of pain medications (ibuprofen, aspirin, analgin, diclofenac). Pain from peptic ulcers is transmitted from the stomach and intestines to the chest.
Hernia of the esophagus. This is a pathological prolapse of a part of the stomach into the lumen of the esophageal tube. In most cases, it goes without manifestations, but occasionally causes reflux symptoms, heartburn and sternum pain, which becomes worse if you lie on your back.
Pancreatitis. Inflammation of the pancreas causes pain in the upper and middle abdomen that spreads to the chest. The pain increases if you lie on your back or lean forward, with vomiting and physical exertion.
Pathology of the gallbladder. Do you feel heaviness in the right hypochondrium and lower abdomen after eating fatty foods? If so, chest pain may be due to gallbladder disease. If you have any of the above symptoms, you should consult a gastroenterologist.
Causes of chest pain: problems with bones, muscles or nerves
Thoracalgia occurs due to damage to the chest as a result of injuries, after impacts and overuse of muscles.
Rib problems. A fractured rib can cause severe thoracalgia that worsens with inhalation, coughing, and sneezing. Pain is often confined to one area and worsens when pressed. The fracture can cause arthritis in the joint between the rib and sternum. This will cause pain.
Muscle spasm. The muscles can become inflamed or damaged, and the ligaments can stretch. This reflexively contracts the muscles of the chest, and a strong and prolonged muscle contraction causes pain.
Shingles. It occurs when the body becomes infected with the herpes zoster virus. The disease causes acute thoracalgia that runs along the affected nerve. The appearance of a rash a few days after the onset of pain confirms the diagnosis of shingles.
Other possible causes of chest pain
Feeling uncomfortable and thoracalgia can be caused by increased anxiety, fear, or panic attack.Additional symptoms: dizziness, sweating, disorientation, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, hand tremors, tingling and numbness in certain parts of the body.
When to see a doctor for chest pain
Call an ambulance at 103 if chest pain:
- burning, sharp and pressing, lasts longer than 15 minutes and is not relieved by taking a nitroglycerin tablet;
- applies to the jaw, left limb, back or left shoulder blade;
- appears suddenly and causes breathing difficulties;
- causes confusion and increased sweating;
- is accompanied by a rapid drop in blood pressure;
- is accompanied by a slowdown in heart rate;
- occurs with fever, cough with green mucus, impaired swallowing.
If you are unaware of the origin of chest pain that lasts longer than 2 weeks and does not go away after dietary changes, pain relievers and moderate physical activity, see your doctor for advice.
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Ask your question to a cardiologist
90,000 Sternum fractures – symptoms, first aid and treatment, rehabilitation – Traumatology Department of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The sternum is the bone on the anterior surface of the rib cage that connects to the clavicle and cartilaginous portions of the ribs.In traumatology, violation of the integrity of the sternum is a rarity. A fracture is most often caused by a car accident when the ribcage hits the steering gear and the center of the sternum is pushed inward.
Symptoms of fracture of the sternum
- A fracture of the sternum causes pain that is aggravated by breathing.
- Hemorrhage occurs.
- Palpation is painful, in some cases it is possible to palpate bone fragments.
- Fracture without displacement causes mild pain.
- In a displaced fracture, bone fragments can damage the pleura and lungs.
The lack of urgent medical attention in case of complications in the form of open pneumothorax and hemothorax is dangerous to the life of the victim.
Carefully performed diagnostics will help determine:
- Degree of severity;
- Type of damage;
- The presence of damage to internal organs.
It is important to take multiple shots to get the most accurate result.Computed tomography will provide even more accurate data.
How is the treatment carried out
The area of the fracture is numbed. Pain medications are prescribed for all patients.
If there is no displacement, the injured area is fixed with an adhesive plaster for 2 weeks.
If the fracture is displaced or multi-splinter fracture, two methods are used:
- The patient should be on the bed with a shield and a special roller between the shoulder blades.In this position, the offset is gradually eliminated.
- In some cases, with severe fractures, osteosynthesis can be performed – reduction (fixation) of bone fragments for better fusion: the fragments are folded into their original position and fixed with screws.
Which doctor should I contact?
As a rule, the bones are completely healed in 6 weeks. For the fastest recovery, physiotherapy and special breathing exercises are recommended.
A fracture of the sternum is treated at the clinic of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in Moscow. Highly qualified orthopedic traumatologists and surgeons will conduct an examination and prescribe an effective treatment. An appointment for a consultation is made online on the website or by calling the specified phone number.
90,000 Pain in the chest, chest in the middle
There was chest pain
– This kind of complaint can be heard quite often. The nature, regularity and intensity of this symptom, called thoracalgia by physicians, can be very diverse, but it must be remembered that such pain can signal a variety of diseases, from completely harmless to very serious.Therefore, the primary and only correct decision when it occurs is to see a doctor for a comprehensive examination and to find the causes of the ailment.
What can cause chest pain?
Malfunctions in the cardiovascular system, problems in the spine, diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, disorders of the digestive system, some diseases of internal organs, dysfunctions of the nervous system – all these ailments can be accompanied as one of the symptoms pain in the chest .The doctor can diagnose a particular disease depending on the location, severity, type of manifestation and accompanying signs.
Let’s consider the possible options in more detail. So, thoracalgia may indicate:
- ischemic heart disease or angina . This disease is always accompanied by strong pressing pain in the left chest, while the patient feels a lack of air. This condition occurs with an increase in physical activity on the heart due to a deficiency of additional oxygen
- myocardial infarction .The chest pain is extremely acute, can last for several hours, often radiates to the arm
- aortic aneurysm . Deterioration of blood flow due to protrusion, expansion of the walls of the aorta causes intense pain in the chest, which is very difficult to stop. In this state, shortness of breath also appears, coughing is possible
- mitral valve prolapse . Cardialgia, spreading throughout the chest, a feeling of general weakness and a tendency to fainting, provoked by the sagging of the mitral valve leaflets inwardly atrium
- hypertension or arterial hypertension , also causing discomfort on the left, in the region of the heart
- thromboembolism pulmonary artery.Depending on the size of the blood clot blocking the blood flow, shortness of breath, chest pain and surges in blood pressure can be more or less pronounced: from quite tolerable malaise to death
- cardioneurosis or neurosis. Due to excessive emotionality, wrong, implying abuse of coffee, unhealthy food, alcohol, smoking, lifestyle, patients often complain of pressing pain in the chest, tachycardia, difficulty breathing
- VSD .Violation of homeostasis in the body causes disruptions in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, they make themselves felt by pains in the head, chest, stomach, heart, drops in blood pressure, various gastrointestinal disorders, fear of death, panic attacks
- peptic ulcer stomach or 12-duodenal ulcer. With these ailments, pain may appear, similar to the heart, radiating to the area in the middle of the chest, to the scapula or back. This symptom directly depends on food intake: with a stomach ulcer, discomfort appears after eating, and a duodenal ulcer usually bothers the patient at night, on an empty stomach
- biliary dyskinesia .Spasms in the gallbladder and ducts provoke pain in the chest on the left. In this case, the sensations resemble an attack of angina pectoris and require additional examinations when making a diagnosis
- gastroesophageal reflux . When the mucous membrane of the esophagus is irritated, bloating and a rather sharp pain appear both in the epigastric region and, quite possibly, in the chest
- pleurisy .Irritated nerve endings of the pleura create painful sensations that intensify when coughing, laughing, sneezing, while inhaling
- pneumonia . The severity of the disease also dictates the nature of thoracalgia, it can be different: from sharp, acute to muffled whining
- bronchitis . The focus of bacterial infection is localized in the bronchi, and pain occurs in the same area. Another important symptom of this ailment is a cough, initially dry, then more humid
- tracheitis .The inflamed mucous membrane of the trachea also causes pain in the chest on the left, it becomes more acute during a coughing attack
- tuberculosis . Together with thoracalgia, bloody discharge appears when coughing, weakness, low-grade fever
- lung tumors . In addition to the type of pain of interest to us, this disease is usually accompanied by coughing up blood and an increase in temperature
- intercostal neuralgia .Quite strong aching or sharp pains are felt along the intercostal nerves. With movements of the torso, including minor ones, painful sensations increase, radiating to the back or to the region of the heart
- osteochondrosis of the thoracic region. Symptoms are similar to the previous disease, partly similar to the signs of angina pectoris. Intervertebral discs, which have lost their shock-absorbing properties, pinch nerve endings and provoke pain syndrome
- Schmorl’s hernia .Pinched nerve roots cause not only thoracalgia, but also pulling back pain, a feeling of fatigue in the muscles
- kyphosis . Unpleasant sensations are concentrated in the pectoral muscles, when pressed, it increases
- ankylosing spondylitis . In its advanced form, spondyloarthrosis leads to ossification (ankylosis) of the spine, limited movement in the thoracic region causes discomfort with deep breathing
- injury to the chest or spine.
How does Tibetan medicine
treat chest pain?
Based on what kind of diagnosis will be made, the personal doctor prescribes a personally selected set of treatment procedures. At the same time, Tibetan specialists strive to eliminate the root cause of the disease, and not only to rid the patient of visible symptoms.
For diseases of the spine, Tibetan medicine uses acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, vacuum therapy and other techniques and techniques in combination with each other, which allow you to relax tense spasmodic muscles, release the endings of nerve roots and blood vessels clamped by them, thus restoring blood circulation and innervation, stop pathological processes.
Acupuncture in skillful hands is able to calm the nervous system, balance energy constitutions, restore activity and efficiency.
For the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and psychoemotional disorders, first of all, phytotherapy is used. It is indispensable for improving metabolism, enhancing immunity, eliminating the consequences of frequent stress, increasing stress resistance, restoring the balance of natural constitutions. Such procedures as hirudotherapy, reflexology, various types of massage and warming procedures will not be superfluous in these cases.
In addition, Tibetan herbal remedies and Baikal herbs are useful for any diseases: they cleanse the blood, lower cholesterol levels, tone the walls of blood vessels, and are used as a prophylaxis.
Results of chest pain treatment in the Naran clinic
– Relief of acute pain in the first session
– Identifying and eliminating the cause of pain, not a symptom
– Improvement of the state of the whole organism, in general
– Restoration of the body’s defenses
– Harmonization of the patient’s psycho-emotional state
– Elimination of stagnation and blockages in the path of movement of energy qi and blood
Recommendations of the doctors of the clinic “Naran”
– Monitor your immune system
– Remember.that with good immunity, the defense is strong, does not allow diseases to penetrate
– Avoid the penetration of cold into the body from the outside, dress appropriately for the weather
– Representatives of the “wind” (sanguine) and “mucus” (phlegmatic) constitutions are strongly advised to eat hot food (with spices) and avoid cold food and drink
– Don’t take events “to heart”. Everything in the body is interconnected. Depletion of the nervous system has a harmful effect on internal organs
– Contact specialists at the first signals, otherwise start the disease and your suffering will double
Benefits of treatment in our clinic
– 30 years of continuous activity since the foundation of the Naran Tibetan Medicine Clinic (1989-2019)
– Branches of the Naran clinic in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Vienna (Austria)
– Positive treatment results confirmed by patients (according to experts, more than 370,000 people)
– Unique methods of treating more than 200 human diseases
– Diagnostics using the methods of modern medicine (ultrasound, etc.)
– Free consultation
90,000 Funnel chest: treatment, surgery and specialists
What is a funnel chest?
A funnel chest is a malformation of the chest, which is a change in the cartilaginous connection between the ribs and the sternum. One in 3000 babies is born with this chest deformity. This defect, also known as the “shoemaker’s chest”, is the sinking of the chest on one or both sides (funnel shape).The sternum itself is also sunken. The defect can be of different sizes and lead to physical limitations.
Causes of a funnel chest
Funnel-shaped breasts are three times more common in boys than in girls. The exact reasons are unknown. However, there is a suspicion that this is a violation of the metabolism of cartilage tissue. The sunken chest is hereditary.
Funnel chest symptoms
Most patients do not have physical complaints during infancy, as the baby’s breasts are still relatively soft.Only at the age of about 12 years and with an increase in chest stiffness, the following symptoms may occur, depending on the degree of manifestation:
- difficulty breathing and shortness of breath
- palpitations and dysfunction of the heart pump
- chest and back pain
- decreased performance
Often, a funnel chest is accompanied by an increased curvature of the back and, accordingly, back pain as a result of improper posture.About 95% of patients have no problems. They suffer only from the unaesthetic deformity of the chest. It can be so pronounced that people with funnel-shaped breasts avoid activities in which they need to show their torso.
Funnel Breast Treatment
Exercise therapy and a vacuum bell can correct the light shape of a funnel-shaped chest, as well as correct posture. The chest is lifted with a vacuum bell for at least 1 hour a day for 2-3 years.
For severe physical complaints, pectus pectus surgery may be performed. Today, thanks to more gentle methods, the operation is performed even for cosmetic reasons.
How the targeted correction of the funnel chest is carried out depends primarily on the degree of chest deformity. However, the person’s emotional stress is also considered when deciding for or against a particular form of treatment. For medical reasons, surgical treatment is indicated in severe cases to correct the deformity.
Pectus excavatum surgery is, in fact, part of pediatric surgery and requires experience from a specialist. Chest deformities are often corrected as early as childhood or adolescence – but only when symptoms appear or are expected in the future. The easiest way to correct the correction is before the second growth leap at about 12 years of age, since the pectoral structures are still elastic and therefore easier to shape. If the funnel chest is not corrected, the chest deformity may increase as the body grows.Then, as the bone structures become stronger, symptoms appear that usually do not occur in childhood. They range from severe pain symptoms and functional disorders of the heart and lungs to reduced performance. Each of these symptoms can seriously reduce a person’s quality of life.
Funnel chest is not always accompanied by physical limitations or complaints. Despite this, patients often want to make corrections for aesthetic reasons. Patients often feel complex due to deformed breasts and avoid showing themselves bare-chested or in tight-fitting clothing.This is where aesthetic plastic surgery can help.
Funnel Breast Surgery Procedure and Techniques
Over the past decades, various types of funnel chest surgery have been developed, with the preferred choice of gentle, minimally invasive methods. Before operating on a funnel chest, other causes of heart, lung, and spinal problems should be ruled out. There are three different procedures for pectus breast surgery.
Which method is most appropriate depends on the individual. If the pathological lowering of the sternum and ribs is symmetrical, in most cases minimally invasive intervention is possible and advisable to correct the depression. Another important aspect when choosing a surgical method is the presence or absence of pain symptoms and functional disorders of the lungs and heart.
If there are no complaints or limitations associated with chest deformity, aesthetic plastic correction is recommended.The bone and cartilage structure remains completely intact. Funnel-shaped breasts are corrected here using an implant or autologous fat, which visually compensate for the sunken depression and make it almost invisible to others. However, this intervention is carried out only in adulthood.
Any operation to correct a funnel chest – regardless of the procedure – is performed under general anesthesia and requires a hospital stay.
Open pectus pectus surgery
The classic open surgery is currently mainly used only in a modified version and in cases of severe deformity.An incision is made along the sternum (across in women), the deformed cartilage is detached, lifted and re-fixed. Metal implants are used for stabilization and are usually removed after a year.
The pectus breast correction using classic open surgery is a very complex procedure that is relatively stressful for the patient. It also requires a longer hospital stay and leaves quite visible scars.Therefore, such an operation is used only in a modified form and with a very strong deformation of the chest.
Nuss Minimally Invasive Funnel Breast Surgery
Nass’s minimally invasive pectus pectus surgery is a commonly used procedure in the post-breastbone age (16–20 years). Here, the doctor, using thoracoscopy, pushes one or more metal staples of a certain shape through a small incision on the side wall of the chest under the deformed area and fixes it from the side.From the inside, pressure is exerted on the defect, and over time it is eliminated.
The metal part is removed after 2-3 years. In older patients, it takes a little longer to correct the defect. In some cases, a combination of minimally invasive procedures and open surgery is used. The advantage of minimally invasive procedures is the protection of bones and cartilage. Gentle intervention through a small incision also leads to faster recovery. The subsequent removal of the metal staple is a minor and painless procedure.
Correction of pectus pectus with minimally invasive surgical technique offers clear benefits for the patient. Most important are significantly reduced recovery times and shorter hospital stays. It also reduces the period of temporary disability of the patient. Last but not least, a few small incisions leave only subtle scars. Thus, a minimally invasive surgical procedure promises good results not only from a functional point of view, but also from a cosmetic point of view.However, it is rarely used in pediatric surgery.
Aesthetic correction of funnel-shaped breasts with silicone or autologous fat
In the case of a funnel chest without symptoms, which is only aesthetically disturbing, there is no need to correct it with metal braces. Plastic and aesthetic surgery has developed two procedures that are gentle and promise a satisfactory cosmetic result.
1.Silicone Implant: A custom-made silicone implant is made from a plaster cast and is minimally invasively pushed through a small incision under the skin. The implant visually compensates for the malformation and is recommended as the method of choice in plastic and aesthetic surgery.
2. Autologous Fat Transplantation: The introduction of autologous fat to correct the chest defect is a newer procedure and is only recommended for eligible patients.In 2-3 minimally invasive surgeries, autologous fat is first removed at a specific site and then injected into the defect to compensate for the sunken breast. There are no long-term results at this time. The advantage, however, is the use of the body’s own material, which does not feel like an implant, even physically.
For many patients, a sunken chest carries a significant emotional burden, even if the deformity does not cause discomfort or functional limitations.Women especially suffer from this defect. This is natural in our time, because everywhere there is a striving for physical perfection. Here, plastic aesthetic surgery offers good opportunities to make the funnel-shaped lowering of the sternum invisible and improve the patient’s quality of life. Correction is possible with an implant or autologous fat, which is taken from another place in the body.
Pain, risks and recovery after pectus pectus surgery
In general, each operation is associated with certain risks.These include injury to surrounding organs (heart, lungs, nerves, blood vessels), infections, wound healing disorders, allergic reactions to metal, bleeding, blood clots, etc.
Longer and sometimes more intense pain management is usually needed after Nass surgery, as the metal brace must be applied to the chest to return it to its original position. In addition, the movement of the chest during breathing increases the friction between the metal and the particularly pain-sensitive periosteum.
The recovery phase after surgery is characterized by the initial prohibition of any load on the upper body. After about 6 weeks, light physiotherapy exercises begin. After that, physical activity can be slowly increased. After a hospital stay, it is expected that a person will be able to return to work only after a few weeks, until the new shape of the chest has stabilized.
As a rule, minimally invasive aesthetic correction using silicone implants or autologous fat transplantation is completely sufficient to compensate for the cosmetic defect, while it is significantly less stressful than the Nass procedure.
Minimally invasive procedures are in any case surgical procedures and are therefore associated with the usual operational risks. This includes damage to blood vessels or surrounding organs, which can subsequently lead to bleeding. Nerve injury cannot be ruled out. Last but not least, there is always a risk of wound infection or impaired wound healing. Blood clots may also form after each operation. Sometimes patients are allergic to metal staples.
The postoperative period may differ depending on the chosen surgical procedure. Pain symptoms are also different. However, the patient must prepare for the recovery process, which lasts several weeks, which is always associated with disability. The only exception is aesthetic plastic surgery using an implant. The recovery time is much shorter here, since there is no surgical correction of the chest structure.
Which doctors and clinics are specialists in pectus pectus surgery?
Funnel chest is the most common chest deformity, but only occurs in a few people. Accordingly, surgical correction of such a defect is rarely performed. It is all the more important that the procedure is performed by a physician experienced in this area. This significantly reduces the risks inherent in such a surgical procedure. Consequently, the correction of chest deformity necessarily belongs to the field of activity of a physician with experience.
A person with a funnel chest should see an orthopedic surgeon first. It will determine the degree of chest deformity. He can also decide whether it makes sense to treat the problem without surgery. In the case of severe breathing and heart problems, the orthopedic surgeon or family doctor will refer the patient to a thoracic surgeon who can perform Nass surgery. Responsible for cosmetic correction
plastic and aesthetic surgery
We can help you find a specialist in the treatment of funnel breasts. PRIMO MEDICO employs only experienced specialists and chief doctors in their field. Currently, specialists can be found for the treatment of funnel breasts in Berlin, Eschweiler, Gensing and Bern.
- P. Puri, M. Höllwart: Pediatric Surgery, Springer 2006
- Dinenman, Hendrik K .; Hoffmann, Hans H .; Detterbeck, Frank K. (2014): Chest Surgery (Springer Surgery Atlas Series).
- https://www.kidsdoc.at/trichterbrust_operation_erw Adults.html
Consequences and complications after coronavirus: sense of smell and body condition
Consequences of coronavirus: what are the complications and how they are dangerous
Consequences and complications after coronavirus: sense of smell and the state of the body
Consequences of coronavirus: what are the complications and how they are dangerous
Consequences and complications after coronavirus occur in some people who have been ill and have varying degrees of severity.About what are the complications and side effects … RIA Novosti, 09/30/2021
health – society
coronavirus in russia
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MOSCOW, 23 July – RIA Novosti. Consequences and complications after coronavirus occur in some people who have been ill and have varying degrees of severity. RIA Novosti reports on what complications and side reactions are, how COVID-19 affects the body, how to restore the sense of smell. other vital systems and human organs. As a rule, complications develop after a severe form of the course of the disease, but they can also appear after a mild one.So, according to the WHO, every tenth person who recovered reports the remaining symptoms of the coronavirus. The American review examines more than 50 different types of complications after COVID-19. Causes of consequences and complications The causes of complications are now being actively investigated by scientists. “Coronavirus infection affects not only the lungs, but also the nerve endings,” Andrey Kondrakhin, Ph.D., clinical pharmacologist, told RIA Novosti. – There is scientific evidence that COVID-19 affects the nervous system, the brain, where changes associated with the virus also occur.Accordingly, changes appear in the structures of nerve fibers along their entire length. This leads to complications experienced by people who have had coronavirus. It can be tingling, sensations of twisting of the limbs, constant back pain, severe weakness. The most dangerous complication after the disease is thrombosis of the lungs and pulmonary artery, which can lead to the death of a person, and small thrombosis can also occur. In addition, people are faced with asthenia, severe weakness, difficulty breathing, because the volume of the lungs decreases, shortness of breath, even if the lungs have already recovered, panic attacks – fear of death, anxiety, etc.etc., tachycardia, headaches. Such consequences can persist for several months, but there are cases when they do not go away longer, for example, if there was a very severe course of the coronavirus. Complications can occur after a mild form, but they will be less pronounced and go away faster. ”Common complications The most common complications after coronavirus are fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, loss of smell, headaches, etc. in 13% of those who have recovered and usually disappears within a month, and faster in men than in women.With the appearance of such a complication, a person may not feel any smells at all, feel them partially or distorted. So far, there is no cure for this symptom, because it is not entirely clear how it occurs. According to one hypothesis, loss of smell is due to swelling of the nasal mucosa. Fatigue Fatigue most often disappears within a month after illness, but sometimes it can persist for more than 3 months. People with this symptom feel that they get tired faster than before the coronavirus, for some, fatigue can be so severe that it becomes almost impossible to do everyday activities or go to work.This condition occurs not only after coronavirus, but also other infectious diseases. So far, scientists do not fully understand what the increased fatigue is associated with, but it is believed that this is due to a strong immune response, after which the body recovers for a long time. With such a complication, a person should rest more and not overwork. Chest pain According to statistics, chest pain occurs in 12.7% of those who have recovered and develops due to damage to the lungs. If a similar symptom brings strong pain, accompanied by dizziness, shortness of breath, you should consult a cardiologist, because this may indicate heart disease.Shortness of breath Shortness of breath occurs in 31.7% of those who have been ill: their frequency and depth of breathing change due to the fact that the body does not have enough oxygen. This complication goes away rather slowly – within 2-3 months. If the shortness of breath is severe, then it is difficult for a person to take a breath, chest tightness appears, and the pulse quickens. It arises due to the fact that the lungs after an illness have not fully recovered and cannot fully work. If the symptom is accompanied by pain, you should consult a doctor, because shortness of breath can develop due to heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, empyema, pulmonary embolism.Cough 13.5% of those who have had coronavirus are coughing. It usually goes away on its own within 3 months or less, so no medication is needed. The cough can be dry or with clots of mucus that leaves the lungs. Weakening of the immune system Coronavirus can weaken the human immune system: according to statistics, this occurs in about 83.2% of patients. In some people, it may take more than 11 weeks to recover. A decrease in immunity occurs due to the fact that the virus affects lymphocytes, the level of which is directly related to the immune response.In this case, a person becomes more vulnerable to other infections, he may experience: Experts note that about 80% of people have had a mild or moderate illness, so the syndrome may not be present at all or it will not manifest itself very strongly. So, according to a survey conducted in the United States, 35% of recovered bodies have not fully recovered 2-3 weeks after the coronavirus.If a person was in intensive care, was connected to a ventilator, has chronic diseases, then the consequences are practically inevitable. Neurological consequences According to Galina Ivanova, the chief freelance specialist for medical rehabilitation of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, the neurological consequences of COVID-19 are found in almost all those who have recovered. pain, impaired sensitivity, impaired smell, taste disturbances, paresis, paralysis, cognitive impairment of varying severity, anxiety and depression – in almost 99% of patients who have undergone coronavirus infection, “the expert noted.Also, a person may experience auditory hallucinations, panic attacks, fatigue, decreased performance, memory problems. As experts note, neurological consequences can persist for more than a month, in severe cases there is a risk of cerebral strokes (hemorrhagic and ischemic), infectious lesions of the central nervous system. For example, meningoencephalomyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, lesions of the peripheral nervous system, which manifest as autoimmune polyneuropathies.Heart failure If a person has had cardiovascular disease, that is, the risk of developing chronic heart failure due to the fact that during the illness the heart is poorly saturated with oxygen and nutrients. If a person develops shortness of breath, then you should consult a doctor and check the functioning of the organ. Other consequences Since the coronavirus affects almost the entire body, a person can develop various diseases, including life-threatening ones. when lung tissue begins to be replaced by coarse connective tissue that does not allow oxygen to pass through.This negatively affects the work of the heart and blood vessels; in the worst case, a person will need an oxygen cylinder, without which he will not be able to breathe. After an illness, a computed tomogram of the lungs should be done, even if there is no discomfort or difficulty in breathing. Viral myocarditis Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can occur after infectious diseases, including coronavirus. A person develops symptoms such as weakness, low blood pressure, tachycardia or cardiac arrhythmia, and the body temperature rises.The disease may not appear immediately, but several months after recovery from COVID-19, so it is important to see a cardiologist regularly. Kidney damage In 30% of cases, patients may develop kidney problems, which often require urgent intervention, for example, in the form of acute hemodialysis. Those who have had coronavirus should have a urine test and kidney ultrasound, even if there are no symptoms. It is important to take into account that renal lesions may not manifest in any way, therefore, it is better to make a timely diagnosis.Liver Damage The liver is also affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus because it contains receptors that COVID-19 proteins can bind to when infected. According to some reports, liver damage was found in about 50% of patients. If a person has chronic diseases of this organ, then the course of the disease can be very severe.If you experience discomfort in the intestinal area, you should consult a doctor. In this case, a person may have a lack of sensitivity, increased fatigue, dizziness, headaches, blurred speech, difficulty swallowing, etc. Deterioration of vision Against the background of coronavirus, vision may deteriorate, but there is little research on this topic so far. Ophthalmologists associate decreased visual acuity with external eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, according to an article published in the Lancet.Nervous system After an illness, patients may experience various mental disorders. For example, increased anxiety, depression, panic attacks, hallucinations, which are more common in older people. Urinary system Some recoveries face problems with the urinary system. A person may experience nephrological complications, proteinuria, hematuria. Cardiological disorders Most often, patients develop hypertension and arrhythmia, but inflammatory myocarditis is a particular danger.Even after recovering from the coronavirus, there is a risk of strokes and heart attacks. To avoid such complications, people at risk should consult a doctor for prescribing therapy. Respiratory tract Coronavirus especially strongly affects the lungs, which causes fibrosis and worsens respiratory function. If a person has an oxygen deficiency, then it can manifest itself in the form of asthenia, general malaise, drowsiness, headaches, dizziness, slow thinking.Scientists associate these symptoms with the body’s autoimmune response when cells begin to attack themselves. As a result, a person may develop rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune myositis or inflammation of the phalanges of the toes. The reason for the severe consequences of coronavirus The consequences of coronavirus depend on the form in which it was transferred. To do this, you should undergo CT scan of the lungs, ECG, spirometry (to assess the elasticity of tissues in the lungs), pass urine, do a general blood test.You should also consult a doctor if symptoms, even mild ones, of postcoid syndrome or other diseases appear. Restoring the sense of smell after coronavirus According to Andrey Kondrakhin, the sense of smell can disappear for six months or a year, such cases have been registered. To help him recover, you can periodically sniff substances that have a pronounced odor, for example, ammonia, essential oils, etc.but it is better to consult an otolaryngologist.
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health – society, russia, coronavirus covid-19, coronavirus in russia
MOSCOW, 23 July – RIA Novosti. Consequences and complications after coronavirus occur in some people who have been ill and have varying degrees of severity. About what complications and side reactions are, how COVID-19 affects the body, how to restore the sense of smell – in the material of RIA Novosti.
Consequences and complications after COVID-19
Coronavirus can cause serious consequences from the heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, blood vessels and other vital systems and organs of a person. As a rule, complications develop after a severe form of the course of the disease, but they can also appear after a mild one.So, according to the WHO, every tenth person who recovered reports the remaining symptoms of the coronavirus. The American review examines more than 50 different types of complications after COVID-19. 31 December 2020, 06:09 The spread of coronavirus The doctor spoke about the dangerous consequences of a mild form of coronavirus
Causes of consequences and complications
The causes of complications are now being actively studied by scientists.
“Coronavirus infection affects not only the lungs, but also the nerve endings,” Andrey Kondrakhin, candidate of medical sciences, clinical pharmacologist, told RIA Novosti.- There is scientific evidence that COVID-19 affects the nervous system, the brain, where changes associated with the virus also occur. Accordingly, changes appear in the structures of nerve fibers along their entire length. This leads to complications experienced by people who have had coronavirus. It can be tingling, sensations of twisting of the limbs, constant back pain, severe weakness. The most dangerous complication after the disease is thrombosis of the lungs and pulmonary artery, which can lead to the death of a person, and small thrombosis can also occur.In addition, people are faced with asthenia, severe weakness, difficulty breathing, because the volume of the lungs decreases, shortness of breath, even if the lungs have already recovered, panic attacks – fear of death, anxiety, etc., tachycardia, headaches. Such consequences can persist for several months, but there are cases when they do not go away longer, for example, if there was a very severe course of the coronavirus. Complications can occur after a mild form, but they will be less pronounced and pass faster. “July 22, 20:40 The spread of coronavirus The Ministry of Health spoke about the risk of thrombosis in survivors of COVID-19
The most common complications after coronavirus are fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, loss of smell, headaches, etc. …
Loss of smell
Loss of smell occurs in 13% of patients who have recovered and usually disappears within a month, and more quickly in men than in women. With the appearance of such a complication, a person may not feel any smells at all, feel them partially or distorted.So far, there is no cure for this symptom, because it is not entirely clear how it occurs. According to one hypothesis, loss of smell is due to swelling of the nasal mucosa.
Fatigue most often disappears within a month after the illness, but sometimes it can persist for more than 3 months. People with this symptom feel that they get tired faster than before the coronavirus, for some, fatigue can be so severe that it becomes almost impossible to do everyday activities or go to work.
This condition occurs not only after coronavirus, but also after other infectious diseases. So far, scientists do not fully understand what the increased fatigue is associated with, but it is believed that this is due to a strong immune response, after which the body recovers for a long time. With such a complication, a person should rest more and not overwork.
July 16, 01:30 Science Scientists have listed the main complications of COVID-19
According to statistics, chest pain occurs in 12.7% of those who have recovered and develops due to damage to the lungs.If a similar symptom brings strong pain, accompanied by dizziness, shortness of breath, you should consult a cardiologist, because this may indicate heart disease.
Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath occurs in 31.7% of those who have recovered: their frequency and depth of breathing change due to the fact that the body does not have enough oxygen. This complication goes away rather slowly – within 2-3 months. If the shortness of breath is severe, then it is difficult for a person to take a breath, chest tightness appears, and the pulse quickens.It arises due to the fact that the lungs after an illness have not fully recovered and cannot fully work. If the symptom is accompanied by pain, you should consult a doctor, because shortness of breath can develop due to heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, empyema, pulmonary embolism.
13.5% of those who have had coronavirus experience a cough. It usually goes away on its own within 3 months or less, so no medication is needed.The cough may be dry or clotted with mucus that comes out of the lungs.
Weakening of immunity
Coronavirus is capable of weakening human immunity: according to statistics, this occurs in about 83.2% of patients. In some people, it may take more than 11 weeks to recover. A decrease in immunity occurs due to the fact that the virus affects lymphocytes, the level of which is directly related to the immune response. In this case, a person becomes more vulnerable to other infections, he may experience:
a constant feeling of weakness;
private sleepiness, even if the person slept well;
hair loss, brittle nails, dull skin;
purulent skin lesions;
fungal diseases of the skin, nails and mucous membranes;
respiratory diseases, etc.
“Postcoid syndrome is exactly what we talked about above – weakness, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, forgetfulness, which is one of the leading symptoms,” commented Andrey Kondrakhin.
The severity and duration of postcoid consequences depends on the severity of the coronavirus. Experts note that about 80% of people have had a mild or moderate illness, so the syndrome may not be present at all or it will not manifest itself very strongly.So, according to a survey conducted in the United States, 35% of recovered bodies have not fully recovered 2-3 weeks after the coronavirus. If a person was in intensive care, was connected to a ventilator, has chronic diseases, then the consequences cannot be avoided. 14 July, 4:34 pm Spread of coronavirus A vaccine against coronavirus will protect against serious complications, Murashko said
According to the chief freelance specialist for medical rehabilitation of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation Galina Ivanova, neurological consequences of COVID-19 are found in almost all patients.
“Headache, impaired sensitivity, impaired smell, taste impairment, paresis, paralysis, cognitive impairment of varying severity, anxiety and depression – in almost 99% of patients who have undergone coronavirus infection,” the expert noted.
Also, a person may experience auditory hallucinations, panic attacks, fatigue, decreased performance, memory problems. As experts note, neurological consequences can persist for more than a month, in severe cases there is a risk of cerebral strokes (hemorrhagic and ischemic), infectious lesions of the central nervous system.For example, meningoencephalomyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, lesions of the peripheral nervous system, which manifest as autoimmune polyneuropathies.
July 22, 00:27
The doctor warned about the dangerous consequences of COVID-19
“Coronavirus negatively affects the heart, because the heart also has nerve fibers that are damaged, and this leads to unpleasant sensations in areas of an organ, a person may experience arrhythmias, ”explained clinical pharmacologist Andrei Kondrakhin.
If a person has had cardiovascular diseases, then there is a risk of developing chronic heart failure due to the fact that during the illness the heart was poorly saturated with oxygen and nutrients. If a person has shortness of breath, then you should consult a doctor and check the functioning of the organ.
Since the coronavirus affects almost the entire body, a person can develop various diseases, including life-threatening ones.
Patients with coronavirus are at risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis when lung tissue begins to be replaced by coarse connective tissue that blocks oxygen. This negatively affects the work of the heart and blood vessels; in the worst case, a person will need an oxygen cylinder, without which he will not be able to breathe. After illness, a CT scan of the lungs should be done, even if there is no discomfort or difficulty in breathing.
Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can occur after infectious diseases, including coronavirus.A person develops symptoms such as weakness, low blood pressure, tachycardia or cardiac arrhythmia, and the body temperature rises. The disease may not appear immediately, but several months after recovery from COVID-19, so it is important to regularly see a cardiologist.
In 30% of cases, patients may develop kidney problems, which often require urgent intervention, for example, in the form of acute hemodialysis.Those who have had coronavirus should have a urine test and kidney ultrasound, even if there are no symptoms. It is important to take into account that renal lesions may not manifest in any way, therefore, it is better to make a timely diagnosis.
23 July, 17:59 Spread of coronavirus Achilles’ heel was found in the genome of coronavirus
The liver is also affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, because it is in it that there are receptors with which COVID-19 proteins can bind during infection.According to some reports, liver damage was found in about 50% of patients. If a person has chronic diseases of this organ, then the course of the disease can be very difficult.
With pseudomembranous colitis, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa occurs against the background of taking strong drugs that treat coronavirus. If you experience discomfort in the intestinal area, you should consult a doctor.
Inflammation of the nerve endings
Inflammation of the nerve endings occurs due to the destruction of the sheath of the nerve fibers.In this case, a person’s sensitivity may be impaired, there is increased fatigue, dizziness, headaches, blurry speech, difficulty swallowing, etc.
July 23, 13:24 Spread of coronavirus Ophthalmologists associate decreased visual acuity with external eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, according to an article published in the Lancet.
After an illness, patients may experience various mental disorders. For example, increased anxiety, depression, panic attacks, hallucinations, which are more common in older people.
Some convalescents have problems with the urinary system. A person may experience nephrological complications, proteinuria, hematuria.
Most often, patients develop hypertension and arrhythmia, but inflammatory myocarditis is a particular danger.Even after recovering from the coronavirus, there is a risk of strokes and heart attacks. To avoid such complications, people at risk should see a doctor for therapy.
July 23, 10:33 am The spread of coronavirus Murashko assessed the risk of contracting coronavirus through the air conditioner
Coronavirus affects the lungs especially strongly, which causes fibrosis and worsens respiratory function. If a person has an oxygen deficiency, then it can manifest itself in the form of asthenia, general malaise, drowsiness, headaches, dizziness, and slow thinking.
Many patients and patients with COVID-19 complain of pain in the back and joints. Scientists associate these symptoms with the body’s autoimmune response when cells begin to attack themselves. As a result, a person may develop rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune myositis, or inflammation of the phalanges of the toes.
July 20, 17:17 The spread of coronavirus Doctors warned about the consequences of the coronavirus in children
The reason for the severe consequences of the coronavirus
The consequences of the coronavirus depend on the form in which it was transferred.
“The longer the illness lasts, the more organs and systems are damaged,” explained Andrey Kondrakhin. – When a person practically did not feel the virus and transferred it in a mild form, then the lesion will not be very noticeable. If a person is seriously ill, went to the hospital, was in intensive care, then the organs suffer very badly, there is a direct defeat, a change in the components of the body. Correct, timely treatment can reduce the severity of complications. ”
In what cases you need to see a doctor
After recovery, all those who have been ill should be examined and find out the state of the body.To do this, you should undergo CT scan of the lungs, ECG, spirometry (to assess the elasticity of tissues in the lungs), pass urine, do a general blood test. You should also consult a doctor if symptoms appear, even mild ones, of postcoid syndrome or other diseases.
Rehabilitation and Prevention
“For rehabilitation, a person must establish a circadian rhythm: go to bed at a certain time, wake up the same way,” the expert recommended. – Thus, you need to bring the body to the correct mode of work – to rest a lot, sleep as much as possible, do breathing exercises, for example, according to Strelnikova.In addition, you should often ventilate the room, do wet cleaning to improve the microclimate. Gradually it is necessary to restore the level of physical activity, to engage in physical education ”.
You should also give up alcohol, smoking and other bad habits, eat a balanced diet to increase immunity, take walks in the fresh air, for example, in the forest.
Recovery of smell after coronavirus
According to Andrei Kondrakhin, the sense of smell may disappear for six months or a year, such cases have been registered.To help him recover, you can periodically sniff substances that have a pronounced odor, for example, ammonia, essential oils, etc., but it is better to consult an otolaryngologist.
Burning in the chest – what can cause this symptom
Burning in the chest is a clinical manifestation of a number of pathological conditions. The chest (or, as it is also called, the chest) is the part of the body that contains the entire chest cavity and the upper component of the peritoneum.They are the “receptacle” for the vital organs of a person. Discomfort in them often signals the presence of pathologies of the heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract or lungs.
It is possible to get rid of this symptom forever only by determining its initiating factor. To do this, you need to seek professional advice. The specialist to whom you sign up for a consultation will conduct an examination and prescribe the appropriate diagnostic tests, thanks to which it will be possible to accurately diagnose, determine a treatment strategy and start implementing it.
Where to go if there is a burning sensation in the chest?
Are you a resident or guest of the capital and faced a similar problem? Contact CELT. Our clinic is multidisciplinary and has departments of various specializations. You can make an appointment with a cardiologist, general practitioner, neurologist or gastroenterologist and get the help you need.
Our diagnostic department offers ample opportunities for correct diagnosis and detection of pathological conditions at the initial stages of development.Our staff is staffed with highly qualified specialists: doctors of the highest category, candidates and doctors of science, who have decades of medical practice behind them.
You can find out our prices by going to the “Services and prices” tab of this section. To avoid misunderstandings, we recommend that you check the numbers with our operators by calling the number: +7 (495) 788 33 88.
Physiological causes of burning in the chest
Experts identify a number of initiating factors for such a phenomenon as a burning sensation in the chest.The most common of these is unhealthy diets, including fatty, spicy, salty foods, soda, and fast food, along with frequent overeating or eating before bed.
The above leads to the fact that the contents of the stomach enter the esophagus, where it irritates the mucous membrane, which causes discomfort. They are accompanied by nausea, heartburn and belching, as well as bloating. In order to eliminate this, it is enough to change the diet, minimizing the above foods, optimizing portion sizes and eliminating food intake before bedtime.
The same can be said about excessive consumption of coffee and alcohol, as well as about smoking. All of them can cause a burning sensation in the chest, which will stop as soon as their consumption is reduced to a reasonable level. It is important to understand that it is not the norm and its appearance is a reason for a visit to the doctor.
A number of reasons are associated with diseases of the cardiovascular system, characterized by the inability of blood vessels to provide the heart with a sufficient volume of oxygen.This occurs with ischemia, manifested by a local decrease in blood supply due to narrowing or blockage of the arteries, which affects the most important organ of the human body.
Do not forget about the factors of a neurological nature, when a burning sensation occurs due to compression or damage to the nerve endings or in stressful situations, with neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, it can be caused by pathological conditions characterized by damage to the bronchial mucosa or trachea.
Diseases provoking a burning sensation in the chest
Only a doctor who has everything necessary for diagnosis can identify the cause of the burning sensation in the chest in the middle, on the right or on the left. You should not engage in self-diagnosis, as it is fraught with the risk of complications.
A sharp pain and burning sensation in the chest in the region of the heart may be a sign of its serious condition, which requires immediate medical attention.This occurs with the following diseases:
Experts identify a number of diseases of the liver and biliary tract, the symptoms of which are manifested by a burning sensation in the sternum.These include:
Other clinical manifestations in the above diseases are as follows:
A phenomenon such as heartburn always leads to a burning sensation and painful symptoms due to irritation of the walls of the esophagus with gastric juice. As for diseases, one of the symptoms of which is a burning sensation in the chest, they are as follows:
It is a pain syndrome that develops as a result of damage to the intercostal nerves due to various reasons, from compression to infection or intoxication.This syndrome is a sign that the patient has diseases of the organs of the chest wall, mediastinum, and spinal cord. Clinical manifestations are as follows:
Acute inflammatory infection of the lungs, which can be croupous or focal. The first symptom is the presence of a cough, a sharp rise in temperature, burning and pain in the sternum, weakness. As for the second, its onset is hardly noticeable; it appears after acute respiratory diseases. Clinical manifestations in addition to pain on inspiration, shortness of breath, cyanosis, wet cough.
Persistent lateral curvature of the spinal column relative to its axis. A burning sensation in the chest occurs due to the fact that with this disease there is an abrasion of the intervertebral discs and compression of the nerve endings, which provokes serious discomfort.
Inflammatory processes of skeletal muscles located between the ribs.On palpation, pain symptoms appear along the entire intercostal space. Specialists distinguish three pain points: the spinal column, the sternum and its lateral surface. In addition, there are swelling of the affected part, redness or, conversely, blanching of the skin, sore throat, cough and headache.
Which doctor should I contact if there is a burning sensation in the chest?
Regular repetitions of this symptom is a reason for contacting a therapist.He will conduct an examination, collect anamnesis, ask questions of interest to him – and either prescribe treatment or refer to:
- to a gastroenterologist – for suspected gastrointestinal diseases;
- orthopedist – if osteochondrosis is suspected;
- to a neurologist – if osteochondrosis is suspected;
- to a cardiologist – for suspected cardiovascular diseases.
They, in turn, will prescribe diagnostic tests that allow an accurate diagnosis.
How is the diagnosis going?
In order to diagnose a symptom, it is enough for the doctor to conduct a survey and hear the patient’s complaints. To diagnose the disease due to which it occurs, you can conduct complex studies. First of all, the patient is examined and anamnesis is taken, after which laboratory tests of blood and urine, a detailed blood test, and determination of hormonal levels are prescribed. In addition, instrumental studies are prescribed, the selection of which is carried out on the basis of preliminary studies.It could be:
- X-ray of the sternum;
- Ultrasound scanning of the internal organs of the chest cavity;
- Gastroenterological research.
In order to exclude the development of this unpleasant symptom, a number of measures must be taken:
- Timely and correctly treat inflammatory processes;
- Eat right, minimize the consumption of salty, spicy, excessively fatty foods;
- Lead an active lifestyle;
- Avoid stressful situations;
- Observe the daily routine, take a sufficient amount of time to sleep;
- Regularly undergo preventive examinations.