Cold allergy or sinus: Is It a Sinus Infection, a Cold, or Allergies?
Is It a Sinus Infection, a Cold, or Allergies?
- What it feels like: You can expect a stuffy nose, but also some runny, discolored mucus, Goldsobel explains. You may also experience a sore throat, cough, sneezing, headache, or fatigue. Another sign is a rising temperature: Colds often trigger a fever, he says, but sometimes those fevers are so mild that people think they have allergies instead.
- What triggers it: A virus.
- How long it lasts: People usually fend off the cold virus (without treatment) within seven to 10 days, Baroody says. But if your symptoms have lingered past that window of time, you might have sinusitis. If you suspect you have a sinus infection, you should talk to your doctor.
An Allergic Reaction
- What it feels like: You may experience some nasal congestion with allergies, but it usually accompanies a runny nose (clear, watery discharge), sneezing, and itchy nose and eyes. Allergies never cause a fever, Goldsobel notes.
- What triggers it: Allergens cause an allergic reaction. Common indoor allergens include mold, dust, and animal dander, while outdoor triggers include pollen and ragweed.
- How long it lasts: If you have seasonal allergies, you may struggle with allergy symptoms throughout the spring and fall, Dr. Baroody says. If you’re allergic to indoor allergens, you may experience symptoms year-round.
How to Treat Congestion
Because sinus infections, colds, and allergies share some similar symptoms, including congestion, medications like nasal sprays, oral antihistamines, and eye drops can help minimize your discomfort.
If allergies are to blame, do your best to avoid your known triggers and steer clear of any other potential irritants, such as smoke or air pollution. Long-term treatments like immunotherapy (allergy shots) can help desensitize you to allergens and improve symptoms over time.
When Colds and Allergies Cause Sinus Infections
Even if your sinus congestion is being caused by allergies or a cold, it doesn’t mean you won’t develop a sinus infection later on.
In fact, when people have colds or allergies, the lining of the nose will swell up, which prevents mucus from draining properly — and that can then lead to sinusitis, says Goldsobel. People with allergies and asthma may be more vulnerable to sinusitis, though it’s not proven, Baroody says.
If you are at higher risk for sinus infections, you can take steps to prevent them. Don’t let allergy symptoms spiral out of control. And, Baroody says, be on the lookout “for the symptoms of sinus infections, and treat them promptly.”
Is It Sinusitis or Allergies?
You’ve had a stuffy nose for what feels like ages. It’s gone on for more than just a few days, so you know it’s not a cold. But which is it: sinusitis or allergies?
They have similar symptoms, so it’s easy to confuse them. But there are key differences in the things that trigger them and the kind of treatment you get.
What Kicks It Off
With both sinusitis and allergies, your nose and sinuses get stuffed up, but it happens for different reasons.
If you have allergies, the passages of your nose and sinuses swell because they’re trying to flush out “allergens.” That’s just a technical word for anything you’re allergic to, like pollen, mold, dust mites, and pet dander.
Sinusitis usually develops because of allergies or a cold. Sometimes, but not often, it’s from bacteria that cause an infection.
When you have allergies or a cold, your nose and sinuses get inflamed. That blocks mucus from draining, which can cause an infection — not to mention pain and pressure.
If you have allergies, you’re more likely to have sinus problems. That’s because the inside of your nose and sinuses often swell up when you breathe in triggers.
What It Feels Like
The symptoms of allergies and sinusitis overlap a lot. Both can give you a stuffy nose. If it’s allergies, you may also have:
If it’s sinusitis, besides a stuffy nose, you may have:
- Thick, colored mucus
- Painful, swollen feeling around your forehead, eyes, and cheeks
- Headache or pain in your teeth
- Post-nasal drip (mucus that moves from the back of your nose into your throat)
- Bad breath
- Cough and sore throat
- Light fever
See your doctor to figure out what’s going on, because it’s tricky to know for sure.
When It Comes and When It Goes
If you have allergies, you’ll start feeling symptoms soon after you come into contact with the stuff you’re allergic to. Your symptoms keep up as long as you’re still surrounded by those triggers.
Allergies can happen any time of year. They may be “seasonal,” which means you get them only in the spring or fall. Or they may be year-round. For instance, you might be allergic to pets or mold, which can be a problem no matter the season.
Sinusitis usually happens after you’ve had a cold or allergies. But certain symptoms will keep going, even after your cold goes away. You’ll probably have a stuffy nose and cough for more than a week or two.
You may hear your doctor talk about two kinds of sinusitis: “acute” and “chronic.” There’s a simple way to tell them apart. If your symptoms last less than 4 weeks, it’s acute. If they go on for 3 months or longer, you have chronic sinusitis.
What Eases Symptoms
If you have allergies, the first thing you turn to may be decongestants or antihistamines. They’re the most common treatments, and they ease a stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, and itching. Your doctor may also suggest corticosteroids, meds that reduce inflammation.
If you have seasonal or year-round allergies, you may need a long-term solution. Your doctor might suggest you start your allergy medicine before the season begins. Or they may recommend allergy shots. For around 3 to 5 years, they’ll give you regular injections of a small amount of whatever kicks off your allergic reaction. It’s a bit like getting a vaccine. Your body develops an “immunity” and will have less and less of a reaction to your allergy trigger.
For sinusitis, antihistamines may help. You can also try nasal decongestant sprays, but you should use them for only 3-4 days. After that, you could get what’s called the “rebound” effect, which means your symptoms start to get worse rather than better in between dosing so you’ll feel the need to use more and more of the decongestant nasal spray..
Another option are nasal sprays that have corticosteroids. You can use these as long as you need them. It may take several weeks before you get the full benefit.
You can also check out natural solutions for your symptoms. Try a humidifier, salt-water rinse, or hot pack.
If your sinusitis is caused by bacteria, your doctor may put you on a round of antibiotics. You may take them anywhere from 3-28 days.
Many doctors think antibiotics are overused. It’s best not to take them unless your symptoms last longer than 7-10 days.
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The Difference Between Allergies, a Cold, and a Sinus Infection
The Common Cold
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate that 22 million school days are lost each year due to the common cold. And nearly one billion colds affect the U.S. population as a whole. More than 200 viral strains can bring about a cold, the most prevalent being the rhinovirus, known to cause roughly 50% of all common colds.
Most often, people catch a cold from direct physical contact with someone else infected with the virus. They may also rub something containing germs like a phone, a fork, or coins and then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes. Viral bacteria released into the air by a cough or sneeze can also trigger a cold by breathing them in through the airways.
“Typically a cold will come on fairly quickly, it will peak in one to three days, and resolve in about five to seven days,” says Dr. Tran. “A cold’s symptoms are characterized by a lot of nasal congestion, thick clear or discolored drainage, and maybe a fever. But patients are usually better in five to seven days without antibiotic therapy.”
Other symptoms of the common cold include:
- A sore throat
- Watery, sensitive eyes
- Mild headaches
Sinus infections, or sinusitis, are responsible for many visits to an ear, nose, and throat doctor’s office and impact over 30 million people every year.
The sinuses are air-filled cavities in the skull lined with moist mucous membranes like the inner lining of the mouth. The sinuses secrete mucus continuously. Sinus inflammation can arise from a virus or bacteria. During a sinus infection, mucus production spins out of control, thickens, and can clog the nose and sinuses, causing congestion and pressure.
Acute bacterial sinusitis, which usually lasts less than one month is characterized by severe symptoms including:
- Nasal congestion
- Facial pressure
- Nasal discharge with a different smell
- Dental pain
According to Dr. Tran, the key difference between a sinus infection and the common cold is the duration and quality of the symptoms. “When it comes to differentiating a cold from a bacterial sinus infection that might need antibiotics, it’s really about the duration,” says Dr. Tran. “A sinus infection is characterized by symptoms that last more than 10 days, or if you have symptoms that initially improve but then worsen again within the first 7 days (‘double-worsening’). This normally indicates the presence of a bacterial infection that would benefit from antibiotic treatment. ”
Allergies are a widespread ailment that affects about 50 million children and adults in the United States and are the fifth leading cause of disease. Florida recently unseated Texas for the no. 1 highest allergy count by state in the U.S.
The most common allergens include:
- Pollen and plants
- Certain medications
- Animal dander
- Dust mites
- Insect bites
- Certain foods (eggs, dairy products, peanuts, and shellfish)
Allergies come about when your immune system sounds the alarm and attacks innocent allergens, something that usually is harmless, such as plant pollen, dust mites, molds, insect stings or food, that it should not. With an allergen reacts with your body, your system discharges antibodies warning that a threat needs to be neutralized. Histamines and other chemicals are sent out to deal with the situation, leading to an unpleasant allergic reaction.
“Allergies have a very common symptom profile, with symptoms of sneezing, clear runny nose, watery /itchy eyes and scratchy throat” says Dr. Tran. “Allergies usually have a well-known trigger — if you’ve been outdoors, around cats or other allergenic triggers. Unlike an infection, you don’t have a fever, discolored mucus, or a wet cough. ”
Symptoms can vary depending on the type of allergy and its severity and can range from mild to annoying, to serious and life-threatening.
Allergenic symptoms for nasal allergies can include:
- Itchy, watery eyes
- Runny nose
- Feeling unwell or sick
Why do allergies occur? Many scientists believe that allergies developed because we are now too clean, known as the “clean hygiene theory.” Part of the immune system that used to fight against parasites is now directed towards other innocent substances, or allergens, as exposure to parasites has significantly decreased with improved food sanitation and protective skin barriers.
Some inhalant or airborne allergies can last year-round depending if you’re allergic to dust mites or mold, but sometimes they can be more seasonal with trees, pollen, and grasses. Unfortunately, Florida has a climate with high humidity that allows for the proliferation of molds and dust mites, which can cause nasal congestion and have a significant impact on the overall sense of well being and sleep.
Treatment options are broad and include avoidance precautions, medications and immunotherapy to desensitize the immune system against the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only treatment that addresses the issue at the root cause, by trying to prevent the immune system from mounting a response to the allergenic trigger. Traditionally, desensitization therapy is given in the form of shots over the course of 3-5 years, but now there is an option for drops that can be administered daily by the patient under the tongue. Sublingual immunotherapy can save the patient time, is considered equally effective compared to allergy shots and has a very strong safety profile. At the ear, nose throat and plastic surgery associates, both allergy shots and drops are offered and can be tailored to each individual patient.
Is It Sinusitis or Allergic Rhinitis?
Nasal congestion and sinus pressure can make you miserable for weeks. You have to find the source of your symptoms to unstuff your nose.
by Featured Provider Ashley Taliaferro on Tuesday, April 7, 2020
You’re feeling the pressure — in your nose, in your head. Yet nothing can release it. And all you want is for your face to feel normal again.
It must just be a really bad cold. But you’ve gone through all your go-to cold treatments with no luck.
A stuffy nose and headache are signs of many illnesses, including the common cold. It can even be difficult for your doctor to make a diagnosis. But when you’re past the point for a cold to have run its course, your symptoms are likely due to two similar conditions — sinusitis and allergic rhinitis — with very different causes.
Sinusitis — is that like a sinus infection?
One and the same. Sinus infections typically stem from a cold you just can’t shake. When the cold virus lingers long enough, the infection spreads into your sinus cavities. But sinusitis can also come from a bacterial infection. Either way, the symptoms are the same:
- Sinus headache, pressure and pain
- Stuffy and runny nose
- Postnasal discharge, usually yellow or green
- Bad breath
- Sore throat
- Light fever
“Some of the biggest things that distinguish a sinus infection that’s caused by bacteria, are the facial pressure and pain,” says Ashley Taliaferro, DO, Family Medicine physician at The Iowa Clinic in Altoona. “You often have a sinus headache with it, and feel pain in your forehead, cheeks — even your teeth.”
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Isn’t allergic rhinitis a seasonal allergy?
Allergic rhinitis is more commonly known as hay fever. That’s a very confusing name. Allergic rhinitis isn’t brought on by hay, it doesn’t cause a fever and it isn’t confined to certain seasons.
In one form, allergic rhinitis is a seasonal allergy that affects those sensitive to certain weeds, tree pollen or grass. The season you suffer depends on the allergen.
The other form is perennial allergic rhinitis, where you can suffer from allergies year-round. Instead of outside allergens, this form is typically caused by dust mites, pet hair and dander, cockroaches or mold. Sometimes, a food allergy may be the root cause of your symptoms.
Allergic rhinitis leads to some of the same problems as a sinus infection. Your nasal passages are all blocked up, your nose runs, you develop a cough, you’re more tired than usual and the sinus pressure makes your head hurt. But hay fever displays the distinct signs of allergies as well:
- Itchy, puffy, watery eyes
- Itchy nose, mouth, throat or skin
How can you tell the difference between a sinus infection and hay fever?
The symptoms aren’t completely the same but there’s plenty of overlap. A major differentiator however is in your mucus. An infection often leads to discoloration. Your snot will be thick and yellow or green. Allergies just make your nose run — your body’s way of flushing the allergen out of your nasal passages. Your mucus will be thin, runny and clear.
The other thing you can look at is the timing of your symptoms. If your symptoms came on quickly and all at once, it’s most likely an allergy. If your stuffy nose, cough and sinus pressure have been ongoing, chances are it’s a sinus infection.
“It’s not always obvious. It can be hard to tell the difference, even for providers,” says Dr. Taliaferro. “The timing often tells us which one.”
When your condition is chronic, it’s more difficult to distinguish between the two. Allergic rhinitis should resolve as soon as you’re no longer exposed to your allergen. But if you’re sensitive to something in your environment and you don’t know it, you could have symptoms continuously.
The same is true of sinusitis. Your facial pain, sinus pressure and other symptoms can last a few weeks or a few months. Sometimes, sinus infections return regularly. Both can lead you to believe it’s seasonal allergies.
How do I get relief for my sinus and nasal issues?
Unfortunately, because of the nature of sinusitis and allergic rhinitis, you have to manage your symptoms with the treatments that work for you:
- Antihistamines – While these medicines specifically target allergies, they help relieve the congestion and other symptoms that are associated with both sinusitis and allergic rhinitis.
- Decongestants – Over-the-counter oral and nasal decongestants take care of that issue without the side effects of antihistamines. It can help with both sinus infections and hay fever.
- Sinus rinses and nasal sprays – These treatments relieve congestion from any source by helping clear away the drainage. They especially help to flush out allergens. After a rinse or spray, you can breathe more easily through your nose.
- Ibuprofen or naproxen – Sinus infections cause inflammation. Ibuprofen and naproxen are designed to relieve it.
“When it comes to treating allergic rhinitis, we focus on antihistamines and nasal sprays. Over-the-counter steroid nasal sprays like Flonase are the most effective thing. I tell patients to do two sprays in each nostril every morning,” says Dr. Taliaferro. “In addition, a daily antihistamine like Zyrtec, Claritin or Allegra can be helpful.”
Many patients get fed up with their stuffed up nose and sinuses and want medication that provides immediate and permanent relief. There usually isn’t one. Allergic rhinitis stems from allergen exposure and sinusitis typically comes from a virus. In some cases, the infection is bacterial and antibiotics are a solution.
“Other things can still be helpful, like rinses, steroid nasal sprays or decongestants,” Dr. Taliaferro says. “But if you’ve been taking over-the-counter medications for going on two weeks and are still having symptoms, that’s when we think about antibiotics.”
Symptoms that last for two weeks or that get a little better, only to get worse, are signs of a bacterial sinus infection. If at any point, you have overwhelming facial pain and pressure, fevers, chills, it’s time to see your primary care provider.
Chronic infections can cause complications and may be due to a problem with the anatomy of your sinuses. Severe year-round allergies may warrant a prescription or further testing from an allergist to keep you comfortable. Your provider will find the cause of your discomfort and the best method to resolve it.
“A virus should start to feel better. Sometimes allergies last an entire season,” Dr. Taliaferro says. “At that two-week time frame is when we can hopefully sort through whether you have ongoing allergies or a bacterial sinus infection.”
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Allergies or a Cold? Learn the Differences
Similar symptoms. Different causes.
To understand the difference between a cold and allergies, it is important to know that some cold symptoms are actually the same as some allergy symptoms. Plus, everyone experiences colds and allergies a little differently. It’s no wonder why it can be challenging to figure out exactly what’s going on.
What are allergies?
An allergy is an exaggerated reaction of your immune system to otherwise harmless substances (allergens such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, and mold). When you come into contact with these allergens, your body confuses them with harmful substances and attacks them by releasing chemicals such as histamine into the body. These chemicals cause you to experience allergy symptoms like sneezing, itchy and watery eyes, runny nose, or stuffy nose. Allergies are never contagious, but they can run in the family.
What is a cold?
Although allergies share many of the same symptoms as colds, colds are different. Cold symptoms occur when a virus gets into your body and your immune system attacks it. This can cause some of the same symptoms such as sneezing and nasal congestion, also seen with allergies.
But there are some key differences. Germs that cause colds are contagious. You can become infected when someone with cold symptoms sneezes, coughs, or touches you.
Luckily, cold symptoms tend to disappear in 7 to 10 days. If cold symptoms last longer than 2 weeks, consider contacting your doctor.
The signs of a cold versus allergies
Symptoms for allergies can vary and can be more prevalent in the spring and fall for seasonal allergy sufferers. Colds can cause different symptoms and sometimes, the symptoms may be more severe. This chart explains some of the differences.
Is it a Cold or an Allergy?
Fatigue Or Weakness
Rare Or Never
3 to 14 days
(for example, 6 weeks for ragweed or
Source: Adapted from NIH Medline Plus
Don’t hold your breath while you wait to find out.
Whether you have a cold, allergies or both, Afrin can help relieve your nasal congestion when used as directed. It goes to work right away, helping you breathe more freely in seconds – and lasts 12 hours.
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Is It COVID-19, The Flu, A Cold Or Allergies?
As flu season approaches, it might be difficult to determine whether you have a case of the flu or COVID-19. Although they share certain symptoms, COVID-19 is more contagious and more dangerous, says Sean Drake, M.D., an internal medicine doctor with Henry Ford Health System.
“While the flu may mutate from year to year, this year’s flu is still a cousin to last year’s flu,” says Dr. Drake. “That means we have some natural immunity to it, along with effective therapy and vaccines to prevent and treat it. But our immune systems are not equipped to deal with COVID-19 because we haven’t seen it before. And unfortunately, because it’s new, we don’t yet have a vaccine.”
That’s why everyone should take precautions—wear masks in public, wash your hands frequently, and practice social distancing. (Doing so will not only lessen your chances of contracting COVID-19, but also the flu, colds, and other viruses.) It’s also important to get your flu shot this season, to protect both yourself and those who are vulnerable.
But if you feel like you’re coming down with something, take note of your symptoms. Although viruses like COVID-19 can range in severity and affect people differently, Dr. Drake shares symptoms that are most typical for the novel coronavirus, influenza, the common cold and allergies.
- High fever (around 102 or 103 degrees Fahrenheit)
- Cough (sometimes it can be identified as a deep, dry cough)
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Headache and body aches
- Loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea
- High fever (around 102 or 103 degrees Fahrenheit)
- Sore throat
- Stuffy nose
- Headache and/or body aches
- Nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea
The Common Cold
- Sinus congestion
- Stuffy nose
- Post-nasal drip
- Sore throat
- Moderate temperature (around 100 to 101 degrees Fahrenheit)
- Itchy, watery eyes (usually a defining characteristic of allergies)
- Runny nose
- Ears feeling plugged up
- Tickle in back of throat
- Seasonal symptoms (if you have the same symptoms every fall and spring, it’s probably not COVID-19, it’s probably allergies)
While the above symptoms are those that are most common, especially in COVID-19, they can vary. “We’ve learned ‘never to say never’ when it comes to COVID-19,” says Dr. Drake. “Some people have classic symptoms, some can remain asymptomatic the entire time, some can have mild cases.”
The period of time someone with COVID-19 would see symptoms is two to 14 days after exposure. If you are worried, the best thing to do is to get tested and self isolate until receiving your results.
“A combination swab test that goes to the back of the nose can test for both the flu and COVID-19,” says Dr. Drake. “It’s the best way to determine your illness.”
If you have symptoms, talk to your healthcare provider about getting tested.
Subscribe today to receive weekly updates on tips for staying healthy and living well through the pandemic.
To ensure social distancing at our facilities, Henry Ford is not offering walk-in flu shots this year. To make a flu shot appointment online, visit henryford.com/flu.
Find a doctor near you at henryford.com. Call 1-800-436-7936 if you are in southeast Michigan or 1-888-862-DOCS if you are in the Jackson area or south central Michigan.
Dr. Sean Drake is an internal medicine physician seeing patients at Henry Ford Medical Center in Sterling Heights.
How to Tell If Your Cold is Actually a Sinus Infection – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic
Without fail, that pesky cold hits you out of nowhere again. You feel miserable but still have to go on with your daily responsibilities, even when you know the cold isn’t serious.
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But how do you know if your runny nose, headache and nagging cough are actually signs of a sinus infection? While it’s true that many of the symptoms of both illnesses overlap, there are clues to help you tell the difference.
Rhinologist Troy Woodard, MD, describes these illnesses and shares four questions you should ask yourself to decide which you have, plus tips for treating your symptoms.
What does a cold look like?
A cold is a virus at work in your upper respiratory system (nose, mouth, throat and lungs). Typically, adults get between two and four colds per year with symptoms like:
How a sinus infection happens
Colds can progress to become sinus infections, but not all sinus infections are viral. Bacteria and even allergies also can cause sinus infections.
“A sinus infection occurs when the sinus lining becomes inflamed, preventing the sinuses from draining,” he says. “The trapped mucous becomes a breeding ground for bacteria, which can lead to a sinus infection.”
Conditions that may make you more likely to get a sinus infection include:
- Nasal polyps (small growths occurring in your nasal lining).
- Immunodeficiencies (conditions that impact how well your immune system works).
Sinus infection versus cold: How to tell the difference
When it comes to the battle between a sinus infection vs. cold, knowing which one you have is tricky. Dr. Woodard suggests that you consider these questions to tell the difference between the two:
- How long have you had symptoms? Cold symptoms typically peak after three to five days and then improve over the next week. A sinus infection can stick around longer, though. If you have a runny nose, stuffy nose or sinus pressure that lasts for more than 10 days, suspect an infection.
- Do you have sinus pressure? If you have persistent facial pain, pressure or tenderness, you may have a sinus infection.
- What color is your discharge? If you have clear mucous, you probably have a cold. If you have yellow or green mucous, it’s probably a sinus infection.
- Do you have bad breath? If your breath has you reaching for a piece of gum, you could have a sinus infection.
Other symptoms of a sinus infection may include loss of smell and taste, cough, congestion, fever, headache, fatigue or aches in your upper jaw and teeth.
Start treating your symptoms right away
Since viruses can’t be cured, treating colds is primarily aimed at improving symptoms.
“It’s important to remember that with colds and other viruses, taking an antibiotic won’t help you feel better any faster,” says Dr. Woodard. “In fact, taking an antibiotic unnecessarily can do more harm than good.”
The overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which can make subsequent infections more difficult to treat.
“Get plenty of rest, stay hydrated and rinse out your sinuses with saline irrigation, which can help thin mucous and flush it from your nasal cavity,” he says.
When a sinus infection won’t go away
While it’s true that sinus infections sometimes clear on their own, antibiotics can sometimes shorten their duration.
Talk with your doctor if your symptoms don’t subside within 10 days or if you have persistent fevers, facial swelling or neck stiffness. As with colds, make sure you hit the sheets and get enough rest and drink your h3O. Proper hydration and nasal irrigation can ease sinus infection symptoms.
90,000 symptoms and treatment in adults, types of rhinitis, signs and causes, which spray to use for rhinitis
What is the therapy for rhinitis? The answer to this question directly depends on the causes and form of the disease. To choose safe and effective remedies, you should consult a doctor. If the disease is severe, in addition to the use of drugs that alleviate the symptoms of rhinitis, inhalations, rinsing, physiotherapy procedures, as well as adherence to a special daily regimen may be prescribed.
In general, treatment of acute and chronic rhinitis in adults should:
- eliminate edema and restore normal nasal breathing;
- to reduce the amount of mucous discharge;
- Maintain a normal level of moisture in the nasal cavity.
The use of local preparations for the common cold is an auxiliary, but very important measure that allows you to restore the patient’s normal well-being for comfortable rest, communication and work.
“Afrin” for rhinitis
Nasal decongestants have been frequently prescribed for the treatment of rhinitis without complications. The drugs in this group include Afrin sprays. Their formula is based on oxymetazoline, which, if the permitted dosage is observed, does not inhibit the ciliated epithelium and facilitates breathing, begins to eliminate the symptoms of a cold within the first minute after application.
The Afrin nasal sprays line is distinguished by the following features:
- sprays acts “in the epicenter”, concentrating in the focus of the pathological process;
- special pump, which the bottle is equipped with, ensures the accuracy of dosing and ease of use;
- due to microspraying, the drug is evenly distributed;
- spray format guarantees economical drug consumption.
The main difference between Afrin sprays and other preparations with oxymetazoline is the No Drip formula with microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carmellose and povidone. The aqueous composition with the active substance at the time of spraying has a low viscosity, but after contact with the mucous membrane, its viscosity increases significantly. Due to this, the composition does not spread, does not migrate into the nasopharynx and throat, but is fixed directly in the nasal cavity – in the focus of inflammation.
Afrin No Drip preparations help relieve symptoms within the first minute 2 .Other advantages of Afrin include:
- long duration of action – the No Drip formula with oxymetazoline remains active for up to 12 hours, improves sleep and performance;
- ease of use – thanks to the convenient dispenser, the drug can be applied anywhere.
The Afrin line for rhinitis treatment includes 3 types of drugs.
Vasomotor rhinitis is a disease of the nasal mucosa that occurs as a result of a violation of the tone of the blood vessels of the nasal cavity and is characterized by frequent or persistent nasal congestion and runny nose.
How does vasomotor rhinitis occur?
As a result of the influence of one of the predisposing factors, there is a change in the regulation of the vascular tone of the nasal mucosa. As a result, the venous plexuses of the nasal conchas expand, which leads to edema of the nasal mucosa, disruption of the mucous glands and olfactory epithelium, damage to the ciliated ciliated epithelium.
What factors most often contribute to the development of vasomotor rhinitis?
There are a lot of predisposing factors for the development of vasomotor rhinitis, and we meet with some of them every day.However, scientists have not yet figured out why some suffer from a disease such as vasomotor rhinitis, while others do not.
The most common trigger for the development of vasomotor rhinitis is a viral infection.
Also, many scientists put polluted or poor-quality inhaled air (hot or cold, dry or humid, air with poisonous gases, smoking, high dust levels, a sharp change in weather or climate) as the leading causes of vasomotor rhinitis.
Uncontrolled and prolonged use of vasoconstrictor nasal drops (naphthyzine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline and others) is also one of the most common causes of vasomotor rhinitis. The fact is that with prolonged use of such drops, the production of its own vasoconstrictor substances is inhibited, which leads to the fact that the vessels of the nasal mucosa are constantly in an expanded state, contributing to the occurrence of the so-called “naphthyzine dependence”, which is also vasomotor rhinitis.
Hormonal changes in the body during physiological (pregnancy, menstruation, adolescence in girls, etc. ) or pathological processes (diseases of the hypothalamus, adrenal glands or other endocrine organs involved in the production of hormones affecting the regulation of vascular tone), which are associated with an increase in the level of estrogen – female sex hormones, leads to the occurrence of vasomotor rhinitis.
Curvature of the nasal septum, adenoid vegetation, other anatomical features or defects interfere with normal aeration (the passage of air in the nasal cavity) and / or squeeze the vessels of the nasal mucosa, which leads to venous congestion, disrupting the local regulation of vascular tone.
Allergic diseases also contribute to the development of allergic vasomotor rhinitis. The mechanism of development of vasomotor rhinitis with allergies is to increase the permeability of the vessels of the nasal cavity, as a result – edema of the nasal mucosa.
The constant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, nimesulide, aspirin and others), as well as beta-blockers (means for lowering blood pressure), increases the volume of circulating blood and the expansion of the nasal vessels, which disrupts the regulation of the vascular tone of the nasal cavity.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia and arterial hypertension – vascular diseases, which are accompanied by an increase or decrease in blood pressure associated with disruption of the autonomic nervous system. Under the influence of the abnormal work of the neurogenic factor of vascular regulation, narrowing or expansion of the arteries and expansion of the venous plexus occur, as a result – vasomotor rhinitis.
What are the symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis?
Vasomotor rhinitis is a chronic disease that can occur continuously or intermittently.
So what is the common concern for patients with vasomotor rhinitis?
The main complaints in vasomotor rhinitis are difficulty in nasal breathing, dryness and itching in the nose, nasal discharge, impaired sense of smell. In connection with a violation of nasal breathing, symptoms such as general weakness, increased fatigue, memory impairment, headache, sleep disturbances, and loss of appetite become more frequent.
What to do with vasomotor rhinitis?
To clarify the diagnosis, the cause of the onset and determine the treatment tactics, first of all, it is necessary to contact the ENT doctor.
When a diagnosis of vasomotor rhinitis is made, it is necessary to determine the tactics of treatment. The complex of therapeutic measures is determined individually, depending on the stage and form of the disease, the patient’s age and the presence of concomitant diseases.
First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the factors that are most likely to cause vasomotor rhinitis, if possible. Unfortunately, in most cases this is difficult or even impossible to accomplish. Of course, we cannot improve the composition of the air, make others stop using perfume or smoke, completely get rid of house dust.And pregnancy and menstruation are a normal condition for women. But we can humidify the air in the room, ventilate the rooms before going to bed, carry out regular wet cleaning at home, treat vascular dystonia and other concomitant diseases on time and correctly, control blood pressure, together with the therapist, select medications that will not “interfere” with normal nasal breathing … And if vasomotor rhinitis worsens due to unfavorable working conditions, you can strengthen personal protective equipment against allergens or other factors or change the working conditions.
As a rule, treatment of vasomotor rhinitis begins conservatively. The ENT doctor individually selects drugs for treatment, as well as physiotherapy procedures.
In the absence of the effect of conservative therapy, the question of surgical treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is resolved.
ENT department of the 11th city clinical hospital offers examination and treatment of patients with vasomotor rhinitis.
Evaluation of patients with vasomotor rhinitis:
- Consultation of ENT doctor;
- Full range of required examinations;
- Consultations of doctors of related specialties, if necessary;
- Determination of tactics for the treatment and prevention of vasomotor rhinitis.
Surgical treatment of patients with vasomotor rhinitis:
Monopolar high-frequency coagulation of the turbinates – cauterization of the vessels of the lower turbinates, in which the turbinates decrease in size, lose the ability to swell and swell. Under local anesthesia (as in dental interventions), a thin electrode is inserted into the nasal concha, the soft tissue of the concha is exposed for 10-30 seconds, after which the electrode is removed.
Laser vasotomy with a Mediola Compact diode laser is one of the most gentle and effective methods of treating vasomotor rhinitis, in which the submucous vessels of the turbinates are cauterized, which makes it possible to remove swelling and restore breathing. The intervention is performed under local anesthesia. Done in 3 ways:
- the laser is inserted into the shell, the effect on the soft tissues of the shells is carried out, and then removed;
- laser “incisions” are made on the mucous membrane of the turbinate;
- non-contact method – indicated for elderly patients, patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Laser vasotomy is characterized by low invasiveness and trauma of the procedure, it also has a stable result (in many patients, relapses do not occur for years). In addition, during laser vasotomy surgery, nasal tamponade is not needed, which also has a good effect on the general condition of the patient and can prevent the development of synechiae of the nasal cavity later.
Conchotomy – radical removal of the inferior turbinates. It is performed under local or general anesthesia.
Septoplasty – surgery to straighten the nasal septum is often combined with a conchovasotomy.
Diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses
Nasal cavities are two canals, which are separated from each other by an osteochondral septum . The nose is connected to the external environment through the nostrils, which open up to the nasopharynx through channels called choanas.
The lateral wall of the nasal cavity is an uneven surface: it includes three bone plates (sometimes 4), covered with a mucous membrane and forming the nasal concha.In each nasal cavity, a lower, middle, upper, and sometimes higher course is distinguished.
The spaces of the passages are called passages and are associated with the paranasal sinuses.
- maxillary sinuses: two large symmetrical cavities located below the orbits
- frontal sinuses: irregular in shape, which are included in the thickness of the frontal bone above the root of the nose
- sphenoid sinuses: two cubic cavities located in the sphenoid bone
90,013 ethmoidal cells: A complex system of small cavities that form two trellised labyrinths.
The nose has a number of different functions:
- Respiratory function: the nose regulates the flow of air through highly complex central systems that regulate the correct oxygen content according to the different needs of the body.
- The function of heating and humidifying the air inhaled through an effective system of vascularized “siphons” (turbinates), which, depending on the air temperature, can increase or decrease in volume.When they expand, they provide more warmth and higher humidity, and when they contract, they allow more air passage by increasing the volume of the nasal cavity.
- Olfactory function: provided by a specific epithelium (neuro-epithelium) located at the top of each nostril.
- Protective function: provided by a number of systems that create a barrier against large particles, microparticles and pathogenic microorganisms.
- Vocal Resonance: In particular, when pronouncing certain phonemes.
Several hypotheses have been put forward about the function of the paranasal sinuses:
- These sinuses help relieve the weight of the skull that would otherwise be too heavy.
- Protection of the base of the skull in case of injury.
- Thermal insulation of more vulnerable structures.
- Creation of resonance during pronunciation.
INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE Nasopharynx AND SINTERS
Rhinitis – The most common form of acute nasal inflammation is acute epodemic rhinitis.This disease is commonly known as the common cold or runny nose. It is caused by a viral etiology, in particular, rhinovirus and parainfluenza viruses. It is characterized by nasal obstruction of the airways associated with profuse nasal discharge. Potential bacterial infections, characterized by mucopurulent secretions. Therapy is exclusively medication. however, it should be remembered that there are anatomical factors (deviation of the nasal septum, hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate, pneumatization of the middle turbinate) that promote nasal ventilation with activation in acute and chronic inflammation.These factors are the subject of surgical correction (see malformations and post-traumatic maxillofacial problems).
A significant proportion of nasal inflammation (20%) is allergic rhinitis. This form is caused by the body’s immune response to certain external factors known as allergens. Seasonal allergens (e.g. pollen) and persistent allergens (e.g. dust mites, animal dander) are emitted Symptoms are accompanied by obstruction of the nasal airways, clear nasal discharge, sneezing, itching, decreased sense of smell, lacrimation (allergic oculorinitis).Diagnosis is by endoscopic examination of the nose using a flexible fiber optic probe, as well as special allergy tests. Treatment includes antihistamines, topical corticosteroids in conditions of low systemic absorption, and possible sublingual vaccination.
Similar characteristics are also characteristic of another form of rhinitis, which is not related to allergens and is called pseudo-allergic or vasomotor rhinitis.In this case, the symptoms described above are caused by thermal, chemical, optical, mechanical stimuli (for example, exposure to light, heat, cold, etc.). The above medical therapy has little effect on this type of rhinitis. Very often it is necessary to resort to removing the edema of the lower nasal passages using diamothermal surgery or exposure to radiofrequencies (see turbinoplasty).
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. There are three types of sinusitis. First: acute sinusitis, a type of inflammation that spreads and affects the body very quickly and is treated with appropriate medication.Second: subacute sinusitis, which can last up to three months and is treatable with a choice of specific therapy. Third: chronic sinusitis that occurs due to repeated acute episodes or as a result of inadequate treatment of previous infections. Sinusitis can be viral, bacterial, or fungal.
In order to assess sinusitis, in any case, it is necessary to take into account a number of predisposing factors, for example, structural changes in the nose, immunodeficiency, dental infections and much more.The most common symptoms of sinusitis are frequent purulent nasal discharge, facial pain with sinus involvement, reduced or no sense of smell.In addition to a careful analysis of the symptoms reported by the patient, it is very important to perform a fibroendoscopic examination using a flexible fiber optic probe, and computed tomography of the facial skeleton. Finally, on the basis of the clinical picture (acute, subacute, chronic sinusitis), age and analysis of the general health of the patient, his tolerance to certain types of drugs, procedures and methods of treatment, it is possible to prescribe drug therapy or resort to surgical intervention.
Nasal polyp is a multifactorial disease characterized by swelling of the nasal submucosa with the formation of polyps.
Polyps are represented by sacs of thickened mucous membrane, which grows and causes frequent recurrence of inflammatory phenomena, which are promoted by allergies, fungal infections, aspirin intolerance, autoimmune diseases (Churg-Strauss syndrome), nasal tumors (symptomatic polyposis), pathological changes in the functions of the mucous membrane.Polyposis is accompanied by symptoms such as nasal congestion, clear discharge (nasal hydrorhea), decreased or complete loss of smell, change in voice (nasal voice).
Diagnosis is carried out by endoscopic examination using a flexible fiber optic probe, which allows you to determine the size of the polyps and the degree of obstruction of the nasal passages. Contrastless computed tomography and allergy analysis are also prescribed in order to more accurately determine the course of treatment.
Based on the clinical picture (scale and severity of polyposis), age and analysis of the general health of the patient, his tolerance to certain types of drugs, procedures and methods of treatment, the following types of therapy can be selected.
- Drug therapy that includes topical corticosteroids (nasal sprays) or, in more severe cases, systemic use (oral or intramuscular).
- Surgical treatment is the only option in cases of massive polyposis, and if medical therapy is ineffective or, for various reasons, the patient cannot undergo long-term cortisone treatment.A surgical technique called FESS (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) involves using an endoscope and a special instrument (microdebrider) that breaks up the polyps and then sucks them up. This method provides a thorough removal of polypoid growths and restoration of the normal physiological environment and anatomy of the patient’s nose. This type of surgery, as a rule, does not involve tapmoning.
External tissue incisions and nasal swabs are not intended.The patient is discharged the morning after surgery with a total hospital stay of 24 hours. An eight to ten day home convalescence period is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding. After surgery, an outpatient visit 2 times a week is recommended for bandaging, scarring control and check-ups. intranasal secretions.
DEVELOPMENTAL FAULTS AND POSTTRAUMATIC NOSE DISEASES
This category includes such pathologies as deviation of the nasal septum, expressed by the skewness of the osteochondral membrane separating the two nasal cavities.Pathology can be caused by disorders of the development of the facial skeleton (in this case, we are talking about congenital misalignment) or injuries sustained in childhood (then we are talking about an acquired disorder). The displacement of the septum is often accompanied by compensatory hypertrophy of the nasal passages into the nasal chamber opposite to the bulge of the septum.
The patient suffers from difficulty breathing, which leads to breathing through the mouth, nocturnal snoring, frequent rhinitis and, in certain cases, sinusitis caused by poor ventilation, which in turn leads to persistent inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosa.
The only way out in this case is surgery to correct the membrane of the nasal septum. This operation is called septoplasty and is aimed at functional improvement of the patient’s nasal breathing.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia and involves a small incision inside the nose (which thus remains invisible), detachment of the mucous membrane that covers the nose, and correction of the septum by removing part of the cartilage and bone.
Currently, there is no need to use nasal tampons, which once made the postoperative period an irritating and painful process.Modern surgery uses thin silicon wafers that are inserted between the septum and the turbinates, thereby preventing the formation of postoperative adhesions. The patient is discharged the morning after surgery with a total hospital stay of 24 hours.
An eight to ten day home convalescence period is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding. After the recovery period, the plates are removed.
It is important to note that plastic surgery of the nasal septum does not in any way affect the aesthetics of the nose.It is intended solely for functional correction. At the request of the patient, it is also possible to include a procedure for functional aesthetic correction of the nasal pyramid (see rhinoplasty).
Fractures of the nasal bones – Because of its location, the pyramid of the nose is most at risk in the event of an injury to the face, so nasal fractures are a relatively common event.
The fracture is accompanied by nosebleeds, swelling, swelling of the nose, and in some cases, open wounds on the skin and / or fractures of other bones of the facial skeleton.
Early detection of a fracture of the nasal bones guarantees quick treatment by surgical intervention. The reduction of the fracture allows the bone cones to be aligned. The operation must be performed within 7-10 days after the injury, since after this period the bones of the nose can no longer be aligned due to abnormal consolidation of their segments.In this situation, there is a risk of dimorphism of the nasal pyramid with the need for rhinoplasty (see rhinoplasty).
TUMORS OF THE NOSE AND SINTERS
The facial skeleton consists of various histological structures, and therefore different types of tumors may occur.
Benign tumors – Benign tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses include fibromas, bleeding fibroanginomas, osteomas (of a bone nature with frequent localization in the frontal sinus) and papillomas. A special form of papilloma is the so-called transitional cell papilloma: it is a neoplasm which is characterized by a special tendency to increase in depth with possible erosion of the surrounding bone structures.This type of papilloma lends itself exclusively to surgical intervention using modern nasal endoscopic methods, which guarantee complete removal of the tumor in a minimally invasive way, minimizing trauma.
Malignant tumors – Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 1% of all malignant tumors.
Special working conditions (especially in the woodworking and leather industry) can lead to permanent chronic inflammation, which can cause progressive paralysis of the mucociliary system. The above process determines the increase in the duration of contact with a carcinogen, which over time can lead to tumor transformation of some cells.
In the case of naso-sinus tumors, very delicate areas of the face bordering the eyes, meninges and skull contents are affected. Therefore, both surgery and radiation therapy are extremely invasive and destructive methods. Early diagnosis is very important in this case.
Distinguish from a histopathological point of view:
- Squamous cell carcinomas (most)
- adenocarcinomas (quite widespread)
- mucoepidermoid carcinomas (formed in the auxiliary salivary glands)
- Lymphoid cystic carcinomas or cylindromas
- neuroblastomas (malignant tumors arising in the olfactory epithelium).
Diagnosis is based on subjective symptoms that need to be assessed with great care:
- nasal obstruction 0-90% of airways
- Frequent purulent nasal discharge, usually unilateral (rhinopyorrhea)
- Sense of unpleasant odor (cacosmia)
These symptoms, however, are more easily attributed to common cases of rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, which often leads to late diagnosis of cancer only when so-called signs of externalization or secondary adenopathy appear.
Therefore, for diagnostic purposes, endoscopic examination of the nose with the help of flexible and rigid fiber-optic probes is of great importance, which allow not only to determine neoplasia, but also to conduct a simultaneous biopsy.
Evaluation of images obtained using computed tomography of the facial array, or magnetic resonance using a contrast agent allows you to accurately determine the degree of disease and select the best method of therapy.
We can use surgery, radiation or chemotherapy to fight cancer.
Surgical intervention includes endoscopic methods using special and laser technologies, as well as traditional methods of surgery, depending on the condition of a particular cancer.
In the case of tumors of large size and length, it may be necessary to remove the bone structures of the facial skeleton.
Combination with postoperative radiotherapy is recommended (with the exception of rare early forms).
The exceptional combination of radiation and chemotherapy is used only in extreme extrasurgical cases.
90,000 Effective treatment of sinusitis at the Hippocrates clinic
Otolaryngology Department of MC “Hippocrates” successfully specializes in the treatment of sinusitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, loringitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis and other diseases of the ear, throat and nose.
Sinusitis is an inflammation or infection of the paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosa, accompanied by thick nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, fever, and decreased sense of smell.These sinuses are lined with a mucous membrane, filled with air and located in the forehead, nose, cheeks and eyes. If you feel sinusitis symptoms, contact the ENT department of the Hippocrates MC. Specialists will diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.
In humans, four groups of paranasal sinuses are distinguished, named according to their location:
- Frontal sinus – paired sinus, located in the frontal bone;
- Gaimorova or maxillary sinus – the largest paired sinus, located in the upper jaw;
- Ethmoid sinus or ethmoid labyrinth – paired sinus formed by the cells of the ethmoid bone;
- The sphenoid sinus is the main sinus and is located in the body of the sphenoid bone.
Sinusitis occurs when the sinuses become clogged or blocked from a runny nose, cold, or other infectious disease. Bacteria and other microorganisms under these conditions begin to multiply very quickly, which leads to infection and inflammation of the paranasal sinus.
Depending on the duration of these symptoms, sinusitis is classified as acute, subacute, chronic, or recurrent. Viruses are the most common cause of acute sinusitis, but bacteria are responsible for most of the serious cases.
Pain, fatigue and other symptoms of sinusitis can have a significant impact on quality of life. This condition can cause emotional stress, disrupt normal activities and habitual lifestyle. If symptoms occur, you should consult your ENT.
At the place of localization of sinusitis, after a thorough diagnosis in our medical center, otolaryngologists distinguish the following diseases:
- Sinusitis – occurs with inflammation of the maxillary paranasal sinus;
- Frontitis – occurs with inflammation of the frontal paranasal sinus;
- Ethmoiditis – occurs with inflammation of the ethmoid cells;
- Sphenoiditis – occurs with inflammation of the sphenoid sinus.
Sinusitis is the most common disease of the paranasal sinuses. All methods of treating sinusitis are selected individually, after consulting an ENT doctor.
Causes of sinusitis and sinusitis
Causes of sinusitis and sinusitis – Viruses. Viruses cause 90 to 98% of cases of acute sinusitis. The typical process leading to acute sinusitis or sinusitis begins with a viral cold. Most people with colds have sinus inflammation. These inflammations are usually brief and mild, and very few people with colds develop true sinusitis.But at the same time, colds and flu cause inflammation, increased secretion of mucous glands and congestion in the turbinates, the so-called rhinitis, which leads to obstruction in the sinuses. Rhinitis always accompanies sinusitis, which is why sinusitis is also called rhinosinusitis.
- Bacteria. A small percentage of acute sinusitis and possibly chronic sinusitis are caused by bacteria. The bacteria are usually found in the nasal passages and throat and are generally harmless. However, in the cold or with a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, blockage of the nasal passages occurs, a violation of the natural cleansing of the paranasal sinuses and stagnation of secretions inside the sinuses, which gives fertile ground for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, as well as Staphylococcus aureus are most often associated with acute sinusitis.These bacteria are also other strains that are also associated with chronic sinusitis. Bacterial sinusitis usually causes more severe symptoms and lasts longer than viral sinusitis.
- Fungi. An allergic reaction to molds is the cause of some cases of chronic rhinosinusitis. Aspergillus is the most common fungus associated with sinusitis. Fungal infections can also occur in patients with healthy immune systems, but they are much less common.
Curvature of the nasal septum – Allergies, asthma, and the immune response. Allergies, asthma and sinusitis often overlap. Seasonal allergic rhinitis and other allergies that cause a runny nose predispose to the development of sinusitis. Many of the immune factors seen in people with chronic sinusitis are similar to those seen in allergic rhinitis. Asthma is also closely related to sinusitis, and in most patients these diseases run concurrently. Some research suggests that sinusitis can make asthma symptoms worse.
- Structural anomalies of the nasal passages. Structural abnormalities in the nose can lead to stagnation of secretions within the sinuses and thereby increase the risk of chronic sinusitis. Such abnormalities include:
– Polyps, small, benign growths in the nasal passage that obstruct the natural drainage of secretions and restrict air flow. Polyps can occur on their own as a result of a previous sinus infection that caused the nasal membranes to grow.
– Enlarged adenoids can lead to sinusitis. Adenoids are tissues located high on the back of the pharynx. They consist of lymphoid tissue, which is designed to “catch” and destroy pathogens that enter the nasopharynx from the air.
The specialists of the ENT department recommend not to postpone health problems and immediately consult a doctor.
90,000 Abundant nasal discharge when exposed to irritants: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow
A runny nose due to the action of irritants on the mucous membrane periodically occurs in 20% of people on Earth.The causes of the problem include irritation with mucous dust, allergens (such as plant pollen and animal hair particles) and air temperature. The problem is not as harmless as it might seem at first glance, and necessarily requires a visit to the doctor. The specialist identifies the irritant that leads to the appearance of mucous discharge from the nose, and prescribes the necessary treatment.
If therapy is postponed, then tissue edema spreads from the nasal mucosa to the auditory tube, from which the patient complains of hearing loss and pain in the ears.In such a situation, the patient will need additional treatment to eliminate problems with the auditory system.
In children, a runny nose caused by allergens is sometimes confused by parents with a cold, which is why the correct therapy is not started. Also, due to the imperfection of the immune system in children under 7 years of age, infectious rhinitis is often added to allergic rhinitis, significantly worsening the patient’s condition.
Types of rhinitis
The problem is divided by doctors into 2 forms.Depending on which of them the violation belongs to, treatment is selected. The irritant is detected using a special immunological test.
1. Seasonal allergic rhinitis. The most common form of the disease. With her, mucous, abundant nasal discharge is transparent and appears at a certain time every year. This effect is usually observed in the case of intolerance to the pollen of some plants.
2. Persistent allergic rhinitis. The phenomenon is observed all year round and is associated with constant exposure to the body of allergens. In this case, in addition to the flow from the nose, there is also constant eye irritation, which is manifested by their redness and moderate lacrimation.
The patient can independently determine the type of allergic rhinitis, depending on the peculiarities of its appearance and duration.
In a runny nose, which occurs due to constant exposure to irritants on the nasal mucosa, there are 4 stages.They are the same for adults and children. The easiest way to solve the problem is at the first 2 stages of its development. With seasonal allergic rhinitis, the progression of the disease and changes in the state of the mucous membrane are not observed.
1. Vasotic stage. In this state, in addition to the secretion of transparent mucus, there is periodic nasal congestion, which goes away by itself without vasoconstrictor drugs within a few minutes, and less often – 2 hours. At this moment, the patient is more worried about the congestion, and not the watery mucus.
2. Vasodilation is the second stage in the development of allergic rhinitis, which is characterized by the appearance of a larger volume of mucus and periodic congestion, which cannot be eliminated without drops with a vasoconstrictor effect.
3. Chronic edema of the mucous membrane is the third stage in which reversible changes in the mucous membrane occur. The discharge of mucus becomes abundant, it is no longer only watery, but often opaque, of medium density, whitish.Nasal congestion is constant and is removed by vasoconstrictor drugs only for a while.
4. Hyperplasia of the mucosa. The last stage of the disease, when, in addition to the constant abundant secretion of mucus, a change in the mucous membrane appears, which is its proliferation. Treatment is surgical, in which the overgrown mucous membrane is removed.
The doctor, after examining the patient and rhinoscopy, can determine the stage of the disease before carrying out other diagnostic measures.
Differences between a runny nose due to irritants and a cold
Some patients confuse rhinitis with a cold and a runny nose, manifested due to the effect of irritants on the nasal mucosa. As a result, the disease is treated incorrectly and this becomes the cause of the worsening of the condition. If it is not possible to independently determine the cause of the abundant mucous discharge from the nose, a mandatory visit to an ENT specialist is required. The doctor will be able to identify why it is flowing from the nose, and prescribe a therapy that will be effective in a particular case.
For a runny nose, which is caused by an irritant, the following manifestations are characteristic, which do not occur with a cold form:
unexpected development – it is not preceded by general malaise or headache;
intense itching and burning – felt especially strongly in the back of the nasal passages;
paroxysmal sneezing – not very strong, but can be prolonged;
swelling of the eyelids;
the release of a large amount of transparent mucus (rarely white), which looks more like water.For colds, the mucus is yellow and thicker.
With all these manifestations of the disease, an appeal is necessary to an allergist, not an otolaryngologist. You should not expect that the problem will go away on its own and will not arise again. If you do not carry out therapy, then the mucous discharge will be repeated over and over again at the slightest appearance of an irritant.
Runny nose due to temperature conditions
An allergy can also be to the temperature of the air that a person breathes.Too hot and dry or too cold can easily cause a profuse nasal flow. In such a situation, it is not uncommon for a skin manifestation of allergies to develop simultaneously with a runny nose – rashes and itching.
With intolerance to cold, the flow from the nose is very abundant and occurs at the moment when there is a sharp drop in air temperature when leaving a warm room to the street and in the opposite order after a long stay in the cold when entering the heat. The appearance of an allergy to cold is associated with a feature of the body, in which at the time of a drop in air temperature, an increased production of cryoglobulin protein occurs, which triggers the mechanism of abundant production of mucus and its release.In this case, the person gets the impression that fluid is flowing from the nose.
A profuse discharge of nasal mucus may also appear when exposed to hot dry air. In such a situation, the drying out of the mucous membrane occurs excessively quickly, and to moisturize it, the body begins to produce an increased amount of mucus. When an allergic reaction occurs, the amount of secretion produced is excessive. As a result, a person has nasal congestion and a flow from it, which cause severe discomfort.
These allergies can also be treated, albeit more severely than those caused by irritants such as dust, pollen or wool particles. This is due to the fact that it is impossible to exclude the effect of the allergen on the mucous membranes. Profuse mucous nasal discharge will come back from time to time.
Prevention can shorten periods of exacerbation of allergic rhinitis. Thanks to her, the disease occurs much less often and it turns out to be easier to eliminate it.The main precautions are as follows:
daily wet cleaning of the premises;
bed linen change at least once a week;
quitting smoking active or passive;
the use of an additional filter mesh for the windows.
After the allergen causing the problem is identified, in order to prevent the deterioration of the condition, it is necessary to provide living conditions in which contact with it will be minimal.
Ultrasonic disintegration of the turbinates
Ultrasonic disintegration of
inferior turbinates – what is it?
Very many people are faced with the problem of difficulty in nasal breathing, that is, it is the inability to breathe through the nose due to its constant nasal congestion. Everyone is familiar with the unpleasant situation with colds and flu – when breathing is theoretically possible, but practically very poorly practicable. Very similar to the state of persistent flu.The nose is stuffed up and that’s it. Only vasoconstrictor drops (galazolin, xymelin and others …) help. At first, the action lasts for a long time, for 12 hours … and then less and less. Who will go to the doctor if there is a penny remedy that immediately helps? The question is rhetorical.
You can get detailed information, as well as consultation on treatment by the method of ultrasonic disintegration at the Tuapse District Hospital No. 3, from an otolaryngologist Mazunina Elena Valerievna
For several years, a person “sits down” on drops both in the physiological and psychological sense.The latter is especially difficult – like an inveterate smoker, he constantly walks with drops, and their absence causes MONSTER discomfort …
A little about the nose. The nasal cavity is a pear-shaped tunnel.
In the center of the tunnel there is a septum of the nose, dividing it into two halves. On the side walls are the turbinates – these are peculiar folds with a bony base and covered with a mucous membrane. Distinguish between lower, middle and upper shells.The mucous membrane that covers the turbinates contains a large number of blood vessels – the so-called. cavernous vascular plexus. Blood circulates actively in the vessels, which acts as a heat carrier – by analogy with water in heating batteries. Therefore, the inhaled air, passing through the narrow spaces of the nasal cavity, is heated and humidified. The temperature and humidity of the air we breathe can fluctuate within very large ranges depending on the season. However, in any case, at the exit from the nasal cavity, its temperature is 28-30 C.When inhaling, the air instantly warms up to 30 C. This is achieved due to a complex neuro-reflex mechanism. The vessels of the cavernous plexus have a soft wall that contains muscle fibers. Thanks to these muscle fibers, they have the ability to expand and contract. Thus, our body automatically adjusts the degree of heating of the air depending on the temperature of the external environment. If a person goes out into the cold and begins to breathe cold air, the cavernous plexus reflexively expands.
A widened inferior turbinate can narrow the air passage and interfere with nasal breathing! Because of this, blood circulation in the turbinates increases and heat transfer increases significantly. As the mucous membrane thickens due to blood flow, air begins to pass through the nasal cavity more slowly. Nasal breathing becomes less free. As a result, the air stream has time to warm up and moisten well and, despite the low external temperature, at the exit from the nasal cavity, it is the same 28-300 C.For this, nature has created a nose. It is a natural air conditioner that processes air before it enters the lungs. When the nose does not work, the load on the lungs increases significantly. The mucous membrane of the bronchi and pulmonary alveoli “wear out” faster, which can cause their chronic inflammation.
Vasomotor rhinitis is a disease in which this mechanism of regulation of the diameter of the vessels is disturbed, and the vascular plexus is in a dilated state.They are overflowing with blood, the thickness of the mucous membrane is increased and the person does not breathe normally through the nose.
There can be many reasons for its occurrence. In fact, any somatic disease or condition in which the tone of the blood vessels is disturbed leads to manifestations of vasomotor rhinitis. These are: vegetative-vascular dystonia, low blood pressure, a whole range of endocrine diseases, pregnancy, taking antihypertensive medications, taking oral contraceptives, frequent and uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor nasal drops (Naphthyzin, Galazolin, Pharmazolin, Nok-Spray, etc.).), curvature of the nasal septum, allergies and others.
Patients with vasomotor rhinitis complain of constant or periodic disturbances in nasal breathing, sometimes the release of large amounts of clear mucus. The condition usually worsens while lying down. This is due to the redistribution of blood in the body, which leads to even greater swelling of the nasal mucosa. This condition is such that spells, drops, cold sea water, and other conservative methods will not work.And here a rather simple modern method of small surgical intervention comes to the aid of the patient – ultrasonic disintegration of the inferior turbinates.
So, what is SPL?
The Method of Ultrasonic Disintegration is based on the disturbance of the existing blood supply system of the hypertrophied inferior turbinates by an ultrasonic waveguide. There is a hardening and desolation of the vessels of the hypertrophied mucosa, and as a result, its contraction and normalization of nasal breathing.That is, in fact, all the old vessels collapse, and the body instead “grows” new ones that are no longer atrophied. Correctly performed disintegration of the turbinates is carried out “inside” the turbinates, does not injure the mucous membrane and has no unpleasant consequences. The effectiveness of the intervention depends on many reasons in each case.
- Relative painlessness of the procedure;
- Done very quickly;
- No hospitalization required;
The intervention is performed by the ultrasonic apparatus “Lora-Don-3”.The technique is not new for a long time, it has been tested and is completely safe. Produced under local anesthesia. Its efficiency is high. Nasal breathing is restored after 3-4 days. Performed in the ENT office of the polyclinic.
You can find out about other methods of treatment offered by the specialists of Tuapse District Hospital No. 3 by following the link below:
90,000 Drops for nasal congestion, stuffy nose – what to do?
By the duration of vasoconstrictor activity
By the duration of the vasoconstrictor activity, almost all decongestants used for nasal congestion have a pronounced vasoconstrictor activity.At the same time, the molecules have different duration of action and, accordingly, have different frequency of application during the day. Conditionally distinguish between drugs *:
1) short-acting (within 4-6 hours) – naphazoline, phenylephrine, tatrizoline;
2) longer-acting (in the range of 8-12 hours) – xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, tramazoline.
* G.D. Tarasova. Topical decongestants in the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases. PEDIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY / 2006 / VOL. 3 / No. 3, p.54-58.
Khodzitskaya V.K. Nasal obstruction: anatomical and functional features, clinical presentation, treatment. Journal of Diseases and Antibiotics 1 (6) 2012.
In the table below, you can get general information on the features and properties of different molecules:
|rate of onset of activity||duration of activity||frequency of use||supply of children’s uniforms||age of use *|
|xylometazoline||up to 10 hours||2-3 times a day||from 2 years old|
|oxymetazoline||to 12 hours||2-3 times a day||from 0 years|
|tramazolin||8-10 hours||up to 4 times a day||from 6 years old|
|naphozoline||4-6 hours||up to 6-8 times a day||from 1 year|
|tetrizoline||4-8 hours||up to 6-8 times a day||from 2 years old|
* According to UTI of drugs with INN data presented on the GRLS website from 24.