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Cold vs mono: How You Know You Have Mononucleosis


How You Know You Have Mononucleosis

As of now, there is no vaccine to prevent mono. But — like chicken pox, which usually doesn’t flare up again even though the varicella virus stays dormant in the body — most people do not get mono more than once, even though the EBV virus stays inactive in their bodies for the rest of their lives. (11)

Still, knowing how EBV spreads (and how mono spreads) can help you take the right steps to avoid getting the infection.

EBV is transmitted through saliva (hence the name “kissing disease”), and it can stay in the saliva of people who’ve been infected for months, though how long it stays in the saliva and how long someone with the virus is contagious can vary.

“We don’t know how much virus is necessary to transfer from person to person,” Balfour says. It’s important to know that someone can appear fine (and may not have a mono infection or any symptoms yet or at all), but can still shed the virus in their saliva.

It can take about four to seven weeks for symptoms to show up after someone’s been infected with the virus, and symptoms tend to last for another two to four weeks — and a person is contagious through all of this time. (12) Research has not yet confirmed how long after symptoms disappear that a person who’s had mono remains contagious.

“Unlike a cold sore, you don’t know when someone [with mono] is shedding and infectious,” Johannsen says.

The most effective way to prevent mono is to avoid very intimate contact, such as kissing, with someone who has mono for several months, even after the person is feeling better.

EBV is most easily spread through direct body-fluid contact, such as by exchanging saliva while kissing or blood or semen contact during sex, blood transfusions, or organ transplants. But EBV can still live in bodily fluids once they’re outside the body, too. So avoid sharing utensils, cups, or toothbrushes with someone you know who has been infected with EBV or mono, and steer clear when they sneeze or cough.

The bottom line is that you are not likely to catch mono from someone in a non-intimate setting, such as attending class with or standing in line near someone who’s been infected with EBV. And if you take precautions, you can avoid getting EBV — that is, if you don’t already have it — even from someone in your household, says Johannsen.

What’s Mono? (for Kids) – Nemours Kidshealth

Have you ever heard of the “kissing disease”? If you said that it’s mono, you’re right!

Infectious mononucleosis, called mono for short, is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is one of the most common viruses around. Most people will get infected with it at some point in their life. Babies and young kids who get infected with EBV often don’t feel any symptoms, or sometimes they have mild symptoms that feel like a common cold.

But older kids and teenagers who get infected with EBV are likely to feel symptoms such as fever and a very sore throat.

How Do Kids Get Mono?

Mono is contagious, which means someone who has it can spread the virus to other people. Even though it’s called the kissing disease, there are other ways you can get mono. They usually involve contact with saliva (spit). So sharing straws, toothbrushes, or food from the same plate can spread mono.

At first, people don’t feel sick after getting infected with the EBV virus. The symptoms come a month or two later. And some people don’t get any symptoms at all. So they can spread the virus and not even know it. That’s why it’s important not to share things like forks, straws, water bottles, or lip gloss at school.

What Are the Signs of Mono?

Mono can cause you to feel really, really tired, but you may have other symptoms, too. These include:

  • fever
  • sore throat
  • swollen lymph glands in your neck
  • headaches
  • sore muscles
  • belly pain with enlarged swollen liver or spleen (organs in the upper part of your belly)
  • loss of appetite

It may seem like you have the flu or strep throat because the symptoms are so much alike. The only way to tell for sure if you have mono is to go to a doctor, who will do an exam to see if you have mono. Sometimes the doctor will do a blood test to be sure.

What If I Have Mono?

If you have mono, you probably will need plenty of rest. This might mean no school for a while, no sports, and no running outside playing with friends or even wrestling with your little brother.

While you’re resting, drink plenty of water and other fluids. You can ask your mom or dad to give you a pain reliever if you have a fever, sore throat, or aching muscles. Don’t take any aspirin, though, because that can put you at risk for a condition called Reye syndrome, which can be dangerous.

Some kids with mono might not feel very sick at all. But it’s very important to listen to your body. A kid who has mono should tell a parent if he or she starts feeling worse. And if the kid feels tired and run down, it’s the body’s way of saying more rest is needed.

Kids who play contact sports (like football or basketball) need to skip them for about a month after the illness, especially if their spleen is swollen. Your doctor will let you know when it’s safe for you to get back in the game.

Mono usually goes away after a few weeks, even though you’ll have to take it easy for a bit. Make sure you wash your hands after you cough or sneeze. Keep your straws, forks, and toothbrushes to yourself, and… no kissing for a few months!

Infectious Mononucleosis | University Health Service

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What is mono? 

Infectious mononucleosis (also known as “mono” or the “kissing disease”) is a fairly common viral disease that usually affects adolescents and young adults, including college students. The infection is typically caused by the Epstein-Barr virus but may be caused by other related viruses.

Many college students have already developed immunity or resistance by the time they reach college age. Once you have had mono it is unlikely that you will ever get it again.


Symptoms usually appear 20-50 days after infection. The severity of symptoms varies greatly between individuals. Symptoms may be so mild that one can have mono without knowing it. In other cases, symptoms may be severe enough to require hospitalization. Common symptoms include:

  • Severe sore throat, which is almost always present and lasts about 6-10 days. The throat may be very red, with white spots or pus on the tonsils. This can initially look similar to strep throat. 
  • Fever of 100-103° F (37.8-39.4° C), which is usually worst during the first week and may worsen at night.
  • Swollen, tender glands (lymph nodes) in the neck, lasting up to one month after you are feeling well.
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches


If you have any symptoms and are concerned that you may have mono, you should visit a clinician. See How to Get Health Care.

  • The clinician will perform a physical exam, including of your throat and glands. Because mono symptoms are similar to those of other infections, the clinician will try to determine whether your symptoms are those of mono, strep throat or another viral infection. The clinician may swab the back of your throat.
  • If streptococcus (strep) is present, you may be treated with an antibiotic.
  • Blood tests for mono measure antibodies to the virus and therefore testing is not usually positive until symptoms have been present for one week or more.
  • If streptococcus is not present and your symptoms continue for 7-10 days, you should return to your clinician for possible further testing.


Like the common cold, mono is a viral infection with no cure. Antibiotics do not work as a treatment for mono.

You can follow these self-care measures to feel better.

  • Gargle: To reduce throat pain, gargle with one teaspoon of salt (or baking soda) dissolved in a glass of very warm water. You can purchase non-prescription medications like Chloraseptic gargle or lozenges, or your clinician may write a prescription for gargles that reduce throat pain and make swallowing easier.
  • Take medication: For fever, sore throat, head and body aches, ibuprofen or naproxen (Aleve) are available without prescription. Follow directions on packaging. Avoid acetaminophen (Tylenol) because of possible liver inflammation that can be associated with mono.
  • In addition, you need to take special care of yourself during recovery.
  • Refrain from vigorous activities: Because mono can affect the entire lymph system, including the spleen (located under your left lower rib cage), avoid vigorous activities such as football, soccer or running. Do not play contact sports until at least 6-8 weeks after diagnosis or onset of symptoms. You can do mild exercises such as walking or swimming, as long as the activity doesn’t increase fatigue.
  • Rest at least eight hours per night: Attend classes if you feel able, but plan to rest often.
  • Eat nutritious foods: To strengthen your immune system and help reduce symptoms, eat antioxidant rich foods like leafy vegetables, peppers, and blueberries, avoid refined foods like sugar and white breads, and blend your foods or eat them with a liquid to soothe a sore throat.  
  • Drink plenty of non-caffeinated fluids to avoid dehydration: Non-caffeinated Green tea has beneficial antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages and drugs not prescribed by your clinician for at least six weeks, because of possible liver inflammation.

You will probably feel most ill for the first two weeks of the infection. After this time, you should gradually improve, but your energy level may be reduced longer. The recovery process varies from person to person, so base your activities and check-ups on how you feel. 


Mono is usually spread by close contact from one person to another, hence the name “kissing disease.” The infection is not highly contagious and does not usually spread to roommates. As a precaution, you should avoid sharing drinking glasses, eating utensils, food, and kissing until your sore throat and other symptoms have disappeared for several (4-6) weeks. Be sure to cover coughs and sneezes, and wash your hands thoroughly and often.

There is no test available for exposure to mono.

For more information:

For health care at UHS:

  • Nurse Advice by Phone is available day and night, which may save a trip to UHS or the ER.
  • See How to Get Health Care — Appointments are required for most medical services, although options are available for urgent problems

For more on mono, see Medline Plus

Mono: Symptoms To Watch For In Teens, Toddlers and Babies

Your child has the telltale signs: extreme fatigue, swollen lymph nodes and a sore throat. Could it be mononucleosis (mono)?

A common and contagious viral infection, mono is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Other infections that can cause mono include rubella, hepatitis, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis or HIV.

Most people are infected with EBV at some point in their lives, often by middle adulthood. Once infected, EBV stays in the body for life. It’s mostly inactive, but sometimes the dormant virus reactivates and is shed in the saliva and other bodily fluids. When this happens, it’s possible to pass it on to others who haven’t already been exposed, even if you don’t have symptoms.

How does someone get mono?

Mono is not as easy to catch as a common cold. Nicknamed the “kissing disease,” mono is spread through close contact, particularly contact with the saliva or mucus of an infected person. The virus also spreads from coughing, sneezing and sharing a straw, drinking glass, eating utensil or toothbrush. Less commonly, the virus is spread through breast milk, sexual intercourse and blood transfusions. 

Mono is most common in ages 15 to 30. That’s why we hear a lot about it in teens and college students. Still, anyone can get mono, including babies and young children. Mono is less common in adults over 40.

You can pass the virus to others through your saliva for a median duration of six months after symptoms subside.

How can you tell if your child has mono?

Symptoms of mono vary between age groups. Teens and young adults (ages 15-24) are most likely to have noticeable, classic mono symptoms that also tend to be more severe, while babies and young children often have no symptoms or very mild ones. Mono is sometimes mistaken for the common cold, the flu or strep throat.  Even with absent or minimal symptoms, the virus could still be carried in the saliva and be passed to others.

Symptoms may come on gradually about 4-6 weeks after someone is infected with the virus. When symptoms appear, they may be severe for a few days before slowly get milder. If symptoms linger or get worse, call your doctor.

Common symptoms of mono include:

  • Constant fatigue or weakness
  • Very sore throat (including white patches in the back of the throat)
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, groin, armpit
  • Fever
  • Headache and body aches
  • Decreased appetite
  • Night sweats, chills
  • Skin rash

Less common but serious symptoms are swelling of the liver causing jaundice or swelling of the spleen (an organ in the upper left part of the belly) causing pain in the upper left part of the abdomen. About half of those with mono have enlargement of the spleen sometime during their illness.

The American Academy of Pediatrics  advises parents to call a doctor if your child is extremely fussy or drowsy, has a severe headache or sore throat, develops a rash, has a seizure or temperature of 104° Fahrenheit or above.

How long does mono last?

Most of the time, mono runs its course in a month or two, but the fatigue can last for several weeks or months. Children may recover faster, in one to three weeks. Once you’ve had mono, you will probably not get it again.

Complications from mono — although rare — can be very serious. Mono can enlarge the spleen for a few weeks or longer. An enlarged spleen can rupture and cause internal bleeding that can lead to death. Symptoms of a ruptured spleen include sudden, sharp severe pain in the upper left abdomen/left shoulder that feels worse when inhaling and sudden drop in blood pressure.

In rare cases, mono can also cause anemia, meningitis, hepatitis, heart inflammation (myocarditis), brain inflammation (encephalitis), Guillain-Barré syndrome and lymphoma, although cancer caused by EBV is rare.

How is mono diagnosed and treated?

Most doctors diagnose mono based on symptoms and a physical exam to check for common signs of the infection, such as swollen tonsils and an enlarged liver or spleen. Sometimes your doctor will order a blood test to look for antibodies that indicate an EBV infection (e.g., Monospot test).

There is no vaccine to protect against EBV or mono and, since it’s a viral disease (not bacterial), antibiotics don’t help. In fact, someone with mono who takes an antibiotic often ends up getting a rash.

Treatment for mono consists of plenty of rest, drinking lots of fluids (including cold liquids) to prevent dehydration, gargling with salt water, using throat lozenges and over-the-counter pain relievers for aches and pains. In severe cases of mono, steroid medications may decrease swelling in the throat.

While recovering from mono, contact sports and any type of rough play are typically off-limits for at least a month or longer until the swelling of the spleen subsides.

There are steps you can take to protect your kids from mono. To reduce the chance of getting the virus, or spreading it:

  • Avoid close contact with anyone who has it.
  • Don’t share drinking glasses, water bottles, eating utensils or lip balm/lipstick with others, even if they seem healthy.
  • Wash hands well and often.
  • Eat healthy, exercise daily and get good sleep.

Most of the time, mono goes away on its own, but if you’re ever concerned, contact your child’s doctor.

Need a primary care doctor for your child? Edward-Elmhurst Health has hundreds of medical board-certified physicians to choose from. You can book online today to set up your first appointment.

Need care now? When your medical needs can’t wait, Edward-Elmhurst Health has both medical board-certified physicians and nursing board certified nurse practitioners ready to treat your non-emergency urgencies. Find care near you.

Explore children’s services at Edward-Elmhurst Health.

Related blog:

When to keep your child home from school

How To Tell If You Have Mono Or The Flu

When you’re cloaked in a quilt of kleenex, it’s hard to process much else other than the fact that you feel sick. But it’s important to figure out what’s ailing you so the proper treatment can be prescribed. With so many similar symptoms that can only be described as “flu-like” you might be rolling around in bed praying to the WebMD gods for an answer: What’s ailing you? Considering they’re often mistaken for one another, when you’re feeling flu-like symptoms, it’s common to wonder whether what you’ve come down with is the flu or mono — and it’s important to figure out the difference so you can properly recover.

The flu this year has made rounds on social circles around the United States so fiercely that group chats are more like quarantine zones. It’s only safe to socialize through the phone for now. At least within my friend group where one buddy reported back to us, “DO NOT GO OUT THERE” from the confinement of her bed where she was nursing a bout of the flu. But, even if you feel flu-like symptoms, that doesn’t always mean it’s the flu. Other viruses, like mono, can often mimic the flu, and figuring out which you’ve come down with is important when it comes to treating it.

If you can’t figure out which virus you’ve come down with, it’s better to make a doctor’s appointment than to circulate through symptoms on the internet until you’re more dizzy than you started out being. Being sick is no joke. If you are down, get lots of fluids and make a doctor’s appointment and remember that there is no shame in calling your mom to cry.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention is, unfortunately, reporting that 2018 is host to the worst flu season on record in years. Yep: years. According to Fast Company, “the 2018 flu season is shaping up to be the worst on record since the CDC began keeping track in the early 2000s. ” All states are reporting continuous wide spread cases, expect for Hawaii. So if you were planning a mid winter break, Hawaii might literally be an escape from the harshest of winter’s characteristics. If you are also one amongst the population with tissues glued to your nostrils and a bucket next to your bed and a supermarket’s worth of electrolyte-filled water bottles on display next to your bed, you’re not alone.

The Center for Disease Control’s officially listed symptoms for the flu, also known as influenza — a respiratory illness, include, “fever or feeling feverish/chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, fatigue (tiredness), some people might have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.” It’s not pretty. To confuse your self-diagnoses, symptoms for mono, also known as Mononucleosis, has similar symptoms. According to Medical News Today, those include, “extreme tiredness, or fatigue, a high fever, a headache, body aches and muscle weakness, a red, sore throat, swollen glands in the neck or underarms, an enlarged spleen, rash. ” OK, so there are some major ways that could help you figure out if it’s the flu or mono after all.

But the flu and mono are not alike. Mono is the initial illness that occurs after someone contracts the Epstein-Barr Virus — which most people become infected with at some point in life. It spreads through bodily fluids, such as saliva which is why it’s commonly referred to as “the kissing disease.” The flu, on the contrary, is picked up through infected surfaces and through the air.

The reality is that you might not know for sure which pesky virus you’re infected with until you visit a doctor who’s able to run some tests — especially if you’re confused about your symptoms and feeling extremely fatigued. This way your symptoms can be diagnosed by a professional. And this way, you’ll be on the right path back to health.

My Blog – Pediatrics for Family Health

Mono, nicknamed the “kissing disease” because of how easily it spreads from person to person, is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Pediatricians most often see this infection in teens and it may be mistaken for the flu. While most cases of mono will go away on their own, it can take months for a child or teen to fully recover. It’s important to be able to recognize the differences between the influenza virus and mono.

What are the symptoms of mono?

Symptoms will vary between children, teens, and adults. Children don’t typically show the standard symptoms of mono. In fact, mono might look more like a cold or flu in your little one. The classic symptoms associated with mono are more apparent in teens and young adults between the ages of 15 to 24 years old.

Classic mono symptoms include,

  • High fever
  • Extreme fatigue and exhaustion
  • Body aches
  • Muscle weakness
  • Swollen lymph nodes of the neck
  • Sore throat
  • Rash
  • Headache

Symptoms such as fatigue, body aches, and muscle weakness may be severe and can last for several weeks.

When should I turn to a pediatrician?

As you might already know, many of the symptoms above can be caused by colds, flu, and other infections that aren’t mono. If your child’s symptoms are mild, then you might not need to come into our office right away. Of course, if symptoms persist for weeks or get worse, then it’s time to visit your pediatrician.

You should call your pediatrician right away if,

  • Your child develops a severe headache or sore throat
  • Has seizures
  • Displays changes in behavior
  • Has a very high fever over 104 F
  • Is dehydrated
  • Develops a rash

While teens and adults can often be diagnosed through a standard physical examination, your pediatrician may need to perform blood tests to detect the Epstein-Barr virus in babies and young children.

If you are concerned that your teen may have mono, you must schedule an appointment with their pediatrician as soon as possible. While most cases will go away on their own without treatment, your child’s doctor can provide you with options for helping your child better manage their symptoms and feel better faster.

Could I have mononucleosis? | University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics

What is mono?

Mono (infectious mononucleosis) is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus in most cases. It is spread through intimate contact with saliva, which is why it is known as the “kissing disease.” Mono also can be spread by sharing a drinking glass or eating utensils. The virus can be spread through tears and mucus as well.

It may take four to six weeks from when a person is infected with the virus to when symptoms develop.


Symptoms can include any or all of the following:

  • Fever and chills
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck and/or armpit
  • Sore throat, often with swollen tonsils and white patches on the tonsils
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Lack of appetite
  • Skin rash
  • Pain in the upper abdomen


There is no specific treatment or cure for mono. Antibiotics will not treat viral infections such as mono.

Recommendations to help treat the symptoms of mono are as follows:

  • Use over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), or naproxen (Aleve) to help with fever, sore throat, aches and pains.
  • Over-the-counter cold medications may help with cold-like symptoms.
  • Gargling salt water may help relieve a sore throat.
  • Get plenty of rest—eight to ten hours of sleep per night.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Eat healthy foods.
  • Avoid exercise and physical activity for four to six weeks.
  • Avoid alcohol.

Duration of symptoms

Length of mono symptoms tend to vary per person. Most symptoms ease within a few weeks, but symptoms of fatigue can last up to two to three months.

University of Iowa students can schedule an appointment with a provider at Student Health and Wellness online through their MyChart account or by calling 1-319-335-8394.
90,000 From “African heat” to “collapse of cold”. Heat records in Moscow :: City :: RBK

On July 22, a “collapse of the cold” will finally happen in Moscow.In June and July, the air in the capital warmed up more than 34 degrees, updating daily records for several decades. Which days of these months have become the hottest – in the RBC review

Photo: Sergey Savostyanov / TASS

Since the beginning of summer, the heat level in Moscow has broken five temperature records, renewing the maximums of four days in June and one in July. The “African heat” predicted by forecasters covered the capital by the end of the first summer month. On June 22, the air temperature in Moscow (33.7 degrees Celsius) became a record for this day for the last 104 years of observations (in 1917 the maximum was 31.8 degrees), follows from the data of the Hydrometeorological Center, which RBC studied.

The first temperature record was followed by two new ones – on June 23 and 24, the air in Moscow warmed up to 34.8 degrees and 34.5 degrees, respectively, renewing the maximums of these days recorded in 1948.At the same time, June 23 is still the hottest day not only in June, but in the first two months of the summer of 2021.

Over the next two days, the air temperature exceeded 33 degrees, and on June 27, a new record for this day over the past eight years – the air warmed up to 33. 6 degrees (in 2013, up to 32 degrees). The average daily temperature exceeded the norm by 7-10 degrees, and the orange level of weather danger in the city was extended until June 28, despite the heavy downpour that hit Moscow on June 27.

July 2021 in the European territory of Russia can be considered one of the hottest months in the history of meteorological observations, said the head of the situation center of Roshydromet Yuri Varakin. In Moscow, he said, the average monthly temperature exceeded the climatic norm by three degrees. Record values ​​fell in the middle of the month: on July 13, the air in the capital warmed up to 33.6 degrees, updating the maximum for this day since 1936 (32.4 degrees), on July 14, the thermometer reached 34.1 degrees, repeating the temperature maximum of 1954 …

By the end of the second summer month, the heat in the capital began to recede, and from July 22 “Moscow residents will breathe a sigh of relief, be delighted, the air will become normal, human,” promised the head of the Hydrometeorological Center, Roman Vilfand. According to him, the cold snap will be especially felt on 22 July. From that day on, the air temperature will be close to the climatic norm, but “it will be a collapse of cold compared to the weather that was,” warned Vilfand.


90,000 We use modern climate systems correctly – DRIVE

The correct microclimate in a car is not only a matter of comfort.If the temperature in the cockpit rises from 25 ° C to 35 ° C, the driver’s reaction time increases by about 20%. For example, SEAT believes that an “overheated” driver is as dangerous as a drunk with a blood alcohol content of 0.5 ppm. In addition, climate control systems help keep windows clean. All this is a matter of not only comfort, but also safety.

The paradox is that the power of heaters and air conditioners reaches 8-10 kW, while maintaining a comfortable temperature of the human body requires 50-100 times less. The fact is that the main energy has to be spent on heating or cooling the car itself, in particular the interior elements. About a third of the passenger’s body surface is in contact with the seat – that is why heating or ventilation (cooling) of the seats with low energy consumption has a great effect. But the climate system, in any case, must supply at least five to ten cubic meters of air per minute to the passenger compartment, depending on the size of the car.

Look how much space the climate system components require even in such a big car as the Mercedes-Benz S-class (W220).In the VAZ “kopeck”, the “stove”, which was very effective at that time, took up much less volume.

It is believed that the most comfortable temperature in the cabin is from 18 to 22 ° C. This is an average value because it should be five to eight degrees warmer closer to the floor than in the head area. This is physiology. It was not for nothing that your grandmother put on warm socks in your childhood: first of all, you need to warm your feet. And it is most effective to cool the chest, back and arms in the summer. Therefore, during heating, the main flow of hot air must be directed downward, and the cold head in summer must be directed to the central deflectors.By the way, with their help, the rear part of the cabin also cools most effectively.

The 1979 Saab 900 saw the first appearance of a “thermal curtain” – a constant flow along the doors, significantly improving comfort in winter. Before the era of climate control, cold outboard air (blue arrows) was supplied to the center vents on many machines.

The numbers that you set on automatic climate control are just a certain conditional index of comfort, and not the exact temperature in degrees Celsius.People in different parts of the world have their own habits and ideas about comfort, and automakers are taking this into account. The same actual temperature in the passenger compartment may correspond to 20-22 “degrees” set on the control panel of a European car and 22-24 “degrees” – in a car of an Asian brand. Therefore, transferring from Volkswagen to Nissan, do not be surprised that you will freeze at the familiar number “22” on the display.

Computer-aided design methods have made climate systems more efficient and quieter in operation.Notice how important the flow from the front deflectors in the Skoda Kodiaq crossover’s cabin is for the rear passengers.

Manual airflow direction control is also somewhat of an illusion. Even if we are talking about a car with direct mechanical control of the “stove”, for example, moving the handle to the “feet” position means only that the main stream will go down. Ten to twenty percent of the air will still be supplied to the windshield and side windows so that they do not fog up, and the temperature difference between the upper and lower layers does not become uncomfortable. Now almost all “stoves” and “kondeis” are powerful enough, and the difference between good and bad systems lies precisely in the nuances of such fine settings.

Separate climate control is an absolute plus. However, one and the same name hides systems of varying degrees of perfection. In budget cars, you can only change the temperature individually. The driver who needs to defrost the side windows will inevitably take heat from the passengers’ feet. Advanced systems also allow zone control of the direction and intensity of the airflow.And even fine-tune the temperature difference across layers.

One of the best climate control units among budget cars: Renault Arkana. Large, logical controls. The temperature index can be set with an accuracy of 0.5 “degrees”. But there is no indication of what is happening in Auto mode.

The “face” of climate control is its control panel. We believe that it should be organized logically and designed for gloved hands. It’s good when, even in automatic mode, the display shows where and how the climate system is blowing, and not just Auto lights up – this saves you from unnecessary manipulations.For Russia, it is especially important that it is easy to turn on air recirculation by touch – the likelihood of “running into” a smoking KamAZ or a carburetor groove on the highway, without being able to overtake them for several kilometers, is very high. Salvation from soot and stench in the cabin is only by closing the recirculation flap.

“Inseparable” climate control is when not all parameters are individually controlled from temperature, flow distribution and fan speed.

Even the simplest automatic systems have a solar radiation sensor because when sunlight hits our skin, our perception of temperature changes. More expensive cars may have several such sensors. And also infrared sensors for fogging glass (front and front side), air quality, carbon dioxide content in the cabin, information from the navigation system, for example, about tunnels . .. Advanced systems evaluate the temperature in different places inside the HVAC unit.In general, the temperature in the cabin is actually constantly changing – but if the climate control is set up cool, we don’t notice it.

Exhaust ventilation through valves usually located in the rear bumper plays an essential role. The more effective it is, the fresher the air in the cabin.

In most cars, climate controls work better than the average driver who controls the microclimate manually. I regularly take a taxi, and, according to my observations, only a few drivers understand what and how to do.The most common mistakes are the supply of hot air not to the legs, but upward and the complete shutdown of the fan. Lack of air exchange and incorrect temperature distribution in the cabin is a direct path to fatigue and the very loss of adequate reaction time. There is zero sense in turning off the fan: the climate system actually ceases to function at all.

Car manufacturers traditionally order climate systems from specialized suppliers.There are a dozen of them in the world. On the right is an air conditioner evaporator with heat accumulators built into the honeycomb, for cars with start-stop.

Therefore, the most important advice: do not interfere with the machine! Set a comfortable temperature index, press the Auto button and do not touch anything. But first, you need to allow the automation to work as efficiently as possible – open all the vents, do not obscure the sensors and do not open the windows and sunroof. However, if it is not hot and there is no danger of fogging the windows, you can manually turn off the air conditioner.Many modern compressors are infinitely variable in capacity and do not increase fuel consumption as dramatically as they did 20 years ago. However, physics cannot be fooled: a few percent of the increase in consumption is all the same “condo” gives.

Cooling system Lada Grants: the entire small circle (shown in red), bypassing the single-valve thermostat, goes through the “stove”. The interior warms up immediately after starting. A similar scheme, but with a return valve for the heater, was used by the same Saab 900 in the late 70s.

Modern HVAC units (Heating, Ventilation, Air conditioning) – that is, the actual “combines” that prepare and supply air to the passenger compartment – are designed for constant use of the air conditioner. The concept of “stove tap” is actually a thing of the past – on most cars, the coolant circulates in the heater radiator both in winter and in summer. Sometimes the heater is sequentially “cut” into a small circle of the cooling system, all the liquid passes through it, and in the cold the “stove” starts to warm up earlier and stronger.This is done even on VAZ cars. But in summer, a hot radiator, albeit blocked by flaps, also partially heats up the outboard air – and the hand reaches for the A / C button.

In a light-colored car, the temperature after parking is always 8-15% lower than in a black one. This means that the energy consumption for air conditioning is correspondingly less.

In general, heating the car is not getting any easier. The more efficient and environmentally friendly modern engines are, the less heat they give off.In order to heat the interior as soon as possible, you have to go for tricks – play ahead of ignition, use partial air recirculation and more expensive brazed radiators. Electric re-heaters are effective, once used only with cold diesel engines, but now they are also necessary for economical low-volume turbo engines.

Indirect control of deflectors via the display is more of a design feature than an engineering one. But how fashionable!

These are not spiral heating elements at all, like the grandmother’s at the dacha, but the so-called PTC resistors, where PTC is translated from English as “positive temperature coefficient”.The heating element is made of an alloyed polycrystalline ceramic based on barium titanate, and the point is that its performance itself changes with temperature. They work at a temperature of about 270 ° C, and the efficiency can exceed 90%! Usually, PTC heaters with a capacity of about one to one and a half kilowatts are used in cars.

The deflectors of the Porsche Taycan electric car do not have moving outlet elements, but change the direction and focus of the air flow thanks to the flaps hidden in the depths.

Purely structurally, HVAC units hardly change, but they are improved in detail. For example, they work quieter and more efficiently – thanks to the brushless fan motors mounted on soft supports, as well as a special coating of the deflectors. Start-stop systems force the use of air conditioner evaporators with thermal accumulators – sealed tubes with liquid built into the honeycomb: so that the coolness is available for some time after the engine is turned off. More and more often deflectors are used, in which it is possible to change not only the direction and intensity of the flow, but also its “focusing”.

New approaches appear only in connection with the proliferation of electric vehicles. Here economy is required from the climate. Five minutes of operation of the Tesla Model S’s six-kilowatt heater is enough to steal about three kilometers of power reserve. Instead of traditional systems, it makes sense to use “heat pumps”, that is, “reverse air conditioning”.

Instead of the traditional separate vents, the Tesla Model 3 electric car has one slotted in the entire width of the panel.To redirect air from the face to the glass (from blue to red arrows), a second slot opens. The flaps, circled in green, change the flow from right to left.

They begin to save even in small things: the automation more actively uses the recirculation mode, so as not to waste energy on bringing the air from the street “into proper form”. There are systems that turn off air exchange in certain areas of the body if no one is sitting there. In general, it is good when important systems are automated and take away part of the routine from the driver. The only problem is that fully adequate air conditioning systems are found only in premium segments. And it’s not just the number of sensors or the power of the RTS-reheater – but also the settings and the experience of the automaker … Therefore, by pressing the Auto button, we do not lose our vigilance.

90,000 Cold, warm or daylight. How not to be mistaken when choosing a color temperature?

Untitled Document

Which is Better: Warm, Cold, or Neutral Lighting? When to use a cold light bulb? How to choose the right shade of light for home and office? We talk about these and other popular questions in the article.

Pendant Light Maxus 6W Warm Light 3000K Ta Spot Light Maxus Surface Downlight 4100K

What is color temperature?

At first glance, the light may appear colorless. But if you look closely, you will notice that artificial and natural lighting often has a tint.

In the morning and at sunset, the sun’s rays turn yellow, this light is called warm. On a cloudy winter day, there are more blue tones in it, they make the light cold.And lighting at a cloudless afternoon is considered to be neutral.

LED lamps and luminaires, like natural sunlight, can produce neutral, cold or warm light. And the most modern models even allow you to adjust the shade of the lighting.

Intelite Smart Pendant Light 32W 3000-6000K

How is color temperature measured?

The shades of lighting are called color temperatures, it is measured in kelvin and denoted by K.The scale starts at 800 K, which corresponds to a dim glow of red-hot bodies. It is completed by a shade of light of 20,000 K, such illumination creates a sky in polar latitudes.

The lower the color temperature, the warmer the light, and the higher it, the colder the rays become. For example, 1500 K is the warm lighting of a wax candle, and 7500 K is dusk.

Light graphs with different temperatures

For artificial indoor or outdoor lighting, sources with the following characteristics are usually used:

  • 2700–3000 K – warm light that matches the shade of an incandescent lamp;
  • 4000–4100 K – neutral illumination, close to daylight;
  • 5000–6500 K – a cold shade, like light on a cloudy day.

Why is it important to choose the right shade of light?

Article: 1-LED-774 2200K

Article: 1-LED-775 3000K

Article: 1-LED-774 4100K

With the spread of LED technologies, it became possible not only to save electricity, but also to choose the shade of light depending on the functions of the room. This detail seems insignificant, but in fact it depends on the color temperature:

  • mood and activity of people. Some shades of light increase attention and invigorate, others help to relax. This feature is convenient to use for lighting rooms with different purposes. We wrote in detail about the scientific discoveries on this topic in the article about human-centered lighting;
  • perception of interior and objects. Subtle shades of light can change the colors of the surrounding area. This feature is used by interior designers, as well as marketers, in order to attractively present products on display windows.

Advice. The perception of colors and shades is individual. Therefore, do not be afraid to deviate from the rules and choose a temperature that is comfortable for you.

When is the best time to use warm, cool and neutral light?

We already know what color temperature is and how it affects human well-being. This means that the time has come for specific recommendations that will help you buy the right led light bulb or lamp.

Warm light

This artificial light usually corresponds to the morning sun.It is pleasant for most people, therefore lamps and luminaires with a color temperature of 2700-3000 K are used in residential premises more often than others. This kind of light is familiar because it looks like the rays of incandescent lamps.

Functional wall-ceiling lamp GLOBAL Functional Light 72W 3000-6500K , Falzer 5W pendant lamp , Maxus 6W spotlight warm light

How does the shade affect your well-being?

Scientists have found that warm light helps you relax, unwind, and prepare for sleep. It is used to give the room more comfort and ease.

How does warm light affect the perception of colors and space?

Warm rays not only create an atmosphere, but change the perception of shades. In this light, cream, yellow, brown, red and other colors with a warm component look brighter and richer. Cold tones, on the other hand, darken and change tone. Blue can appear greenish, blue can fade, dark blue can turn black, and purple can approach red.

Because of this feature, lamps and luminaires with a temperature of 2700-3000 K are suitable for interiors where walls and other basic furnishings are made in warm colors.

This kind of lighting is perceived as less bright, therefore it is suitable for small areas or rooms. A spacious living room in warm rays may seem insufficiently lit or visually decrease in size.

What materials and styles does warm light work with?

The shade is associated with naturalness, ease and tranquility, therefore it suits any home interiors. Warm light is indispensable if there is a lot of wood, textiles, aged metal and other traditional materials in the space.

A lamp with a temperature of 3000 K will naturally complement a wall lamp with a fabric shade, an open chandelier of the retro era, an antique lamp imitating candles. They are also suitable for modern models.

Warm light matches retro and vintage, eco, modern, rustic, classic and traditional styles. Almost all ethnic designs will also look good in it.

Decorative LED lamps in the shape of a candle with a color temperature of 3000 K in a classic interior

Where are these light sources used more often?

At home, LED luminaires and lamps with warm temperatures are indispensable for lighting:

  • bedrooms;
  • for children;
  • dining table in the living room or kitchen;
  • reading chairs;
  • other places where people socialize, relax or just have a good time.

Public buildings need warm light:

  • in the halls of restaurants, bars and cafes;
  • in communication and relaxation areas or halls in offices or beauty studios;
  • in small boutiques for which it is important to create a cozy atmosphere;
  • in stores where gold jewelry, cheeses, sausages, pastries and other yellow or red goods are presented;
  • in the wards of medical institutions for the good rest of patients.

Outdoor lighting is suitable for:

  • area in front of the house;
  • outdoor cafe;
  • park or square.

Cold light

This lighting is ideal for work and is therefore more commonly seen in offices or factories. In homes, cool light is used less often, but in some cases it is indispensable.

How does cold light affect a person?

Hue promotes concentration of attention, activates brain activity, helps to perceive information faster. Therefore, it is used where people work or study: in offices, administrations, libraries, schools, etc.

At home, cold light is only needed at the desk, because the large amount of blue light can be unpleasant.

Armstrong LED ceiling panels with cold and neutral light for classroom, office and industrial lighting

How does cold light affect the perception of colors and space?

Beams of cool tones make blues, grays and other colors of the blue spectrum bright and saturated.The light will give the green interior an emerald hue. Warm colors in cold lighting will become muted: orange will approach brown, and yellow interior will acquire greenish tones.

Cold rays are perceived brighter, therefore they are used in large rooms to emphasize the size and fill the space with “air”.

What materials and styles does light match with?

Modern interiors presuppose simplicity, so neutral or cool lighting suits them. Light favorably complements spaces with many geometric shapes and contrasts.

Cold or daylight looks natural in high-tech interiors, constructivism, minimalism, futurism and other innovative designs. It emphasizes plastics, metals, chrome surfaces and similar modern materials well. It is also combined with popular Scandinavian style or classics.

LED Downlight Grand 9W SQ with cold light (6000 K) in a minimalist living room

Where is this lighting used?

At home, light with a cold tone is usually needed:

  • for a desktop in any room;
  • to accentuate interiors in cool colors or modern style;
  • in the bathroom and dressing room to feel more invigorated in the morning.

Advice. If you are not a designer, be careful when purchasing a cold light LED bulb for your home. Such a source can discolor the interior and make the room look like a hospital. To achieve the same effect and prevent errors, it is best to use neutral or neutral cool light.

Cold springs can often be seen in public places:

  • in offices and medical institutions;
  • in schools, universities, technical schools;
  • in factories and warehouses;
  • in stores with groceries or goods in blue tones (silver and white gold products, dishes, household appliances, bottles with mineral water).

Cold light in street lighting is used where it is important for people to remain attentive and focused:

  • on highways, gas stations, parking lots;
  • in stadiums and other large areas;
  • in hangars, etc.

In addition, it is used along with warm in architectural lighting.

Natural light

If you do not want to spend a lot of time choosing a lamp or luminaire, choose models with neutral daylight (about 4000 K).Such lighting does not distort shades, has a minimal effect on a person’s mood, and is suitable for both work areas and places of rest. In addition, it will not disturb the color composition of the interior.

LED suspension Maxus 1-FPL-008-01-C-BK with neutral temperature in a modern kitchen

It is convenient to use it at home in multifunctional areas:

  • living room;
  • for children;
  • corridor;
  • bathroom.

In addition, neutral light is useful near the makeup table, in the hallway and other areas where you dress and create your look. This lighting will also appeal to selfie lovers.

SDL spot models with neutral light – a good choice for general bathroom lighting

Fluorescent lamps and luminaires can be used in all public buildings. They are suitable for a cafe hall, for training rooms, and for industries.These models are optimal for rooms in which a combination of natural and artificial light is used (offices, classrooms, etc.). Neutral lighting in such conditions will not create an additional burden on vision.

Can lamps and luminaires with different color temperatures be installed in the same room?

It is not worth using light sources with different tones in the same room. You cannot screw LED lamps with warm and cold light into one chandelier or mount spotlights with different temperatures in a small room.

Generic light with a natural tone creates a model from the elements of the “Make It Yourself” series, and wall lamps with warm rays are installed as local sources.

4 ways to break the rule and use light with different temperatures

1. Combine different shades when it comes to main and accent lighting. For this, small point sources with a different tone are used as decoration. They are installed to highlight individual objects or textures in the interior with the help of narrow directed rays.The main light should be at a different temperature. The technique is used by professional designers.

2. Sources with different temperatures are combined in studio apartments, open offices and other spaces that require light zoning. In this case, lamps or lamps with cold, neutral and warm light are installed in different parts of the room. This emphasizes the functional areas. Light sources are positioned so that rays with different temperatures intersect minimally. Reception is difficult to implement without a specialist.

3. You can independently combine color temperatures in one room if you combine warm or cold light with neutral light.

4. Another way to use different color temperatures in the same room is to create lighting schemes. Moreover, each scenario should be independent: sources with different shades of rays are not turned on at the same time.

Lighting living room with general neutral light (spotlights) and warm spot lighting (lamps with shades)

This technique is often used in living rooms:

  • A chandelier or built-in neutral-tone spotlights are selected for bright ambient lighting.It is convenient to turn it on on holidays or when the family is on vacation together;
  • A dim warm light is organized with the help of several floor lamps and sconces. Such lighting is needed to relax in the evening after work, to create an atmosphere for a romantic dinner;
  • cool light is used at the desk if it is in the living room

How not to waste time buying lamps and choose a comfortable light?

No desire or time to deal with the intricacies of using different shades of light? Choose a smart LED light that allows you to customize the color temperature.

Our store already has such solutions:

  • Intelite Desklamp, which will help you get ready for bed, focus on a challenge, and do your daily work, read or draw;

Intelite DL7 9W lamp with color temperature control

  • 3-step spotlights for general and local lighting. By switching modes, you can adjust the warm dim light, the main combination or bright with a cool tone.

3 operating modes for spotlights 3-step MAXUS

We also recommend keeping an eye on the news, as we are planning to expand the range of smart models soon.

This concludes the article and we hope that you have found answers to your questions about the color temperatures of LED lamps.

Need more information? Contact our consultants or ask a question in the comments.

Share this article with friends, family and colleagues to help them buy the right fixture or lamp.

90,000 Red eyes – symptoms of what disease

Most often, the symptom of red eyes is manifested in the following diseases:

Red eyes are the result of an increase in blood pressure in the superficial vessels. The vessels dilate, damage and rupture can occur, and blood spots form on the mucous membrane of the eye. Often this happens due to overexertion and fatigue. But if, along with redness, pain appears, abundant discharge, vision is impaired, this indicates a medical problem.

Treatment methods

The most common causes of eye redness are:

  • fatigue, overstrain due to prolonged work. It is necessary to arrange a rest from a computer, smartphone, but not watch TV or read, providing peace of mind;

  • insomnia, chronic lack of sleep. It is required to normalize the sleep schedule and try to sleep at least 8 hours a day;

  • jumps in blood pressure.They should not be allowed to appear and normal indicators should be monitored;

  • ingress of a foreign body into the eyeball – specks, dust, insects, etc. It must be found and removed;

  • lack of tear fluid to moisturize the surface of the eyeball, the so-called dry eye syndrome. In addition to overvoltage, air conditioners are often to blame. Additional eye hydration is required;

  • allergic reaction to dust, household chemicals, cosmetics, cigarette smoke, pollen, medicines, eye drops.You should find out the source of the allergy and start treatment;

  • reaction to dry or cold air, bright sunlight, strong wind. It is required to limit the stay on the street as much as possible in such weather conditions;

  • incorrectly fitted glasses or contact lenses. You should contact a specialist to replace them;

  • alcohol abuse.It is necessary to reduce the number of alcoholic beverages, and it is best to refuse them.

After finding out the causes of redness of the eyes, you can use drops based on natural tears. They will help moisturize the surface of the eyeball and relieve irritation. Cold compresses and lotions are also effective. They produce a mild vasoconstrictor effect. For cooking, you can use boiled or bottled water, decoctions of herbs, thin pieces of cucumbers.A good way to strengthen the walls of blood vessels can be a contrasting alternation of cold and warm compresses.

If, after eliminating possible causes, vasodilatation and red white of the eyes persist, you should consult an ophthalmologist. Especially in the presence of additional symptoms – pain, inflammation, itching, profuse discharge and lacrimation, a feeling of bursting of the eye from the inside. This indicates the possible occurrence of diseases. The specialist will establish the correct diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment.Self-medication is highly undesirable. It can lead to extremely negative health effects.


To avoid redness of the eyes, you should carefully follow your hygiene and sleep and rest schedule. Do not forget that the human body needs about eight hours of sleep per day to recuperate. Long sitting at the computer, TV, strenuous physical and mental activity are tiring factors, so you should not neglect rest.It is also recommended to use natural cosmetics, avoid contact with allergens, take time for walks in the fresh air, limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking.

To prevent redness of the eyes, you should regularly undergo medical examinations in order to prevent or early diagnosis of various pathologies. It is also necessary to monitor blood pressure, especially for people with essential hypertension. Its jumps have an extremely negative effect not only on the blood vessels of the eyes, but also on the entire body as a whole.

Particular attention should be paid to nutrition. It should be balanced and contain a large amount of vitamins, minerals and trace elements that have a beneficial effect on the walls of blood vessels. It is very useful to regularly consume fresh vegetables and fruits of yellow and orange colors due to the content of vitamins A, C, nuts, which contain polyunsaturated fats and vitamin E, fish containing omega-3 acids, blueberries, rich in vitamins and its composition is an antioxidant anthocyanin, which helps to strengthen the walls of the capillaries.

In the absence of contraindications – inflammatory eye diseases, retinal detachment, surgical interventions for laser vision correction or lens replacement – it is recommended to regularly, several times a day, do eye exercises:

  • with clean warm hands to massage the eyelids. Massage your closed eyes with your fingertips for several minutes, rub your eyelids into fists for about 30 seconds;

  • gently rotate the eyes clockwise and counterclockwise.The exercise can be done with eyes open and closed for two minutes;

  • “Draw” numbers or geometric shapes with a glance for a few minutes;

  • “Draw” numbers, geometric shapes with your nose with your eyes closed, “write” words for ten minutes. It effectively helps to relax the oculomotor muscles, relieve tension;

  • – to concentrate on various objects in the hands, smoothly bringing them closer and further away, alternately closing both eyes about ten times;

  • blink vigorously for 30 seconds before and after each exercise.

How to choose a good refrigerator for your home? – Samsung Newsroom Russia

A refrigerator is one of the most essential household appliances. Given the variety of technologies available on the market today, choosing the right model can be a daunting task.

5 tips for finding your perfect refrigerator

  • Refrigerator: freestanding or built-in?

On the one hand, the built-in refrigerator fits perfectly into the kitchen interior.Such a device merges perfectly with the overall appearance of the kitchen furniture. However, these refrigerators have a smaller range of models, standard sizes (on average 54-56 cm wide) and limited volume. Among freestanding refrigerators, it is easier to find a model that will suit the owner in all respects: internal volume, number of chambers, as well as additional functions such as a built-in water dispenser and a digital display.

  • 1, 2, 3 or 4 cameras?

Depending on the size of the kitchen, the size of the space and the needs of the user, there are several types of refrigerators to choose from:

– Single-chamber: despite the fact that such a refrigerator has a single space, this model is usually equipped with a freezer.

– Two-compartment: in this version, the freezer is located above the refrigerator and, as a rule, loses to the combined models, in which the freezer is more voluminous and located at the bottom, which makes it easier to access.

– Side by Side is ideal for those who need a lot of storage space. The freezer is on the left, the refrigerator is on the right. On some models, the refrigeration zone can be divided into two chambers for storing food at different temperatures.

– Finally, the multi-compartment refrigerator (also known as the American refrigerator and the French Door). Consists of 3, 4, 5 or 6 chambers, where the freezer is located under the refrigerator. Suitable for the most spacious kitchens.

  • Estimation of the required volume

You can determine how much volume you need by the number of people in the house. A refrigerator with a volume of less than 250 liters is suitable for one person. For 2-3 people, a volume of 250-350 liters is recommended.If more than three people live in the house, then it is best to focus on a large-capacity model – from 350 liters.

  • Which cooling system should I choose?


This type of refrigeration is found in all conventional refrigerators. The air circulates freely and is cooled by the evaporator.


  1. Static cooled refrigerators more available
  2. Silent technology


  1. Food must be rationally arranged on the shelves of the refrigerator, as the temperature inside the compartment is not evenly distributed.For example, meat is best kept at the bottom.
  2. Ice forms at the bottom of the refrigerator, especially if food is in contact with the wall
  3. Drops of condensation can form on the back of the refrigerator compartment, which, on the one hand, looks unaesthetic, and on the other, can lead to mold.

The refrigerator is equipped with a fan that circulates damp cold.


  1. You no longer need to put food in a specific place: the temperature is the same throughout the chamber
  2. Food is stored 3 times longer than static refrigeration
  3. The device cools down faster after closing the door


  1. Frost forms

No Frost technology prevents the formation of ice on the walls of the refrigerator and maintains a constant temperature in every corner of the chamber.


  1. Provides optimal shelf life
  2. No need to manually defrost the refrigerator
  3. Less power consumption


  1. Ventilated cold can dry food if not packaged well

Samsung Twin Cooling Plus, featuring two separate airflows and precise temperature control to maintain optimal humidity in the fridge and freezer, maintains humidity up to 70% to keep food fresh for longer.

  • What else to look for?

The last step: match the refrigerator to the interior of your home, choosing the color and the side in which the door will open. Some models offer various additional functions: cold water or ice dispenser, connected screen, convertible zone, which can be either a refrigerator or a freezer depending on the needs, a handle with a light, etc.

Samsung Tips

Taking care of your refrigerator

Contrary to popular belief, the refrigerator does not cool the air: it displaces hot air.This is why it generates heat and therefore should not be installed, for example, near a stove. Likewise, keeping food while it is still hot causes the compressor to run at full strength, which can damage it or increase energy consumption.

For better food storage

To prevent the spread of bacteria, it is best to remove the packaging from the food and separate raw and cooked food. In addition, some fruits and vegetables, such as potatoes or tomatoes, are best avoided in the refrigerator, as this can impair their taste.To reduce waste, foods that are near the end of their expiration date are best placed in a prominent place or frozen.

Samsung selection

RB7000, refrigerator with Twin Cooling Plus ™, 406L

With a usable volume of over 400 liters and standard sizes, this model is ideal for kitchens of all sizes. The RB7000 features Samsung’s SpaceMax ™ technology, a thin, thermally insulated wall that allows you to increase the internal volume of the device without changing its external size and maintaining high energy efficiency.With the same outer dimensions, the SpaceMax ™ refrigerator has more interior space to comfortably store your favorite foods.

Twin Cooling Plus technology ensures longer food freshness by controlling humidity in the refrigerator compartment. Finally, the convertible area provides flexibility and modularity by converting into a refrigerator or freezer according to the user’s needs.

RS5000, refrigerator with cooling plate Metal Cooling

This large refrigerator with a total usable volume of 617 liters is ideal for families.The elegant design allows the device to easily fit into the interior of a modern kitchen. The All-Around Cooling multi-flow cooling system keeps food fresh even longer, and a metal plate on the back of the refrigerator compartment optimizes an even temperature distribution in the compartment. When the door is closed, the refrigerator quickly returns to the set temperature.

BRB6000M Built-in refrigerator with Twin Cooling Plus ™

Like the other models mentioned in this article, the refrigerator features improved cold ventilation technology and a convertible zone.The compact volume and built-in form factor make the device ideal even for small kitchens. No Frost technology increases the circulation of cold air to maintain a stable temperature in every corner of the refrigerator. This prevents frost and ice formation. The inverter compressor automatically adjusts the intensity of operation, as a result, the refrigerator consumes less energy, runs quietly and lasts longer. The reliability of the device is confirmed by a 10-year warranty.

90,000 tips, nuances, rules :: Autonews

Modern diesel engines break old myths that fuel for them is the lot of slow and smoking trucks.Even in Russia, where the culture of using diesel is not as well developed as in Europe, in some segments its share is very high.

According to the analytical agency Avtostat, almost 100 thousand diesel cars were sold in Russia in the first nine months of 2019, which is more than 8% of the fleet, and in the segment of SUVs and large crossovers, it exceeds 50%. At the same time, the share of diesel cars in the BMW brand in Russia is 70.6%, and Land Rover sells 79% of such cars – a good diesel bypasses gasoline engines even in the segment of driver’s cars.

What is the technical difference between a diesel engine

If in a gasoline engine a combustible mixture of air and fuel is formed in the intake manifold, fed into the cylinder and ignited there with the help of a spark plug, in a diesel engine the mixture ignites spontaneously from compression after it is injected under high pressure into the cylinder with already compressed and heated air, instantly forming a combustible mixture.

In a diesel engine, spark plugs are not used at all, and the fuel itself evaporates more slowly, so the likelihood of fire is minimal.Due to the use of a more rigid and durable cylinder block and elements of the cylinder-piston group, diesel engines are generally more durable than gasoline ones, and the design itself is less demanding on maintenance.

What they love diesel for

The main advantage of a diesel engine is efficiency: with approximately equal power characteristics, a diesel engine consumes one third less fuel than a gasoline engine. Even those who don’t consider fuel costs appreciate high mileage without wasting time at gas stations.But at the same time, it is important to choose high-quality fuel like Diesel Opti with improved characteristics from Gazpromneft filling stations – it directly affects efficiency.

Diesel engines are characterized by higher thrust and higher torque at low revs. This means that a car with such an engine responds faster to the accelerator and easily accelerates in city traffic, without wasting time on gear changes. This ease more than compensates for the calmer behavior at high revs, since 99% of the time the car spends in the traffic, and not on the track.In addition, the diesel performance is more comfortable off-road, where strong and easily controlled traction is required.

What about the winter start-up and warming up of the car

The problem of starting a diesel engine in winter is directly related to the properties of the fuel itself. If a summer diesel engine thickens at -5 degrees and is not pumped through filters and pipelines of the fuel system, then a winter diesel can work at -45 degrees. As a result, any serviceable diesel car with seasonal fuel and high-quality engine oil starts up as easily as a gasoline one.

The high efficiency of diesel engines causes a slower warm-up of the power plant, so it is believed that in winter they cannot warm up the interior of the car normally. In fact, any modern engine, including a gasoline one, is in no hurry to give off heat, but this problem can be easily solved in two ways. Firstly, thermostats effectively redistribute engine heat, and secondly, almost all diesel cars are equipped with additional electric cabin heaters, thanks to which heat begins to flow in the first minutes after starting.

Those who like to get into an already warm car can be advised a remote start system, but it is better to install a more environmentally friendly and economical pre-heater that runs on the same diesel engine, but spends it only on heating the passenger compartment and warming up the engine coolant. This option can be installed on all diesel vehicles as standard or in specialized workshops.

How to start the engine correctly

To facilitate winter start-up, the diesel engine uses glow plugs – devices that quickly warm up the combustion chamber within a few seconds.After turning the ignition key, the candlestick symbol (usually a spiral) will light up on the instrument panel, which goes out after two to five seconds, depending on the engine temperature – you can turn on the starter. On cars with an engine start button, everything is even simpler: after pressing the button, the system itself pauses until the starter is turned on.

In particularly cold conditions, you can turn on the glow plugs several times in a row by turning the ignition key without turning on the starter, or by pressing the start button without holding the brake pedal (the starter will not turn on in this case).But these are already excessive measures for very cold winters, because modern diesel engines, when using winter diesel fuel and the right oils, are easily started up the first time after an overnight stay, even at -30 degrees.

What fuel to refuel

In winter, diesel should be refueled exclusively with winter diesel fuel, therefore, at large network filling stations, seasonality is always carefully observed. Modern engines are very demanding on the quality of fuel, so it must comply with all applicable standards.Good fuel not only ensures reliable start-up, but also cleans the fuel system from carbon deposits and deposits, significantly increases the efficiency of the machine and reduces the cost of its maintenance. This is how Diesel Opti works, which is sold at filling stations of the Gazpromneft network.

Another advantage of branded fuel is the stability of its characteristics at any filling station in the network. Thus, during the tests of Diesel Opti fuel, the experimental Toyota Land Cruiser 200 refueled in different regions of the country at temperatures from -5 ° to + 25 ° and demonstrated absolute stability of the characteristics of dynamics, consumption and ease of start-up.After 7000 km of run, the fuel system was disassembled, and the engineers noted its perfect condition, and some characteristics even improved due to the cleaning properties of the fuel.

In addition, from year to year, Opti fuel confirms its high quality in the extreme rally-marathon “Silk Way”, which runs through the territory of Russia, Mongolia and China. The Gazpromneft filling station network refills the cars of the rally organizers and participants, at the same time testing your fuel in the harshest conditions of sandy deserts, deserted steppes and strong morning frosts.

First aid for snake bites

First aid for snake bites

Shchupak A.Yu., Sivoraksha G.V.

There are more than 2000 snakes in the world, of which about 350 species are considered poisonous. According to the World Health Organization, up to 5.5 million people are bitten by snakes every year. On the territory of Russia, there are 14 species of venomous snakes, but the most common are reptile bites of three families: already-like, viper and asp.

In the Far East, endemic species are the viper, the shitomordnik. Viper bites or snake bites most often occur during mushroom and berry picking. As a rule, a person accidentally steps on it, or grabs it with his hand.

Snake venom contains enzymes, proteins, biologically active substances.

Clinical manifestations in snake bites, regardless of their type, are characterized by common signs.

General symptoms of a snake bite

Local manifestations

  1. Presence of bite marks in the form of two puncture wounds located at the same level;
  2. Severe burning and pain at the site of the bite;
  3. Redness and marked swelling of the tissue surrounding the wound;
  4. Bluish or dark spots on the skin near bite wounds;
  5. Bloody discharge from bite sites

Cardiac disorders

  1. Rapid heart rate – 95-120 per minute;
  2. Decrease in blood pressure, possibly to a critical level;
  3. Rapid breathing;
  4. Chest pain

Neurological disorders

  1. Muscle weakness;
  2. Headaches;
  3. Clouding of consciousness;
  4. Double vision and inability to concentrate gaze;
  5. Decreased visual acuity;
  6. Impaired swallowing;
  7. Descent of the eyelids and distortion of the face;
  8. Numbness of the body, especially in the area of ​​the bite

General changes

  1. Hemorrhage of the skin;
  2. Increase in body temperature to high numbers – 39-400 C;
  3. Bloody vomiting and diarrhea;
  4. Muscle pain;
  5. Decrease in the amount of daily urine;

It is important to highlight the factors that determine the severity of symptoms of intoxication.

  1. Snake species.

The most dangerous are cobras, rattlesnakes. Vipers cause less severe abnormalities.

  1. Localization of the bite.

The limbs are most often affected. In the case of localization of the bite on the trunk, neck, face or in the area of ​​blood vessels, symptoms develop much faster.

  1. The victim’s age and general condition at the time of the bite.

Children and the elderly are most sensitive to snake bites.Concomitant pathology significantly aggravates the toxic effect of the poison.

  1. Behavior after a bite.

Intense movement accelerates blood circulation and promotes the rapid spread of the poison throughout the body.

  1. Infection of snake teeth with pathogenic microorganisms. In some cases, local purulent-necrotic processes develop.

A clear implementation of the algorithm of modern recommendations for first aid in case of a snake bite will not only save the life of the victim, but also minimize the health risk.

  1. Calm the victim and lay in a horizontal position;
  2. remove all jewelry from the limb to prevent tissue compression during swelling;
  3. Immobilize (immobilize) a bitten limb with an improvised splint;
  4. suck poison from the wounds within the first 10 minutes after the bite;
  5. Apply a compression bandage above the bitten area;
  6. give plenty of drink;
  7. during transportation, do not raise the limb above the head;
  8. in case of respiratory arrest and cardiac activity, conduct basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

What not to do:

  1. to consume alcoholic beverages;
  2. be subjected to physical exertion;
  3. Apply a tourniquet to the limb;
  4. to make cross-sections at the site of the bite;
  5. cauterize the bite site;
  6. apply warm compresses;
  7. ice the limb.

The next stage of evacuation should be considered a specialized medical organization, where one of the methods of detoxification therapy will be the introduction of mono- or polyvalent anti-snake serum as an element of antidote action.

On the territory of the city of Khabarovsk, patients with snakebites are treated in the acute poisoning center of the KGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital No. 10” of the Ministry of Health of the Khabarovsk Territory (Khabarovsk, Tikhookeanskaya st., 213).

Shchupak A.Yu. – Head of the Department of Clinical Toxicology and Extreme Medicine of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education of the Far Eastern State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, toxicologist of the highest qualification category.

Sivoraksha G.V. – Head of the Center for Acute Poisoning of the KGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital No. 10” of the Ministry of Health of the Khabarovsk Territory, a toxicologist of the highest qualification category.