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Clump of blood during pregnancy: Blood clots during pregnancy: Symptoms and prevention


Blood clots during pregnancy: Symptoms and prevention

There is nothing quite like the feeling of not being able to catch your breath. When I was 22 years old, I had trouble breathing. I eventually went to the hospital where they diagnosed me with a pulmonary embolism—a blood clot in the lung, a rare condition for a person of my age. I later learned that I had a genetic condition that increased my likelihood of developing a blood clot. 

My clot was broken up and I was treated for some time afterward with blood thinners. But, I knew that in the future I would need to take proactive measures if I were to become pregnant or have surgery. Blood clots during pregnancy are a concern for many expectant mothers, but as I learned, it is possible to manage your high risk. 

The cause of blood clots during pregnancy

Blood clotting is a natural process that occurs when blood clumps together to form a gelatinous mass. This process protects your body from bleeding too much when you’ve been injured, as clotting can seal off the wound. In pregnancy, the body is primed to clot to prevent blood loss during delivery. While this is important, blood clotting (called thrombosis) can also cause complications, especially when it happens internally in your blood vessels. 

This can happen in any blood vessel in the body. However, the most common place for abnormal blood clots to occur is in the deep veins of your legs. This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The major concern is that the clot can break free and travel to other parts of the body (lungs are most common), which can lead to serious complications or even death. 

It is estimated that pregnant women may be up to five times more likely to experience blood clots than non-pregnant women. Hormonal changes in pregnancy, as well as increased pressure on the veins restricting blood flow, can cause blood clots.

A blood clot in the lung, also known as a pulmonary embolism, is a leading cause of maternal death for pregnant women in the U.S., according to the UNC Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center. And the risk of developing blood clots isn’t just during the pregnancy—it continues to be a concern for approximately six weeks after giving birth. Delivery by cesarean section (c-section) nearly doubles your risk after birth.

Who is at risk for blood clots during pregnancy?

Anyone can develop a blood clot during pregnancy, however it is more likely under certain conditions, or for those who already have some risk factors. 

“Pregnant women are at a higher risk of DVT for several reasons,” says Nisha Bunke, MD, a vein specialist and diplomate of the American Board of Venous and Lymphatic Medicine, “a hypercoagulable state (proteins in the blood make it thicker, and more likely to form clots), an enlarged uterus may put pressure on the veins in the lower abdomen, and the hormones decrease venous tone.” 

Dr. Bunke adds that “some women have risk factors that increase their risk of DVT even greater during pregnancy, like inherited blood clotting disorders, medical conditions such as lupus and sickle cell disease, obesity, immobility and age over 35.”

Other factors that may increase the risk of clotting are:

  • Family history of blood clots
  • Multifetal gestation (twins or more)
  • Traveling long distances (sitting for long time periods)
  • Prolonged stillness, like bed rest during pregnancy
  • Other medical conditions

Additionally, some people may be predisposed to getting blood clots if they have thrombophilias, a group of disorders that increase a person’s risk of thrombosis (abnormal blood clotting). This was my case, with a condition known as Protein C Deficiency. 

Symptoms of DVT in pregnancy

“The most obvious symptom of DVT is swelling and heavy pain or extreme tenderness in one of your legs,” says Dr. Kendra Segura, MD, a board-certified OBGYN in Southern California. Other symptoms include:

  • Pain in the legs while in motion
  • Skin feels warm or tender
  • Redness, usually behind the knee 
  • Swelling 
  • A heavy, painful sensation

Dr. Segura says if you are experiencing these symptoms you must seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may require further testing because “it’s not always easy to diagnose DVT in pregnancy from symptoms alone,” according to Dr. Segura.

Although the development of blood clots during pregnancy can be dangerous, they are still fairly uncommon—and treatable. Anticoagulant medications (also known as blood thinners) can be prescribed to help to break up the clot and get the blood moving again. Dr. Segura says that both Heparin and low-molecular-weight Heparin are safe in pregnancy for mother and baby. The main side effect of taking blood thinners is an increased risk of bleeding, so your doctor will monitor you as the pregnancy progresses. 

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Vaginal bleeding and blood clots in pregnancy

Sometimes during pregnancy, women pass blood clots vaginally, which is an understandable cause of concern. 

In the first trimester of pregnancy (first three months), women may bleed as a result of implantation (where the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall) or due to early pregnancy loss (miscarriage). While not all cases of passing clots within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy are indicative of a loss, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is a cause of concern, so it’s best to follow up with your obstetrician, gynecologist, or another healthcare professional.

In the second and third trimesters, bleeding could be caused by a variety of factors. These may include miscarriage, preterm labor, or obstetric abnormalities including placenta previa, or placental abruption. Bleeding and especially passing clots during pregnancy can be a sign of miscarriage, preterm labor, or other complications, so make sure to contact your healthcare provider if you experience bleeding. 

How to reduce your risk of blood clots in pregnancy

When it comes to DVT in pregnancy, prevention is key. In my own case, I was known to have a higher risk due to a thrombophilic disorder, as well as a history of previous clots. This meant that I was given an injectable low-molecular-weight Heparin (LMWH) drug (Fragmin coupons | Fragmin details) for the duration of my pregnancy as a preventative measure. 

There are also other preventative measures that can help lower your risk of clots, Dr. Segura says, including:

  • Wearing compression stockings
  • Keeping well-hydrated
  • Staying active (“Regular exercise improves circulation,” Dr. Segura notes.) 
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Communicating any other medical conditions to your doctor

Blood clots are treatable, even during pregnancy; however, because of associated risks to you and your developing baby, getting diagnosed and treated as soon as possible is crucial.

Blood clots and pregnancy

A blood clot (also called a thrombosis) is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid. The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. 

Anyone can develop a blood clot, but you are at higher risk for a blood clot during pregnancy and up to 3 months after giving birth to your baby.  Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help protect and save both you and your baby.

If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup (before pregnancy) or at your first prenatal care checkup. 

If you or someone in your family like your parent, brother or sister has had problems with blood clots, talk to your provider.  Blood clots may run in your family.  You may also talk to your provider about getting a blood test to see if you have a thrombophilia. This is a health condition that increases your chances of making abnormal blood clots. Some pregnant women with thrombophilias need treatment with medicines called blood thinners. They stop clots from getting bigger and prevent new clots from forming.

Why are pregnant women at greater risk for blood clots?

Pregnant women are 5 times more likely to experience a blood clot compared to women who are not pregnant.  This may be because:

  • When you’re pregnant, your blood clots more easily to lessen blood loss during labor and delivery.
  • In pregnant women, the blood may flow less to the legs later in pregnancy because the growing baby presses upon blood vessels around your pelvis.  
  • When you’re pregnant you may experience less movement or immobility (not moving a lot) like when you’re on bed rest or recovering from giving birth.

What are other reasons people may be at risk for having blood clots?

Certain things make you more likely than others to have a blood clot. These are called risk factors. Having a risk factor doesn’t mean for sure that you’ll have a blood clot. But it may increase your chances. Talk to your provider about what you can do to help reduce your risk.

Risk factors for blood clots include:

  • Having certain health conditions, like a thrombophilia, high blood pressure, diabetes or being overweight or obese. A family history of blood clotting problems also increases your chances of blood clots. 
  • Taking certain medicines, like birth control pills or estrogen hormones. These medicines can increase the risk of clotting. If you’ve had problems with blood clots or thrombophilias or have a family history of these conditions, birth control pills may not be safe for you to use. Talk to your provider about other birth control options.
  • Smoking. Smoking damages the lining of blood vessels, which can cause blood clots to form.
  • Having surgery, like a cesarean section (also called c-section). A c-section is a surgery in which your baby is born through a cut that your doctor makes in your belly and uterus. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that doctors help prevent blood clots in women during a c-section. This may include using compression devices that put pressure on your legs to help keep your blood flowing during the c-section.
  • Being dehydrated. This means you don’t have enough water in your body. Dehydration causes blood vessels to narrow and your blood to thicken, which makes you more likely to have blood clots.
  • Not moving around much. This may be because you’re on bed rest during pregnancy or recovering from surgery or an accident. Being still for long periods of time can lead to poor blood flow, which makes you more likely to have blood clots. Even sitting for long periods of time, like when traveling by car or plane for 4 hours or more, can increase your chances of having a blood clot.
  • Having a baby. You’re more likely to have a blood clot in the first 6 weeks after birth than women who haven’t given birth recently. 

What problems can blood clots cause during pregnancy?

If you have a blood clot or a kind of thrombophilia called antiphospholipid syndrome (also called APS), you may be more likely to have complications that can affect your health and your baby’s health, including:

Blood clots in the placenta. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. A blood clot in the placenta can stop blood flow to your baby and harm your baby. 

Heart attack. This usually happens when a blood clot blocks blood and oxygen flow to the heart. Without blood and oxygen, the heart can’t pump blood well, and the affected heart muscle can die. A heart attack can lead to lasting heart damage or death.

Intauterine growth restriction (also called IUGR). This is when your baby grows poorly in the womb.

Miscarriage. A miscarriage is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Placental insufficiency. This is when the placenta doesn’t work as well as it should so your baby gets less food and oxygen.

Preeclampsia. This condition that usually happens after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has both protein in her urine and high blood pressure. 

Premature birth. This is when your baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

Pulmonary embolism (also called PE). An embolism is a blood clot that moves from where it formed to another place in the body. When the clot moves to a lung, it’s a PE. PE can cause low oxygen levels in your blood and damage your body organs. It’s an emergency and a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms of PE may include:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting
  • Coughing up blood

Stillbirth. This is when a baby dies in the womb before birth but after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Stroke. This happens when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that brings blood to the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts open. Pregnancy and childbirth cause strokes in about 8 in 100,000 women. Stroke can cause lasting damage to the body or death.

Thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel and blocks blood flow. It most often happens in the deep veins of the legs but can be in other places of the body: 

  • Cerebral vein thrombosis (also called CVT). This happens when a blood clot forms in a vein in the brain. CVT can lead to stroke. Signs and symptoms include headache, vision problems and seizures.   
  • Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT). This happens when a blood clot forms in a vein deep in the body, usually in the lower leg or thigh. DVT can be diagnosed with ultrasound or other imaging tests. Signs and symptoms may include warmth and tenderness over the vein and pain, swelling or skin redness in the affected area.

Venous thromboembolism (also called VTE). This happens when a blood clot breaks off and travels through blood to vital organs, like the brain, lungs or heart. This condition includes DVT and PE. VTEs that block blood vessels in the brain or heart can cause stroke or heart attack.

How are these conditions treated?

Your provider may use tests like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (also called MRI) to find out if you have a blot clot or clotting conditions. Ultrasound uses sound waves and a computer screen to make a picture of a baby in the womb. MRI uses magnets and computers to make a clear picture of the inside of the body. These tests are painless and safe for you and your baby.

If you’re pregnant and have a clotting condition, you may need to go for prenatal care checkups more often than women who don’t have these blood clot conditions. At these visits, your provider checks your blood pressure and can use other tests, like blood tests, to monitor your health. 

Your provider also checks your baby’s health in the womb using tests like:

  • Ultrasound to check your baby’s growth and development. She may use a special kind of ultrasound called Doppler to check your baby’s blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord connects your baby to the placenta. It carries food and oxygen from the placenta to the baby. 
  • Fetal heart rate monitoring (also called a nonstress test or NST). This test checks your baby’s heart rate in the womb and sees how the heart rate changes when your baby moves. Your provider uses this test to make sure your baby’s getting enough oxygen.

During pregnancy your provider may give you a blood thinner called heparin (low-molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin). If you have APS, your provider may instruct you to take heparin along with low-dose aspirin. Your provider also may refer you to a hematologist. This is a doctor who treats blood conditions.

After you give birth, your provider may continue to treat you with heparin. Or she may treat you with a blood thinner called warfarin. Warfarin is safe to take after pregnancy, even if you’re breastfeeding. Warfarin is not safe to take during pregnancy because it may cause birth defects.

Don’t take combined hormonal methods of birth control during the first 21-42 days after delivery.  The risk of DVT is highest in the first 21 days. 

How can I safely keep up with my prenatal care appointments during the COVID-19 pandemic?

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) your prenatal care visits may change. Ask your provider how he will monitor your health and do the tests you need while keeping you and your baby safe from COVID-19.

Providers are taking steps to prevent the spreading of COVID-19 by using telehealth or telemedicine. Telehealth or telemedicine are health visits where you talk to your provider by phone or by videocall, instead of going to his office.  You will need either a phone, tablet or computer for a telehealth visit and in some cases you may need access to the internet. Let your provider know if you are unable to have telehealth visits due to lack equipment or any other reason. Ask any questions you may have about keeping up with your ultrasounds and other tests while avoiding getting COVID-19.

What can I do to reduce my risk of blood clots?

  • Know the signs and symptoms of a blood clot. On an affected limb like a leg or arm, you may notice swelling, pain or tenderness that was not caused by an injury, warm skin when you touch it or redness and discoloration.  Contact your provider if you experience any of these symptoms.
  • Talk to your provider about your risk. If you or a family member like a parent, brother or sister have had blood clots before, tell your provider.  
  • Move or stretch on long trips. If you sit for more than 4 hours on a trip, try to move your legs often. If you can walk around, you may do so.  If you can’t, you may try seated leg stretches like extending your legs straight out and moving your ankles to move your toes toward and away from you.  You may also pull your knee to your chest and hold it there with your hands for 15 seconds.  
  • Follow other travel tips for reducing risk of blood clots. These include drinking lots of fluids like water, wearing loose-fitted clothing or wearing special stockings that compress your legs below the knee. Talk to your provider before trying these stockings.
  • Follow your provider’s instructions during pregnancy and after giving birth. Your provider may give you medications like blood thinners or ask you to come in for additional prenatal care checkups.

More information


Last reviewed: February, 2020

Pregnant? Don’t Overlook Blood Clots

Pregnant or recently delivered a baby? Don’t overlook blood clots.

Although anyone can develop a blood clot, women are at higher risk for a blood clot during pregnancy, childbirth, and up to 3-months after delivering a baby. In fact, pregnant women are 5 times more likely to experience a blood clot compared with women who are not pregnant. Don’t let a blood clot spoil your joy during this exciting time! Learn about pregnancy-related blood clots and tips on protecting yourself and your baby for a safe and healthy pregnancy.

What is a blood clot?

A blood clot in the deep vein (also known as a deep vein thrombosis or DVT) is a medical condition that typically occurs in the lower leg, thigh, pelvis or arm. When a DVT is left untreated, a part of the clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a blockage called a pulmonary embolism (PE). A PE can stop blood from reaching the lungs and can be deadly. Although blood clots are preventable, a PE is one of the most common causes of pregnancy-related death in the United States.

Why are pregnant women at higher risk for a blood clot?

Natural changes in a woman’s body during pregnancy, childbirth, and the 3-month period after delivery can put women at higher risk for a blood clot. During pregnancy, a woman’s blood clots more easily to lessen blood loss during labor and delivery. Pregnant women may also experience less blood flow to the legs later in pregnancy because the blood vessels around the pelvis are pressed upon by the growing baby. In addition, limited or lack of movement (immobility) due to bed rest after delivery can limit blood flow in the legs and arms, increasing a woman’s risk for a blood clot.

Blood clots are preventable: Learn how to protect yourself and your baby
  • Know your risk for a blood clot. Pregnancy is one factor that can put women at higher risk for developing a blood clot, but other factors can increase your risk for a blood clot, including:
    • A family or personal history of blood clots or a blood clotting disorder;
    • Delivery by C-section;
    • Prolonged immobility (not moving a lot), such as during bed rest or recovery after delivery;
    • Complications of pregnancy and childbirth; and
    • Certain long-term medical conditions, such as heart or lung conditions, or diabetes.

The likelihood of developing a blood clot increases with the more risk factors you have. Use the Blood Clot Risk Checklist for pregnant women to help you determine your risk.

  • Talk with your doctor about your risk, and see if you might benefit from a prevention plan to reduce your chances of developing a blood clot. Use the Blood Clot Prevention Checklist for pregnant women and discuss it with your doctor.
  • Know the signs and symptoms of a blood clot so you can seek medical treatment right away if needed. Early treatment can help prevent a DVT from breaking off and traveling to the lungs as a PE.
    • Although a DVT can occur without any symptoms, the following are the most common signs and symptoms of a DVT:
      • Swelling of the affected limb
      • Pain or tenderness not caused by injury
      • Skin that is warm to the touch, red, or discolored

If you experience any of these signs or symptoms, alert your doctor as soon as possible

  • Know the signs and symptoms of a PE and seek medical treatment to prevent death. The following are the most common signs and symptoms of a PE:
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Chest pain that worsens with a deep breath or cough.
    • Coughing up blood
    • Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat

Seek medical treatment immediately when you experience any of these signs and symptoms.

  • Move your legs frequently and exercise your calf muscles when you are traveling long distances (more than 4 hours) to improve blood flow in your legs.
    • Get up and walk around if space allows.
    • Do seated leg stretches:
      • Extend your legs straight out and move your ankles to pull your toes toward you and then push them away from you.
      • Pull each knee up towards the chest and hold it there with your hands on your lower leg for 15 seconds. Repeat up to 10 times.
Debra’s Story

“I’m Debra Turner Bryant, and I want to share my experience with blood clots during pregnancy. Through my personal story, I hope that other women can better understand the very real possibility of a blood clot during pregnancy, and perhaps even save a life.” Read Debra’s full story here.

Signs & symptoms – The Miscarriage Association

When you see a miscarriage portrayed on television or a film, you often see a woman suddenly overcome with excruciating pain and then collapsing in a pool of blood. In fact, that’s not what happens to most women.  We talk below about pain, bleeding, spotting and other symptoms – and about having no symptoms at all.

Pain, bleeding or spotting

Pain in pregnancy doesn’t always mean that there is a problem.

Some women feel discomfort as ligaments stretch with the growing baby. Many women experience backache, especially as the pregnancy progresses. And abdominal pain may be due to a stomach upset or constipation.

But if you are worried, and especially if you have severe abdominal or one-sided pain or pain in your shoulders, it might be wise to contact your GP and explain what is happening. That’s especially important if you have previously had an ectopic pregnancy.

Similarly, if you have pain when you try to move your bowels (pass a motion), you might also want to ask if you might be referred for an ultrasound scan to rule out the possibility of ectopic pregnancy.

Bleeding in pregnancy may be light or heavy, dark or bright red.  You may pass clots or “stringy bits”.  You may have more of a discharge than bleeding. Or you may have spotting, which you notice on your underwear or when you wipe yourself.

Spotting or bleeding may be continuous or it might be on and off, perhaps over days or even weeks.  It doesn’t necessarily mean that you are miscarrying or that you will miscarry: one study [1] of women attending an Early Pregnancy Unit because of bleeding in pregnancy showed that about half of them had continuing pregnancies.  So if you have bleeding or spotting, you may still go on to have a healthy pregnancy.

How can I know what’s happening?

If you have vaginal bleeding or spotting at any time during your pregnancy, it is worth talking first to your GP. S/he may refer you to hospital for an ultrasound scan to try to see whether the pregnancy is developing as it should.

During the coronavirus pandemic, many GP practices are under severe strain, so you might need to contact 111 rather than your GP.

Many hospitals now have a specialist Early Pregnancy Unit or Emergency Gynaecology Unit (EPU, EPAU, EPAC or EGU).  They usually require a GP referral but you might also be able to contact them direct for advice. You can find information about your nearest Early Pregnancy Unit here or you could just contact the nearest hospital that has maternity facilities.
During the coronavirus pandemic, most early pregnancy or emergency gynaecology units are assessing patients by phone to begin with, to reduce the number of people coming to hospital.  Be clear and honest in describing your symptoms so they can give you the best advice on coming in or not.

If you have acute, sharp abdominal pain, pain in your shoulders and/or pain on moving your bowels, contact your GP, EPU or midwife or if necessary, go to A&E (Casualty department). Tell them that you are pregnant and describe your symptoms so they can arrange an emergency scan.

If you have previously had an ectopic pregnancy, ask your GP or EPU for an early scan to make sure the baby is in the right place.

My GP won’t refer me for a scan…

If your GP won’t refer you for a scan, it might be because it is too early to be able to see even a healthy pregnancy on scan (see our section on ultrasound scans).  It might be due to restrictions on scans during the coronavirus pandemic.  But it might be that s/he takes a “wait and see” approach and advises you to stay home and put your feet up, or to stay in bed – or just to go about your normal routine.

You might find this very frustrating and even frightening, especially if you are feeling very anxious:

  • If it’s your first pregnancy, you may worry because you don’t know what is normal and what isn’t.
  • If you have had a previous healthy pregnancy, you may worry because this pregnancy is not progressing in the same way.
  • And if you have previously lost a baby, you are likely to be particularly anxious because of what happened last time.

But I really want a scan…

If you want a scan because of bleeding or spotting, and you can’t get an appointment at an Early Pregnancy or Emergency Gynaecology Unit, you could go to your nearest Accident & Emergency Department.  Bear in mind that you might have a long wait and that they may not be able to scan you there and then. In addition, the coronavirus pandemic is putting additional strain on many NHS services, including emergency services and unless you have extremely heavy bleeding or acute pain, it might be best to phone 111 instead.

If you want a scan for reassurance, you might decide to go for a private scan (try putting “early pregnancy scan” and the name of the nearest town into your search engine).  Clinic standards do vary so it is best to check on each clinic’s website:

  • if their sonographers (scan operators) are qualified radiographers, or midwives or nurses who are trained in ultrasound scanning
  • if they offer diagnostic scans (ones that check for a hearbeat and other signs of a normally developing pregnancy)
  • if they state that they refer women to NHS services if there or any concerns or uncertainties
  • if they are registered with the Care Quality Commission (CQC) if in England, or adhere to the same standards if in other countries. 

Some private clinics are limiting their appointments during the coronavirus pandemic but most are still operating.

What should I do?

Whatever you do – have a scan, stay in bed or continue your usual routine – it’s very unlikely to make a difference to the outcome of your pregnancy.  Sadly, if the bleeding is because the pregnancy is miscarrying, it is very unlikely indeed that anything can be done to stop this. (The only exception might be if the bleeding occurs in the last few months of the pregnancy).

Resting in bed might slow down any bleeding, but when you get up, perhaps to go to the toilet, it’s likely to start again.  That’s not your fault – it’s just because of gravity. (Again, the only exception might be in the later months of pregnancy.)

Some people prefer to rest, others to continue their usual routine. It makes sense to do what feels right for you.

Other symptoms – or lack of…

It’s common for women to have certain symptoms in early pregnancy: feeling or being sick, tiredness, breast tenderness, a need to go to the toilet more often etc.  But if you don’t have any of those symptoms – or if you do and then they suddenly disappear – it doesn’t necessarily mean that you are likely to miscarry.

On the other hand – and this is confusing – having all of those symptoms doesn’t guarantee that all is or will be well. It can be very difficult to make sense of symptoms or their absence.

If you are not sure, or something doesn’t feel right for you, speak to your doctor or get in touch with us to talk things through.


[1] Grant A., 1997, A study of the psychological responses of women immediately after spontaneous and threatened miscarriage Leeds University Hospital, St James’s, Unpublished dissertation

Miscarriage | Warning Signs, Myths, Symptoms and Causes

What causes bleeding in early pregnancy?

What is a miscarriage?

Prof Lesley Regan

Many women may have a small amount of bleeding (spotting) at the time of their missed period. This is sometimes called an ‘implantation bleed’. It happens when the fertilised egg implants itself in the wall of your womb (uterus). It is harmless.

The most common cause of bleeding after the time of the missed period is miscarriage. Miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy at any time up to the 24th week. A loss after this time is called a stillbirth. At least 8 miscarriages out of 10 actually occur before 13 weeks of pregnancy. These are called early miscarriages. A late miscarriage is one that happens from 13 weeks to 24 weeks of pregnancy.

A less common cause of bleeding in pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy. This is a pregnancy that occurs outside the womb. It occurs in about 1 in 100 pregnancies.

Always tell your doctor if you have vaginal bleeding when you are pregnant

How common is miscarriage?

Miscarriage accounts for over 40,000 hospital admissions in the UK each year. About 1 in 4 recognised pregnancies end in miscarriage. Far more pregnancies than this do not make it – as many as half. This is because in many cases a very early pregnancy ends before you miss a period and before you are even aware that you are pregnant.

The vast majority of women who miscarry go on to have a successful pregnancy next time. Recurrent miscarriages (three or more miscarriages in a row) occur in about 1 in 100 women.

What causes miscarriage?

It is thought that most early miscarriages are caused by a one-off problem with the chromosomes of the developing baby (fetus) in the womb. Chromosomes are the structures that contain the genetic information that we inherit from our parents. If a baby (fetus) doesn’t have the correct chromosomes it can’t develop properly and so the pregnancy will end. This is usually a one-off mistake and rarely occurs again. Such genetic mistakes become more common when the mother is older – that is, over 35 years old. This means women aged over 35 years who are having children are more likely to have a miscarriage. This may also be why, if your partner is aged over 45 years, you are more likely to have a miscarriage, even if you are under 35 years old.

You are also at a greater risk of having a miscarriage if you:

Investigations into the cause of a miscarriage are not usually carried out unless you have three or more miscarriages in a row. This is because most women who miscarry will not miscarry again. Even two miscarriages are more likely to be due to chance than to some underlying cause. Even after three miscarriages in a row, more than seven women out of every ten will not have a miscarriage next time around.

Some myths about the cause of miscarriage

After a miscarriage it is common to feel guilty and to blame the miscarriage on something you have done, or failed to do. This is almost always not the case. In particular, miscarriage is not caused by lifting, straining, working too hard, constipation, straining at the toilet, sex, eating spicy foods or taking normal exercise.

There is also no proof that waiting for a certain length of time after a miscarriage improves your chances of having a healthy pregnancy next time.

What is a threatened miscarriage?

It is common to have some light vaginal bleeding at some point in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. This does not always mean that you are going to miscarry. Often the bleeding settles and the developing infant is healthy. This is called a threatened miscarriage. You do not usually have pain with a threatened miscarriage. If the pregnancy continues, there is no harm done to the baby.

In some cases, a threatened miscarriage progresses to a miscarriage.

What are the symptoms of miscarriage?

The usual symptoms of miscarriage are vaginal bleeding and lower tummy (abdominal) cramps. You may then pass something from the vagina, which often looks like a blood clot or clots. In many cases, the bleeding then gradually settles. The time it takes for the bleeding to settle varies. It is usually a few days but can last two weeks or more. For most women, the bleeding is heavy with clots but not severe – it is more like a heavy period. However, the bleeding can be extremely heavy in some cases.

In some cases of miscarriage, there are no symptoms. The baby stops developing or dies but it remains in the womb. You may have no pain or bleeding. You may no longer experience symptoms to suggest you are pregnant (for example, morning sickness or breast tenderness). This type of miscarriage may not be found until you have a routine ultrasound scan. This may be referred to by doctors as a missed miscarriage (also called early fetal demise, an empty sac or a blighted ovum).

The typical pain with a miscarriage is crampy lower tummy pain. If you have severe, sharp, or one-sided tummy pain, this may suggest ectopic pregnancy. This is a pregnancy that develops outside the womb. The symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy usually occur at around 6-8 weeks of pregnancy. There may be very little blood lost, or the blood may look almost black. Other symptoms may also occur such as diarrhoea, feeling faint and pain when you open your bowels. Sometimes there are no symptoms until you collapse because of heavy bleeding into the inside of your tummy (internal bleeding). This is called a ruptured ectopic pregnancy and is a potentially life-threatening situation that needs emergency surgery. You should call an ambulance or go to your nearest Accident and Emergency department if you are worried that you may have an ectopic pregnancy.

Do I need to go to hospital?

You should always report any bleeding in pregnancy to your doctor. It is important to get the correct diagnosis, as miscarriage is not the only cause of vaginal bleeding. However, if you are bleeding very heavily or have severe tummy (abdominal) pain when you are pregnant, call for an ambulance immediately.

Most women with bleeding in early pregnancy are seen by a doctor who specialises in pregnancy – an obstetrician. This is often in an Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit at your local hospital. It is usual to have an ultrasound scan. This is usually done by inserting a small probe inside your vagina. This helps to determine whether the bleeding is due to:

  • A threatened miscarriage (a heartbeat will be seen inside the womb (uterus)).
  • A miscarriage (no heartbeat is seen).
  • Some other cause of bleeding (such as an ectopic pregnancy – see above).

If it is unclear from your ultrasound scan whether the pregnancy is healthy or not then you may be asked to return for a repeat scan in one to two weeks.

The usual symptoms of miscarriage are vaginal bleeding and lower tummy (abdominal) cramps

Do I need any treatment?

Once the cause of bleeding is known, your doctor will advise on your treatment options.

Natural or expectant management

Many women now opt to ‘let nature take its course’. This is called expectant management. In most cases the remains of your pregnancy are passed out naturally and the bleeding will stop within a few days after this, although can take up to 14 days to occur. However, if your bleeding worsens and becomes heavier or does not settle then you may be offered alternative treatment. Expectant management may not be offered if you have had a miscarriage in the past or if you have a bleeding disorder or any evidence of infection. You may decide that you would prefer to have a definitive treatment rather than taking this approach.

If your bleeding and pain settle then you should perform a pregnancy test after three weeks. If this is positive then you will need to see your doctor for an assessment.

Treatment with medicines

In some cases you may be offered what doctors call medical treatment for your miscarriage. That is, you may be offered a tablet to take either by mouth or to insert into your vagina. The medicine helps to empty your womb (uterus) and can have the same effect as an operation. You do not usually need to be admitted to hospital for this. Some women experience quite severe tummy (abdominal) cramps with this treatment.

You may continue to bleed for up to three weeks when medical treatment is used. However, the bleeding should not be too heavy. Many women prefer this treatment because it usually means that they do not need to be admitted to hospital and do not need an operation.

You should perform a pregnancy test three weeks after receiving medical treatment. If this is positive then you will need to see your doctor for an assessment.

An operation may be offered to you, however, if the bleeding does not stop within a few days, or if the bleeding is severe.

Treatment with an operation

If the options above are not suitable or are not successful then it is likely you will be offered an operation. The operation most commonly performed to remove the remains of your pregnancy is called surgical management of miscarriage (SMM). In this operation, the neck of your womb (the cervix) is gently opened and a narrow suction tube is placed into your womb to remove the remains of your pregnancy. This operation takes around 10 minutes.

This may be performed without the need for a general anaesthetic in some cases. This is called a manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). Your doctor will be able to discuss the procedure in more detail with you.

A few women develop an infection after having this operation. If you experience a high temperature (fever), any offensive-smelling vaginal discharge or abdominal pains then you should see a doctor promptly. Any infection is usually treated successfully with antibiotics.


Many women and their partners find that miscarriage is distressing. Feelings of shock, grief, depression, guilt, loss and anger are common.

It is best not to bottle up feelings but to discuss them as fully as possible with your partner, friends, a doctor or midwife, or anyone else who can listen and understand. As time goes on, the sense of loss usually becomes less. However, the time this takes varies greatly. Pangs of grief sometimes recur out of the blue. The time when the baby was due to be born may be particularly sad.

Blood Clots During Pregnancy

Blood clots are a serious medical condition that can have fatal side effects if left untreated, and if one develops during your pregnancy it could put both you and your baby at risk. Expecting mothers are at an increased risk of blood clots, especially for older women and those expecting multiples. Fortunately, blood clots are preventable and there are several steps women can take to help reduce the risk. However, if you start experiencing any symptoms that could be linked to a blood clot, make an appointment with your doctor immediately to prevent further complications.

What are Blood Clots?

Blood clotting is usually a good thing. When the skin is broken and starts to bleed, the blood naturally clots to close to the wound and stop the bleeding. Blood clotting becomes problematic, however, when a clot develops inside deep veins located throughout the body. This is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). For most women in pregnancy, these type of clots usually occur in the leg or pelvic region.

The life cycle of a blood clot begins with the platelets that move throughout the veins. Clotting of the blood occurs when these platelets begin to accumulate together in a specific area. When a blood vessel is damaged in some way, the platelets are triggered to go and repair that area. The platelets begin to stick to the walls inside the vein eventually forming a type of plug. The platelets then send out messages for other cells to come help, creating a chain reaction of cell build-up, rapidly forming the clot.

In most cases, the body eventually breaks down the blood clot and there are no complications. During pregnancy, there is an increased risk of the blood clot growing too large and breaking off into the bloodstream. When the clot breaks off, it can travel to the lungs and block the stream of blood flowing through them. This is known as pulmonary embolism (PE) and can be deadly. PE is one of the most common causes of pregnancy-related death in the United States.

Blood clots can also form in the baby’s placenta. This usually occurs in women who already have an increased risk of developing one. A blood clot in the placenta can block blood being supplied to the baby, which can result in a miscarriage or stillbirth.

Who’s at Risk for Blood Clots During Pregnancy?

Pregnant women are more at risk for getting blood clots for several different reasons. During pregnancy, a woman’s blood clots more rapidly in preparation to lessen the amount of blood loss during labor and delivery. As the baby grows, it puts more and more pressure on the woman’s pelvis, which reduces the amount of blood flow to the legs. This combination of more rapid clotting and reduced blood circulation makes blood clotting in the lower body a real danger during pregnancy.

Other risk factors that could increase your chance of blood clots include:

  • Being 35 years or older
  • Having a family member with a history of blood clots
  • Having a delivery by C-section
  • Obesity
  • Having multiples
  • Prolonged immobility
  • Traveling long distances while pregnant
  • Having a high-risk pregnancy
  • Other chronic health conditions (heart and lung conditions, diabetes)

Symptoms of DVT and PE

It’s important to be able to recognize the symptoms of blood clots. If the blood clot is addressed early on, it can be successfully treated with certain medications. If you experience symptoms of DVT, immediately make an appointment to see your doctor to prevent further complications.

Symptoms of DVT include:

  • Swelling of the affected limb
  • Pain or tenderness not caused by injury
  • Skin that is warm to the touch, red, or discolored
  • Veins that look larger than normal

PE is a much more serious condition that requires urgent treatment. If you start experiencing PE symptoms, treat the symptoms seriously and go to the nearest emergency room.

Symptoms of PE include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Sharp chest pain that may get worse with deep breaths
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Unexplained cough, sometimes with bloody mucus

Risks of Blood Clots

Besides pulmonary embolism, there are other risks associated with blood clots, including:

Prevention and Treatment for Blood Clots

The good news is that blood clots are highly preventable with the right precautions. One of the most crucial factors in preventing blood clots is to maintain a healthy lifestyle and stay active throughout your pregnancy. Light exercise is recommended to improve circulation but every woman’s pregnancy is unique, so ask your doctor about the best way to stay mobile. Avoid smoking and being around secondhand smoke as it has been proven to increase the risk of blood clots. Keeping a healthy diet can prevent clogging of the arteries, which can make it easier for cells to build up in the veins.

If you’re traveling while pregnant and intend to stay immobile for more than four hours, make sure to move your legs frequently and exercise the calf muscles. If possible, take a walk every hour or so to keep blood flowing. You can also do seated leg stretches by extending the legs straight out, rotating the ankles and feet, and then pulling the knee towards the chest for 10-15 seconds. Repeat this exercise 15 times if you’re going to be seated for an extended period.

Blood clots are treated with anticoagulants, which are safe to take during pregnancy. Anticoagulants help to break up blood clots and prevent them from occurring again.

Sources and Additional Reading

James, A. H. (2017). Pregnancy, contraception and venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Vascular Medicine, 22(2), 166-169.

PR Newswire. (2013, April 2). Stillbirth or Pre-Term Birth Outcomes Linked to Elevated Risk of Blood Clots After Pregnancy. PR Newswire US.

Steven K. Galson. (2008). Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism. Public Health Reports. 123(4), 420.

Mikhail M. Vinokurov, Anton A. Yakovlev, Vasily P. Ignatiev, Natalia I. Douglas, Gennady A. Palshin, Iana G. Rad, & Innokenty D. Ushnitsky. (2018). Treatment of Acute Venous Thromboses and Pulmonary Embolism during Pregnancy. International Journal of Biomedicine, (3), 244.

Chan, W.-S. (2018). Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Thrombosis Research, 163, 221-228.

Lim, A., Samarage, A., & Lim, B. H. (2016). Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine, 26(5), 133-139.

Pregnancy complications – vaginal bleeding, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, breech


Pregnancy makes you more aware of your body. It also brings a long list of changes, so it’s not always easy to know when to call your healthcare provider. Here’s a look at some of the common complications women may experience – and what to do if they happen to you.

Vaginal Bleeding

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is always a concern. If you have bleeding or spotting, stop whatever you’re doing and talk to your healthcare provider immediately.

One quarter of pregnant women will have some spotting or light vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is more common among women who have been pregnant before than in women who are pregnant for the first time. A small amount of bleeding in the first trimester doesn’t mean you’re having a miscarriage, but vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester may be serious.  When you call your healthcare provider, let them know the following:

  • What colour is the blood? pink, brown or red?
  • Are there any clots in the blood?
  • When did it start?
  • What were you doing when it started?
  • How much is there? For example, is it spotting the size of a quarter, or soaking your underwear?
  • Did it happen after intercourse or a vaginal examination?
  • Are you having cramps, pain, or any other symptoms?

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes can develop during pregnancy when hormones change the way your body uses insulin. Sometimes, a pregnant woman has been living with diabetes without knowing it. Symptoms of diabetes may include:

  • Increased thirst.
  • Increased urination.
  • Increased hunger.
  • Blurred vision.

Pregnancy causes most women to urinate more often and to feel hungrier, so having these symptoms does not always mean that a woman has diabetes.

Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help keep your blood sugar level within a target range and prevent gestational diabetes. However, some women will need insulin injections. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have these symptoms so that they can help you manage gestational diabetes, in consultation with a registered dietitian or diabetes educator.

Gestational diabetes usually goes away after birth. If you have had gestational diabetes, it is important to follow up with your health care provider after birth because it can increase your risk of getting diabetes in the future.

Premature Rupture of Membranes

When your water breaks, it typically means you’re about to go into labour. When your membranes break or leak before you are in labour or before your due date, the condition is called Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM). PROM can occur at any time during pregnancy.

If your membranes break or leak:

  • contact your healthcare provider
  • note the colour and amount of the fluid
  • use a sanitary pad
  • do not take baths, put in a tampon, or have sex

The type of treatment you need will depend on your stage of pregnancy, how much fluid was lost, and whether you develop an infection.

Placenta previa

Placenta previa is where the placenta is either partially or completely blocking the cervix. Doctors aren’t sure what causes placenta previa, and some women do not have any symptoms. But there are a few warning signs and you may notice one or more symptoms such as:

  • Sudden, painless vaginal bleeding that is light to heavy (the blood is often bright red).
  • Symptoms of early labour, such as regular contractions and aches or pains in your lower back or belly. 
  • Call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest emergency room right away if you have:
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding during the first trimester.
  • Any vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimesters.

If you have a placenta previa at the time of birth, a caesarean delivery will be recommended.

High Blood Pressure/Pregnancy InducedHypertension and HELLP Syndrome

About 7 in 100 pregnant women will develop high blood pressure. If it is not treated, it can harm both you and your baby. Signs of high blood pressure in pregnancy:

  • swelling in your hands and face
  • rapid weight gain
  • unusual headaches that don’t go away
  • blurred vision
  • spots or stars in front of your eyes
  • pain in the upper right side of your abdomen

If you have any of these symptoms, immediately contact your health care provider or call HealthLink BC at 8-1-1.

Pain in your abdomen can be a sign of a liver disorder called HELLP syndrome, a type of severe pre-eclampsia. HELLP is rare but very serious. If you think you are experiencing symptoms of HELLP syndrome, you should seek emergency medical treatment.

Breech position

By about 32 to 36 weeks, most babies will move into the head down birth position where the largest part of the baby is born first. In the breech position, the baby’s buttocks or legs are facing down, as shown in the diagram below.

If your baby is in the breech position, your doctor or midwife may speak with you about external cephalic version (ECV). ECV is when the healthcare provider manipulates the outside of your belly with his or her hands to try to turn the baby to a head down position. If ECV does not work, talk to your healthcare provider about the possibility of a breech vaginal delivery.
Most of the time a planned caesarean delivery (C-section) will be required.

Resources and Links:

HealthLink BC: Breech Position and Breech Birth
HealthLink BC: External Cephalic Version (ECV) for Breech Position
HealthLink BC: Placenta Previa
HealthLink BC: Low Lying Placenta
HealthLink BC: Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes
HealthLink BC: Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy
HealthLink BC: Gestation Diabetes
HealthLink BC: HELLP Syndrome and Pre-Eclampsia
HealthLink BC: High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

90,000 Screening for the detection of congenital diseases of the fetus during pregnancy

Category: Instruction for the population.

Screening during pregnancy is a whole complex of studies that allows parents and doctors to get the most complete information about the health of an unborn baby. Screening reveals many congenital and physical characteristics. How and when is screening done during pregnancy

What is screening during pregnancy and why is it done

Screening during pregnancy is a complex of examinations, which includes ultrasound and biochemical analysis of venous blood for hormones.As a rule, screening is carried out three times – in the first, second and third trimester.

Early detection of pathologies is very important. This makes it possible to start treating genetic diseases as early as possible and, if not completely cure them, then at least stop the symptoms as much as possible. If during the examination the doctor notices any deviations, the pregnancy is monitored especially carefully, which makes it possible to prevent the development of complications or premature birth.If the detected pathologies turn out to be too severe and incompatible with life, the doctor will refer the patient to terminate the pregnancy for medical reasons.

Screening during pregnancy is harmless for both mother and baby. This is a fairly accurate study, although it should be clearly understood that it does not provide one hundred percent guarantee. The screening accuracy depends on many factors – the professionalism of the researchers, the woman’s compliance with the rules for preparing for the examination, and other factors.

First screening during pregnancy

The first pregnancy screening is done between the 11th and 13th weeks. It makes no sense to undergo this examination earlier – before the 11th week of pregnancy, many indicators are practically undetectable.

The study includes two medical tests – an ultrasound scan and a blood test.


With the help of ultrasound, the doctor determines the exact duration of pregnancy, assesses the physique of the child, its size (head circumference, length of limbs, height), the work of the heart muscle, the symmetry of the brain, the volume of amniotic fluid, the structure and size of the placenta, as well as the condition and tone of the uterus.For each of these parameters, there are norm indicators with which the doctor will compare the results. For 11-13 weeks of pregnancy, these norms are:

  • CTE (coccygeal-parietal size, that is, the length of the fetus from the crown to the coccyx) is 43–65 mm. If this figure is more than the norm, then the child will be large. Deviation downward indicates slow development (the reason for this state of affairs is often hormonal imbalance or infectious diseases suffered by the expectant mother), genetic pathologies or fetal death (in this case, the heart will not listen).However, this may be due to a banal mistake in determining the timing of pregnancy.
  • BPD (biparietal size, that is, the distance from temple to temple) – 17-24 mm. A high BPD means a large fetus, but only if all other indicators say the same. Otherwise, we can talk about a hernia of the brain or hydrocephalus. Low bipolar disorder indicates slower brain development.
  • TVP (collar space thickness) – 1.6-1.7 mm.Deviation from this norm (TVP above 3 mm) is considered a sign of some severe chromosomal pathologies – Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, etc. However, one should not panic ahead of time – no one will make such a serious diagnosis based on TVP alone. Confirmation requires a blood test for hormones and a biopsy of the outer dense shell of the embryo for further research.

The length of the nasal bone is 2–4.2 mm. Too small a bone in the nose may indicate pathology or simply that the baby’s nose will be snub-nosed.Heart rate (heart rate) – 140-160 beats per minute. A small (up to 40 beats per minute) deviation in one direction or another is considered a variant of the norm.

The size of the chorion, amnion and yolk sac. Chorion is the outer shell of the fetus, which will eventually become the placenta. If it is located on the lower wall of the uterus, they speak of chorionic presentation. This is a potentially dangerous situation, fraught with miscarriage, in which case bed rest is recommended for the pregnant woman.

The amnion is the inner membrane that holds the amniotic fluid.The normal volume of amniotic fluid for a period of 11-13 weeks is 50-100 ml.

The yolk sac is an embryonic organ that, in the first weeks of the fetus’s life, plays the role of some internal organs that will be formed later. By the time of the first screening, the yolk sac should practically disappear (then the examination form will indicate “not visualized”). If its size is about 6 mm, then it is possible that the fetus has certain pathologies.

Cervix.Normally, its length by the time of the first screening is 35–40 mm. A shorter cervix means a risk of premature birth.

Ultrasound is performed in two ways – transabdominal, in which the sensor of the ultrasound machine is located on the abdomen, and transvaginal, in which it is inserted into the vagina. Transvaginal ultrasound provides more complete and accurate information, but it is usually only done in the first trimester. This method is usually used when examining overweight women, since the fatty layer in the abdomen does not allow the fetus and uterus to be examined in detail.

You need to prepare appropriately for an ultrasound scan. Before a transabdominal ultrasound, it is advised to drink about a liter of water so that at the time of examination the bladder is filled – then the uterus will shift slightly towards the abdomen and the picture will be clearer. With transvaginal ultrasound, the degree of fullness of the bladder does not matter, but before the examination it is better to go to the toilet – this will be more comfortable. Before the examination, you need to take a shower or freshen up with wet wipes.The accumulation of gases can distort the results of ultrasound, no matter what method it is carried out. Therefore, expectant mothers suffering from flatulence are advised to take remedies for flatulence the day before the examination and not eat anything gas-forming.

Blood test

Biochemical screening, also called a double test, is done to determine the level of two hormones (hence the name) – free b-hCG and PAPP-A.

  • b-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) begins to be produced from the first days of pregnancy.Its amount gradually increases until about the 9th week, and then begins to gradually decrease. On average, for a period of 11-13 weeks, 50,000-55,000 mIU / ml is considered the norm. An elevated level of hCG may indicate multiple pregnancies, or, in the worst case, genetic abnormalities of the fetus or the presence of diabetes in the mother. Low hCG is typical for missed pregnancies, ectopic pregnancies, fetal death, or certain malformations (Patau syndrome and Edwards syndrome).
  • PAPP-A – Plasma Protein A.The maintenance rate for a period of 11-13 weeks is 0.79-6.01 mU / l. Low PAPP-A is a sign of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome, fetal death and miscarriage, fetal malnutrition (underweight), and preeclampsia.
  • A high PAPP-A is a sign of multiple pregnancies, a large fetus or a low location of the placenta.

In order for a blood test to give the most accurate information, it must be taken on an empty stomach, at least 8 hours after the last meal.2-3 days before the analysis, you should refrain from fried, fatty, spicy, smoked foods, chocolate, nuts, seafood. It is also recommended not to have sex. All this is not so significant, but it can affect the result in one way or another.

Second screening during pregnancy

The second screening during pregnancy is performed at 16–20 weeks. Like the first, it consists of the same two stages – an ultrasound scan and a blood test.


This time, the doctor determines not only the size, but also the position of the fetus and its bone structure, the state of the internal organs and the place of attachment of the umbilical cord, as well as the volume of amniotic fluid. Here are the approximate basic indicators of the norm for a period of 16-20 weeks:

  • BPR – 26-56 mm.
  • DBK (length of the femur) – 13–38 mm.
  • Duodenum (length of the humerus) – 13–36 mm.
  • OG (head circumference) – 112-186 mm.

AFI (index of amniotic fluid, that is, the volume of amniotic fluid) – 73-230 mm. Low water can negatively affect the state of the child’s bone structure and the development of his nervous system.

Localization of the placenta. There is some risk only when the placenta is located on the anterior wall of the uterus – with such localization, placenta detachment is possible.

Umbilical cord. One of the most important parameters is the place where the umbilical cord is attached.Marginal, split or meningeal attachment is fraught with fetal hypoxia and difficulties during childbirth, often it becomes an indication for cesarean section. The umbilical cord is fed through 2 arteries and 1 vein, although sometimes only one artery is present. This can cause fetal hypoxia, heart disease, disturbances in the work of the child’s cardiovascular system, and cause a reduced baby’s body weight. However, if all other tests and examinations do not show abnormalities, you should not worry.

Cervix. The length of the cervix at this time should be 40–45 mm. A short cervix means a threat of miscarriage.

Visualization. Unsatisfactory visualization can be caused both by the peculiarities of the position of the fetus or the excess weight of the expectant mother, and by edema or hypertonicity of the uterus.

Blood test

As in the first screening, during the second, a blood test for b-hCG is taken, the level of free estriol and AFP is also checked.We give the norms of their content in the 16-20th weeks of pregnancy:

  • b-hCG – 4.67-5-27 ng / ml.
  • Free estriol is a hormone, by the level of which one can judge the state of the placenta. The norm is 1.17-3.8 ng / ml. Elevated estriol is characteristic of multiple pregnancies or large fetuses. Reduced – for the threat of miscarriage, placental insufficiency, anencephaly and Down syndrome.
  • AFP is a protein that is produced in the gastrointestinal tract of the fetus.The norm is 15–27 U / ml. A slightly lower AFP may mean that the gestational age was determined incorrectly (slightly underestimated). If AFP is very low, the cause may be Edwards or Down syndrome, threatened miscarriage or fetal death. High AFP is characteristic of neural tube pathologies, esophageal atresia, Meckel’s syndrome. High AFP is also possible in women who have had an infectious disease during pregnancy.

Third screening during pregnancy

The third screening during pregnancy is carried out at the 30th-43rd week.Based on the results of this screening, the doctor decides whether a caesarean section is necessary or whether a natural birth is possible. The basis of the third screening is the same ultrasound. Sometimes dopplerography is prescribed – a study of the work of blood vessels. Here are the approximate rates for a given gestational age:


  • BPR – 67-91 mm
  • DBK – 47–71 mm
  • WPC – 44-63 mm
  • OG – 238–336 mm
  • IAZh – 82- 278 mm

The thickness of the placenta is 23.9–43.8.Too thin a placenta is not a particularly dangerous abnormality. The reason may be the miniature physique of a woman, infectious diseases that she has suffered, and hypertension. An excessively thick placenta is a sign of anemia, diabetes, Rh-conflict. An indicator such as the degree of maturity of the placenta is also taken into account – at a period of 30–35 weeks, the 1st degree of maturity is considered normal. With too rapid thickening and aging of the placenta, premature birth, fetal hypoxia and its delayed development are possible.

Prenatal screening is very important and should not be neglected.Pathologies and deviations from the norm detected in time can save the life and health of your child. It is worth remembering this, especially for those parents who refuse the examination for fear of finding out that the development of the baby is not going according to plan.

90,000 Poor and increased blood clotting during pregnancy

Blood tests during pregnancy tell the doctor about the state and development of the fetus, about the process of restructuring the female body, about the “reserves” of the necessary substances in the expectant mother and the willingness to pass them on to the child.An increased or poor ability of blood to form clots (blood clots) can turn into a serious pathology with a threat to the life of both.

Therefore, clotting indicators must be checked at all stages of the gestation process.

Normal clotting indices in pregnant women

It is possible to judge about pathological abnormalities of coagulation only by knowing the normal fluctuations.

When preparing a woman for childbirth, the body seeks to protect her from possible blood loss by increasing the production of substances that affect the formation of blood clots.In this way, the entire coagulation system is activated already in the second trimester. As a result, nature made sure that immediately after childbirth, the vessels in the placenta separated from the placenta closed and saved the woman in labor from bleeding. Given the intensive nutrition of the fetus precisely through the arteries of the placenta, blood loss can threaten the life of the mother.

Normal fluctuations and a list of particularly significant indicators of clotting during pregnancy are shown in the table.

Indicators Value
activated thromboplastin partial time 17 to 20 seconds
fibrinogen up to 6.5 g / l
platelet count from 131 to 402 thousand / chalk
prothrombin from 78 to 142%
lupus anticoagulant – antibodies to systemic disease cells absent
thrombin time 18 to 25 seconds
antithrombin III from 70 to 115%
D-dimer 33 to 726 ng / ml

Only a doctor can interpret the analysis.A set of indicators is taken into account, and not single deviations. Control tests are performed several times during pregnancy. This allows you to timely notice problems in the violation of coagulation and take measures to restore it by the time of the onset of labor.

What happens when coagulation increases?

Excessive activation of the coagulation system contributes to the increased formation of blood clots in the vessels of the placenta long before delivery. This is not a physiological response. It disrupts the “feeding” of the fetus.The provision of tissues with the necessary plastic materials decreases. Consequently, at the stage of formation of internal organs and systems, congenital malformations are formed.

A similar pathology during pregnancy is called “placental insufficiency.” Threat Generated:

  • placenta rejection,
  • miscarriage,
  • late toxicosis.

In the postpartum period, a woman remains at risk of vascular thrombosis. Most often, thrombophlebitis is formed on the legs.

In case of serious deviations in indicators, a woman must be hospitalized to prevent complications

Recommendations Pronounced changes in indicators in the direction of growth require hospitalization of a woman and the selection of an anticoagulant drug.

With a slight increase in indicators, obstetricians-gynecologists are advised to change the diet and drinking regimen.

The total volume of liquid for drinking should be close to two liters. It should include green tea with mint or lemon balm, rosehip broth, water purified through a filter, fresh juices.

It is recommended to pay attention to the obligatory presence of such products in the menu:

90,028 90,029 meat and fish dishes that provide a sufficient amount of protein and fat;

90,029 fruits and vegetables, which constitute the main supply of vitamins, microelements, iron.

The most useful are:

  • nuts,
  • seaweed,
  • bell pepper,
  • garlic and onion.

Preference should be given not to butter, but to unrefined vegetable oils (flaxseed, olive).Eating sprouted wheat in salads helps to compensate for vitamin deficiencies.

What happens with low clotting?

  • Decreased clotting is often called “bad”, although, logically, nothing good can be expected from an increase in performance either.
  • About why low blood clotting develops and how it threatens, you can learn from this article.
  • If a woman before pregnancy had chronic diseases that contribute to a decrease in the coagulating properties of the blood, then she is led by obstetricians in the high-risk group together with therapists.

In the presence of acute leukemia, hemolytic anemia, doctors do not recommend giving birth.

The pregnancy process can cause a very severe exacerbation of diseases.

Hemophilia in the family of the father or mother requires genetic counseling and a serious decision with an assessment of the consequences for the child.

Liver diseases can be treated before planned pregnancy, as long as the drugs do not adversely affect the fetus. In case of an unexpected pregnancy, it remains to expect complications and try to prevent them.

Caring mothers think about the birth of a healthy baby and follow the doctor’s recommendations

Scientists believe that the most significant effect of pregnancy is the increased allergic mood of the organism of the expectant mother. This is due to a breakdown in immunity. There is a change in the reaction of protective cells, the fetus is perceived as foreign. The consequences can be:

  • miscarriage,
  • premature birth,
  • placental abruption,
  • severe bleeding during childbirth.

Reduced clotting is transmitted to the fetus, and complications in the form of hematomas and hemorrhages occur in the early period of the newborn.

Recommendations Expectant mother needs:

  • Stop taking spicy and spicy foods;
  • give up alcohol and smoking (the doctor guesses about bad habits, first of all, by the reduced coagulability).

Medicines that increase thrombus formation are prescribed when a pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital.Reception will have to be carried out under the control of analyzes, possibly both before and after childbirth.

How to identify poor coagulation?

The doctor has to consider any abnormalities in the coagulation system “bad”. Women who are interested in maintaining their health and having a healthy baby fulfill all the requirements and take tests monthly. A coagulogram is prescribed 1 time per trimester.

The doctor pays special attention to the course of previous labor. If there were complications, you should warn your obstetrician.Documentation is not always retained. In such cases, clotting tests are checked every month.

You can also read: Reduced hematocrit during pregnancy

Factors affecting dysfunctional coagulation can be:

  • Suspicion of gestosis;
  • multiple pregnancies;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • too early or late first birth by the age of the expectant mother;
  • rhesus conflict;
  • 90,029 disorders in the mental state of a woman;

  • concomitant kidney disease with hypertension, endocrine pathology, congenital and acquired heart disease.

It is very difficult for gynecologists to work with women of low social status. They do not come for a check-up, avoid visiting a doctor at home, and do not want to be tested. It is in such a contingent that all possible complications are assumed. And the health of the unborn child can be assessed in advance as low due to the fault of the mother.

Information on blood clotting is available to the woman. The doctor can explain the indicators in detail at the time of the appointment. You should not panic with altered analyzes.It is necessary to accurately follow the recommendations and prepare for the birth of an heir.

Increased blood clotting during pregnancy – symptoms of pathology, how it threatens mother and child


The author of the article: Marina Dmitrievna



Blood test

Why do an ultrasound of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy?

The period of bearing a child is a serious test for the female body, therefore, during pregnancy, the expectant mother undergoes numerous tests and tests.After a woman has become pregnant, it is important to monitor her well-being before childbirth.

Control over blood counts is one of the main studies that make it possible to monitor the health of a woman and a fetus. And if violations are detected, due to the frequency of tests performed, the likelihood of successful treatment is high due to the timely establishment of the diagnosis.

An indicator that doctors pay attention to is blood clotting. The norm in women during pregnancy changes at different stages, which does not always mean pathology, but needs control.

What is blood clotting

In the human body, blood performs many functions, including transport, protective, thermoregulatory. Blood circulates through the vessels, and if the integrity of their walls is violated, it is important that it be able to form a clot (thrombus), which closes the site of injury and helps stop bleeding. This property of blood is called coagulability.

Blood clotting in the body is regulated by hemostasis (blood coagulation system) and the anticoagulant system.Disruption of the functioning of any of these systems leads to pathological conditions, such as the formation of blood clots (increased blood clotting) or increased bleeding (decreased blood clotting).

Other factors affecting coagulation

You should be aware that with thick blood, it is not recommended to use certain drugs that increase its viscosity. These include:

  • Medicines with a diuretic effect.
  • Oral contraceptives.
  • Viagra.
  • Hormonal pharmaceuticals.

If you are taking one of these drugs and have thick blood, you should consult with your local doctor about the possibility of further use of the drug.

The condition of the blood is also negatively affected by smoking and excessive drinking. Drinking and smoking people need to get rid of bad habits as soon as possible.

Sometimes you can bring your blood back to normal with the help of a special diet and sufficient fluid intake.But more often, increased coagulation is a consequence of some pathological process in the body. In such cases, it is possible to normalize blood counts only after eliminating the underlying disease, which led to its thickening.


Blood clotting should normally increase during pregnancy. Starting from the second trimester of pregnancy, the activity of coagulation factors increases, and anticoagulant factors decrease.

Such changes are provided by nature, so that after the process of childbirth in the female body, bleeding from the region of the placenta, which has an intensive blood flow system, quickly stops.

In the opposite case, the woman in labor can die within a few minutes from heavy blood loss.

The rate of blood clotting during pregnancy is indicated by the value of several indicators:

  • APTT or activated partial thromboplastin time – the time required for blood coagulation, its norm is 17-20 seconds.
  • Fibrinogen is a special protein that is necessary for the formation of a blood clot, the norm is up to 6.5 g / l.
  • Lupus anticoagulant – specific antibodies that should normally be absent in the blood.
  • Platelets – blood cells that are formed in the bone marrow, normally – 131-402 thousand / μl.
  • Prothrombin is a blood plasma protein that takes part in the formation of a blood clot, its norm is 78-142%.
  • TB or thrombin time – the time during which fibrin is formed from fibrinogen under the action of thrombin, the norm is 18-25 seconds.
  • D-dimer is an indicator that is responsible for the process of thrombus formation, normally 33-726 ng / ml.
  • Antithrombin III is a protein that slows down blood clotting, its norm is 70-115%.

The results of the blood clotting test should only be deciphered by a doctor. The values ​​of many indicators change over the course of nine months of bearing a child, so only a specialist can correctly assess them.

Both decreased and increased blood clotting is fraught with many dangerous consequences. Therefore, an analysis for coaguloharmma is assigned to a woman several times during the waiting period for the baby.


Interpretation of a blood clotting test:

Coagulation rate Value
Number of platelets Shows the volume of healthy, functioning platelets that are activated when the vessel wall is damaged.
Sukharev coagulation time Shows the ability of capillary blood to create a clot, when it is placed in a small glass capillary, when it is gently tilted in opposite directions. A period is noted when the movement of plasma is difficult and the time of formation of a stable bunch.
White coagulation time Unlike the domestic technique, blood from a vein is required here.
Thrombin time Reveals the state of the last stage of blood clotting.Indirectly shows the concentration of chemicals, drugs and natural factors of the coagulation and anticoagulation systems.
Duke bleeding time A fairly primitive method by which the stopping time of blood from a finger is measured. This is the time to stop blood loss.
Prothrombin index Reflects the ability of the plasma clotting factors of the developed blood to create a clot when tissue clotting factors synthesized by platelets are added to them.It is calculated by the ratio of an adequate indicator to the patient’s data.
APTV In contrast to the prothrombin index, it reveals only the activity of plasma coagulation factors without the role of platelets.
Fibrinogen Detection of the accumulation of a specific blood protein that makes the blood clot insoluble

The reasons for poor blood clotting can be different:

  • These can be, for example, autoimmune diseases
  • Various infectious and toxic diseases
  • Metabolic disorders in pathology of the endocrine organs (thyroid, for example)
  • Heart failure in which blood outflow is impaired
  • Hereditary causes
  • High platelet cell count

These are just the main reasons why there may be poor blood clotting in men and women.

Increased blood clotting during pregnancy

If the blood clotting readings during pregnancy exceed the norm, it can lead to some complications of pregnancy. The fact is that the placenta, through which the fetus receives the nutrients it needs, contains a large number of blood vessels.

And if blood clots form in her blood vessels as a result of high blood clotting during pregnancy, the child does not receive all the nutrients he needs.Because of this, he may lag behind in development, he has an increased risk of congenital abnormalities.

This condition can lead to miscarriage, late toxicosis in severe form, placental insufficiency.

In addition, for the woman herself, this phenomenon is dangerous by the occurrence of thrombosis during childbearing and in the postpartum period.

What to do

With a slight increase in blood clotting, doctors recommend the expectant mother to adhere to a special diet and drinking regimen.You should drink at least 1.5-2 liters of liquid per day. It is better if it is green or herbal tea, natural fruit and vegetable juices, pure non-carbonated water.

A diet that contributes to normal blood clotting, first of all, should be balanced in terms of protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins.

The menu of a woman expecting a baby must include seaweed, nuts, unrefined linseed and olive oil. It is necessary to reduce the amount of meat in the diet, but at the same time, to increase the amount of sea fish.

Products such as bell peppers, onions and garlic, wheat germ will be useful.

With a significant increase in blood clotting, the doctor selects anticoagulants for the woman, that is, drugs that thin the blood.

Why does thrombocytopenia occur?

Every woman should remember that it is imperative to plan a pregnancy, and for this to be examined by doctors before conception, in order to be able to correct any changes in her body.

What can provoke poor blood clotting in pregnant women? There are several reasons for this disease.

If we talk about hereditary thrombocytopenia, then the risk of occurrence may be in expectant mothers who have:

  • have relatives who have had a stroke, heart attack, thrombosis;
  • 90,029 on the female side had varicose veins;

  • the pregnancy was terminated naturally;
  • there are disorders of the circulatory system.

The expectant mother can acquire thrombocytopenia:

  • having had a viral infection;
  • 90,029 taking antibiotics;

  • due to a lack of vitamins;
  • through intoxication;
  • due to the use of products that contain preservatives or chemical additives.

Symptoms of poor blood clotting in the expectant mother

The main symptoms of thrombocytopenia in a pregnant woman will be:

  • bleeding gums;
  • the appearance of bruises on the body;
  • Frequent nosebleeds.

Thrombocytopenia treatment

When a pregnant woman begins to notice at least one of the symptoms of poor blood clotting, she should immediately seek the advice of her doctor. He, in turn, is obliged to send the expectant mother to an appointment with a hematologist.

Pregnant women are often very afraid of any medication they have to take while carrying a baby. Drugs that are able to normalize the circulatory system will not have a bad effect on the unborn child.On the contrary, they will help save the baby, as well as avoid severe bleeding during delivery.

Many women ask the question: is it possible to avoid thrombocytopenia during pregnancy? Of course available. For this, it is necessary to strengthen the blood vessels. In this case, folk recipes from decoctions of nettle and rosehip tinctures will help. Lemons have a positive effect on blood composition.

They must be consumed together with the peel, adding honey. Strengthens blood vessels citrine, it is enough of it in citrus fruits.

We also recommend reading: Why does the stomach hurt during pregnancy

Poor blood clotting during pregnancy

The reason for the insufficient or poor blood clotting during pregnancy, experts call, first of all, a decrease in a woman’s immunity, which is necessary so that her body does not reject the fetus as foreign.

A significant decrease in blood clotting is dangerous by the development of many pathological conditions, including miscarriage, premature birth, placental abruption at a later date, bleeding during childbirth.Also, this condition is dangerous for the child with the development of blood clotting diseases.

Therapy for deviations

A slight increase in values ​​is regulated by special diets and an increase in fluid intake, taking into account the existing contraindications. You can drink up to two liters per day. In addition to water, it can be juices, green tea, herbal teas. It is necessary to add to the diet seaweed and fish, onions, garlic, nuts, olive and flaxseed oil.

When the values ​​are lowered, on the contrary, you should drink less liquid.A diet is prescribed, any spicy and spicy foods are excluded.

Excessive and insufficient coagulability are normalized by medication. The leading doctor prescribes treatment, since many pharmaceutical drugs (blood thinners, anticoagulants, heparins, etc.) pass through the placenta and can harm the child.

Symptoms of insufficient clotting

Symptoms of poor blood clotting in a pregnant woman may be absent almost until the moment of delivery. This complicates the diagnosis of pathology.

It may seem to the expectant mother that everything is in order with her body, because there are no signs of anomaly for a long time. With a deviation from the norm, the coagulation system changes gradually.

When pathological changes increase, specific signs appear, which can be used to determine the anomaly. When is it worth worrying? Poor coagulation is indicated by:

  • Subcutaneous hematomas appearing from any touch;
  • frequent nosebleeds;
  • bleeding gums;
  • blood impurities in the urine;
  • 90,029 wounds / microcracks in the skin;

  • delayed stopping of bleeding from wounds.

For any suspicious signs, consult a doctor

If you ignore the first signs, a clinical picture develops, similar to that of anemia. A pregnant woman feels weak all the time, gets tired quickly, dizziness and migraines become frequent companions. The changes are visible also in appearance:

  • nails become very fragile and break all the time;
  • hair loses its attractiveness and falls out;
  • The mucous membrane of the lower eyelid becomes pale.

When in an “interesting position”, any signals from the body are important. The appearance of at least one warning sign is a reason to see a doctor. Early detection of poor coagulation allows you to quickly take measures aimed at increasing the density of the blood. This will help to level the risks associated with pathology.

Excess fluid

Poor blood clotting during pregnancy presents the opposite problem. In this case, women sometimes experience symptoms of this phenomenon.We are talking about the occurrence of bruises and bruises, even if the damage was minor, there is often bleeding from the nose, the gums are also not stable.

Doctors identify several as risk factors for the development of such a condition. If we are not talking about the presence of some kind of congenital disease of the circulatory system, then we can talk about the negative effects of drugs aimed at treating, for example, varicose veins.

They work well in treating varicose veins, but blood can lose its ability to form blood clots as a side effect.Uncontrolled intake of drugs related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is also dangerous from this point of view. Analgin and aspirin are very common representatives of this class.

It is impossible to exclude as risk factors and work in hazardous production, the poor environmental situation in the region of residence.

Low blood clotting rates during pregnancy are dangerous because profuse bleeding during childbirth can form.The risk of placental detachment increases, resulting in childbirth before the appointed time.

This condition is especially dangerous for women who need to perform a caesarean section.

Medicines and dietary adjustments are important to deal with this disorder. We are talking about the consumption of foods with a large amount of vitamin K. Its synthesis is carried out in the small intestine, so it is important to take care of the smooth functioning of the digestive system.

blood clotting test during pregnancy: norms, high and poor

Not every woman who wants to have a child finds the happiness of motherhood, even despite the level of modern medical science.The problems of infertility and recurrent miscarriage (spontaneous abortion of two or more pregnancies) remain extremely relevant.

In the sad statistics of the causes of miscarriage, increased blood clotting, the so-called thick blood during pregnancy, takes a high second place, second only to obstetric and gynecological factors.

  • Treatment of increased clotting (thick blood) in pregnant women
  • Norm of blood clotting during gestation

    When the walls of blood vessels rupture, a clot forms at the site of injury, preventing blood loss.This phenomenon is called blood clotting.

    Coagulation is controlled by the hemostatic system. It performs the following tasks:

    • Preservation of blood in a liquid state;
    • stop blood loss;
    • dissolution of thrombi that have fulfilled their functions.

    The fetus is fed through the placental blood supply. Violation of the norms of hemostasis affects the full development of the child.

    The table shows the indicators of the norms of coagulation, their characteristics and values:

    Name of indicators Specifications Standard
    APTV Blood coagulation period 17 – 20 seconds
    Fibrinogen Protein involved in clotting at the end of gestation 6.5 g / l
    Platelets Number of platelets 131 – 402 thousand / μl
    Prothrombin Blood clotting factor 78 – 142%
    Lupus anticoagulant Antibodies that counteract the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin absent
    TB, thrombin time Duration of fibrin formation 18 – 25 seconds
    Antithrombin III Protein that inhibits blood clotting 70 – 115%
    D-dimer Thrombus formation and fibrin dissolution for trimesters: up to 286, up to 457, up to 644 ng / ml

    Interpretation of results and their clinical significance

    Platelet counting is the easiest manipulation.The norm for newborns is 100-400×109 / l, but over time, the boundaries of the norm narrow and fall. Up to a year -150-350×109 / l, after a year the rate is the same as in adults – 180-360×109 / l.

    With a decrease below normal, doctors note a high risk of bleeding, and with a pronounced decrease, it is extremely difficult to stop bleeding without an intravenous infusion of platelet mass.

    Blood clotting time is also considered a fairly informative method. Normally, the duration of bleeding is 2-4 minutes, and the time for clot formation is 2-5 minutes.If the results obtained do not fit into the framework indicated by the laboratories, then the doctor must prescribe an additional examination to find out the reasons for this condition.

    Prothrombin time and prothrombin index give the doctor information about the initial stages of the hemostasis system. These tests are helpful in detecting disseminated intravascular coagulation or hemophilia. Normal values ​​for all age groups average between 11 and 15 seconds.

    The prothrombin index is calculated from the ratio of normal values ​​and the result obtained during the examination of the patient.The normal value is 70-100%, while the indicator is identical for all age groups.

    Thrombin time represents the last stage of clot formation. Values ​​of 25-30 seconds are taken as the norm. The indicator characterizes the reaction rate during the formation of thrombin from fibrinogen.

    The fibrinogen level reflects the functional viability of the first coagulation factor. This protein is formed by the liver tissues and decreases in the presence of organ pathologies, blood diseases, and cancerous processes.An increase in the indicator is possible against the background of chronic stress or severe inflammatory reactions. The rate up to a year is 1-3 g / l, after a year 2-4 g / l.

    One of the most significant indicators of the coagulogram is APTT. The result of the analysis tells about the time during which the formation of a fibrin clot occurs. Normal values ​​are determined by the laboratories performing the analysis.

    Antithrombin-3 is an anticoagulant that affects various coagulation factors.The rate of the indicator varies depending on age, up to a year does not exceed 80%, and in older children it fluctuates in the range of 70-100%. An increase in the indicator is found in inflammatory processes, vitamin K deficiency, and the use of hormone-containing drugs.

    Why are high and low blood clotting in pregnant women dangerous?

    Excessive blood clotting during pregnancy in the vessels through which the placenta is nourished, contributes to the formation of blood clots. This reduces the supply of nutrients to the fetus and can cause:

    • fetal developmental disorders;
    • 90,029 miscarriage;

    • acute toxicosis in a woman;
    • placental insufficiency;
    • development of thrombosis.

    Low coagulation (hypocoagulation) is provoked by a woman’s weak immune system, congenital pathologies, and ecology. Additional factors can cause violations:

    • early or late pregnancy;
    • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
    • hereditary predisposition;
    • kidney pathology;
    • diabetes mellitus;
    • frequent stressful situations.

    At the beginning of pregnancy, the body’s own immune defenses are reduced to prevent rejection of the fetus.If this process is delayed, it raises the risk of the formation of pathologies:

    • miscarriage;
    • 90,029 early births;

    • placental abruption.

    The disorder is defined by frequent nosebleeds in a woman, bruising and bruising without cause. Insufficient clotting is especially dangerous when prescribing a cesarean section.

    Why does thrombocytopenia occur?

    Every woman should remember that it is imperative to plan a pregnancy, and for this to be examined by doctors before conception, in order to be able to correct any changes in her body.

    What can provoke poor blood clotting in pregnant women? There are several reasons for this disease.

    If we talk about hereditary thrombocytopenia, then the risk of occurrence may be in expectant mothers who have:

    • have relatives who have had a stroke, heart attack, thrombosis;
    • 90,029 on the female side had varicose veins;

    • the pregnancy was terminated naturally;
    • there are disorders of the circulatory system.

    The expectant mother can acquire thrombocytopenia:

    • having had a viral infection;
    • 90,029 taking antibiotics;

    • due to a lack of vitamins;
    • through intoxication;
    • due to the use of products that contain preservatives or chemical additives.

    Symptoms of poor blood clotting in the expectant mother

    The main symptoms of thrombocytopenia in a pregnant woman will be:

    • bleeding gums;
    • the appearance of bruises on the body;
    • Frequent nosebleeds.

    Thrombocytopenia treatment

    When a pregnant woman begins to notice at least one of the symptoms of poor blood clotting, she should immediately seek the advice of her doctor. He, in turn, is obliged to send the expectant mother to an appointment with a hematologist.

    Pregnant women are often very afraid of any medication they have to take while carrying a baby. Drugs that are able to normalize the circulatory system will not have a bad effect on the unborn child.On the contrary, they will help save the baby, as well as avoid severe bleeding during delivery.

    Many women ask the question: is it possible to avoid thrombocytopenia during pregnancy? Of course available. For this, it is necessary to strengthen the blood vessels. In this case, folk recipes from decoctions of nettle and rosehip tinctures will help. Lemons have a positive effect on blood composition.

    They must be consumed together with the peel, adding honey. Strengthens blood vessels citrine, it is enough of it in citrus fruits.

    We also recommend reading: Temperature 37 during pregnancy

    Blood clotting test

    Control over the state of hemostasis is regularly carried out using a blood coagulation test – coagulogram. It is planned three times: upon registration, in the second and third trimesters.

    The main values ​​of the indicators are presented in the table above. Exceeding the norm indicates the development of pathologies:

    • with an increase in the time of blood clot formation (AVTCH) – the risk of bleeding, with a decrease – the threat of blood clots;
    • The appearance of lupus coagulant antibodies – venous thrombosis or preterm labor.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    How does it happen and what is its peculiarity? In order to identify a pathology in a woman preparing to become a mother, a comprehensive examination is necessary. To diagnose a pathological condition in modern medicine, the following laboratory research methods are used:

    • Ultrasound;
    • venography;
    • contrast phlebography;
    • coagulogram;
    • hemostasiogram.

    In case of suspected concomitant diseases, patients may also be prescribed computed tomography and an electrocardiogram of the heart.For the test results to be most accurate, the examination should be done on an empty stomach. Also, you should stop taking any medications in a few days.

    Therapy for deviations

    A slight increase in values ​​is regulated by special diets and an increase in fluid intake, taking into account the existing contraindications. You can drink up to two liters per day. In addition to water, it can be juices, green tea, herbal teas. It is necessary to add to the diet seaweed and fish, onions, garlic, nuts, olive and flaxseed oil.

    When the values ​​are lowered, on the contrary, you should drink less liquid. A diet is prescribed, any spicy and spicy foods are excluded.

    Excessive and insufficient coagulability are normalized by medication. The leading doctor prescribes treatment, since many pharmaceutical drugs (blood thinners, anticoagulants, heparins, etc.) pass through the placenta and can harm the child.

    90,000 How to maintain a pregnancy after IVF – recommendations of leading reproductologists

    Pregnancy after IVF is often complicated.This is because women with diseases of the endocrine system and genital area resort to in vitro fertilization. They often have miscarriage, toxicosis and other problems that endanger pregnancy. To prevent this and preserve pregnancy after IVF, you need to be observed in a clinic that has the necessary equipment and qualified specialists working with IVF moms.

    Hormonal disorders during pregnancy after IVF

    These problems are caused by the introduction of large doses of hormones at the stage of preparation for IVF, if hormonal stimulation of the ovaries was carried out.For many women, this is a necessity and the only opportunity to become pregnant, since stimulation of the ovaries leads to the maturation of several follicles at once. At the same time, the concentration of estrogen in the blood increases sharply. Hormonal imbalance can cause disturbances in vascular permeability and fluid accumulation in the lungs and abdomen. Excess moisture prevents a woman from breathing, causing nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite.

    Another possible consequence of HS is a slow increase in hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is called the “pregnancy hormone”.This hormone should:

    • to keep the corpus luteum;
    • Prepare a woman’s immune system for an upcoming pregnancy;
    • stimulate fetal development

    With a lack of hCG, fetal growth slows down, which leads to miscarriage and fading of pregnancy.

    Pregnancy support after IVF is a must in this case. When monitored in a specialized clinic, doctors will be able to correct hormonal levels in time, remove puffiness and eliminate the threat of miscarriage.

    Infectious and inflammatory processes

    Women who become pregnant after IVF often suffer from chronic inflammation of the genital organs, which leads to the impossibility of natural conception. Although women are treated as much as possible in preparation for pregnancy, illnesses are often exacerbated again. All this affects the functioning of the immune system and a decrease in the production of hormones responsible for the normal course of pregnancy.

    The woman develops a bloody “daub” indicating the threat of interruption.It is not easy for the fetus to stay in the uterus under these conditions, therefore, medical support for pregnancy after IVF is required. Medical supervision helps to eliminate dangerous inflammatory processes, preserving pregnancy after IVF.

    Maternal problems

    IVF is mainly used by women aged 30 and over. A large percentage of them have various diseases of internal organs (kidneys, heart, liver, gallbladder) and metabolic disorders. All these “sores” are prone to exacerbations during pregnancy, which negatively affects the intrauterine development of the child.

    Women who already have health problems may develop diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, caused by malfunctioning of the pancreas. Blood glucose levels rise, which causes oxygen deprivation of the fetus. This complication often occurs if a woman is carrying twins, which often happens after artificial insemination. If the violations that have arisen are not treated in time, pregnancy can be lost. For this, women, being observed in the clinic after IVF, regularly donate blood for biochemistry and sugar.

    Placental insufficiency

    This condition occurs as a result of abnormal formation and or insufficiency of the placenta. Since women who become pregnant after IVF often have problems in the genital area, fetoplacental disorders are not uncommon for them.

    As a result, the fetus suffers, which receives little nutrients and oxygen, which can lead to miscarriage or the birth of a sick child. This condition can be helped by the periodic appointment of Dopplerometry, which shows the state of the fetal-placental blood flow.If a pathology is suspected, pregnancy support after IVF implies the prescription of drugs that improve blood circulation in the placenta and help the pregnancy to proceed correctly.

    Multiple pregnancies

    During IVF, a woman is often transplanted several embryos at once. If they all take root, multiple pregnancies occur. Sometimes twins develop from one egg, as in a normal pregnancy, identical twins are born to a woman. Many people consider twins or triplets a great result after IVF, forgetting that several babies are harder to bear and easier to lose.

    Sometimes nature itself regulates the process, and the extra embryos stop developing, but often all the planted eggs grow in the same way. It is possible, of course, to carry out a reduction (removal) of over-planned embryos, but parents rarely agree to this.

    In women pregnant with twins, toxicosis occurs more often and is more severe. The uterus, which grows much faster, presses on the legs, causing them to swell. The pressure on the diaphragm in recent months interferes with the full breathing of the mother. In the later stages of pregnancy with twins or triplets, an increase in pressure is more often observed, which can lead to convulsive syndrome (eclampsia) and premature birth.Since twins are already born with low weight, this can lead to profound prematurity and death of newborns.

    Overstretching of the uterus and increased stress on the body cause:

    • bleeding;
    • oxygen starvation of fruits;
    • anemia caused by a high load on the mother’s hematopoietic system;
    • fetal-fetal transfusion syndrome, when one fetus takes up more nutrients, inhibiting the development of the second;
    • placental vascular thrombosis.In case of multiple pregnancies, one or both of the “baby places” are not located correctly, which causes premature placental detachment;
    • oblique, transverse or pelvic arrangement in the uterus of one or all babies

    A woman who has developed multiple pregnancies as a result of IVF needs special supervision and strict control, so she is more likely to undergo ultrasound to find out how the babies are developing.

    The condition of babies carried by IVF mothers is monitored using ultrasound and dopplerometry.Competent doctors working in the Liniya Zhizn clinic will provide full support for pregnancy after IVF and will help to successfully endure multiple pregnancies and give birth to healthy babies. The conscious attitude of a woman and the supervision of experienced specialists allows you to save the majority of pregnancies that occur after IVF.

    Cholecystitis during pregnancy: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment


    Cholecystitis is an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder with the likelihood of the formation of stones (calculi) in it.It can be both acute (with a pronounced painful attack) and chronic (with episodic exacerbations). Also, this ailment is not always accompanied by the appearance of stones, but if it is not cured in time, then their formation is possible as a complication.

    Why does cholecystitis occur in pregnant women

    Pregnancy is one of the risk factors for the development of the disease, since during this period a woman’s hormonal background seriously changes, which can become one of the reasons for the formation of cholecystitis.

    Factors provoking the onset of this disease:

    • Predisposition to the onset of disease
    • Infection due to malfunctioning of the gastrointestinal tract
    • Cholecystitis was in a chronic form and did not cause any inconvenience, but worsened against the background of pregnancy
    • Previously diagnosed with gallstone disease
    • Stagnation of bile against the background of changes in the level of hormones
    • Violation of the outflow of bile due to a change in the physical position of the gallbladder, its compression and displacement by other organs

    According to statistics, pregnant women in the third trimester, as well as middle-aged patients, are most susceptible to the development of cholecystitis.

    Signs of cholecystitis in pregnant women

    Against the background of the general changed state of the patient’s organism, being “in position” it is quite difficult to understand that any serious illness has appeared. To avoid complications and discomfort, you need to pay attention to the following symptoms:

    • The onset of nausea and vomiting, as well as bitterness in the mouth
    • Excessive salivation
    • The appearance of belching or heartburn with a bitter taste
    • Pain and discomfort on the right side under the ribs after eating spicy, fried or salty foods
    • Excessively long period of toxicosis (normally it lasts up to 12 weeks, and in the presence of cholecystitis – up to 30)

    Exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis

    The transition of a chronic disease to an acute stage during pregnancy is possible for reasons such as:

    • Compression of the gallbladder by other organs
    • Production of certain liver enzymes due to the influence of hormones, which also affects the functioning of the gallbladder
    • Distortion of the digestion process
    • Ingress of bacteria and infection

    Treatment: cholecystitis during pregnancy

    If a diagnosis of cholecystitis was made, then there are two types of treatment during pregnancy:

    • Medication
    • Surgical

    Drug therapy should be prescribed by a qualified doctor, since only he will be able to select those drugs that will help cope with the disease, but at the same time will not harm the developing fetus.

    In a situation where the patient’s condition is critical, and the problem cannot be solved with medication, the doctor may prescribe an operation to remove part of the gallbladder. Such treatment is used only as a last resort.

    An important part of cholecystitis therapy is diet, within which it is necessary to exclude:

    • Acceptance of alcoholic beverages
    • Use of tobacco products
    • Fried, salted, spicy, smoked food
    • Fatty meat, fish
    • Spices (hot)
    • Dairy products (fatty)
    • Legumes
    • Coffee
    • Chocolate and cocoa-containing products
    • Mushrooms
    • Carbonated drinks

    You should eat 5-6 times a day in small portions:

    • Eat fruits, vegetables (not sour)
    • Porridge
    • Dairy products (non-fat)
    • Boiled or steamed dietary meats or fish
    • Protein omelets
    • Small amount of vegetable oils
    • Unsweetened pastries (bread, biscuits)
    • Fruit jelly, dried fruits

    You must not experience serious physical activity, but you must move: do gymnastics, etc.You should also undergo physiotherapy and rehabilitation in a sanatorium under the supervision of specialists.

    How to treat cholecystitis

    When diagnosed with “cholecystitis”, treatment in pregnant women largely coincides with that in other groups of sick people. Medical therapy should be prescribed by a doctor, since not all drugs can be used to treat this disease. Some of these can negatively affect the fetus.

    The following types of drugs are used in the standard treatment regimen:

    • Antispasmodics
    • Choleretic
    • Preparations stabilizing the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder
    • Antibiotics
    • Enzymes
    • Prokinetics
    • Substances containing lacto- and bifidobacteria

    Advantages of the procedure in MEDSI

    • A specialized Women’s Health Center has been created in the MEDSI network of clinics, which provides a full range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for pregnant patients, including the “Future Mother” pregnancy management program
    • The Center employs highly qualified doctors of various profiles, so there is no need to travel to several places to undergo a comprehensive examination or treatment
    • Specialists monitor innovative developments and constantly improve the level of their own qualifications in large Russian and foreign clinics
    • Clinics have new modern equipment of an expert level (ultrasound, MRI, etc.) to diagnose any possible pathologies and abnormalities in the development of the fetus at the initial stage, which allows you to quickly start treatment and achieve a result without harm to the woman and her unborn child
    • To make an appointment, you do not need to stand in line, just call 8 (495) 7-800-500

    Leukocytosis during pregnancy treatment and symptoms

    If you have more than 80% of the listed symptoms, we strongly recommend that you consult your doctor for advice.

    Leukocytosis during pregnancy (classification according to ICD-10 R70-R79) is a condition of the body in which the concentration of white blood cells (leukocytes) increases in the bloodstream. Every pregnant woman regularly takes a blood test, which shows not only the level of hemoglobin, but also the number of leukocytes – it is important that leukocytes in the blood are not increased or decreased, as this is evidence of pathology. Normally, the level of white blood cells can fluctuate – from 4 to 8.8 × 109 / L, but in pregnant women it is considered normal to have an increase in leukocytes in the blood up to 11 × 109 / L.

    A slight increase in the number of white blood cells during pregnancy indicates the activation of immunity, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a slight thickening of the blood. In cases where leukocytes in the blood increase significantly, leukocytosis develops, which indicates the presence of inflammatory processes or other pathologies in pregnant women that require immediate treatment.

    Causes of leukocytosis

    Leukocytosis can develop in pregnant women for various reasons.The most common causes of such a violation are: ARVI, acute respiratory infections and other inflammatory diseases that a woman could become infected with during pregnancy; serious pathologies, such as viral pneumonia or chickenpox, dangerous not for the woman herself, but for the child in her womb; an allergic reaction to certain medications prescribed by your doctor; getting injuries, burns and other traumatic injuries (scratches with suppuration, abscesses, fractures, and others).

    Also, the reasons that a woman has developed leukocytosis may be associated with difficult processes in her body, for example, with the breakdown of malignant tumors or internal bleeding.In some cases, pregnant women develop leukocytosis against the background of increased psychoemotional stress. Therefore, doctors recommend that women in a position avoid stress, as well as physical and mental overwork. Classification of leukocytosis Sometimes leukocytosis is physiological, not pathological, that is, it occurs as a reaction to the action of some environmental factors.

    Increased leukocytes during pregnancy: possible causes

    Leukocytosis can be of a physiological nature, such an increase in leukocytes is not a sign of the presence of any disease.

    An increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood occurs:

    • With stress, worries
    • During the second trimester of pregnancy
    • After taking a hot bath
    • Three hours after eating

    To avoid false test results, blood must be donated strictly on an empty stomach in the first half of the day, and during blood sampling, the patient should be as relaxed and calm as possible.

    More dangerous causes of leukocytosis can be:

    • Bacterial or viral infection. It can be an infectious disease of the respiratory tract – pneumonia or bronchitis. Usually such diseases are accompanied by fever and cough. Acute bacterial infection is also possible – appendicitis, pyelonephritis and others.
    • Inflammatory processes in the body. For example, with an exacerbation of chronic gastritis or arthritis, the level of leukocytes in the blood may increase.
    • Various skin injuries, burns and so on.
    • Allergic reactions or asthma.
    • Development of various urogenital infections.
    • Large blood loss.
    • Malignant tumors, metastases.

    All of the above diseases can have a negative impact not only on the body of the expectant mother, but also on the development of the fetus. Therefore, they require immediate treatment. The greatest danger of leukocytosis lies in its rapid development.Developing in just a few hours, leukocytosis can cause internal bleeding. It is for this reason that the treatment of this disease should take place under the strict supervision of a physician, who must first of all establish and eliminate its causes.

    In medical practice, most often cases of leukocytosis in pregnant women are caused by inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, uncontrolled intake of drugs, renal colic, and exacerbations of chronic diseases.

    Another reason for the increase in the level of leukocytes in the blood is the accumulation of white blood cells in the submucosa of the uterus. This is a natural physiological process that is necessary in order to prevent any infection from reaching the fetus developing in the uterus, as well as in order to stimulate the contractile function of the uterus, which is necessary during childbirth.

    For example, the white blood cells in the blood of pregnant women can rise if they take a bath that is too hot or too cold.Also, the number of leukocytes in the blood can increase due to errors in the nutrition of a pregnant woman, which requires a doctor to correct her diet. Engaging in hard physical work can also provoke leukocytosis, but it is important to remember that such leukocytosis is shown by tests only if they are carried out in the near future after an unfavorable factor has been exposed to the woman from the outside.

    If leukocytosis is determined in the blood of a pregnant woman after a long time after such exposure, we are already talking about a pathological condition.The most serious reasons that can cause an increase in the level of leukocytes in the blood of pregnant women are: abscesses; peritonitis; sepsis. These conditions are dangerous not only for the child, but also for the life of the mother, therefore, if the diagnosis is not carried out in a timely manner and treatment is not prescribed, the child in the womb of a pregnant woman and she herself may die.

    A few words should be said about the reasons for the decrease in leukocytes in the blood of pregnant women.

    These include:

    These diseases are dangerous in themselves, but also their danger lies in the fact that they can provoke the development of deformities in the fetus, as well as cause premature birth.Therefore, pregnant women are regularly examined for these viruses and infections – many of them are included in the complex of examination for TORCH infection. Also, a low level of leukocytes in the blood can be noted when a woman is exposed to radiation, when her body is exposed to certain harmful chemicals, when she is exhausted.

    Diagnostics and treatment of leukocytosis

    To establish the number of leukocytes in the blood of pregnant women, you can use a routine blood test. Treatment begins with establishing the cause of the development of leukocytosis.To do this, sometimes it is necessary to conduct a complete examination of the woman. When the diagnosis is established, the gynecologist leading the woman’s pregnancy decides on further treatment.

    The drugs that are used must be harmless to both the mother and the child. But unfortunately, not in all cases it is possible to eliminate leukocytosis and the pathology that caused it, without harming the health of the pregnant woman and the baby in her womb. Therefore, sometimes, in severe pathological conditions, the doctor may decide to terminate the pregnancy and save the life of the woman herself.

    Articles and research in Russia

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      Articles and scientific research abroad

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      Daria 10.05.2017

      Girls, who was put to someone during pregnancy? What consequences? Have you found the cause and were the leukocytes significantly increased?

      Ilyushina Mom 05/19/2017

      I was not given, but they were raised 3 times. Then I read that this can be during pregnancy

      Elena Liukkonen 06/22/2017

      I have a lake from the beginning of pregnancy until 22 weeks.were in the range of 14. And then they sharply increased to 19, and soe also increased. The gynecologist ordered a C-reactive protein test and it is normal. Then they said that the increase in leukemia and soe for pregnancy, there is no inflammation.

      Hat, 06/25/2017

      Hello everyone! I am writing straight from the hospital ward! On the 17th they put me on preservation (28 weeks) with the threat of premature birth! They took magnesium for 5 days and injections for 7 days, and the rest of the time I just lay there without procedures!They say that I have an increased number of leukocytes (leukocytosis). He is not treated in any way and they yell at all questions that no one keeps me here and I can leave, but they won’t pay some money and they won’t give a sick leave! I ask you about this leukocytosis, because I haven’t really found anything on the Internet!



      The drugs are selected for each woman individually, taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to drugs.90,003 90,000 reasons, diagnosis, treatment – Gineko – gynecological clinic

      Hematometra – a pathological condition of the female reproductive system, manifested by the accumulation of blood inside the uterus. This accumulation is due to problems with the natural outflow of blood secretions from the uterine cavity. The accumulation of blood in the uterus creates an environment for inflammatory processes that can spread to the oviducts, ovaries and abdominal space. Lack of timely treatment of hematomas is fraught with risks of developing infertility, peritonitis, sepsis and other serious health problems.

      The development of suppuration may lead to the need for resection of the uterus. However, such severe cases are noted very infrequently, since the hematometer is usually characterized by intense symptoms that prompt a woman to consult a specialist before the disease progresses to the terminal stage. It is a rather rare gynecological disease, usually present in young women.


      The intensity of the symptoms of hematometers is determined by the nature of this disease, the stages, the volume of blood secretions accumulated inside the uterus.Sometimes pain symptoms are mild.

      The standard developments are as follows:

      • cramping pain sensations in the lower abdomen, spreading to adjacent areas, intensifying in case of physical exertion;
      • sudden stop of bleeding on the 1st day after childbirth or termination of pregnancy;
      • absence of menstruation in adolescents caused by hereditary pathologies in the structure of the reproductive organs;
      • A feeling of heaviness in the area above the pubis;
      • tachycardia;
      • general deterioration of health, malaise;
      • increase in temperature, febrile conditions;
      • dizziness;
      • 90,029 hypotension;

      • loss of consciousness (rare).

      If you find at least one symptom, make an appointment at Gineko. We will prevent the spread of the disease and stop it in the early stages.


      Hematometer can be caused by both acquired causes and congenital. Among the hereditary anomalies of the reproductive organs, leading to the accumulation of blood in the intrauterine space, there are vaginal atresia, intrauterine septum and other diseases. When hereditary abnormalities cannot be detected and corrected in adolescence, a hematometer may occur at the onset of menstruation.

      The main acquired root causes of hematomas include a variety of pathological formations in the cervical canal and uterus, they lead to the creation of a physical barrier to the passage of intrauterine contents. These include cancerous tumors, fibroids, cervical canal polyps, blood clots, particles of an aborted embryo, pieces of the placenta, etc. Persistent narrowing of the uterine cervix caused by anticancer therapy, surgery and other traumatic factors can be an obstacle to blood flow.


      In women of childbearing age, the diagnosis of hematomas begins with the exclusion of the fact of pregnancy. For this, pregnancy tests and ultrasound of the pelvis are performed. The data of the anamnesis collected by the doctor during the initial appointment of the patient are of great importance. The peculiarities of menstruation in a particular woman, as well as gynecological operations that she underwent, have an important prognostic value.

      Examination of the vagina with a hematometer reveals a painful, soft, enlarged uterus.Probing the cavity of this organ helps to clarify the diagnosis. The insertion of the probe allows the collection of accumulated blood for analysis. Intravaginal ultrasound of the uterus is able to visualize blood clots, fluid accumulation, various abnormal structures (fibroids, polyps, etc.).

      Infectious processes accompanying the accumulation of blood in the uterus are detected by laboratory tests, for example, using bacterial culture and smear for microflora. In the most severe cases, hysteroscopy can be used for diagnosis.


      Therapy of hematometers is aimed at eliminating its root cause – blockage of the path through which the contents of the uterus exit into the vagina. To eliminate this pathology and prevent relapses, the following therapeutic measures are applied at Gineko:

      • Vacuum aspiration or curettage is aimed at cleansing the uterine structures in case of clogging with fragments of the placenta or fetus.
      • Normal exit of the contents of the uterus can be ensured using conventional probing of the cavity of this organ.In this case, vacuum aspiration may not be required.
      • After cleaning the uterine cavity from pathological accumulations, its antibacterial treatment is performed. The patient is shown anti-inflammatory therapy based on the intake of antibiotics and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
      • In the case of uterine atony (decreased contractility of the uterus), drug therapy is used to increase the ability of this organ to contract.
      • Antispasmodics are used to eliminate cervical spasm.
      • In the case of anatomical obstructions for the exit of uterine secretions, their surgical removal is required. For this, hysteroresectoscopy or scraping is used. In the most difficult course of the disease, hysterectomy can be used.

      Routine examinations by a gynecologist are an important element in the fight against a hematometer. The child’s first visit to a specialized specialist should take place before puberty.The absence of menstruation by the age of sixteen is the reason for an in-depth gynecological examination. If possible, for the prevention of hematomas, it is worth abandoning abortions, planning the gestation correctly, properly treating abnormalities in the work of the internal reproductive organs, and also following the doctor’s instructions during pregnancy.

      In the “Gineko” clinic you can find a family gynecologist who will monitor your health for many years and will be able to detect abnormalities in time.

      How to treat spider veins – “Institute of Veins” treatment of varicose veins in Kiev and Kharkov

      They appeared suddenly.

      Small fine lines on the face and legs. Or whole patterns from vessels.

      Are they dangerous? Can spider veins be removed?

      We will try to answer these questions in our article.

      Vascular spiders (telangiectasias) are damaged and dilated skin vessels. Typically, these patterns are purple, blue, or red.

      It is not necessary to remove such cosmetic defects immediately, since they are not harmful to health.

      Telangiectasias are similar to varicose veins in causes. These phenomena are different forms of venous insufficiency. But their degree of threat differs.

      Varicose veins cause serious complications – sometimes even death, and telangiectasias always remain an exclusively cosmetic problem.

      Many people want to know how to cure spider veins on their legs.Simply because of their unattractive appearance. And hardly anyone will like the fact that incomprehensible patterns suddenly appeared on his clean skin. Especially on the face.

      However, there is good news for such people – it is very easy to get rid of telangiectasias. Doctors treat them with several effective methods. We will talk about them later.

      Which doctor treats spider veins on the legs?

      First of all, go to a vascular surgeon or phlebologist. These doctors specialize in blood vessels and can easily identify the cause of telangiectasias.But you can remove unpleasant patterns from many doctors, since we are talking about a cosmetic procedure and it is performed not only in clinics, but also in salons.

      The main thing is not to get rid of spider veins without diagnostics. Find out why the defect occurred, and then you can prevent the development of other, more serious diseases.

      Causes of spider veins

      On the face and legs, telangiectasias pop up for various reasons. On the head, the vessels are damaged due to strong pressure and the influence of ultraviolet radiation.That is, after a long exposure to the sun, the face often receives a couple of unpleasant decorations in the form of red patterns.

      The vessels on the legs have a different problem.

      Blood flows through the veins from the legs to the heart. It must overcome the force of gravity, and therefore part of the blood often flows down. This is prevented by valves inside the vessels. They stop the flowing blood and return it to the bloodstream, so that no accumulations of blood form in the veins.

      When the valves are weakened or damaged, circulation is impaired.Blood overflows the vessels. Therefore, such veins on the surface of the skin immediately catch the eye.

      The likelihood of spider veins depends on the risk factors:

      • Old age

      Due to aging, the valves in the vessels weaken and often let blood flow down. Also, in people over 60 years of age, the muscles of the legs, which help the veins to pump blood to the heart, work worse.

      • Pregnancy and obesity

      These factors increase the amount of blood in the body and increase the pressure on the vessels in the legs.

      • Hormonal imbalance

      Hormonal preparations with estrogen weaken the venous valves. Contraceptives and some types of hormonal therapy are dangerous for blood vessels.

      • History of venous injury or thrombosis

      Vascular injuries and solid blood clots often cause great damage to the venous valves. From this, the valves cease to normally retain blood.

      • Increased pressure on the vessels of the face

      During severe vomiting, coughing and sneezing, the vessels are exposed to great stress and are often damaged.A similar problem occurs during childbirth when a woman is pushing.

      • Prolonged immobility in a standing or sitting position

      In these poses, the leg muscles do not work and the veins do not pump blood well, which accumulates in certain areas and presses on the venous walls.

      It is important to say about the hereditary factor. He is the most important one. Spider veins appear in 90% of people whose parents also suffered from this problem.Therefore, people with a genetic predisposition to weakened venous valves will not be able to completely eliminate the danger of telangiectasias.

      However, the fight against risk factors is still important. With proper prevention, frequent treatment of spider veins will not be needed even in old age.

      By the way, these patterns are divided into several varieties.

      Types of telangiectasias.

      The average diameter of spider veins is 0.1-0.3 mm. As already mentioned, they are red, blue or purple, and the color depends on the color of the blood that flows through the vessels.Red telangiectasias are fed from the arterial system, blue and purple ones from the venous system.

      Doctors distinguish varieties of spider veins in shape:

      • Linear – one or more lines running in parallel.
      • Arboreal – telangiectasias similar to a tree, with the same branching structure.
      • Arachnids – there is a clear center, from which rays radiate in different directions.

      The most favorite place for painful patterns to appear is the area under the knee, and they often pop up on the thigh, lower leg and ankle.

      The doctor prescribes treatment depending on the type of spider veins. Some methods are better suited for arterial telangiectasias, while others are better suited for venous telangiectasias. He also takes into account the symptoms of the disease.

      Symptoms of spider veins

      The main problem with vessel patterns is appearance. It is difficult to call them a decoration for the skin.Typically, telangiectasias are flat or slightly raised and are difficult to detect even by touch.

      People rarely think about the treatment of varicose asterisks in places covered by clothing, because in most cases these patterns do not cause discomfort.

      Not the wisest decision.

      Telangiectasias may be the first sign of a more serious illness. In this case, symptoms are soon added to the asterisks:

      • Pain
      • Itching
      • Bleeding
      • Edema
      • Heaviness in the legs

      So yes, you can postpone the treatment.But in this case, after a month or after several years, the state of the vessels will deteriorate greatly and even surgical intervention may be required to eliminate the problem.

      See a doctor for the first spider veins. This way you can get rid of them in the safest way.

      Methods for the treatment of spider veins

      People with telangiectasias do not have to go under the surgeon’s scalpel to get rid of the patterns on the skin.

      In fact, it is even harmful.

      Usually, the treatment of spider veins of the lower extremities is performed without surgery. Although such operations are effective on large veins, small vessels are quickly healed and in less coarse ways.

      The doctor can prescribe compression hosiery for the patient. Specialty stockings are not really a cure. The underwear presses on the veins with a certain force, as a result of which the vessels narrow, and the manifestations on the skin disappear.

      However, jersey is only a part of complex therapy.It stops the development of the disease, but its cause can only be eliminated by other methods.

      Doctors also treat blood vessels with a laser. With the help of this therapy, telangiectasias with a diameter of less than three millimeters, at the very surface of the skin, are eliminated. The doctor destroys the diseased vessels with a powerful beam of light. Skin manifestations disappear immediately.

      Sclerotherapy and its varieties continue to be one of the best ways to combat spider veins.


      Microsclerotherapy is a procedure that destroys the walls of blood vessels and stops blood circulation in it.This low-traumatic method allows you to easily get rid of blue and red patterns on the skin. However, it works best against venous telangiectasias.

      Operation Highlights:

      Microsclerotherapy is prescribed only against spider veins. It does not cure varicose veins. The operation removes vascular patterns of any shape.

      • Procedure

      The doctor injects sclerosant into the vessels – a special substance that destroys the venous walls.A needle with a diameter of 0.3 mm is used. Therefore, the phlebologist injects sclerosant into the thinnest superficial vessels. The damaged walls become inflamed and block the vein. The blood circulation in it stops, and the blood moves bypassing through other vessels. The patterns on the skin disappear.

      The operation immediately eliminates almost all manifestations – up to 98%. The remaining traces disappear in four weeks. Sometimes earlier. The procedure is safe and painless even for people with high sensitivity.

      • Contraindications

      Unfortunately, microsclerotherapy is not suitable for all people due to various diseases and other external factors.It is not performed during pregnancy and lactation. Not for people who are allergic to sclerosant. Another contraindication is renal, heart, pulmonary and hepatic insufficiency. Skin and soft tissue infections, acute inflammation, and diabetes mellitus of the first two types also interfere with microsclerotherapy.

      As you can see, this operation removes spider veins in just one session. Repeated treatment is rarely required.

      Before the procedure, the doctor must make sure that the patient has no contraindications.Only under this condition is microsclerotherapy safe.

      Treat the choice of the clinic responsibly and be treated by experienced doctors who will perform the operation according to all the rules.

      Phlebologists of the Vein Institute clinic will remove telangiectasias from the face and legs without pain and scars

      Dealing with spider veins is not as difficult as it might seem to some people because of talk about surgery. Yes, it is necessary. But usually only one.

      It is very important to consult a phlebologist prior to the procedure.

      Microsclerotherapy removes external defects, but does not remove the cause of their appearance. Therefore, treatment in itself does not solve the problem, but only postpones it to a later date.

      For example, a person removes several telangiectasias. Everything seems to be good. But after a few months, new patterns appear on the skin. It begins to seem that it is simply impossible to volunteer from the vicious circle of diseased vessels.

      Fortunately, this problem is not difficult to prevent. You need to undergo a course of treatment of spider veins during complex therapy – so you simultaneously fight the cause of the disease and its external manifestations.

      You should not trust beauty salons where telangiectasias are simply removed. This is not a complete treatment. It will not give long-term results.

      We recommend contacting the Vienna Institute.

      Our doctors have accumulated extensive experience in the fight against various vascular diseases. Many of them have been treating varicose veins and other diseases for more than 20 years and have successfully operated on over 4,000 patients. And these are just those people who needed an operation. Very often, phlebologists of the “Institute of Veins” restore health to patients using conservative methods.That is, without surgery.

      The doctors of our clinic are the most experienced specialists in vascular diseases in Kiev and Kharkov. Thanks to tens of thousands of cured patients and hundreds of thousands of examinations. They are also engaged not only in medical treatment, but also in research work.

      Our doctors also participate in international conferences. For different specialties.

      Contact the Vein Institute. Our phlebologists will relieve you of spider veins and other problems with blood vessels using less traumatic methods – without scars and pain.

      Phlebologists of the clinic “Institute of Vens”

      Surgeon of the highest category, phlebologist

      Experience: 21 years

      Surgeon of the highest category, phlebologist

      Work experience: 20 years

      Phlebologist of the highest category

      Work experience: 34 years

      Dermatologist higher.cat., director

      Work experience: 20 years

      First category surgeon

      Work experience: 15 years

      Surgeon, phlebologist

      Work experience: 17 years

      Surgeon, phlebologist

      Work experience: 5 years

      First category surgeon

      Work experience: 12 years

      Vascular surgeon, phlebologist

      Work experience: 10 years

      Vascular surgeon, chief physician

      Work experience: 11 years

      Vascular surgeon, phlebologist

      Work experience: 8 years

      Vascular surgeon, phlebologist

      Work experience: 5 years